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The ASTIS database cites the following 15 publication(s) by Maribeth Murray. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Biogeochemical analysis of ancient Pacific cod bone suggests Hg bioaccumulation was linked to paleo sea level rise and climate change   /   Murray, M.S.   McRoy, C.P.   Duffy, L.K.   Hirons, A.C.   Schaaf, J.M.   Trocine, R.P.   Trefry, J.
(Frontiers in environmental science, v. 3, article 8, 17 Feb. 2015, 8 p., ill., maps)
References.
Open access journal.
ASTIS record 80571.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3389/fenvs.2015.00008
Libraries: ACU

Deglaciation at the end of the Pleistocene initiated major changes in ocean circulation and distribution. Within a brief geological time, large areas of land were inundated by sea-level rise and today global sea level is 120 m above its minimum stand during the last glacial maximum. This was the era of modern sea shelf formation; climate change caused coastal plain flooding and created broad continental shelves with innumerable consequences to marine and terrestrial ecosystems and human populations. In Alaska, the Bering Sea nearly doubled in size and stretches of coastline to the south were flooded, with regional variability in the timing and extent of submergence. Here we suggest how past climate change and coastal flooding are linked to mercury bioaccumulation that could have had profound impacts on past human populations and that, under conditions of continued climate warming, may have future impacts. Biogeochemical analysis of total mercury (tHg) and delta 13C/delta15N ratios in the bone collagen of archeologically recovered Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus) bone shows high levels of tHg during early/mid-Holocene. This pattern cannot be linked to anthropogenic activity or to food web trophic changes, but may result from natural phenomena such as increases in productivity, carbon supply and coastal flooding driven by glacial melting and sea-level rise. The coastal flooding could have led to increased methylation of Hg in newly submerged terrestrial land and vegetation. Methylmercury is bioaccumulated through aquatic food webs with attendant consequences for the health of fish and their consumers, including people. This is the first study of tHg levels in a marine species from the Gulf of Alaska to provide a time series spanning nearly the entire Holocene and we propose that past coastal flooding resulting from climate change had the potential to input significant quantities of Hg into marine food webs and subsequently to human consumers. (Au)

B, I, A, F, E, U, D, K
Archaeology; Arctic cod; Bioaccumulation; Biological productivity; Bones; Carbon; Chemical properties; Climate change; Coast changes; Continental shelves; Deglaciation; Environmental impacts; Floods; Food chain; Forecasting; Geochemistry; Glacial melt waters; Health; Isotopes; Marine ecology; Mercury; Nitrogen; Ocean currents; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeohydrology; Primary production (Biology); Radiocarbon dating; Recent epoch; Sea level; Temporal variations

G04, G061
Alaska, Gulf of; Bering Sea


Identifying climate change threats to the Arctic archaeological record   /   Murray, M.   Jensen, A.   Friesen, M.
(EOS (Washington, D.C.), v. 92, no. 21, May 2011, p. 180)
References.
Indexed from an abstract.
ASTIS record 77969.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/2011EO210006
Libraries: ACU

[1] Global Climate Change and the Polar Archaeological Record; Tromsø, Norway, 15-16 February 2011; A workshop was held at the Institute of Archaeology and Social Anthropology, University of Tromsø, in Norway, to catalyze growing concern among polar archaeologists about global climate change and attendant threats to the polar archaeological and paleoecological records. Arctic archaeological sites contain an irreplaceable record of the histories of the many societies that have lived in the region over past millennia. Associated paleoecological deposits provide powerful proxy evidence for paleoclimate and ecosystem structure and function and direct evidence of species diversity, distributions, and genetic variability. Archaeological records can span most of the Holocene (the past ~12,000 years), depending upon location, and paleoecological records extend even further. Most are largely unstudied, and, although extremely vulnerable to destruction, they are poorly monitored and not well protected. Yet these records are key to understanding how the Arctic has functioned as a system, how humans were integrated into it, and how humans may have shaped it. Such records provide a wide range of data that are not obtainable from sources such as ice and ocean cores; these data are needed for understanding the past, assessing current and projecting future conditions, and adapting to ongoing change. (Au)

U, E, J
Archaeology; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Heritage sites; Human ecology; Palaeoecology

G02
Arctic regions


Ways to help and ways to hinder : governance for effective adaptation to an uncertain climate   /   Loring, P.A.   Gerlach, S.C.   Atkinson, D.E.   Murray, M.S.
(Arctic, v. 64, no. 1, Mar. 2011, p. 73-88, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 73132.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic64-1-73.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic4081
Libraries: ACU

This paper compares two case studies in Alaska, one on commercial fishers of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region and the other on moose hunters of Interior Alaska, to identify how governance arrangements and management strategies enhance or limit people's ability to respond effectively to changing climatic and environmental conditions. The two groups face similar challenges regarding the impacts of a changing climate on wild fish and game, but they tell very different stories regarding how and under what conditions these impacts challenge their harvest activities. In both regions, people describe dramatic changes in weather, land, and seascape conditions, and distributions of fish and game. A key finding is that the "command-and-control" model of governance in the Alaska Interior, as implemented through state and federal management tools such as registration hunts and short open seasons, limits effective local responses to environmental conditions, while the more decentralized model of governance created by the Limited Access Privilege systems of the Bering Sea allows fishers great flexibility to respond. We discuss ways to implement aspects of a decentralized decision-making model in the Interior that would benefit hunters by increasing their adaptability and success, while also improving conservation outcomes. Our findings also demonstrate the usefulness of the diagnostic framework employed here for facilitating comparative cross-regional analyses of natural resource use and management. (Au)

E, R, T, N
Adaptability (Psychology); Animal distribution; Climate change; Co-management; Environmental impacts; Fisheries; Fishing; Government; Government relations; Hunting; Moose; Native peoples; Natural resource management; Regulatory agencies; Safety; Social surveys; Socio-economic effects; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Weather forecasting; Wildlife law; Wildlife management

G06, G04
Aleutian Islands, Alaska; Bering Sea; Fort Yukon, Alaska; Minto, Alaska; Unalaska Island, Alaska


International Study of Arctic Change science plan   /   Murray, M.S.   Anderson, L.   Cherkashov, G.   Cuyler, C.   Forbes, B.   Gascard, J.C.   Haas, C.   Schlosser, P.   Shaver, G.   Shimada, K.   Tjernström, M.   Walsh, J.   Wandell, J.   Zhao, Z.
Stockholm : ISAC International Program Office, 2010.
vi, 50 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References.
Also available in paper.
ASTIS record 77970.
Languages: English
Web: http://arcticchange.civicrm.ca/sites/arcticchange.civicrm.ca/files/ISAC%20Science%20Plan%20Final%20Publication.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Executive Summary: The International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC) is an open-ended, international, interdisciplinary science program. The goal of ISAC is to provide scientific information on rapid arctic change to society and decision makers so they can respond with informed strategies. This requires observation and tracking of arctic changes and understanding their nature, causes, feedbacks and connections among them. ISAC encompasses pan-Arctic, system-scale, multidisciplinary observations, synthesis and modeling to provide an integrated understanding of arctic change and projections of future change. The ISAC Science Plan provides a vision for integrating research among diverse fields and varied users and stakeholders. ISAC facilitates international cooperative efforts to understand the Arctic System and all its components on a pan-Arctic scale. ISAC is positioned to sustain research and coordination activities relevant to environmental arctic change largely initiated during the International Polar Year (IPY). As an active science program ISAC stimulates and provides guidance to develop, maintain and evolve observational activities and scientific understanding. This approach ensures a legacy of relevant high-quality science in the Arctic for decades to come. ISAC is motivated by environmental changes that are already large enough to affect life in the Arctic. The changes illustrated in this document focus on the last decade noting shrinking sea ice cover, rising atmospheric temperature, thawing permafrost, shifts in ecosystems, and linkages to human systems. Substantial future changes are projected to have profound impacts on humankind. Ecosystems are changing, species distributions shifting, and wildlife populations and fisheries are experiencing extraordinary pressures - both natural and anthropogenic. Recent changes in the Arctic have already had significant impacts on infrastructure, on food security, on human health, and on industrial development, and they are influencing domestic responses and international relations. These changes can be measured in economic, social, political and cultural risks and costs and are reflected in human decision-making from the level of the individual to the nation-state, at the international scale, and in feedbacks to the system as a whole. Future system states are uncertain and the lack of predictability hinders efforts to develop strategies for adapting to and managing a changing Arctic. The following key science questions are prompted by observed changes and our current understanding of the Arctic System. Question 1. How is Arctic Change linked to global change? Question 2. How persistent is the presently observed arctic change and is it unique? Question 3. How large is the anthropogenic component of observed arctic change compared to natural variability? Question 4. Why are many aspects of arctic change amplified with respect to global conditions? Question 5. How well can arctic change be projected and what is needed to improve projections? Question 6. What are the adaptive capacities and resilience of arctic ecological systems? Question 7. To what extent are social and ecological systems able to adapt to the effects of arctic change? Question 8. How does environmental change in the Arctic affect the resilience, adaptive capacity, and ultimately, viability of human communities? Question 9. How can new insight into arctic change and its impacts be translated into solutions for adaptation, management, and mitigation? The ISAC science program is structured around three concepts: Observing, Understanding and Responding to arctic change. All the components of the Arctic System must be observed across time and space to understand the scope and evolution of change. Understanding how the system functions and projecting future changes requires models using data that flow from the comprehensive arctic observing system. Moving beyond description to understanding change in the past, present, and future is critical. In the integrated ISAC program the observing, understanding and responding components have been developed in concert around a set of objectives. These are: -Observing the Arctic System covering all domains including the anthroposphere, the atmosphere, the biosphere, the cryosphere, and the hydrosphere. This is based on existing and new long-term observing sites and networks as well as new observing methods. (observing); -Quantifying the anthropogenically-driven component of arctic change within the context of natural variability. (observing); -Understanding the causes of pan-Arctic changes, including changes in the human component, in the context of global change. (understanding); -Improving models to project future changes in the Arctic System, including impact assessment models for responding to change. (understanding); -Exploring options for adaptation to and mitigation of arctic change and suggesting ways that will lead to a path of sustainable use and development. (responding); -Disseminating data and results from ISAC activities to the scientific community, stakeholders and the general public (cross-cuts observing, understanding, responding); Implementation of ISAC is underway, with activities designed to collect specific information relevant to addressing ISAC science questions. Among numerous programs endorsed by IPY and that have contributed to ISAC are the recently sunsetted European Commission funded DAMOCLES Integrated Project (www.damocles-eu.org), and the ongoing United States Inter-agency SEARCH Program (www. arcus.org/search/index.php). These two initiatives were formally linked through the EU/US SEARCH FOR DAMOCLES initiative (www.arcus. org/search/internationalsearch/ damocles.php). They provide an example of how partnerships within ISAC may work. Partnerships within ISAC continue to expand and program building activities are planned in concert with participating programs. An integrated observing system that is designed for pan-Arctic coverage is being developed, with much progress on this initiative made during the International Polar Year. This evolving observing system will constitute the ISAC Observing component; it will ultimately cover the atmosphere, ocean and sea ice, hydrology, cyrosphere, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and aspects of the human dimensions of the Arctic System. The data flow within each of the ISAC program elements is coordinated by dedicated data information systems following standard data policies operated by participating organizations, programs and projects. Efforts are underway within the ISAC Program Office to coordinate the data management functions among these program elements. Development of the ISAC Understanding component is also underway as modeling is increasingly coordinated among operational ISAC program elements. These activities include model comparisons, as well as coordination of new modeling initiatives, and in the longer-term, expansion of these activities to specifically address societal needs for understanding. The Responding to Change component of ISAC drives the program with an emphasis on societally relevant science. Implementation of the Responding to Change piece began with planning efforts during the IPY, and is one of the major foci for the near future activities of ISAC. (Au)

J, E, D, G, R, H, I, K, T, C, N, F
Adaptability (Psychology); Adaptation (Biology); Atmosphere; Climate change; Coast changes; Culture (Anthropology); Ecology; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Food; Forecasting; Health; Hydrology; Information services; International Study of Arctic Change; Mathematical models; Native peoples; Ocean temperature; Oceanography; Permafrost; Planning; Plant distribution; Polar bears; Research; Research organizations; Science; Sea ice; Socio-economic effects; Subsistence; Temporal variations

G02, G03
Arctic Ocean; Arctic regions; Arctic waters


A risk-benefit analysis of wild fish consumption for various species in Alaska reveals shortcomings in data and monitoring needs   /   Loring, P.A.   Duffy, L.K.   Murray, M.S.
(Science of the total environment, v.408, no. 20, 15 Sept. 2010, p.4532-4541, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 77963.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.07.013
Libraries: ACU

Northern peoples face a difficult decision of whether or not to consume wild fish, which may contain dangerous levels of contaminants such as methylmercury (MeHg), but which also offer a number of positive health benefits, and play an important role in rural household economies. Here, new methods for developing consumption advice are applied to an existing data-set for methylmercury (MeHg) levels in Alaskan fish. We apply a quantitative risk-benefit analysis for eight freshwater, saltwater and anadromous fish species, using dose-response relationships to weigh the risks of MeHg bioaccumulation against the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) toward cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental health endpoints. Findings suggests that consumption of many of the fish species reviewed here, including northern pike, Pacific Halibut, and arctic grayling, may lead to increased risk of coronary heart disease and declines in infant visual recognition memory. However, we also identify significant variation among regions, among studies within the same region, and also within studies, which make it difficult to craft consistent consumption advice. Whereas salmon consistently shows a net-benefit, for instance, data for arctic grayling, pike, sablefish, and some halibut are all too imprecise to provide consistent recommendations. We argue for more detailed local-scale monitoring, and identification of possible thresholds for increased risk in the future. We caution that MeHg and omega-3 FA are just two variables in a complicated calculus for weighing the risks and benefits of locally-available and culturally-significant foods, and argue for future work that takes both a place-based and plate-based approach to diet and contamination. (Au)

I, J, T, K, E, N, F
Arctic grayling; Atmospheric circulation; Bioaccumulation; Biological sampling; Blood; Chinook salmon; Climate change; Coho salmon; Dolly Varden; Effects monitoring; Fatty acids; Fishes; Flatfishes; Food; Health; Heart disease; Mercury; Native peoples; Northern pike; Pacific halibut; Pollution; Public education campaigns; Risk assessment; Rivers; Selenium; Subsistence; Toxicity; Walleye pollock; Water pollution

G06, G04, G061
Alaska; Alaska, Gulf of; Bering Sea; Wulik River, Alaska


Zooarchaeology and Arctic marine mammal biogeography, conservation, and management   /   Murray, M.S.
(Supplement : Arctic marine mammals and climate change. Ecological applications, v. 18, suppl. 2, Mar. 2008, p. S41-S55, map)
References.
ASTIS record 77954.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1890/06-0818.1
Libraries: ACU

The Holocene zooarchaeological record of the subarctic and Arctic can be used to aid in the conservation and management of marine mammals. A synthesis of selected zooarchaeological data indicates that there have been significant changes in species ranges, that northern marine ecosystems varied temporally and spatially, and that changes in sea ice extent may be accessible through retrospective research. Despite some limitations, the analysis of faunal collections from regionally appropriate coastal prehistoric and historic-era archaeological sites can be used to provide baseline information on marine systems that is less likely than more recent data to be compromised by intensive and extensive human impacts. The long-term time series data derived through zooarchaeology are particularly relevant to marine conservation and management decision-making in the Arctic where climate change scenarios predict accelerated environmental changes in the coming decades. (Au)

B, I, J, N, U, E, G
Adaptability (Psychology); Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal population; Artifacts; Atlantic cod; Bioclimatology; Bones; Climate change; Fish management; Food; Heritage sites; Human ecology; Hunting; Inuit archaeology; Marine ecology; Marine mammals; Middens (Archaeology); Palaeoecology; Palaeontology; Polar bears; Recent epoch; Sea ice; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Walruses; Whales; Wildlife management

G02, G06, G11, G13, G081, G10, G14
Alaskan waters; Aleutian Islands, Alaska; Arctic waters; Barrow, Alaska; Bering Strait; Canadian Arctic Islands; Canadian Arctic waters; Greenland; Iceland; Kodiak Island, Alaska; North Atlantic Ocean; Russian Arctic; Scandinavia; St. Lawrence Island, Alaska


The International Study of Arctic Change : towards improving pan-Arctic observations and understanding of change   /   Murray, M.
In: Arctic change 2008 : conference programme and abstracts, Québec (Qc), 9-12 December, 2008 = Arctic change 2008 : programme et résumés de la conference, Québec (Qc), 9-12 décembre 2008. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2008, p. 127
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 66964.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arctic-change2008.com/pdf/ac-programme.pdf
Libraries: ACU

The changes to climate and environment in the Arctic are more rapid and profound than in most other regions on the Earth. These changes already have large impacts on the ecosystem and on the societies of those that live in the Arctic. Many of the changes appear on a pan-Arctic scale and are interrelated with the effects of human response to changes in the living conditions. This complex system of changes is poorly understood and to be able to properly respond and to develop sustainable mitigation and adaptation strategies, there is an urgent need to develop a deeper knowledge of the causes to these changes and the feedbacks in the entire system. ISAC is a long-term, multidisciplinary program developed to study the effects of environmental changes on the circumpolar Arctic system and connections to the global system. ISAC includes the physical and chemical, biological and ecological as well socio-economic and cultural systems and concerns both effects due to the enhanced greenhouse warming and other anthropogenic activities, and the effects of the natural variability affecting the Arctic. ISAC will take a system approach to facilitate expansion and deepening of our knowledge of the arctic system and to document changes in the Arctic with respect to spatial and temporal patterns. ISAC will engage in observational, synthesis and modelling activities in response to societal and scientific needs and will provide the necessary scientific background for future impacts assessments. (Au)

E, J, T, R
Acclimatization; Climate change; Culture (Anthropology); Environmental impacts; Native peoples; Socio-economic effects; Spatial distribution; Temporal variations

G02
Arctic regions


An exploratory study of total mercury levels in archaeological caribou hair from northwest Alaska   /   Gerlach, S.C.   Duffy, L.K.   Murray, M.S.   Bowers, P.M.   Adams, R.   Verbrugge, D.A.
(Chemosphere (Oxford), v. 65, no. 11, Dec. 2006, p.1909-1914, map)
References.
ASTIS record 77967.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.060
Libraries: ACU

Over the past ten years, total mercury (THg) levels have been surveyed in Alaskan wildlife and fish as part of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment (AMAP). Beyond these studies there is little historical data on THg levels in important subsistence species for people in Alaska. A survey of THg in caribou hair from archaeological deposits would provide data to develop temporal trends for this region of the Arctic. Caribou hair from a Western Thule settlement beneath the Alaska native village of Deering (ca. AD 1150) show variability in hair THg values, with a mean level (86 ng/g) which is in the range that is observed in modern Rangifer sp. (caribou and reindeer). Hair from House 1 had a THg mean level of 99.6 ng/g and hair from House 2 had a THg mean of 64.2 ng/g. This is the earliest reported record of mercury in caribou associated with human subsistence activities in the western North American Arctic, and is a first step toward compilation of a needed database through which to measure and evaluate exposure to mercury by people who rely heavily on caribou as a food source. We hypothesize that similarity in mercury values in archaeological samples of caribou and in contemporary samples would give an additional perspective on human exposure to mercury through caribou harvest and consumption today. Since this hypothesis will be more useful if evaluated at a regional rather than global scale, further studies will be needed at different archaeological sites across Alaska to determine the generality of this observation in relation to geographic scale. (Au)

J, I, U, N, T, K, H
Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme; Bioaccumulation; Biological sampling; Caribou; Food chain; Health; Heritage sites; Lichens; Mercury; Native peoples; Numeric databases; Pelage; Risk assessment; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Thule culture; Toxicity

G06
Deering, Alaska


Prehistoric use of ringed seals : a zooarchaeological study from Arctic Canada   /   Murray, M.S.
(Environmental archaeology : the journal of human palaeoecology, v. 10, no. 1, 2005, p. 19-38, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 82628.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1179/env.2005.10.1.19
Libraries: ACU

This paper presents new data on ringed seal hunting in the Early Palaeoeskimo period (ca. 4000–3500 B.P.) in the eastern Canadian Arctic. Skeletal age schedules, thin sections of ringed seal canine teeth and skeletal element frequency analysis, provides the means to reconstruct specific seal hunting strategies, especially as regards the selection of particular age classes, season of hunt, and locations for hunting. The zooarchaeological data indicate a human predation pattern similar to the winter hunting pattern of polar bears. Most remains are from seals between the skeletal ages of four and seven/ eight – indicating the selection of juvenile and young adult seals from along ice leads and at refrozen cracks. Skeletal element representation allows for the tentative identification of sharing among households. (Au)

U, V, I, T, J
Age; Animal behaviour; Animal ecology; Animal food; Archaeology; Artifacts; Bones; Culture (Anthropology); History; Hunting; Inuit; Palaeoeskimo culture; Polar bears; Predation; Sealing; Seals (Animals); Seasonal variations; Subsistence

G0813
Igloolik Island (69 23 N, 81 40 W), Nunavut


Chronology, culture, and climate : a radiometric re-evaluation of late prehistoric occupations at Cape Denbigh, Alaska   /   Murray, M.S.   Robertson, A.C.   Ferrara, R.
(Arctic anthropology, v. 40, no. 1, 2003, p. 87-105, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 77968.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40316577
Web: doi:10.1353/arc.2011.0103
Libraries: ACU

This paper presents new data about the chronological placement of two archaeological sites at Cape Denbigh, Norton Sound, Alaska and others along the Kobuk River, Alaska. Direct radiometric dates on arrowpoints and harpoon heads indicate that selected type specimens are not always reliable temporal indicators for late prehistoric sequences in northwest Alaska and Arctic Canada. In the future new fieldwork and direct dating of artifacts and associated sediments will be necessary in order to refine culture-history sequences, evaluate the utility of artifact types as chronological indicators, and to examine the relationship between past culture change and environmental change in coastal Alaska. (Au)

U, E, J, N, C, I, B
Archaeology; Artifacts; Athapascan Indians; Bones; Climate change; Culture (Anthropology); Fishes; Heritage sites; Human bioclimatology; Human migration; Inuit; Middens (Archaeology); Palaeoclimatology; Palaeoecology; Prehistoric man; Radiocarbon dating; Seals (Animals); Soil profiles; Subsistence

G06
Denbigh, Cape, Alaska; Kobuk River region, Alaska; Norton Sound region, Alaska


Local heroes. The long-term effects of short-term prosperity - an example from the Canadian Arctic   /   Murray, M.S.
(Arctic archaeology. World archaeology, v. 30, no. 3, Feb. 1999, p. 466-483, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 77956.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.jstor.org/stable/124964
Web: doi:10.1080/00438243.1999.9980424
Libraries: ACU

In the Canadian Arctic, there are three groups of mammals that were commonly exploited by prehistoric peoples. These are the pinnipeds (seals and walrus), various whales including beluga and bowhead, and the terrestrial herd species, caribou and musk ox. The ringed seal is ubiquitous in the region and available for hunting year round. The other species are spatially and, in many instances, numerically and seasonally restricted. Archaeological data from all periods of human occupation (2500 BC to the recent past) indicate that the ringed seal was the long-term staple for all coastal peoples, both Palaeoeskimo and Neoeskimo. We might therefore expect that ringed seal would have played a significant role in socio-economic systems, particularly as these developed over the long term. However, recent archaeological data suggests that cultural institutions in the Canadian Arctic may have been most heavily influenced by shorter-term, intensive, and regionally restricted patterns of alternative resource exploitation. This is best illustrated by walrus exploitation in Dorset culture. (Au)

U, I, N
Animal distribution; Artifacts; Bones; Caribou; Culture (Anthropology); Dorset culture; Heritage sites; Houses; Human migration; Identity; Inuit archaeology; Muskoxen; Palaeoeskimo culture; Seals (Animals); Seasonal variations; Social interaction; Subsistence; Thule culture; Walruses; Whaling

G0813, G0815
Canadian Arctic Islands; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Foxe Basin, Nunavut; Igloolik, Nunavut


Two winter dwellings at Phillip's Garden, a Dorset site in northwestern Newfoundland   /   Renouf, M.A.P.   Murray, M.S.
(Arctic anthropology, v. 36, no. 1-2, 1999, p. 118-132, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 45879.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Data on two winter dwellings from a Dorset Paleoeskimo site in northwestern Newfoundland are compared. Phillip's Garden is a 2-ha site that was occupied for approximately seven centuries and that has remains of over 50 houses. Although several of these have been excavated since the early 1960s, descriptions of only one winter and one summer house have so far been published. Consideration here of a second winter house adds to our understanding of Dorset dwelling variability. Size, layout, and construction are compared and contrasted in relation to postdepositional disturbance, seasonality, function, social composition of the household, seasonal reoccupation, and chronology. We conclude that successive reuse of one of the houses is key to understanding the structural differences between them. Since the two houses are separated in time by over 200 years, our conclusions suggest a hypothesis about the evolution of this large and complex site. (Au)

U
Artifacts; Bones; Dorset culture; Food; Houses; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Seals (Animals)

G0827
Phillip's Garden, Newfoundland


Economic change in the Palaeoeskimo prehistory of the Foxe Basin, Northwest Territories   /   Murray, M.S.   Cannon, A. [Supervisor]
Hamilton, Ont. : McMaster University, 1997.
vii, 153 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. NQ30163)
ISBN 0-612-30163-X
Thesis (Ph.D.) - McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont., 1997.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 77962.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONL OHM

This thesis is a study of economic change in the Palaeoeskimo period (3200 B.P. to 1000 B.P.) at Igloolik Island, in the Foxe Basin, eastern Canadian Arctic. Evidence derived from the analysis of settlement, zooarchaeological and artefactual data was used to infer changes in settlement, subsistence and social organization between early PreDorset (3200 B.P.) and Late Dorset (1000 B.P.). The primary economic unit during early PreDorset was probably the nuclear family and at Igloolik the major subsistence activity was ringed seal hunting. Pre-Dorset settlement was short-term and groups appear to have been highly mobile, moving away from Igloolik to exploit other resources on a seasonal basis. In contrast Dorset groups were less mobile, spending a greater proportion of the year at Igloolik and exploiting a wider range of resources. The Early Dorset period was characterized by the development of new technology, communal walrus hunting, storage practices and the appearance of larger economic and social units. In Late Dorset, this basic pattern remained the same, although subsistence strategies continued to broaden. The development of communal walrus hunting, storage and the widening of the subsistence base combined to produce relative subsistence security in Dorset as compared to PreDorset. This relative security seems to have been expressed in the elaboration of material culture, particularly walrus hunting harpoon heads, and it may have resulted some socio-economic differentiation between Dorset groups in the Foxe Basin region and those in the central and high Arctic. (Au)

U, I, N
Animal distribution; Artifacts; Bones; Caribou; Design and construction; Dorset culture; Heritage sites; Houses; Human migration; Inuit archaeology; Middens (Archaeology); Netsilik Eskimos; Palaeoeskimo culture; Pre-Dorset culture; Rocks; Seals (Animals); Seasonal variations; Social institutions; Social interaction; Subsistence; Tents; Theses; Walruses; Whaling

G0813, G0815
Foxe Basin, Nunavut; Igloolik, Nunavut


Identifying seasonality in Pre-Dorset structures in Back Bay, Prince of Wales Island, NWT   /   Ramsden, P.   Murray, M.
(Arctic anthropology, v. 32, no. 2, 1995, p. 106-117, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 77958.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40316389
Libraries: ACU

Specific seasons of occupation are inferred for some types of early Pre-Dorset structures at Back Bay, Prince of Wales Island, based on structure type, location, and faunal content. It is suggested that large, well-defined tent rings represent warm season skin tents, while smaller more ephemeral features represent cold season snow-walled structures. Based on the multiseason use of this single locality, we suggest a settlement pattern of short-term residential stability with periodic moves to new locations. (Au)

U, I
Artifacts; Bones; Caribou; Design and construction; Ducks; Foxes; Heritage sites; Human migration; Igloos; Inuit archaeology; Polar bears; Pre-Dorset culture; Rocks; Seals (Animals); Seasonal variations; Shelters; Spatial distribution; Tents

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut


Beyond the laundry list : the analysis of faunal remains from a Dorset dwelling at Phillip's Garden (EeBi 1), Port au Choix, Newfoundland   /   Murray, M.S.   Renouf, M.A.P. [Supervisor]
St. John's, Nfld. : Memorial University of Newfoundland, 1992.
viii, 150 p. : ill., maps, plans ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MM78128)
ISBN 0-315-78128-9
Thesis (M.A.) - Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Nfld., 1992.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
References.
Appendix.
ASTIS record 77960.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONL NFSM

The analysis of a large sample of faunal remains from a Middle Dorset semi-subterranean dwelling of the Phillip's Garden site (EeBi 1), Port au Choix, Newfoundland, was undertaken. Results indicate that harp seal hunting was the focus of the Dorset occupation in this location. The age profile of the sample suggests that the dwelling from which the bone material was obtained was utilized in the early winter for the hunting of harp seals on their southward migration past the Point Riche peninsula to the Gulf of St. Lawrence. A detailed study of Phocidae body part representation within the dwelling suggests that complete seal carcasses were brought to the site and butchered. The study of refuse distribution and feature placement within the dwelling revealed a c-shaped activity zone located around the short axis of the central depression. Refuse was deposited within two large pit features and along the back of a raised rear platform. This pattern of house organization is unique to Phillip's Garden and suggests that there is greater variability in Dorset house form and use of internal house space than previously thought. This variability may be a function of seasonally specific dwelling use. (Au)

U, I
Animal distribution; Animal migration; Artifacts; Bones; Design and construction; Dorset culture; Food ; Heritage sites; Houses; Middens (Archaeology); Seals (Animals); Seasonal variations; Subsistence; Theses

G0827
Phillip's Garden, Newfoundland; Port au Choix, Newfoundland


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