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The ASTIS database cites the following 16 publication(s) by Constance Martin. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Chauncey Chester Loomis Jr. (1930-2009)   /   Martin, C.
(Arctic, v. 62, no. 3, Sept. 2009, p. 361-362, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 68351.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic62-3-361.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic166
Libraries: ACU

Chauncey Chester Loomis Jr. died in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, on March 17, 2009, after a courageous fight against lung cancer. He will best be remembered by Arctic historians as the author of Weird and Tragic Shores: The Story of Charles Francis Hall (Loomis, 1971) and an extended essay, The Arctic Sublime (Loomis, 1977). ... Chauncey was born on June 1, 1930 in New York City to Chauncey and Elizabeth McLanahan Loomis. Having completed his schooling in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, and at Philips Exeter Academy, New Hampshire, he received a BA from Princeton in 1952, an MA from Columbia in 1955, and a PhD from Princeton in 1966. After serving overseas with the U.S. Army during the Korean War, he taught briefly at the University of Vermont before beginning his long career teaching English and American literature at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, from which he retired as Professor Emeritus in 1997. Though solidly literary, Chauncey's professional interests were far more varied than his education might indicate. An outstanding photographer, he developed a passion for exploratory travel, seeking traces of the lost Inca civilization in Peru. He photographed the native people and wildlife of Kenya, and in the late 1970s, he traveled with friends to Sikkim in the Himalayas. In 1964 he made a motion picture of the muskoxen of Nunivak Island, Alaska, which became a CBS special entitled Wild River, Wild Beasts. Five expeditions to the Arctic helped to inspire his best-known work, Weird and Tragic Shores, which focuses on the mysterious death of Charles Francis Hall on the west coast of Greenland in 1871. Hall, a Cincinnati journalist and businessman, mounted an expedition to find the grave of Sir John Franklin and learn, if possible, the cause of his death. Did the 50-year-old Hall die of natural causes, or was he perhaps murdered? With the aid of a Smithsonian grant, Chauncey organized and led an expedition to Thank God Harbor, Greenland, in 1968. The purpose was to disinter Hall's body and take samples of his hair and fingernails to a forensic laboratory in Toronto to determine whether Hall had been poisoned. Although the analysis did show an abnormally high level of arsenic, the question of murder was inconclusive, and it remains so to this day. First published by Alfred Knopf in 1971, then by the University of Nebraska Press in 1991 and The Modern Library in 2000, Chauncey's study is now a classic in its field. Writing in the New York Times in 2001, the popular polar historian Sara Wheeler (2001:3) declared that, better than any subsequent writers on the subject, Chauncey Loomis "unravels the expedition brilliantly and also offers a concise intelligent introduction to the history of Arctic exploration." ... Weird and Tragic Shores became the subject of a CBC televised documentary soon after it was first published and has been translated into several languages. ... Almost certainly Chauncey's second most important contribution to Arctic studies was his seminal essay "The Arctic Sublime," published in Nature and the Victorian Imagination (Loomis, 1977). The essay was perhaps the first to examine the watercolours and drawings of the explorer-artists of the 19th century and earlier, and their relationship to their journals and narratives. As Loomis persuasively demonstrates, their artistic renditions were not only technically polished and highly expressive, but also strongly influenced by the dominant aesthetics of the period and by the philosophical concept of the Arctic Sublime, popularized in the early 19th century and still current at the time of Franklin's death. Nevertheless, by the end of the 19th century, as Chauncey notes, "although the North Pole had not yet been reached, the Arctic had been thoroughly explored, studied, and mapped. ... The mystery was gone in fact if not in fiction. The Sublime cannot be mapped" (Loomis, 1977:12). A lifetime member of the Arctic Institute of North America, Chauncey became a visiting Fellow when he travelled to the University of Calgary in 1987 and gave a talk, entitled "The Unsolved Arctic Murder?" based on his expedition to uncover the grave of Charles Francis Hall. He also wrote many critical essays on Arctic subjects for The London Review of Books, including reviews of Barry Lopez's Arctic Dreams and Pierre Berton's Arctic Grail (Loomis, 1986, 1989). ... In his retirement, Loomis enjoyed alternating annual fishing trips to Tierra del Fuego, New Zealand, and Canada. He served on the boards of various institutions, including Philips Exeter Academy, The Hotchkiss School, the Norman Rockwell Museum, and Chesterwood, the home of sculptor Daniel Chester French. As part of the Berkshire Taconic Community Foundation, Chauncey established a fund to help Berkshire County Massachusetts high school students attend college. ... (Au)

Y, V, I, L
Arsenic; Art; Artists; Biographies; Biological sampling; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871; History; Literature; Motion pictures; Muskoxen

G06, G10, G02
Arctic regions; Greenland; Nunivak Island, Alaska


The photographic archives of the Arctic Institute of North America   /   Martin, C.
(Arctic, v. 57, no. 3, Sept. 2004, p. 317-321, ill.)
ASTIS record 54622.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic57-3-317.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic509
Libraries: ACU

One of the least-known tangible assets of the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA) is its photographic collection, which includes images dating from the 1890s to the mid-twentieth century. These 4000 photographs - which reside, uncatalogued and rapidly deteriorating, in two file cabinets - are a valuable resource. The rich visual records contain important scientific information on all aspects of the Arctic environment, its geology, archaeology, geography, glaciology, and anthropology, as well as information on Arctic exploration and the cultural life of the indigenous people. One example of the richness of AINA's collection is the 142 photographs donated by Walter Wood, scientist and explorer, who was engaged in AINA's Snow Cornice Project of 1948 and the Icefield Ranges Research Project in the St. Elias Mountains from 1961 to 1972. Visual communication through photography, including motion pictures and television, has accelerated over the last half-century to a point difficult to imagine before this technological revolution. Today there is a growing recognition that photographs are more than an accessory to history's written text. They are an essential element in the very construction of that history, both written and oral. AINA's collection of photographs is no exception. AINA proposes to make the collection widely available by creating an electronic database. Each photograph will be researched and scanned into the computer using the University of Calgary's InMagic database software. The potential for the collection is enormous. Made available to the indigenous peoples of the North, it will help them to recall their own history. It will present information of value to anthropologists, archaeologists, professional historians, and scientists. Commercial and academic publications needing visual material will also be able to draw on AINA's photographic archive. Like other great archives worldwide, AINA's will be an immense asset, providing flexible access to a wealth of previously neglected information. ... An important aspect of the project will be to work with Native people who may have ties to the unidentified individuals and places depicted in so many of the photographs, in the hope that they can contribute memory culture to this rich visual heritage. (Au)

Y, V, T
Archives; Arctic Institute of North America; Art; Databases; Expeditions; Exploration; Finance; History; Native peoples; Photograph collections; Research; Science

G081
Canadian Arctic


Rockwell Kent's distant shores : the story of an exhibition   /   Martin, C.
(Arctic, v. 55, no. 1, Mar. 2002, p. 101-106, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 49265.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic55-1-101.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic694
Libraries: ACU

... Painter, printmaker, illustrator, and architect; a designer of books, ceramics, and textiles, and a prolific writer, [Rockwell Kent] was complex and self-contradictory. ... His major art was inspired by his extended sojourns in remote, sparsely inhabited, and climatically harsh regions, most of them islands, .... In the summer of 1905, when he was 23, he first went to Monhegan, an isolated island 10 miles off the coast of Maine, ..... From 1914, shortly before the outbreak of World War I, until 1915, he and his wife, Kathleen, with their children, lived on the Island of Newfoundland. Then, in 1918, with his nine-year-old son, he spent eight months on Fox Island, Alaska, 12 miles off the coast from Seward, the nearest mainland town. In 1922, he sailed to the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, hoping to sail from there around Cape Horn. The final stage in his odyssey took him to Greenland, first in 1929, and again in 1931 and 1934-35, where he lived on the tiny island of Igdlorssuit. Kent's travels to these far-flung regions, which were in large part journeys of self-discovery, inspired much of his finest work and provided the chronological and geographical structure for the exhibition, Distant Shores: The Odyssey of Rockwell Kent. The show was organized by the Norman Rockwell Museum in Massachusetts, with me [Constance Martin] as the guest curator. ... After five years of research and travel, I had tracked down over 100 works from private and public collections in many areas of the United States as far away as Alaska, as well as in eastern and western Canada and Russia. Distant Shores opened in June of 2000 and traveled from New England to Ocala, Florida, Chicago, and Anchorage. The most complicated negotiations involved the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. Senator Joseph McCarthy, in an attempt to label Kent a Communist, took away his passport and ordered all his illustrated books in overseas government libraries removed and burned .... In retaliation, Kent gave the Soviet Union a major selection of his paintings, watercolours, and drawings in the 1960s. ... With the support and foresight of the Norman Rockwell Museum, I was able to visit the Hermitage collection and make a groundbreaking arrangement for the inclusion of seven Greenland and Tierra del Fuego paintings. ... Kent's artistic imagination was both visual and literary. ... His early reading of Icelandic sagas and his study of the exploration narratives of the various searches for the Northwest Passage provided Kent with the stimulus to experience for himself "...the Far North at its spectacular worst" .... The power of his illustrations for Moby Dick comes from both his incisive literary perception of Melville's great novel and his own firsthand encounters with the polar seas. Distant Shores was an exhibition designed to show the art that Kent created in paintings, engravings, and books out of his response to the Far North, the polar seas, and the wilderness that he himself confronted. ... (Au)

Y
Art; Artists; History; Political action

G06, G10, G0827
Alaska; Greenland; Newfoundland; Tierra del Fuego, Isla Grande de, Argentina/Chile


Distant shores : the odyssey of Rockwell Kent   /   Martin, C.   West, R.V.
Chesterfield, Mass. : Chameleon Books Inc. ; Berkeley, Calif. : University of California Press ; Stockbridge, Mass. : Norman Rockwell Museum, 2000.
128 p. : ill. ; 28 × 29 cm.
ISBN 0-520-22711-5
References.
Exhibitions held at: the Norman Rockwell Museum, Stockbridge, Mass., 24 June to 29 Oct. 2000; the Appleton Museum of Art, Florida State University, Ocala, Fla., 18 Nov. 2000 to 28 Jan. 2001; Terra Museum of American Art, Chicago, Ill., 24 Feb. to 20 May 2001; the Anchorage Museum of History and Art, Anchorage, Alaska, 17 June to 23 Sept. 2001.
ASTIS record 58236.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Rockwell Kent (1882-1971), one of the great mavericks of American art, was an artist of extraordinary drive, talent, and versatility whose singular vision led him to produce some of the most powerful images of early American modernism. Although he was one of the most popular American illustrators of the twentieth century - so much so that The New Yorker published the ditty, "That day will mark a precedent, which brings no news of Rockwell Kent" - the controversies engendered by his socialist leanings, particularly during the McCarthy era in the 1950s, frequently overshadowed his artistic achievements. Kent's passion for travel to rugged and remote locations drew him to a life of extremes, risk, adventure, and discovery. He sought sparsely inhabited and climatically harsh locales in which to live, taking up residence in remote regions of Maine, Newfoundland, Alaska, and Greenland. His well-documented journeys include a dangerous voyage through the treacherous waters around Tierra del Fuego and the shipwreck of his small boat on his first trip to Greenland. With each sojourn, his imagination was drawn to the mystical and the marvelous. Kent was fascinated by the grandiose power of nature, especially the sea and mountains, and he found inspiration for his art in some of the most desolate regions on earth. Kent's paintings, lithographs, and woodcuts portray the stark beauty of northern winters and the people who made their homes in these regions. He once remarked, "The beauty of those Northern winter days is more remote and passionless, more nearly absolute, than any other beauty that I know." "Distant Shores: The Odyssey of Rockwell Kent" accompanies a traveling exhibition of Kent's wilderness artwork, organized by the Norman Rockwell Museum in Stockbridge, Massachusetts. This handsome volume features 80 paintings, prints, and drawings - more than 50 in full color - related to Kent's sojourns in the wilderness. Included in this collection are several paintings from the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg that have not been seen by audiences outside of Russia in more than 40 years. Kent's dramatic black and white illustrations for the 1930 edition of Herman Melville's Moby Dick - still considered an American classic - are also featured. The essays describe Kent's career as a painter, printmaker, book designer, illustrator, and writer, as well as his extraordinary life as an explorer. "Distant Shores: The Odyssey of Rockwell Kent" introduces some of Rockwell Kent's most beautiful wilderness images to audiences rediscovering twentieth- century American realism and figural art, and reaffirms Kent's place in the American art canon. (Au)

Y, V, R
Art; Artists; Biographies; Expeditions; History; Political action

G06, G10, G0827
Alaska; Greenland; Maine; Newfoundland; Tierra del Fuego, Isla Grande de, Argentina/Chile


Science as poetic and visual narrative : J. Dewey Soper (1893-1982)   /   Martin, C.
(Echoing silence : essays on Arctic narrative / Edited by J. Moss. Reappraisals, Canadian writers, no. 20, 1997, p. 61-67)
Paper originally presented at the Symposium on Arctic Narrative, spring 1995, University of Ottawa.
References.
ASTIS record 43763.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... In his late twenties, while studying biology and English at the University of Alberta and already with a few ornithological publications to his credit, Soper longed for the opportunity to reach the Far North. This materialized when he was offered a summer assignment with the Victoria Museum (now known as the Canadian Museum of Nature) to travel on the government's annual patrol boat to the Arctic. His instructions were to gather specimens of birds and plants for the museum's collection. This was the beginning of Soper's favourite time in his long career. Leaving the University to learn on the job, Soper spent between 1923-1931, a total of eight years, exploring over 30,000 miles of southern Baffin Island on four separate expeditions of one and two years duration. After 1931 his work with the government in the natural sciences continued, but he was never able to return to the Far North - a disappointment that he addressed late in life, in his seventies and eighties, by gathering together his logs, field notes, and photographs and writing Canadian Arctic Recollection, as well as by painting over two hundred watercolours of the Inuit and his Arctic adventures. Written and rendered in tranquillity, the two studies look back with a mixture of scientific fact and romantic nostalgia on the most treasured experience of his life. ... In Arctic Recollections he describes the Arctic on his arrival at Pangnirtung in July 1924, at the height of the brief summer, as a heavenly place, .... By contrast there are his descriptions of the hell of winter, especially the extremes of the inland cold. ... Without diminishing the wealth of factual information that Soper relays in his writings, it is nevertheless the descriptive power of his memoirs and the charm of his paintings that together bring us a deeper understanding of the mysterious hold the " ... boreal latitudes" held for a remarkable natural scientist (1981, xii). J. Dewey Soper apparently found what he was looking for. (Au)

V, T
Animal collections; Art; Biology; Expeditions; Exploration; Natural history; Plant collections; Science; Soper, Joseph Dewey, 1893-1982

G0813
Baffin Island, Nunavut


Elisha Kent Kane (1820-1857)   /   Martin, C.
In: Lobsticks and stone cairns : human landmarks in the Arctic / Edited by R.C. Davis. - Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary Press, 1996, p. 232-233, 1 port.
References.
ASTIS record 32595 describes the original (1984) profile upon which this one is based.
ASTIS record 41051 describes the book that contains this profile.
ASTIS record 58238.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The first American arctic explorer of note, Elisha Kent Kane was a man of broad interests and varied talents. Although he died when he was only 37 years old, he distinguished himself as a career naval officer, medical doctor, scientist, author, and artist, and his death inspired a funeral procession by train from New Orleans to the home of his birth in Philadelphia. ... Well-travelled prior to his midcentury arctic voyages, Kane had journeyed through South America, Africa, Europe, and the Far East. Small of stature and physically frail as a result of a rheumatic heart, the naval doctor nevertheless sought challenges of physical endurance, which led to his volunteering for the arduous U.S. Polar Expedition in 1850 as ship's surgeon and again in 1853 as leader. American whalers had long navigated arctic waters, but the serious search for a Northwest Passage had been a predominantly British enterprise. Not until President Zachary Taylor and Henry Grinnell, the wealthy New York shipbuilder, responded to Lady Jane Franklin's appeal for aid in finding her missing husband and his crew did the United States officially enter into the exploration of the Arctic. ... Motivated by humanitarian interests, Congress and Grinnell cosponsored two searches. Politically, the undertaking allowed the United States to participate with Britain in exploration within the territory of North America. There was a further justification as well. U.S. Navy oceanographers were intrigued with the theory of an open polar sea .... The first voyage gave no evidence of an open polar sea. Kane, undaunted, sought command of another. ... The first voyage had attempted a passage through Lancaster Sound and north into Wellington Channel. The second, under Kane's leadership and including only one ship, the Advance, sailed due north up the west coast of Greenland to latitude 78°N, where the ship was icebound and never released. ... By the spring of 1855, after three summers and two winters that proved far harsher and more impoverished than the men's most pessimistic fears, Kane and his crew faced imminent starvation. Consequent unrest and disloyalty, coupled with the belief that they had met their scientific objective of sighting the open polar sea, led Kane to abandon the search for John Franklin; he began planning the dangerous escape by small boat and sled. Brilliant organization and meticulous rationing of their remaining supplies proved Kane a leader of great resource, and he led his men to safety and rescue at Upernavik 1300 miles to the south. Kane returned a hero and was soon preparing his second popular account of the Arctic. More ambitious than the first, "Arctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin, 1853, '54, '55" (1856) was extremely successful .... Kane never found Franklin or the open polar sea, but the Grinnell expeditions had made important advances. The first voyage discovered "Grinnell Land" (Grinnell Peninsula) in Wellington Channel, and the second had mapped the narrow passage between Ellesmere Island and the west coast of Greenland to 78°N. ... Still it was Elisha Kent Kane's literary talent that was the cornerstone of his reputation. ... Kane inspired Pierre Berton to celebrate him as "the outstanding polar idol of mid-century." (Au)

V, Y
Biographies; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; History; Kane, Elisha Kent, 1820-1857; Literature; Mapping; Search for Franklin; Starvation; Survival

G0815, G09, G0813, G10
Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Greenland; Grinnell Peninsula, Nunavut; Lancaster Sound, Nunavut; Northwest Passage; Wellington Channel, Nunavut


Arctic explorations : the Second Grinnel Expedition in search of Sir John Franklin - 1853, 54, 55   /   Kane, E.K.   Loomis, C. [Editor]   Martin, C. [Editor]
Chicago : R.R. Donnelley & Sons Co., 1996.
lix, 447 p. : ill. (some col.), col. maps ; 18 cm.
Arctic Explorations is the ninety-fourth book in the Lakeside Classics, an annual series published by R.R. Donnelley & Sons Company since 1903.
ASTIS record 42295.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... "I have availed myself ... to connect together the passages of my journal that could have interest for the general reader," wrote Elisha Kent Kane, M.D., U.S.N., in the preface to his book, Arctic Explorations. The preface was dated July 4, 1856, an appropriately celebratory day for Kane. The year before, Kane and his crew emerged from two long winters of virtual imprisonment in the Arctic. They regained their freedom when they relinquished their quest to discover the whereabouts of a British explorer, Sir John Franklin, who had disappeared a few years earlier in the northern regions of Greenland. ... Arctic exploration in the 1850s was not an adventure for the faint-hearted. Nor is this book. Kane graphically describes the ravages of scurvy, starvation, and frostbite; squalid living conditions; and deterioration of mind, spirit, and body as the crew survived at the very barest subsistence level. In the end, it is a story that celebrates endurance and sheer grit. ... (Au)

V, T, G, I, K
Animal distribution; Bones; Expeditions; Food; History; Ice floes; Icebergs; Inuit; Rats; Scurvy; Sea ice; Search for Franklin; Second Grinnell Expedition, 1853-1855; Starvation; Storms; Survival

G09, G0813, G0815
Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Beechey Island, Nunavut; Labrador Sea; Lancaster Sound, Nunavut


J. Dewey Soper : bird man of the Arctic = J. Dewey Soper : ornithologue de l'Arctique   /   Martin, C.   Patensky, J.-P. [Translator]
In: Recollecting : J. Dewey Soper's Arctic watercolours = Explorations : les aquarelles de l'Arctique de J. Dewey Soper / Coordinated by A. Davis. - Calgary, Alta. : Nickle Arts Museum, 1995, p. 25-35, 82-93, ill.
References.
English version p. 25-35; French version p. 82-93.
ASTIS record 35724 describes the book that contains this essay.
ASTIS record 58243.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

... The artist/scientist/explorer J. Dewey Soper (1893-1982), painted ... over 200 other watercolours in the 1970s at the end of his long and illustrious career. Based on his on-the-spot pen-and-ink drawings, sketches, and photographs, executed between 1923 and 1931, they depict scenes and events from his four expeditions to the Arctic in which he explored Baffin Island as a natural scientist with the Canadian Museum of Natural History. Unlike the early explorers who followed Polaris, the North Star, in search of a northwest passage, Soper traversed Baffin Island in search of the nesting grounds of the blue goose. The quest brought him international recognition as an ornithologist when, with the aid of the Inuit he recorded their nesting site at Bowman Bay in the spring of 1929. For Soper this was the most important activity of his career. ... Soper's Arctic watercolours though factual are not meant to be scientific documents, but works of art displaying perceptions heightened by reflection and imagination. ... Although Soper was untrained as a watercolourist, his style reveals an innate talent for directness and simplicity through his use of bold colour and strong forms reinforced by the close eye of an experienced natural scientist. ... Soper's often poetic prose, even in government reports, was unusual for scientific subjects. So, too, the watercolours, may have raised questions of objectivity. For these reasons this exhibition is an excellent opportunity to ponder the divergent interests of art and science. The intrusion of art into exploration records has been a continuing problem since the middle ages. ... In Soper's watercolours the intrusion of art is quite intentional. They are the re-creation of experiences that were emotional as well as visual. ... During his life he published more than 130 books, articles, and papers in leading scientific journals. His work as an Arctic explorer, a scientist, a photographer, a cartographer and an artist will continue to be an inspiration to all ambitious young people who dream of extending the boundaries of knowledge and who ask questions about the complexities of animals and their relation to the fundamental nature of life. ... (Au)

Y, I, H, T, V
Animal collections; Art; Art collections; Artists; Biographies; Biology; Birds; Blue Geese; Catalogues; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; History; Inuit; Mapping; Photography; Plant collections; Scientists; Soper, Joseph Dewey, 1893-1982; Survival; Traditional knowledge

G0813, G0815, G10, G09
Amadjuak Lake region, Nunavut; Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Baffin Island waters, Nunavut; Beechey Island, Nunavut; Bowman Bay region, Nunavut; Cumberland Peninsula, Nunavut; Devon Island waters, Nunavut; Devon Island, Nunavut; Dewey Soper Migratory Bird Sanctuary, Nunavut; Ellesmere Island waters, Nunavut; Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Foxe Peninsula, Nunavut; Greenland; Hall Peninsula, Nunavut; Hantzsch River region, Nunavut; Nettilling Lake region, Nunavut


Search for the Blue Goose : J. Dewey Soper - the Arctic adventures of a Canadian naturalist   /   Martin, C.   Soper, D. [Illustrator]
Calgary, Alta. : Bayeux Arts Incorporated ; Arctic Institute of North America, 1995.
87 p. : ill., maps ; 23 x 25 cm.
ISBN 1-896209-14-9
References.
ASTIS record 36828.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

J. Dewey Soper (1893-1982) was a remarkable artist, scientist, and explorer. Towards the end of a brilliant career in the 1970s, he painted over two hundred watercolours based on his on-the-spot pen-and-ink drawings, sketches and photographs, made between 1923 and 1931. These watercolours depict an exquisite array of scenes and events from his four expeditions to the Arctic. During this time, Soper explored Baffin Island as a natural scientist for the Canadian Museum of Natural History, traversing 50,000 kilometers of territory in search of the blue goose. The quest brought Soper international recognition as an ornithologist when, with the help of the Inuit, he reached the nesting site of the blue goose at Bowman Bay in the spring of 1929. This was the crowning achievement of Soper's career. The Canadian government honoured him in 1957 by setting aside 3,150 square miles of western Baffin Island from Bowman Bay to the Koukjuak River as the Dewey Soper Bird Sanctuary. (Au)

Y, I, V
Art; Biographies; Blue Geese; Explorers; History; Natural history; Parks; Pictorial works; Scientists; Soper, Joseph Dewey, 1893-1982

G0813, G081
Baffin Island, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic; Koukdjuak River region, Nunavut


H.G.R. King and the Scott Polar Research Institute   /   Martin, C.
(Arctic, v. 45, no. 1, Mar. 1992, p. 93-95, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 15469.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic45-1-93.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1377
Libraries: ACU

[This profile celebrates the accomplishments of the Scott Polar Research Institute and its former head librarian Harry King.] ... King's career and his relationship with the library of the Scott Polar Research Institute and with the hundreds of polar scholars, scientists and enthusiasts from all over the world are probably best summed up by the late Alan Cooke, who in a letter shortly before his death in 1989, wrote: "I know virtually nothing of his [Harry King's] biographical details, although I was his assistant librarian from 1967-1975 and, of course, I already knew him well when I was a graduate student in the SPRI, 1963-1965. I think of him as knowledgeable, patient, humorous, full of good will. He is the best kind of specialist librarian, thoroughly familiar with the literature in his care. His long experience of aiding scholars in every field of polar study gave him an unrivalled familiarity with the whole range of polar literature, and his book on Antarctica is abundant evidence of his special interest in that region." ... (Au)

V
Biographies; Expeditions; History; King, Harry G.R.; Libraries; Research; Scott Polar Research Institute; Scott Polar Research Institute. Library

G01
Cambridge, England; Polar regions


William Scoresby, Jr. (1789-1857) and the open polar sea - myth and reality   /   Martin, C.
(Arctic, v. 41, no. 1, Mar. 1988, p. 39-47, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 28161.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic41-1-39.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1690
Libraries: ACU

William Scoresby, Jr., whaler and eminent natural scientist, was denied a role in the British Government's renewal of polar exploration in 1818. Befriended by Sir Joseph Banks and a member of the most respected learned societies in Scotland, England and the Continent, Scoresby made detailed observations of ice conditions in the Arctic over a period of 17 years, aiding the government's decision to search for new polar routes. However, Scoresby and Sir John Barrow, Second Secretary of the Admiralty, the main organizer of arctic exploration, had opposing perceptions of the nature of the northern regions. Barrow, until the end of his life, believed the polar regions harbored a warm water sea, while Scoresby considered the theory a ludicrous chimera. This is believed to be the source of Barrow's illogical rejection of Scoresby. To support this thesis the author has contrasted Scoresby's two major works, An Account of the Arctic Regions and Voyage to the Whale Fishery, with Barrow's arctic writings, A Chronological History of Voyages into the Arctic Regions and Voyage in the Arctic Regions from 1818 to the Present Time, as well as looking at other literary visions of the Arctic contemporary to the period. Scoresby's ability as a mariner, his years of arctic experience, his scientific education at the University of Edinburgh, his meticulous records and acute and sensitive observations in both prose and drawing, all provide a sound basis for perceiving the Admiralty's autocratic rejection of Scoresby as a loss to arctic science in the 19th century. It also points up the underlying romantic vision of the northern regions in the mind of society at the time: a place harboring an earthly paradise. To Scoresby, the Arctic was nature's laboratory, not a "playground for the imagination". (Au)

V, G, F, E
Crystals; Exploration; Explorers; History; Mirages; Natural history; Scoresby, William, Jr., 1789-1857; Sea ice; Snow; Whaling

G09, G0815, G02
Arctic regions; Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Nordgrønland; Northwest Passage


Woodblock printmaking - a fine art?   /   Martin, C.   Sawai, N.
(Information north, 1986 [4] Winter, p. 5-7)
ASTIS record 19748.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The article discusses the appropriateness of Japanese woodblock printmaking as a medium for the Inuit artists of Cape Dorset. (ASTIS)

T
Art; Graphic arts; Inuit

G082
Canadian Arctic


"Toward no earthly pole" : the search for Franklin in nineteenth century art   /   Martin, C.
(The Franklin era in Canadian Arctic history, 1845-1859 / Edited by P.D. Sutherland. Paper - Archaeological Survey of Canada, no. 131, 1985, p. 21-41, ill.)
(Mercury series)
(Inter-Nord, no 19, 1990, p. 87-100. ill.)
References.
Originally published in 1985; reprinted in 1990 in Inter-Nord.
ASTIS record 58235.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The Arctic explorers' watercolours and drawings, rendered as visual records of the mid-nineteenth century expeditions in search of Sir John Franklin, are an important means for understanding the perceptions of this long drama in polar history. To modern eyes the paintings seem romantic and unrealistic. Historically their primary purpose was practical: an invaluable aid to geographical knowledge and a source of information on new phenomena encountered in the northern wilderness. A close historical and aesthetic analysis of these images enables us not only to appreciate their significance as scientific and topographical illustrations, but also as revelations of the individual explorers' personal perceptions of the Arctic - their feelings and beliefs, and how these in turn created the mythic image of the northern wilderness in the public's imagination. Included as a contrast to the British art is the more optimistic art of the Americans, Elisha Kent Kane and his collaborator James Hamilton, which grew out of two American expeditions to search for Franklin in 1850 and 1853. Together, the British and American art of the Arctic presents a dimension to northern history not usually considered. (Au)

Y, V
Art; Expeditions; Exploration; Hamilton, James, 1819-1879; History; Kane, Elisha Kent, 1820-1857; Search for Franklin

G081
Canadian Arctic


Elisha Kent Kane (1820-1857)   /   Martin, C.
(Arctic, v. 37, no. 2, June 1984, p. 178-179, 1 port.)
References.
ASTIS record 58238 describes the another (1996) profile which is based upon this one.
ASTIS record 32595.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic37-2-178.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic2187
Libraries: ACU

The first American arctic explorer of note, Elisha Kent Kane was a man of broad interests and varied talents. Although he died when he was only 37 years old, he distinguished himself as a career naval officer, medical doctor, scientist, author, and artist, and his death inspired a funeral procession by train from New Orleans to the home of his birth in Philadelphia. ... Well-travelled prior to his mid-century arctic voyages, Kane had journeyed through South America, Africa, Europe, and the Far East. Small of stature and physically frail as a result of a rheumatic heart, the naval doctor nevertheless sought challenges of physical endurance, which led to his volunteering for the arduous U.S. Polar Expedition in 1850 as ship's surgeon and again in 1853 as leader. ... the serious search for a Northwest Passage had been a predominantly British enterprise. Not until President Zachary Taylor and Henry Grinnell, the wealthy New York shipbuilder, responded to Jane Franklin's appeal for aid in finding her missing husband and his crew did the United States officially enter into the exploration of the Arctic. ... Motivated by humanitarian interests, Congress and Grinnell co-sponsored two searches. Politically, the undertaking allowed the United States to participate with Britain in exploration within the territory of North America. There was a further justification as well. U.S. Navy oceanographers were intrigued with the theory of an Open Polar Sea .... The first voyage gave no evidence of an Open Polar Sea; Kane, undaunted, sought command of another. ... The first voyage had attempted a passage through Lancaster Sound and north into Wellington Channel. The second, under Kane's leadership and including only one ship, sailed due north up the west coast of Greenland to latitude 78°N, where the Advance was icebound and never released. ... By the spring of 1855, after three summers and two winters that proved far harsher and more impoverished than the men's most pessimistic fears, Kane and his crew faced imminent starvation. Consequent unrest and disloyalty, coupled with the belief that they had met their scientific objective of sighting the Open Polar Sea, led Kane to abandon the search for Franklin; he began planning the dangerous escape by small boat and sled. Brilliant organization and meticulous rationing of their remaining supplies proved Kane a leader of great resource, and he led his men to safety and rescue at Upernavik 1300 miles to the south. Kane returned a hero and was soon preparing his second popular account of the Arctic. More ambitious than the first, "Arctic Explorations: The Second Grinnell Expedition in Search of Sir John Franklin, 1853, '54, '55" was extremely successful .... Kane never found Franklin or the Open Polar Sea, but the Grinnell expeditions had made important advances. The first voyage discovered "Grinnell Land" (Grinnell Peninsula) in Wellington Channel, and the second had mapped the narrow passage between Ellesmere Island and the west coast of Greenland to 78°N. ... In spite of his small stature and gentle demenour, Kane stands out in this period of arctic history for this idealism and daring. ... Kane's frail health adds still another dimension to his accomplishments, which he described with considerable aesthetic skill in his journals. (Au)

V, Y
Biographies; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; History; Kane, Elisha Kent, 1820-1857; Literature; Mapping; Search for Franklin; Starvation; Survival

G0815, G09, G0813, G10
Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Greenland; Grinnell Peninsula, Nunavut; Lancaster Sound, Nunavut; Northwest Passage; Wellington Channel, Nunavut


James Hamilton arctic watercolours   /   Martin, C.
Calgary, Alta. : Glenbow Museum, 1982.
52 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 22 X 26 cm.
ISBN 0-919224-36-9
Appendix.
Selected bibliography.
ASTIS record 13504.
Languages: English

Little is published to date about Hamilton, and there is only rudimentary information available on his Arctic works. This has made the task of reconstructing the background inordinately difficult. ... Using the works by Hamilton at Glenbow as a base, Mrs. Martin has sought works and information across North America. The result of these efforts is the first exhibition to focus on Hamilton's Arctic images. Our understanding and appreciation of Hamilton's paintings is increased by the inclusion of works by Elisha Kent Kane, which clearly show the different approaches used by the two artists: the significant contrast of Hamilton's romantic interpretation from the more factual on-the-spot watercolours produced by Kane. The research for this exhibition has increased our knowledge of Hamilton and will form a sound basis for future work on the artist. ... (Au)

Y, V
Art collections; Artists; Bibliographies; Exploration; Glenbow Museum; Hamilton, James, 1819-1879; Kane, Elisha Kent, 1820-1857

G0815, G09, G10
Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Greenland; Melville Bugt, Greenland


Perceptions of Arctic landscapes in the art of the British explorers, 1818-1859   /   Martin, C.   Rasporich, A.W. [Supervisor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, 1981.
xv, 193 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.
Thesis (M.A.) - University of Calgary, Dept. of History, Calgary, Alta., 1981.
Appendix.
Bibliography: p. 176-187.
ASTIS record 19912.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The intention of this study is to place the visual records of the nineteenth-century British Arctic explorer within the cultural context of the period. It also touches on the art of the Americans who participated during the final stage of England's mission to the north polar regions. This context is broader than traditional analyses of art, for it attempts to understand the ideas and values pervading society and how they are mirrored in the imagery as strongly as they are reflected in other various disciplines comprising a culture. The study covers the period of the most active English exploration after the Napoleonic wars, when the search for the Northwest Passage was viewed as a fitting project for a victorious nation to pursue. It also was a time of momentous social and cultural change, which witnessed a great expansion of scientific knowledge. In turn there was a profound effect upon the philosophical base of nineteenth-century European society, for scientific knowledge became increasingly difficult to incorporate into Christian dogma, with the incontestible result of a conflict between religion and science. Against this background, the Arctic expeditions and particularly the searches after the disappearance of Franklin appeared in the public imagination as an allegory of the Victorians' struggle to reconcile Christian dogma with objective observation of the physical world. The artist explorers appointed to the Arctic expeditions were, for the most part, gentlemen officers trained in the technique of topography, and moreover in the gentlemanly tradition of the times, they had been given a classical education and training in landscape art. How the tradition of landscape art influenced the artists' record of their observations and furthered the romantic images which were conjured of the Arctic in the public mind, are central to the questions studied. The first chapter deals with the aesthetic and scientific background of the eighteenth century. Its particular focus is the great exploration voyages to the South Pacific which laid the scientific foundation for the future. The second and third chapters which constitute the major section of the thesis study the imagery of the nineteenth-century Arctic voyages before Franklin's disappearance up to 1859. Their main theme is the relationship in the evolution of cultural history of man's inner beliefs with his perceptions of physical reality. (Au)

V, Y
Art; Customs; Explorers; History; Landforms; Religion; Science; Social change; Theses

G02, G0815
Arctic regions; Northwest Passage


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