ASTIS - Arctic Science and Technology Information System

The ASTIS database contains the following 213 records describing publications from Simon Ommanney's References to Antarctic Work by Authors Affiliated with Canada. Records are sorted by first author and Canadian authors are shown in bold.

Variation of Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) underwater vocalizations over mesogeographic ranges   /   Abgrall, P.   Terhune, J.M. [Supervisor]
Fredericton, N.B. : University of New Brunswick, 2002.
xi, 199, [1] p. : ill., 1 map ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MQ82507)
ISBN 0-612-82507-8
Thesis (M.Sc.) - University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B., 2002.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 56979.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONL

The goal of this study was to determine if Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) underwater vocalizations exhibit regional differences over mesogeographic ranges (600-2000 km). Recordings were made on the Eastern Antarctic coastline at three Australian Antarctic stations: Mawson, Davis and Casey. Differences in vocalizations were examined on three levels: 1) Presence of unique call types/categories; 2) Frequency of occurrence of call types/categories; and 3) Call features (number of call elements, start frequency, frequency shift, and duration). A total of 33 different call types within 13 categories were identified. Two call types were unique to Davis and one to each of Mawson and Casey. One category was unique to Davis, an alternating ascending whistle and grunt call (WAG). Ascending whistles were absent at Casey. Both ascending whistles and grunts were present at Mawson, but the seals there did not use them in a combined call. Significant differences in proportion of call usage between the three stations were found for 23 of the 26 shared call types and all 11 of the shared call categories. Basic call features varied between stations when compared simultaneously or individually. Temporal variations in call usage and call feature variation were also observed, suggesting that unique call types/categories are the best indicators of reproductive isolation between these Weddell seal populations. (Au)

I, L
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal reproduction; Animal vocalizations; Communication; Equipment and supplies; Logistics; Measurement; Noise; Seals (Animals); Sound recordings; Temporal variations; Theses; Underwater acoustics

Holme Bay, Antarctic regions; Prydz Bay, Antarctic regions; Vincennes Bay, Antarctic regions

A top-down, multidisciplinary study of the structure and function of the pack-ice ecosystem in the eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica   /   Ackley, S.F.   Bengtson, J.L.   Boveng, P.   Castellini, M.   Daly, K.L.   Jacobs, S.   Kooyman, G.L.   Laake, J.   Quentin, L.   Ross, R.   Siniff, D.B.   Stewart, B.S.   Stirling, I.   Torres, J.   Yochem, P.K.
(Polar record, v. 39, no. 3, July 2003, p. 219-230, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 54704.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247403003115
Libraries: ACU

We used a top-down, multidisciplinary approach to examine the physical and biological environment of the pack ice of the eastern Ross Sea (approximately 125-170°W) during the austral summer of 1999/2000 from RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer and its ship-based helicopters. The approach focused on pack-ice seals while incorporating studies of biotic and abiotic factors that may influence the distribution and abundances of these apex predators in the Ross Sea to yield a holistic understanding of the structure and function of this complex, large marine ecosystem. This research represented the US component of the international Antarctic Pack Ice Seal (APIS) program, which was designed to document the circumpolar distribution and abundance of Antarctic pack-ice seals. The eastern Ross Sea is one of the two major areas in the Southern Ocean where substantial pack ice exists throughout summer. We found that vast multi-year ice floes (>20 km diameter) and smaller floes north of the shore-fast ice front provide a unique habitat for seals and penguins (apex predators) to forage and haul out while molting in late summer. Farther north, more Ross seals were observed than in any previous surveys in the circumpolar pack ice, perhaps because they are attracted to the area in summer to molt on large stable first-year ice floes. Extensive fast ice along the coastline and drifting pack ice in the shelf-slope boundary zone provided haul-out areas for seals and penguins with access to feeding in the coastal shelf region. Distributions of potential prey for seals and penguins varied over the study area, as determined by nets, acoustics, and diving surveys. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) were found throughout the survey region, overlapping the distributions of two smaller species, Thysanoëssa macrura (primarily off-shelf) and E. crystallorophias (primarily found on-shelf). In some locations, E. superba occurred at high densities underneath ice floes, where they foraged on the sea-ice microbial community. Two general fish communities, oceanic and shelf, were distinguished. Off-shelf fishes were members of the classic oceanic midwater fish fauna, whereas on-shelf fishes were Antarctic endemics. The abundance of pelagic fishes was relatively low throughout the study area compared with other Southern Ocean ecosystems. In contrast, benthic fish biomass and diversity on-shelf were high (41 species, 6 families). Hydroacoustic analyses indicated that densities of potential prey were highest in the coastal shelf region where large aggregations of euphausiids (primarily E. crystallorophias) and individual juvenile Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) occurred. (Au)

J, G, I, D, H
Aerial photography; Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Animal vocalizations; Benthos; Biomass; Euphausiacea; Fast ice; Fishes; Helicopters; Marine ecology; Oceanography; Pack ice; Penguins; Polynyas; Predation; Primary production (Biology); Satellite photography; Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Seals (Animals)

Ross Sea, Antarctic regions

The Arctic Council, Antarctica and northern studies in Canada   /   Adams, P.
(Arctic, v. 53, no. 3, Sept. 2000, p. 334-338, ill.)
ASTIS record 47004.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic864
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

This is a time of great debate about the future of Northern Studies in Canada. Most of those engaged in the debate believe that we need a new, rejuvenated vision for Northern Studies. One major change has already occurred: the establishment of the Arctic Council in 1996 gave new impetus to cooperation among the eight circumpolar nations involved. This cooperation has already changed the way in which we perceive and manage Northern Studies in Canada. I would suggest that membership in the Council is leading us inexorably towards another change in Northern Studies: formal recognition that modern Northern Studies are Polar Studies. One of the strong commonalties in science and technology among the Arctic Council nations is an interest in Antarctica - specifically in comparison to the roles of other Arctic Council nations. It concludes with recommendations on Canada and the Antarctic Treaty and on the way we should view Northern Studies in Canada. The paper is based on a recent report on a visit to the Ross Sea (New Zealand) sector of Antarctica (Adams, 2000). That report includes the text of the Antarctic Treaty and other related documentation. (Au)

R, J, L, N
Antarctic treaties; Arctic Council; Cold weather performance; Design and construction; Economic development; Environmental protection; Euphausiacea; Fisheries; Geopolitics; Research; Science; Technology; Tourist trade

G15, G08
Antarctic regions; Canada; Polar regions

Canada, the Arctic Council and Antarctica   /   Adams, P.
(Different lives, common threads : Proceedings of Circumpolar Women's Conference, Whitehorse, Yukon, 18-20 November 1999 & The North Colloquium, Edmonton, Alberta, May 2000. Northern review (Whitehorse), no. 22, Winter 2000, p. 149-155)
ASTIS record 48799.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This paper was prepared for the International Colloquium: The North at the University of Alberta, May 2000. The conference was designed to bring together circumpolar countries to compare notes on northern science policies and practices. The establishment of the Arctic Council, in 1996, gave fresh impetus to cooperation among the eight high-latitude member nations based on their common interests, notably in cold-environment science and technology. The Council and its work have already changed Northern Studies in Canada. One of the strong commonalities in science and technology among Arctic Council nations is an interest in Antarctica, a region of importance for all nations but particularly north circumpolar nations as they derive direct benefits from scientific activity there. The paper deals with Canada's roles in Antarctica, specifically in comparison to the roles of other north polar nations. It is based on a recent report (Adams, 2000) on a visit to the Ross Sea (New Zealand) sector of Antarctica. That report includes the text of the Antarctic Treaty and other related documentation. ... [This article also lists four recommendations from the 2000 report.] (Au)

R, J
Antarctic treaties; Arctic Council; Businesses; Canadian Polar Commission; Cold weather performance; Environmental law; Environmental protection; Fishing; Foreign relations; Government; Research; Science; Technology

G01, G02, G08, G10, G13, G14, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Canada; Denmark; Finland; Greenland; Iceland; New Zealand; Norway; Polar regions; Russian Federation; Sweden; United States

Canada, the Antarctic and the Madrid Protocol   /   Adams, P.
(Arctic, v. 56, no. 4, Dec. 2003, p. iii-iv)
ASTIS record 52862.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic628
Libraries: ACU

The House of Commons of Canada passed Bill C-42, An Act respecting the protection of the Antarctic Environment, in June 2003. By it, Canada ratifies the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (the "Madrid Protocol"), which designates Antarctica as a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science. Through this legislation, Canada will have the legal instruments to manage and monitor its citizens and others on Canadian projects in the Antarctic with respect to the environmental codes of conduct established by the Madrid Protocol. Canadians have been involved in Antarctica since the first overwintering at the turn of the 19th century. The level of activity, over the years and today, is much greater than most people think. The Arctic Institute of North America, established in the 1940s, has always had an interest in both polar regions; its Act of Parliament refers to both hemispheres. ... The Antarctic Treaty of 1961 establishes that Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only. It prohibits military activity, nuclear tests, and radioactive waste disposal. It promotes international cooperation in research and suspends all sovereignty claims. The Antarctic Treaty System includes the Antarctic Treaty itself, the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (CCAS, 1972), the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR, 1980), and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (1991), also known as the Madrid Protocol. ... Canada acceded to the Antarctic Treaty and the CCAMLR in 1988 and to the CCAS in 1990. The Madrid Protocol entered into force in 1998, ratified by 29 nations. Canada signed it (agreed to it in principle) in 1991, but did not ratify it. Bill C-42 ... is summarized as follows: The purpose of this enactment is to protect the Antarctic environment, particularly by implementing the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. This enactment provides a permitting regime that gives the Minister the necessary powers to ensure that the activities undertaken by Canadian expeditions, Canadian vessels and Canadian aircraft in the Antarctic are subject to an environmental impact assessment prior to their occurrence. This enactment creates prohibitions to protect the Antarctic marine environment, specially protected areas and historic sites and monuments in the Antarctic, and species that are native to the Antarctic. The provisions of the legislation, including regulations adopted pursuant to the bill, apply to all, regardless of nationality, on Canadian expeditions (that is, expeditions organized in or proceeding from Canada) to the Antarctic. They apply to all Canadians, Canadian vessels, and aircraft in the Antarctic and to anyone at a Canadian station there. There will be a permit system for people and activities covered by the legislation. This will encompass such things as environmental impact assessment, specially protected areas, waste management, and emergency plans. ... There are monitoring, reporting, and inspection provisions to allow enforcement. In Canada, the enforcement provisions are in line with the Fisheries Act, the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), and the Species at Risk Act (SARA). ... formal ratification of the Madrid Protocol shows our willingness as a nation to enforce these standards. ... (Au)

R, J, M, N, L, I
Airplanes; Animal ecology; Antarctic treaties; Arctic Institute of North America; Emergency planning; Environmental impact assessment; Environmental law; Environmental protection; Environmentally significant areas; Expeditions; Government; Government regulations; Marine ecology; Research; Research stations; Science; Ships; Specifications; Waste management; Wildlife law; Wildlife management

Antarctic regions

Canada and polar science [Le Canada et la science polaire]   /   Adams, W.P.   Burnet, P.F.   Gordon, M.R.   Roots, E.F.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, Circumpolar and Scientific Affairs Directorate, 1987.
117, [12] p. ; 28 cm.
ISBN 0-662-15414-2
Also available in French.
ASTIS record 20405.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

The document, presented to the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs in March 1987, reports on the feasibility and advisability of establishing a national polar institute in Canada in response to the request of the previous Minister. The question is addressed in the context of a general assessment of the state of polar research in this country. The report traces the history of polar research, studies current problems and assesses future needs in the evolution of northern Canada and the rapidly changing nature of polar and global science. The report concludes that a national polar institute is not required, but recommends other actions including the creation of a polar research commission and a polar information system. (ASTIS)

X, B, C, D, E, F, G, I, J, R
Government; Research; Science

G08, G081
Canada; Canadian Arctic

Aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from soil near Scott Base, Antarctica   /   Aislabie, J.   Foght, J.   Saul, D.
(Polar biology, v. 23, no. 3, Feb. 2000, p. 183-188, ill.)
ASTIS record 48690.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s003000050025
Libraries: ACU

Hydrocarbons persist in Antarctic soils when fuel oils such as JP8 jet fuel are spilled. For clean-up of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Antarctica, bio-remediation has been proposed using hydrocarbon-degrading microbes indigenous to Antarctic soils. A number of alkane-degrading bacteria have been isolated previously from Antarctic soils. In this paper we describe the direct isolation of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from oil-contaminated Antarctic soil. Isolates that grew on JP8 jet fuel were characterised for their ability to degrade aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and for growth at a range of temperatures. All isolates were gram-negative, oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. Representative strains were identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as either Sphingomonas spp. or Pseudomonas spp. Aromatic-degrading bacteria from Antarctic soils were psychrotolerant and appear similar to those found worldwide. (Au)

Q, J, C
Bacteria; Biodegradation; Hydrocarbons; Oil spill cleanup; Pollution; Soils

Antarctic regions

The scope of science for the International Polar Year 2007-2008   /   Allison, I.   Béland, M.   Alverson, K.   Bell, R.   Carlson, D.   Danell, K.   Ellis-Evans, C.   Fahrbach, E.   Fanta, E.   Fujii, Y.   Glaser, G.   Goldfarb, L.   Hovelsrud, G.   Huber, J.   Kotlyakov, V.   Krupnik, I.   Lopez-Martinez, J.   Mohr, T.   Qin, D.   Rachold, V.   Rapley, C.   Rogne, O.   Sarukhanian, E.   Summerhayes, C.   Xiao, C.
Geneva : WMO, 2007.
79 p. : ill., maps ; 30 cm.
(Technical document - World Meteorological Organization, no. 1364)
Produced by the International Council for Science and the World Meteorological Organization Joint Committee for IPY 2007-2008.
ASTIS record 64481.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The International Polar Year 2007-2008 will be the largest internationally coordinated research programme in 50 years. ... The polar regions are especially important for the following reasons: [1] They are presently changing faster than any other regions of the Earth .... [2] Processes in polar regions have a profound influence on the global environment, and particularly on the weather and climate system. ... [3] The Arctic is home to more than 4 million people, and these communities face changes in their natural environment and in their natural resources and food systems .... [4] Within the polar regions lie important scientific challenges yet to be investigated and unique vantage points for science. ... IPY 2007-2008 research activities were assembled from the ideas of researchers in more than 60 countries. A total of 228 projects have been endorsed by the ICSU/WMO Joint Committee for IPY 2007-2008. These projects have a strong interdisciplinary emphasis and address the six themes as well as education and outreach objectives. IPY projects will exploit new technological and logistical capabilities and strengthen international coordination of research. They aim to attract, engage and develop a new generation of researchers and raise the awareness, interest and understanding of polar residents, educators, students, the general public and decision makers worldwide. IPY projects will collect a broad-ranging set of samples, data and information which will be made available to an unprecedented degree. IPY 2007-2008 aims to leave a legacy of enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure. The observational networks to be established during IPY include integrated ocean observing systems in both the Arctic and Southern Oceans, coordinated acquisition of satellite data products from multiple space agencies and observational systems for astronomy, sun-earth physics, atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, ecosystems, permafrost, glaciers and geophysics. Many observing systems within IPY will be developed within the framework of existing international global observing systems. The period from 1 March 2007 to 1 March 2009 will be exciting and historic. The International Polar Year 2007-2008 should significantly advance our ability to meet the major science challenges of the polar regions and generate a rich legacy, notably in a new understanding of polar processes and their global linkages at this critical time - for it is becoming ever clearer that we humans have to recognize and respond to the planetary limits of our behaviour. The polar regions provide a litmus test and the insight to help us do so. (Au)

E, J, Y, G, F, D, C, B, I, R, T, K
Astronomy; Atmosphere; Biology; Climate change; Climatology; Databases; Diseases; Ecology; Education; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Geology; Geophysics; Glaciology; Health; IPY 2007-08 Research publications; Marine mammals; Meteorology; Native peoples; Oceanography; Palaeoecology; Permafrost; Remote sensing; Research; Satellites; Scientists; Sea ice; Snow; Socio-economic effects; Thawing; Weather stations

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions

Calcium phosphate coatings on the Yalour Islands, Antarctica : formation and geomorphic implications   /   Arocena, J.M.   Hall, K.
(Arctic, antarctic, and alpine research, v. 35, no. 2, May 2003, p. 233-241, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 53654.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1657/1523-0430(2003)035[0233:CPCOTY]2.0.CO;2
Libraries: ACU

The formation of calcium phosphate rock coating and its influence in geomorphic processes were investigated on the Yalour Islands (Antarctica). Samples of coating on the metamorphosed andesitic rock are composed of a ~25 µm-thick, white, shiny, relatively hard layer of hydroxylapatite (Hp) with traces of calcite and quartz. Scanning electron micrographs, X-ray diffractograms, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, and in situ analysis of the chemical composition of the coatings suggest that the calcium phosphate coating is formed mainly through the decomposition of penguin excrement from nearby penguin rookeries and subsequent precipitation of Hp in micropits on the surface of the rock from solutions containing high amounts of calcium and phosphorus. These coatings undergo abiotic and biotic weathering processes that lead to the accumulation of secondary Hp as "flakes" and infillings in microcracks. The coatings give the dark, metamorphosed andesitic rock a shiny, light-colored surface. The coatings can decrease the permeability and increase the albedo of the rock, thereby limiting moisture infiltration (into the rock) and changing the rock's temperature. Based on theoretical estimates, a change of albedo from 0.2 to 0.3 significantly decreases the radiative heating of the rock during the summer months. These changes to rock properties will influence geomorphic processes such as freeze-thaw, thus affecting rock weathering and hence the evolution of the local landscape. (Au)

B, A, I, H, F
Albedo; Andesite; Animal waste products; Apatite; Calcite; Calcium; Coatings; Composition; Erosion; Formation; Frost action; Fungi; Geomorphology; Heat transmission; Infrared radiation; Landforms; Lichens; Logistics; Measurement; Microscopes; Minerals; Penguins; Phosphorus; Physical properties; Quartz; Runoff; Solar radiation; Spectroscopy; Strength; Surface properties; Surface temperature; Thermal regimes; Weathering; X-rays

Yalour Islands, Antarctic regions

Cold glaciers erode and deposit : evidence from Allan Hills, Antarctica   /   Atkins, C.B.   Barrett, P.J.   Hicock, S.R.
(Geology, v. 30, no. 7, July 2002, p. 659-662, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 51809.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0659:CGEADE>2.0.CO;2
Libraries: ACU

Here we report previously undescribed features of erosion and deposition by a cold (polar) glacier. A recent study challenged the assumption that cold glaciers neither slide nor abrade their beds, but no geological evidence was offered. The features we describe include abrasion marks, subglacial deposits, glaciotectonically deformed substrate, isolated blocks, ice-cored debris mounds, and boulder trains, all products of a recent cold ice advance and retreat. Mapping these features elsewhere in Antarctica will document recent shifts in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet margin, providing new insight on regional mass-balance changes. (Au)

F, A, B
Ablation; Breccia; Deformation; Deglaciation; Erosion; Geology; Glacial deposits; Glacial epoch; Glacial erosion; Glacial transport; Glaciation; Glacier variations; Ice sheets; Mass balance; Movement; Pleistocene epoch; Sandstone; Temperature

Allan Hills, Antarctic regions

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