The ASTIS database cites the following 95 publication(s) by Bill Barr. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.
William Peter Adams (1936-2018) / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 71, no. 4, Dec. 2018, p. 463-464, ill.)
ASTIS record 84559.
Peter Adams died on 28 September 2018 at the Peterborough Regional Health Centre, Peterborough, Ontario, at the age of 82. He is survived by his wife Jill; their children, Joanne, Michele, Annette, and Will; their grandchildren, John, Matthew, Nathan, Anne, Marie, Adam, Aaron, Amelie, and Sofia; and Peter's siblings, Christine, Gareth, Glenys, and Kevin. Peter was born in Ellesmere Port, a town on the Mersey Estuary in Cheshire, England, on 17 April I 936. He attended the King's School, Chester, founded by Henry VIII in 1541, and obtained his Bachelor of Arts from the University of Sheffield, where he also obtained a one-year teaching qualification. In 1959, having won a Carnegie Scholarship, he joined Dr. Fritz Muller at a base camp at the head of Expedition Fiord on the west side of Axel Heiberg Island for the reconnaissance season of the Jacobsen-McGill Axel Heiberg Expedition. For that season, it was just a two-man expedition, involving numerous mountain ascents to produce a base map of the surrounding area, plus the preliminary work of establishing a network of measurement sites for mass-balance studies of the Crusoe, White, and Baby glaciers. Peter spent the next few winters engaged in course work at McGill University, Montreal, and the next three summers on Axel Heiberg Island. He married Jill in Montreal in the summer of 1960. ... (Au)
A, G, F, R
Glaciers; Lake ice; Mapping; Measurement; Political parties; Research; Schools; Science; Teachers
G0826, G0813, G0825
Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut; France; Peterborough region, Ontario; Schefferville region, Québec
Boris Aleksandrovich Kremer (1908 - 76)—Polyarnik / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 71, no. 2, June 2018, p. 237-245, ill., map)
ASTIS record 84299.
Over the decade 1733-43, the Russian Admiralty College mounted one of the most impressive operations in the entire history of geographical exploration: the Great Northern Expedition. Seven separate detachments were dispatched, five of them to explore and map different sections of the Arctic coast of Eurasia, one to head south from Okhotsk to the Kuril Islands and Japan, and the seventh to sail east from Kamchatka to locate the coast of America. The operation was amazingly successful, the result being a fairly detailed map of the entire Arctic coast (except for the section from just east of the mouth of the Kolyma River to the Bering Strait) and also of Kamchatka and the Kuril Islands, plus a section of the west coast of mainland Alaska and a number of the Aleutian Islands (Belov, 1956). One of the more intriguing aspects of the Great Northern Expedition is that by a remarkable coincidence, eight of the officers in command of the various detachments all came from what are now the contiguous, landlocked regions of Kaluzhskaya Oblast' [Kaluga Province] and Tul'skaya Oblast' [Tula Province], lying just south of Moscow, the entire region being generally known as Priokskiy kray (Priokskiy region), which is the middle section of the Oka River basin. They included such well-known figures as Semen Ivanovich Chelyuskin, who first reached the cape now named after him, the northernmost point on the Eurasian mainland, in May 1742, while traveling by dog-team, and Aleksei Il'ich Chirikov, who, along with Vitus Bering, reached the coast of western Alaska in the summer of 1741 (Romanov, 1982). While the names of these explorers are well known to Russian historians and members of the public (and many of them also to English-speaking historians), by yet another coincidence, another native of Tul'skaya Oblast', while not an explorer, is well known to Russian historians for his contribution to Soviet Arctic history, namely that of meteorologist Boris Aleksandrovich Kremer. (Au)
V, A, E
Biographies; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; History; Mapping; Meteorology; Velikaia Severnii Ekspeditsii, 1725-1743
Arkhangel'skaya Oblast', Russian Federation; Chelyuskin, Russian Federation; Chukotskiy Poluostrov, Russian Federation; Frantsa-Iosifa, Zemlya, Russian Federation; Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Federation
Inuit and whalers on Baffin Island through German eyes : Wilhelm Weike's Arctic journal and letters (1883-1884) / Müller-Wille, L. Gieseking, B. Barr, W. [Translator]
Montréal, Québec : Baraka Books, 2011.
284 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
ASTIS record 76510.
Wilhelm Weike, born on November 28, 1859 in rural Häverstädt near Minden in eastern Wesphalia, Germany, ... [almost by accident participated] in a scientific expedition to the Inuit and whalers of Baffin Island .... For this expedition [Boas'] declared aims were investigations into the natural history and geodetic surveys. But Boas' real aim was to make contact with the Inuit, the indigenous people of the Arctic, to get to know their culture and to live and travel with them. His research goal was to relate their life-style to their movements on land, sea, and pack ice and to their pattern of settlement as well as to the utilization of available resources. For this trip Franz Boas was looking for assistance and support from somebody who, above all, would unburden him from the problems and duties of everyday life while travelling, relieve him of domestic chores, and also be available as a "Jack-of-all-trades" with regard to his endeavours. ... Weike had been living in the Boas house in Minden, working as a gardener and domestic servant since 1879. Wieke agreed to join the expedition. ... The purpose of the publication of Wilhelm Weike's parallel journal is to make his voice heard beside that of Franz Boas' overpowering scientific presence. As an ordinary man - he remained so throughout his life - Weike was not a historical figure. And so, after more than 125 years a permanent record to his previously hidden literary bequest was made available to the public in Germany. The English edition of Weike's journal and letters was prepared to provide English-language readers everywhere, but particularly in Nunavut and other circumpolar regions, with access to Weike's writings. This way Weike, through his written words, could travel back to the Canadian Arctic giving Inuit and Qallunaat alike insight into this historical document that conveys the simple, unaltered, and external observation and perception of the life of Inuit and whalers on Qikiqtaaluk (Baffin Island) during theearly 1880s. ... (Au)
V, T, N, Y, J, G, E
Biographies; Boas, Franz, 1858-1942; Customs; Ethnography; Expeditions; History; Human ecology; Inuit; Inuit languages; Meteorology; Sea ice; Subsistence; Travels; Weike, Wilhelm, 1859-1917; Whaling
Baffin Island, Nunavut
Joseph-Elzéar Bernier : champion of Canadian Arctic sovereignty, 1852-1934 / Saint-Pierre, M. Barr, W. [Translator] Philpot, R. [Editor]
Montréal : Baraka Books, .
370 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
ISBN 9780981240510 (Paperback), 9780981240541 (Hardcover)
ASTIS record 71688.
On July 1, 1909 Captain Joseph-Elzéar Bernier, his officers and crew erected a plaque on Melville Island in the Northwest Passage and laid claim to the entire Arctic Archipelago for Canada. A century later that claim remains very significant. Joseph-Elzéar Bernier was born in the small busy seaport of L'Islet on the shores of the Lower St. Lawrence in 1852. At a very young age he joined his father who captained ocean-going vessels before he became captain himself of the Saint-Joseph at the age of 17. His career at the helm of ships in the Canadian merchant marine was unprecedented, and remains unsurpassed - more than 250 Atlantic crossings and many records. After 25 years at sea, Bernier was appointed Governor of the Quebec Prison, a respite that allowed him to seriously study the ongoing Arctic Ocean expeditions and the race for the North Pole. He developed an elaborate plan and endeavoured to spark interest in the North among his fellow citizens and in government. Aboard the Arctic, he headed government-commissioned expeditions between 1904 and 1911 and again between 1922 and 1925. His curiosity, drive, intelligence, and passion enabled him to travel the harsh arctic waters and to learn how to winter there from the Inuit whom he encountered and befriended. Bernier retired at the age of 75 in 1927. Captain Joseph-Elzéar Bernier, the greatest navigator in Canadian history, had a dream of conquering the North Pole. His crowning achievement however was to establish his country's Arctic boundaries. Had Bernier not made those voyages and laid those claims, the geopolitical configuration of the North might be quite different today. (Au)
V, R, T, L, G, Y, N
Arctic (Ship); Bernier, Joseph Elzéar, 1852-1934; Biographies; Boundaries; Cairns; Correctional institutions; Costs; Eastern Arctic Patrol, 1922-1968; Equipment and supplies; Expeditions; Exploration; Foreign relations; Fur trade; Geopolitics; Government; History; Ice navigation; Inuit; Maps; Newspapers; Public opinion; Public relations; Sea ice; Ships; Sovereignty; Traditional clothing; Travels
G0813, G0815, G0814, G0826
Baffin Island waters, Nunavut; Baffin Island, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic Islands; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Hudson Bay; Lancaster Sound, Nunavut; Québec
Arctic scientist, Gulag survivor : the biography of Mikhail Mikhailovich Ermolaev, 1905-1991 / Ermolaev, A.M Dibner, V.D. Barr, W. [Translator and Editor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary Press : Arctic Institute of North America, 2009.
xiv, 591 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
(Northern lights series (Calgary, Alta.), 13)
ASTIS record 68796.
One of the most prominent Soviet Arctic scientists of the 1920s and 1930s, Mikhail Mikhailovich Ermolaev was a geologist, physicist, and oceanographer. In 1938, he was arrested by the NKVD, convicted on a trumped-up charge of "sabotage," and sent to the Gulag for eight years. After barely surviving a year of correctional hard labour in a lumber camp, Ermolaev was appointed to a "sharashka", or professional team, which was charged with extending the railroad to the coal mines of Vorkuta in the farthest reaches of northeast European Russia. Still later, he and his family were exiled to Syktyvkar and Arkhangelsk. Remarkably, Ermolaev was eventually able to resume his academic career, ultimately establishing a new Department of the Geography of the Oceans at Kaliningrad State University. Interspersed with biographical details are some of the major results of Ermolaev's scientific studies - his study of the periglacial environment of the Novosibirskie Ostrova, his geological surveys and glaciological work on Novaya Zemlya, his investigation of the temperature profile of the atmosphere based on acoustic sounding, his successful search for the North Onega bauxites, and his search for rare metals, to name but a few. These few examples demonstrate Ermolaev's amazing versatility. Summaries of a number of his most important scientific papers are included in an appendix. Ermolaev's son, Aleksei, was one of the authors of the original Russian-language biography published in 2005. His own recollections of his father's arrest and of the family's experiences while his father was in the Gulag, along with an excellent selection of family photographs, infuse "Arctic Scientist, Gulag Survivor" with a sense of immediacy and personal connection. Thanks to the expertise of William Barr, Ermolaev's story is now available in English for the first time. (Au)
V, Y, R, B, A, D, F, P, E
Atmosphere; Atmospheric temperature; Biographies; Bottom sediments; Correctional institutions ; Design and construction; Geography; Geological exploration; Geology; Geomorphology; Glaciology; Government; History; Mineral resources; Oceanography; Railroads; Scientists; Universities
Arkhangel'skaya Oblast', Russian Federation; Barents Sea; Frantsa-Iosifa, Zemlya, Russian Federation; Greenland Sea; Karskoye More; Komi Respublika, Russian Federation; Laptevykh More; Novaya Zemlya, Russian Federation; Novosibirskiye Ostrova, Russian Federation; Russian Arctic
The use of dog sledges during the British search for the missing Franklin Expedition in the North American Arctic Islands, 1848-59 / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 62, no. 3, Sept. 2009, p. 257-272, ill., map)
ASTIS record 68339.
While the bulk of the searching parties sent out from the British ships deployed on the search for the missing Franklin expedition in the North American Arctic Islands over the period 1848-59 employed man-hauled sledges, dog sledges were also used quite extensively. The dog sledges were especially (but not exclusively) used as "couriers," that is, for communication between the various wintering ships, where speed was the primary requirement. The total distance covered by dog sledges (excluding short hauls in the vicinity of the wintering ships) was, at a minimum, 11 576 km; this distance compares with the minimum 41 555 km covered by man-hauled sledges. (Au)
V, I, L, T
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal food; Bears; Cold; Communication; Design and construction; Dogsleds; Equipment and supplies; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; History; Hunting; Mapping; Native peoples; Search for Franklin; Sled dogs; Trade and barter; Transportation
G0813, G0815, G10, G06, G0812
Alaska, Northern; Bering Strait region; Canadian Arctic Islands; Great Bear Lake region, N.W.T.; Greenland; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut
Resurrecting Dr. Moss : the life and letters of a Royal Navy surgeon, Edward Lawton Moss MD, RN, 1843-1880 / Appleton, P.C. Barr, W. [Editor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary Press : Arctic Institute of North America, 2008.
xvi, 252 p. : ill., maps, ports. ; 28 cm.
(Northern lights series (Calgary, Alta.), 10)
Includes watercolours by Edward L. Moss.
ASTIS record 64957.
Resurrecting Dr. Moss chronicles the life and death of Edward Lawton Moss, a Royal Navy surgeon on the last great British north polar expedition of the nineteenth century. Arctic historians and bibliophiles are familiar with Moss's account of the 1875-76 British Arctic Expedition, published under the title, Shores of the Polar Sea, but little has been known about Moss himself. Now, thanks to Paul Appleton's painstaking research, his life has taken shape in this well-crafted biography. Relying heavily on Moss's own letters, Appleton recounts his travels in the Caribbean, the Arctic, and on Canada's Pacific coast, creating a vivid portrait of a man he calls "an example of the best traditions of British naval medicine during the Victorian era." Artist, author, explorer, and scientist, Dr. Moss was also a pioneering medical officer. During his posting in British Columbia, he plays a pivotal role in founding one of the earliest medical institutions on Canada's west coast, the hospital at the Esquimalt Naval Base. Moss's life was cut short at the age of thirty-seven when the HMS Atalanta disappeared en route from Bermuda in 1880. (Au)
V, K, R, L, I, G, U
Alert (Ship); Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animals; Archaeology; Biographies; Discovery (Ship); Diseases; Dogsledding; Ducks; Expeditions; Exploration; Food; Frostbite; Great Britain. Royal Navy; Health; Health care; Health care workers; History; Hospitals; Hunting; Ice navigation; Medicines; Moss, Edward Lawton, 1843-1880; Nares, Sir George Strong, 1831-1915; Pack ice; Public hearings; Public opinion; Publishing; Scurvy; Sea ice; Sheep; Sled dogs; Snowblindness; Social conditions; Social interaction; Storms; Vitamin C
G10, G0813, G09, G0821, G05, G11
Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Bermuda; British Columbia; Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Esquimalt, British Columbia; Great Britain; Greenland; Melville Sound, Nunavut; Nares Strait, Greenland/Nunavut; North Atlantic Ocean; North Pacific Ocean; Robeson Channel, Greenland/Nunavut; Turkey; Vancouver Island, British Columbia
The expeditions of the First International Polar Year, 1882-83 / Barr, W.
Calgary, Alta. : Arctic Institute of North America, 2008.
xiv, 417 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
(Technical paper - Arctic Institute of North America, no. 29)
Changes since the first edition include a Foreword by David Hik, an expanded Conclusions chapter, an Index, an additional map and some minor corrections to the text.
ASTIS record 63884.
The Fourth International Polar Year (2007-08) provided the ideal opportunity for the Arctic Institute of North America to present an updated edition of Bill Barr's classic monograph describing the expeditions of the First International Polar Year (IPY) of 1882-83. The brainchild of Karl Weyprecht of the Austro-Hungarian Navy, the First IPY involved a network of stations in the polar regions where synchronized scientific observations were made, mostly in the fields of meteorology, aurora, and geomagnetism. Ultimately, 14 major and several auxiliary expeditions participated in the First IPY, which produced a wealth of scientific data and a model for the subsequent IPYs in 1932-33, 1957-58, and 2007-08. Those involved in the First IPY would be amazed to see the scope of the Fourth IPY 2007-08: thousands of scientists from over 60 countries are participating in more than 200 projects, which range in focus from geophysics to economics and have large components of education and public outreach. The stories of the First IPY expeditions as told in Barr's comprehensive history will entertain a new generation of polar researchers and enlighten them on the hard-won achievements of the first coordinated international program in polar research. (Au)
V, E, B, T, L, G
Auroras; Expeditions; Exploration; Geomagnetism; History; International Polar Year 1882-83; Meteorology; Native peoples; Research; Research stations; Sea ice; Ships; Shipwrecks
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions
Arctic hell-ship : the voyage of HMS Enterprise, 1850-1855 / Barr, W.
Edmonton, Alta. : The University of Alberta Press, 2007.
xiv, 318 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
ASTIS record 62630.
In 1850-1855, Richard Collinson captained the HMS Enterprise on a voyage to the Arctic in search of the missing Franklin expedition. Under Collinson's command, the Enterprise was instructed to search for, and hopefully rescue, the Franklin expedition by approaching the Northwest Passage from the west, Franklin having entered from the east. Barr tells the story of that most unusual journey, during which the crew spent three winters frozen into the arctic ice. Relations between Collinson and many of his officers were so poor that three of them spent a large portion of the voyage under arrest. This gripping tale is accompanied by a selection of vivid paintings by the ship's assistant surgeon, Edward Adams. ... (Au)
V, L, T, N, I, E, G
Auroras; Biographies; Caribou; Collinson, Sir Richard, 1811-1883; Copper Eskimos; Equipment and supplies; Expeditions; Exploration; Food; Gwich'in Indians; History; Igloos; Inuit; Mapping; Mental health and well-being; Meteorology; Sea ice; Search for Franklin; Ships; Shipwrecks; Subsistence; Trade and barter; Travels
G04, G0813, G06
Banks Island waters, N.W.T.; Barrow, Point, Alaska; Bering Strait; Cambridge Bay, Nunavut; Coronation Gulf, Nunavut; Dease Strait, Nunavut; Dolphin and Union Strait, Nunavut; Northwest Passage; Prince of Wales, Cape, Alaska; Victoria Island waters, N.W.T./Nunavut
Pioneer whalers in the Ross Sea, 1923-33 / Barr, W. Watt, J.P.C.
(Polar record, v. 41, no. 4, Oct. 2005, p. 281-304, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 58376.
On Christmas Eve 1923, the whaling factory ship Sir James Clark Ross, commanded by Captain Carl Anton Larsen and accompanied by five catchers, reached the front of the Ross Ice Shelf; these were the first whaling vessels to operate in the Ross Sea. They had been dispatched by the Norwegian whaling company Hvalfangeraktienselskapet Rosshavet, which had obtained a licence from the British government. For most of the 1923-24 season, Sir James Clark Ross occupied an uneasy anchorage in the deep waters of Discovery Inlet, a narrow embayment in the front of the Ross Ice Shelf, while her catchers pursued whales widely in the Ross Sea. During that first season they killed and processed 221 whales (211 blue whales and 10 fin whales), which yielded 17,300 barrels of oil. During the next decade, with the exception of the 1931-32 season, Sir James Clark Ross and two other factory ships operated by Rosshavet, C.A. Larsen and Sir James Clark Ross II, operated in the Ross Sea. From the 1926-27 season onwards these ships were joined by up to three other factory ships and their catchers, operated by other companies. During the decade 1923-33 the Rosshavet ships killed and processed 9122 whales in the Ross Sea sector, mainly in the open waters of the Ross Sea south of the pack-ice belt. Total harvest for all factory ships from the Ross Sea sector for the period was 18,238 whales (mainly blue whales) producing 1,490,948 barrels of oil. From 1924 onwards the Rosshavet catchers wintered in Paterson Inlet on Stewart Island, New Zealand, and from 1925 onwards a well-equipped shipyard, Kaipipi Shipyard, operated on Price Peninsula in Paterson Inlet to service the Rosshavet ships. (Au)
V, N, L, I, W, E, G, D
Animal collections; Animal distribution; Animal mortality; Archival material; Aurora (Ship); Birds; Crabs; Design and construction; Domestic sheep; Equipment and supplies; Expeditions; Exploration; History; Icebergs; Icebreaking; Licences; Meteorology; Ocean temperature; Penguins; Rocks; Royalties; Sea ice; Sea lions; Seals (Animals); Search and rescue; Ships; Sir James Clark Ross (Ship); Storms; Survival; Whales; Whaling
Antarctic Peninsula; England; Macquarie Island, Tasmania; McMurdo Sound, Antarctic regions; New Zealand; Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions; Ross Sea, Antarctic regions; South Georgia, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions
Red serge and polar bear pants : the biography of Harry Stallworthy, RCMP / Barr, W.
Edmonton, Alta. : University of Alberta Press, 2004.
xii, 385 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
ASTIS record 58379.
From policing and prospecting in the Yukon, patrolling Chesterfield Inlet, establishing the RCMP's post in Stony Rapids, sledging across Ellesmere Island, coordinating aerial surveillance patrols in the Gaspé to guarding Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt in Québec City in 1944, Harry Stallworthy's life was always full of adventure. Stallworthy was a wonderful raconteur whose stories about his career included over 20 years living in Canada's North, often working with the Inuit, for whom he developed a deep respect. He was never happier than when travelling behind a good team of sledge dogs. While stationed at Bache Peninsula, Ellesmere Island in the 1930's Stallworthy led one of the longest Arctic sledge patrols in RCMP history, searching for traces of German geologist Dr. Hans Krüger. In 1934 he set off with the Oxford University Ellesmere Land Expedition with Eddie Shackleton, son of the famous Antarctic explorer. Shackleton recalls that the Expedition "owed so much to this remarkable Polar man." ... Red Serge and Polar Bear Pants is not a political or administrative history. It is a biography of a young man who like so many others of his era and background, came to Canada just before World War I, found a new and adventurous life, and spent the rest of his working life in the honourable service of his country. Most of his career with the Mounted Police was spent in northern service, so the book is not only a history of a very interesting and likeable man, it is also a history of a region that was only then beginning to be incorporated into the Dominion. This book is also a revealing portrait of a marriage, and what it meant to be married to a man who was stationed in the Arctic for months and years at a time .... Much as one leaves this book admiring the toughness and character of Harry Stallworthy, the reader is bound to admire as much or more those qualities in his wife Hilda. ... (Au)
V, T, I, R, N, G, L
Animal distribution; Animal food; Biographies; Coal; Dogsledding; Equipment and supplies; Exploration; Explorers; Fur trade; History; Hudson's Bay Company; Hunting; Igloos; Inuit; Krüger, Hans K.E., 1886-1930; Land titles; Marriage; Muskoxen; Royal Canadian Mounted Police; Sea ice; Search and rescue; Sled dogs; Sovereignty; Stallworthy, Henry Webb, 1895-1976; Starvation; Survival; Transportation; Trapping; Travels
Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut; Bache Peninsula, Nunavut; Bay Fiord, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic Islands; Chesterfield Inlet, Nunavut; Cornwall Island, Nunavut; Craig Harbour, Nunavut; Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Hazen, Lake, Nunavut; Meighen Island, Nunavut; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Southwest, Cape, Nunavut; Sverdrup Channel, Nunavut
Chukchi Sea, Southern Ocean, Kara Sea : the polar voyages of Captain Eduard Dallmann, whaler, trader, explorer, 1830-96 / Barr, W. Krause, R. Pawlik, P.-M.
(Polar record, v. 40, no. 1, Jan. 2004, p. 1-18, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 58375.
Eduard Dallmann, of Blumenthal on the lower Weser, went to sea at the age of 15 in 1845. He took command of his first ship, the whaling vessel Planet, in 1859 on a whaling voyage to the sperm whaling grounds in the Pacific and to the Sea of Okhotsk. Over the period 1864-66 he commanded the Hawaiian vessel W.C. Talbot on trading voyages to the Alaskan and Chukotka shores of the Bering and Chukchi seas. On 17 August 1866 he sighted and landed on Ostrov Vrangelya (Wrangel Island), a year prior to its sighting by Thomas Long, credited by many with the first sighting. For the following three years he commanded the whaling ship Count Bismarck on a whaling cruise to the tropics, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Bering and Chukchi seas. In 1873-74 he made the first Antarctic whaling voyage aboard Groenland, and discovered and charted the west coasts of Anvers, Brabant, and Liège islands, as well as many smaller islands and straits including Bismarck Strait. He spent the 1875 whaling season as expert consultant, still aboard Groenland, on the Davis Strait and Baffin Bay whaling grounds. Then, to complete his career in polar waters, from 1877 to 1883 he made annual attempts to haul freight to the mouth of the Yenisey River, to be exchanged for grain cargoes brought down that river by barge. Of the seven attempts, only four were successful, the rest being foiled by ice conditions in the Kara Sea, and on the basis of this record, Baron von Knoop, the Russian entrepreneur who was financing the operation, decided to cut his losses. This ended Dallmann's career in polar waters. (Au)
V, I, N, G, D, F
Animal distribution; Animal migration; Archival material; Barges; Biographies; Bowhead whales; Dallmann, Eduard, 1830-1896; Exploration; Explorers; Fur trade; History; Inland water navigation; Ivory; Marine navigation; Meteorology; Muskoxen; Public opinion; Right whales; River ice; Sea ice; Sealing; Seasonal variations; Ships; Sperm whales; Trade and barter; Whaling
G15, G04, G141, G142, G09, G14, G0812
Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters; Anvers Island, Antarctic regions; Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Barents Sea; Bering Sea; Brabant Island, N.W.T.; Chukchi Sea; Karskoye More; Novaya Zemlya, Russian Federation; Okhotsk, Sea of; Sibir', Russian Federation; Vrangelya, Ostrov, Russian Federation; Yenisey River, Russian Federation
War north of 80 : the last German Arctic weather station of World War II / Dege, W. Barr, W. [Editor and Translator]
Calgary, Alta. : Arctic Institute of North America : University of Calgary Press, .
xxxv, 361 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
(Northern lights series (Calgary, Alta.), 4)
ISBN 1-55238-110-2, 0-87081-768-X
Translation of the German edition entitled Wettertrupp Haudegen, by Wilhelm Dege.
ASTIS record 53701.
"Operation Haudegen" was the code name for a secretly established weather station located in a remote corner of Svalbard, in the High Arctic, during the winter of 1944-45. During World War II, the German Navy and Air Force set up this and other weather stations in the farthest reaches of the Arctic, from eastern Greenland to Franz Josef Land, to gather and monitor vital weather data needed for German military operations in northwestern Europe. War North of 80 is the personal story of Wilhelm Dege, leader of the last of these stations who, along with his team, was left behind in this desolate land when the Hitler regime crumbled and the war ended in 1945. It was not until later that year, in September, that the Allies sent a ship northward to retrieve Dege and his crew, thus making Dege's team the last German troops to surrender. Accompanied by a detailed introduction, William Barr's translation offers English-speaking readers a rare glimpse into the activities and importance of these isolated outposts. Dege's son, Eckart, visited his father's base camp in 1985, recovering Wilhelm's journal and other documents. From this material, Eckart has contributed appendices on the post-war careers of the men who braved the rigours of the Arctic alongside his father. (Au)
V, E, I, L
Animal behaviour; Bears; Biographies; Buildings; Dege, Wilhelm, 1910-1979; Design and construction; Equipment and supplies; Expeditions; Food; History; Hunting; Logistics; Meteorological instruments; Military operations; Occupational training; Prefabrication; Ships; Survival; Transportation; Trichinella; Weather stations; World War II
G02, G11, G12, G13
Greenland; Greenland Sea; North Atlantic Ocean; Norway; Svalbard
South Georgia : gateway to Antarctica / Kohl-Larsen, L. Barr, W. [Translator]
Huntingdon, England : Bluntisham Books ; Norfolk, England : The Erskine Press, 2003.
xviii, 294 p. : ill., maps (1 folded) ; 22 cm.
Originally published in German in 1930 as An den Toren der Antarktis by Verlag von Strecker und Schröder, Stuttgart.
ASTIS record 51776.
South Georgia has been an important gateway to the continent for many of the early Antarctic expeditions but few have spent much time there. The early literature is mostly about science or whaling with little on the island itself. Whilst the sealers and whalers had explored the coast during the early part of the twentieth century, little was known of the interior or of the natural history of the island. Ludwig Kohl-Larsen spent the summer of 1927-8 camping on the island with his wife and a photographer, making the first film of the island and collecting a wide range of biological specimens. His account of this early and unusual adventure was published in German but has remained largely unknown and inaccessible until now. (Au)
V, I, E, N
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Biographies; Bird nesting; Expeditions; Exploration; Icebergs; Meteorology; Penguins; Sea birds; Seals (Animals); Sleds; Storms; Whales; Whaling
Antarctic waters; South Georgia, Antarctic regions
From Barrow to Boothia : the Arctic journal of Chief Factor Peter Warren Dease, 1836-1839 / Barr, W. [Editor]
Montreal ; Kingston, Ont. : McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002.
xi, 330 p. : ill., maps, ; 26 cm.
(Rupert's Land Record Society series, 7)
ASTIS record 51775.
In 1835 the map of the Arctic coast of North America was far from complete. The Hudson's Bay Company developed a plan to fill the gaps and two of the Company's officers were chosen to carry it out: the veteran Chief Factor Peter Dease - efficient, competent, steady - and Thomas Simpson, young, arrogant, and cousin and secretary to the Company's governor in North America. Dease and Simpson mapped the remaining coastline in some of the longest small-boat voyages in the history of the Arctic. In the standard source of the undertaking, Simpson's account, he claimed success for himself, stating "Dease is a worthy, indolent, illiterate soul, and moves just as I give the impulse." From Barrow to Boothia corrects that perception, making Dease's report of the expedition available for the first time, and shows that his contribution was absolutely crucial to the success of the expedition. (Au)
V, T, N
Biographies; Dease, Peter Warren, 1788-1863; Expeditions; Exploration; History; Hudson's Bay Company; Mapping; Simpson, Thomas, 1808-1840
G0813, G0815, G07, G0812
Alaskan Beaufort Sea; Amundsen Gulf, N.W.T.; Boothia Peninsula waters, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Coronation Gulf, Nunavut; Dease Strait, Nunavut; Dolphin and Union Strait, N.W.T./Nunavut; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; Mackenzie River, N.W.T.; Queen Maud Gulf, Nunavut; Slave River, Alberta/N.W.T.
Harpoon guns, the lost Greenland settlement, and penal colonies : George Manby's Arctic obsessions / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 37, no.203, Oct. 2001, p. 291-314, ill., map)
ASTIS record 50381.
George William Manby (1766-1854) was an English inventor best known for his idea of firing a line from shore to a wrecked ship so that the crew might be saved by means of a breeches-buoy. Around 1819 he turned his attention to new types of whaling harpoons, both a hand harpoon and a gun harpoon. In 1821 he went on a voyage to the Geenland whaling grounds on board Baffin, Captain William Scoresby Jr, with the aim of trying out his inventions but the experiments were foiled by the reluctance of the crew to cooperate. As a result of that voyage, Manby espoused three ideas that he pursued obsessively for the rest of his life: that there might still be Norse survivors in the so-called 'Lost Colony' in East Greenland; that Britain should claim the area of East Greenland north of the area claimed by Denmark and that this area should be developed as a penal colony. (Au)
V, N, L, R
Boats; Correctional institutions; Design and construction; Equipment and supplies; Expeditions; Explorers; Firearms; Fires; Human migration; Manby, George William, 1766-1854; Norse in Greenland; Safety; Scoresby, Sir William, 1760-1829; Search and rescue; Shipwrecks; Sovereignty; Technology; Whaling
G12, G10, G11
England; Greenland Sea; North Atlantic Ocean; Østgrønland
Clive Holland (1946-2000) / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 54, no. 1, Mar. 2001, p. 91, ill.)
ASTIS record 47723.
Clive Holland, archivist, polar historian, and polar encyclopedist, died in Cambridge on 15 September 2000 after a lengthy illness.... Clive joined the staff of the Scott Polar Research Institute as historical research assistant in 1968, and by 1975 was filling the roles of archivist, deputy librarian, and museum curator, all three of which posts he held for a decade until his resignation to pursue his polar historical interests full-time.... Clive (in collaboration with Dr. Alan Cooke) produced one of the three monumental compendia that really represent his life's work. This was The Exploration of Northern Canada, 500 to 1920: A Chronology, published in 1978.... Over the years, this work has been a godsend to Arctic historians working in the Canadian Arctic.... Four years later, ... Clive published his Manuscripts in the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, England: A Catalogue.... This catalogue is an essential tool for any polar historian, quite apart from its crucial role in the use of the Scott Polar Research Institute collection.... Clive's third magnum opus, namely his Arctic Exploration and Development, c. 500 B.C. to 1915: An Encyclopedia, published in 1994, outshines the earlier two. This volume, which uses the same format and system as the earlier Chronology, expands on the latter to embrace the entire circumpolar Arctic.... Although in his later years Clive became withdrawn from the polar academic community, he will not be forgotten. His three polar compendia are unlikely to be superseded soon - if ever. (Au)
Biographies; Expeditions; Exploration; History; Holland, Clive, 1946-2000; Scott Polar Research Institute. Library
First landings on Zavodovski Island, South Sandwich Islands, 1819 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 36, no.199, Oct. 2000, p. 317-322, ill., map)
ASTIS record 50264.
On 24 December 1819 landing parties from each of Thaddeus Bellingshausen's ships, Vostok and Mirnyy, went ashore on Zavodovski Island, the most northerly of the South Sandwich group. Bellinghausen's second-hand account of these landings has long been available in English. This article presents (in translation) first-hand accounts of these landings by Professor Ivan Mikhaylovich Simonov, the expedition astronomer (from Vostok), and by Midshipman Pavel M. Novosil'skiy (from Mirnyy). Both writers comment on the vast numbers of macaroni and chinstrap penguins nesting on the island; these are still the two dominant penguin species there. (Au)
V, W, I, B
Animal behaviour; Bird nesting; Birds; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; Penguins; Travels; Volcanism
South Atlantic Ocean; Zavodovski Island, Antarctic regions
Richard Cyriax's note concerning Thomas Simpson's claim of having discovered the Northwest Passage / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 36, no.197, Apr. 2000, p. 113-116, ill.)
ASTIS record 48691.
In 1957 the well-known Arctic historian Richard Cyriax sent a copy of some of his notes to the Hudson's Bay Company Archives. These notes, which are reproduced here in full, concerned the claim by Thomas Simpson to have discovered the Northwest Passage on an expedition from 1837 to 1839. The reasons for Simpson's belief that he had achieved this long-sought-after accomplishment are investigated, and the conclusion is arrived at that, despite his honest belief to have done so, Simpson did not, in fact, complete the Northwest Passage, as that term is normally understood. (Au)
Exploration; History; Hudson's Bay Company; Simpson, Thomas, 1808-1840
Parry Channel, N.W.T./Nunavut; Prince of Wales Strait, N.W.T.
Survey of recreational use, Yukon River, 1997 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 35, no.195, Oct. 1999, p. 346-347)
ASTIS record 45780.
In the summer of 1997, the Parks and Protected Areas Division of the Department of Renewable Resources, Government of Yukon, carried out a survey of recreational travellers (presumably canoeists and kayakers) on the Yukon, Teslin and Big Salmon rivers, with a view to collecting information on the origins, attitudes, and behaviour of the travellers, and on the impact of recreational travel on the rivers. ... During this period, 650 groups passed the checkpoint, for a total of 2125 travellers. The most common country of origin was Germany (39%), followed by Canada (23%, of whom 8% of the total came from the Yukon), the United States (11%), and Japan, Austria, and Switzerland (7% each). Male travellers exceeded females by about three to one. In terms of age, 31% of the travellers fell in the age group 25-35, 17% in each of the groups 35-44 and 18-24, and 16% in the group 45-54. ... [A discussion of some of the questions asked to gather information about the practices of these travellers is included.] (Au)
Canoeing; Environmental impacts; Firearms; Kayaking; Outdoor recreation; Rivers; Social surveys; Tourist trade
Big Salmon River, Yukon; Teslin River, Yukon; Yukon River, Alaska/Yukon
Pioneer measurements of sea-ice thickness in the Canadian Arctic, 1850-1852 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 35, no.195, Oct. 1999, p. 343-344)
ASTIS record 45779.
The ship's carpenter on board HMS Investigator, under the command of Captain Robert M'Clure, during that ship's search for the missing Franklin expedition in 1850-1853, was a Somerset native named George Ford .... Ford and his shipmates experienced three Arctic winterings on board their own ship (the first at the Princess Royal Islands in Prince of Wales Strait, and the next two at Mercy Bay on the north coast of Banks Island) and a further wintering on board HMS Resolute, off Cape Cockburn, Bathurst Island, after they had abandoned Investigator and hiked across the sea ice of M'Clure Strait to take refuge on board Resolute at Dealy Island. During his first two winterings on board Investigator (and possibly also during the third wintering, for which no record by Ford has survived), Ford made an interesting contribution to early Arctic science by measuring the thickness of the steadily growing first-year ice (Ford 1850-1854). From his journal entries, it is clear that Ford used an ice-drill of some sort, although he gives no details apart from reference to 'boring' the ice. ... The results of Ford's measurements (converted to metric measurement for ease of comparison with present-day standards) are presented in Table 1. ... (Au)
Expeditions; History; Measurement; Science; Sea ice; Search for Franklin; Thickness
Bathurst Island waters, Nunavut; M'Clure Strait, N.W.T.; Mercy Bay, N.W.T.; Prince of Wales Strait, N.W.T.
Searching for Franklin : the land arctic searching expedition : James Anderson's and James Stewart's expedition via the Back River, 1855 / Barr, W.
London : The Hakluyt Society, 1999.
xv, 292 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
(Works issued by Hakluyt Society, third series, no. 1)
Bibliography: p. 259-264.
ASTIS record 45610.
In the autumn of 1854 Dr. John Rae of the Hudson's Bay Company astonished the world with the first news of the fate of the Franklin expedition, missing in the Arctic since 1845, on the basis of stories, rather vague as to time and place, which he had heard from Inuit in the vicinity of Pelly Bay. The response of the Admiralty was to ask the Hudson's Bay Company to mount an overland expedition to attempt to confirm the Inuit reports. For this task Sir George Simpson, the Company's Governor in North America, selected James Anderson and James Stewart, veteran employees of the Company, and directed them to descend the Back River by canoe to the area which the Inuit reports seemed to identify as the site of the demise of the Franklin expedition. Having assembled the necessary men, supplies and equipment in an amazingly short time, Anderson and Stewart left their base at Fort Resolution on Great Slave Lake on 24 June 1855. They reached the sea at the mouth of the Back River on 30 July and here encountered a group of Inuit who possessed a variety of articles which could only have come from Franklin's ships. Solid sea ice halted their search of the coast at Point Ogle and they were forced to start back south on 9 August. They were back at Fort Resolution by 16 September, having completed an impressive trip in a staggeringly short time. History has tended to judge Anderson and Stewart rather harshly, despite the speed and efficiency of their journey. In fact their real contribution was to pinpoint the site of the tragedy (on King William Island), which the Inuit stories had identified only very vaguely. Their efforts allowed Captain Leopold McClintock to proceed directly to the correct area in 1859 and solve most aspects of the puzzle of what happended to the Franklin expedition. (Au)
Anderson, James, 1812-1867; Artifacts; Canoeing; Expeditions; Franklin, Sir John, 1786-1847; History; Hudson's Bay Company; Inuit; Public opinion; Search for Franklin; Social interaction; Stewart, James Green, 1825-1881
Artillery Lake region, N.W.T.; Aylmer Lake, N.W.T.; Back River, Nunavut; Fort Resolution, N.W.T.; Great Slave Lake region, N.W.T.; King William Island, Nunavut; Lockhart River, N.W.T.; N.W.T.; Pelly Bay region, Nunavut; Repulse Bay region, Nunavut
Franz Boas among the Inuit of Baffin Island, 1883-1884 : journals and letters / Müller-Wille, L. [Editor] Barr, W. [Translator]
Toronto : University of Toronto Press, 1998.
viii, 298 p. : ill., maps, ports. ; 24 cm.
Translation of: Franz Boas bei den Inuit in Baffinland 1883-1884.
ASTIS record 51774.
In the summer of 1883, Franz Boas, widely regarded as one of the fathers of Inuit anthropology, sailed from Germany to Baffin Island to spend a year among the Inuit of Cumberland Sound. This was his introduction to the Arctic and to anthropological fieldwork. This book presents, for the first time, his letters and journal entries from the year that he spent among the Inuit, providing not only insightful background to his numerous scientific articles about Inuit culture, but a comprehensive and engaging narrative as well. Using a Scottish whaling station as his base, Boas travelled widely with the Inuit, learning their language, living in their tents and snow houses, sharing their food, and experiencing their joys and sorrows. At the same time he was taking detailed notes and surveying and mapping the landscape and coastline. Ludger Müller-Wille has transcribed his journals and his letters to his parents and fiancée and woven these texts into a sequential narrative. The result is a fascinating study of one of the earliest and most successful examples of participatory observation among the Inuit. (Au)
V, T, N, J
Anthropology; Biographies; Boas, Franz, 1858-1942; Culture (Anthropology); Customs; Ethnography; Expeditions; Exploration; History; Human ecology; Inuit; Land use; Mapping; Oral history; Ships; Subsistence; Trapping; Whaling
Baffin Island, Nunavut; Cumberland Sound region, Nunavut
'The cold of Valparaiso' : the disintegration of William Kennedy's second Franklin search expedition, 1853-1854 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 34, no.190, July 1998, p. 203-218, ill.)
ASTIS record 45674.
In the autumn of 1852, convinced that a successful search for her husband's missing expedition via Bering Strait could only be guaranteed by using a steam vessel, Jane, Lady Franklin, decided to dispatch such a vessel herself (this was the third such expedition she mounted). Her choice of vessel fell on the screw schooner Isabel, which Captain E.A. Inglefield had just brought back from his search of Smith Sound and Jones Sound. The captain she selected was William Kennedy, who, with Enseigne-de-vaisseau Joseph-René Bellot as second-in-command, had just returned from an expedition to the eastern Arctic in Prince Albert. After a few brief months of hectic preparations, in which Lady Franklin and her niece Sophia Cracroft played an unusually active role, Isabel sailed from the Thames on 1 April 1853, bound for Bering Strait via the Strait of Magellan. Despite warnings not to do so (largely due to the danger of losing his crew to the lure of the Californian and Australian gold rushes), Kennedy put into Valparaiso on 26 August 1853. Almost all his officers and crew jumped ship. After more than two years of frustration, during which he generated some revenue by several coastal voyages off Chile, at Lady Franklin's request Kennedy brought Isabel back to England in early December 1855. Isabel was found to have dry rot and was sold. Kennedy fell out with Lady Franklin and did not participate in any further Arctic searches. (Au)
Alcohol; Biographies; Design and construction; Expeditions; Food; Franklin, Lady Jane, 1791-1875; History; Isabel (Ship); Kennedy, William, 1814-1890; Search for Franklin; Social interaction
G05, G09, G0815
Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Jones Sound, Nunavut; South Pacific Ocean; Valparaiso, Chile
Early photographers of the Arctic / Wamsley, D. Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 32, no.183, Oct. 1996, p. 295-316, ill., map)
ASTIS record 45677.
By the early 1840s photographers were travelling widely to obtain images of remote and interesting areas. Attempts at photography in the Arctic lagged slightly at the start, but these attempts were no less determined than elsewhere, despite the additional problems that the Arctic environment presented. The first Arctic expedition on which photographic equipment is believed to have been taken was Sir John Franklin's ill-fated expedition of 1845-1848. However, the first Arctic expedition from which photographic images have survived was Sir Edward Belcher's expedition (1852-1854) in search of the missing Franklin expedition; these were calotypes taken by Dr. William Domville of HMS Resolute in West Greenland in the spring of 1852, and by Captain Francis Leopold McClintock of HMS Intrepid at Beechey Island in August 1854. This article examines all the expeditions that are believed to have attempted photography in the Arctic from the Franklin expedition to the British Arctic Expedition of 1875-1876, in terms of their equipment, problems, and degree of success. During this period, Arctic expeditions were sufficiently innovative to utilize the latest available technology, and, in many cases, successful results were achieved under difficult circumstances. The results of these early efforts at photography in the Arctic provide an extremely valuable record of the exploration vessels, crews, and equipment, and of Greenlanders and Greenland settlements. (Au)
Archives; Equipment and supplies; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; History; Photograph collections; Photography
G0813, G0812, G10
Canadian Arctic Islands; Greenland
The role of independent traders in the near-extermination of muskoxen on the mainland tundra of Canada, 1892-1915 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 31, no.179, Oct. 1995, p. 425-426)
ASTIS record 45679.
In an earlier study of the fluctuations in the population of Canada's muskoxen (Barr, 1991), the massive exploitation of the mainland population by the Hudson's Bay Company during the period 1860-1915 was documented in considerable detail; during this period the Company traded a documented total of 17,485 hides. The fact that an unknown number of muskoxen hides was also traded by Indians to independent traders during the period 1892-1915, especially in the Great Slave Lake area, was recognized, but the author was unable to find any reliable data on the number of hides involved. Perusal of a recently published biography of Ed Nagle (Zinovich 1992), a partner in the prominent independent fur-trading company of Hislop and Nagle, based in Edmonton, and of other sources to which this biography led, have made it possible to form some impression of the number of muskox hides traded by this company, which was the earliest independent fur-trading company to penetrate the Great Slave Lake area and to challenge the Hudson's Bay Company's monopoly there. ... In conclusion, it is clear that the pressure on the mainland population of muskoxen from commercial hunting was heavier by a significant amount (conservatively, 4-6%) than was previously realized, and that the probability that this pressure was the major cause of the near-extermination of the species on the Canadian mainland thus becomes even greater than previously argued. (Au)
I, N, V
Animal mortality; Extirpation; Fur trade; History; Hudson's Bay Company; Hunting; Muskoxen; Pelage
Fort Resolution, N.W.T.; Great Slave Lake region, N.W.T.; Hudson Bay region, Nunavut; N.W.T.; Rae, N.W.T.
The eighteenth century trade between the ships of the Hudson's Bay Company and the Hudson Strait Inuit / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 47, no. 3, Sept. 1994, p. 236-246, ill., 1 map)
ASTIS record 34723.
From an early stage in the history of the Hudson's Bay Company, the captains of the company's ships annually received specific instructions to make contact and trade with the Inuit of southern Baffin Island in the vicinity of the Upper and Middle Savage Islands in Hudson Strait during their annual voyages from London to the posts in Hudson Bay. Documents for a 20 year period in the mid-eighteenth century reveal that a wide range of trade goods, primarily tools and hunting weapons, was provided to each captain for this purpose. A comparison of the volume of trade goods with the probable number of Inuit involved in this trade suggests that the goods were probably thereafter disseminated through inter-group trade throughout a wide area of the Canadian Arctic. Baleen from the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) represented an important item being traded by the Inuit in return, at least from 1737 until the end of the century. For the period 1737-1778 the average amount of baleen traded by the Inuit of southern Baffin Island was 1237 lb (559.7 kg), i.e., approximately the amount of baleen produced by an average adult bowhead whale. For this period the baleen from this source represented 78% of all the baleen handled by the Hudson's Bay Company. The records of the Hudson Strait trade thus provide some indication of the minimum numbers of bowheads being taken annually by the Inuit of the north shore of Hudson Strait in the eighteenth century and the amount of hunting effort being devoted to whaling. (Au)
V, T, I
Animal mortality; Bowhead whales; History; Hudson's Bay Company; Inuit; Proteins; Trade and barter; Whaling
Hudson Strait region, Nunavut; Hudson Strait, Nunavut/Québec
The career and disappearance of Hans K.E. Krüger, arctic geologist, 1886-1930 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 29, no.171, Oct. 1993, p. 277-304, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 45515.
On 19 March 1930 the German geologist, Hans K.E. Krüger, accompanied by a Dane, Åge Rose Bjare, and an Inughuk, Akqioq (the latter driving their dog sledge) set off westwards from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police post at Bache Peninsula, Ellesmere Island; two support sledges, driven by Inughuit, escorted them. It appears to have been Krüger's intention to sudy the geology of the coasts of the outer islands of the Canadian Arctic archipelago and to carry out soundings of the continental shelf and slope. The two support sledges turned back at Depot Point, Eureka Sound. Krüger, Bjare, and Akqioq were never seen again. This article reviews Krüger's background, his preparations for the expedition (which included two summers of field work in West Greenland and a wintering in northwest Greenland), and the extensive searches mounted by the RCMP in 1931 and 1932. Finally, it analyses the evidence provided by three messages left by Krüger and subsequently recovered, with a view to making an educated guess as to the fate of the expedition. (Au)
Biographies; Dogsledding; Expeditions; Explorers; Geology; History; Krüger, Hans K.E., 1886-1930; Social interaction; West Greenland Eskimos
Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Germany; Nunavut; Vestgrønland
Shipwrecked on Mansel Island, Hudson Bay : Dr Henry Brietzcke's arctic health cruise, 1864 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 28, no.166, July 1992, p. 177-190, ill., map)
ASTIS record 45724.
During 664 round trips between London and Hudson Bay from 1670 to 1913, 21 of the supply ships of the Hudson's Bay Company were wrecked, mainly in the Bay or in Hudson Strait; a further seven were severely damaged. The year 1864 was remarkable in that out of three ships making the outward voyage to the Bay, two ran aground on Mansel Island only one hour apart. One ship, Prince Arthur, was wrecked and abandoned. The other, Prince of Wales, was refloated and was able to reach York Factory with Prince Arthur's crew on board. There Prince of Wales was condemned; the crews of both ships returned to England on board Ocean Nymph. The events of the double shipwreck, the sojourn of the crew at York Factory, and the voyage home have been reconstruced, mainly on the basis of the journal of the medical officer of the Prince Arthur, the logs of both ships, and other documents in the Hudson's Bay Company Archives. (Au)
Archival material; History; Hudson's Bay Company; Ships; Shipwrecks
Hudson Bay; Hudson Strait, Nunavut/Québec; Mansel Island, Nunavut
Franklin in Siberia? - Lieutenant Bedford Pim's proposal to search the Arctic coast of Siberia, 1851-52 / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 45, no. 1, Mar. 1992, p. 36-46, 2 maps)
ASTIS record 32025.
Like many of his contemporaries, Lieutenant Bedford Pim, of the Royal Navy, believed in the existence of an "open polar sea" beyond a zone of coastal ice around the margins of the Arctic Ocean. On the basis of this, in fall 1951 he postulated that Sir John Franklin's expedition had sailed north through Wellington Channel and then set a course across the "Polar Sea" directly for Bering Strait, but had then become entangled in an ice-bound chain of islands extending from what are now the Canadian Arctic Islands to the vicinity of Ostrov Vrangel'ya. Having been refused Admiralty approval for his plan to mount a small overland expedition to Chukotka, from whence he proposed to push north across the sea ice in search of Franklin's ships, Pim was able to gain the support of Lady Franklin and the Royal Geographical Society. He travelled to St. Petersburg in December 1851 but after considerable delay was refused permission by the Russian authorities to proceed farther east. The main stated reason for this refusal was that the Russians had somehow translated Pim's plans for a small expedition of two or three men into an operation that would necessitate 1200-1500 sledge dogs; it was anticipated that such an operation would seriously disrupt the economy of the Kolyna basin and cause real hardship to the local people. One can only speculate as to the reasons for the lack of Russian cooperation; one suspects, on the basis of Pim's own account, that the tone of his remarks to the tsar during a personal audience and the implied lack of confidence in the tsar's commitment to arrange for a search to be mounted along the arctic coasts of Siberia for wreckage or survivors from the Franklin expedition may have contributed significantly to the rejection of his proposal. (Au)
History; Pim, Bedford, b. 1826; Search for Franklin
G14, G0815, G0813
Beechey Island, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Sibir', Russian Federation
Back from the brink : the road to muskox conservation in the Northwest Territories / Barr, W.
Calgary, Alta. : Arctic Institute of North America, 1991.
127 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
(Komatik series, no. 3)
ASTIS record 31127.
... Earlier attempts at assessing former muskox populations and range ... were handicapped by not having had access to the Hudson's Bay Company's records and hence were only guessing at the magnitude of the drain on muskox populations on the mainland represented by the commercial trade in muskox hides. ... The present study attempts to remedy this situation. Its prime objective is to survey the entire historic record with regard to muskox numbers in the Northwest Territories. In so doing it presents the first complete survey, with details of spatial patterns, of the Hudson's Bay Company's trade in muskox hides and the first thorough assessment of the trade in muskox hides conducted by the whalers. In terms of arrangement, the study begins with a survey of sightings and records of exploitation of muskoxen on the mainland from the time of the first sighting by Europeans in 1689 to the start of the major commercial trade in hides around 1860. The details of the Hudson's Bay Company's trade in hides are then presented, followed by a review of complementary reports by expeditions and travellers who visited the mainland tundra during the same period. This is followed by a survey of the trade in muskox hides conducted by the American and Scottish whalers in Hudson Bay, and to a lesser extent by American whalers in the Western Arctic, over the same period. The next section deals with observations of muskox populations on the mainland (by area) since the time of adoption of protective legislation in 1917. Thereafter reports of exploitation and observations on populations on the arctic islands are surveyed by island and on a chronological basis. The study ends with consideration of a minor, but intriguing, aspect of the history of the Canadian North, namely the role that muskoxen (or concerns about them) have played in the establishment and maintenance of Canada's sovereignty in the Arctic. On the basis of first sightings, archaeological evidence and the oral traditions of the Inuit we can reconstruct a fairly accurate picture of the initial range of the muskox in the Northwest Territories prior to the period of heavy exploitation. It appears to have occupied almost the entire mainland tundra from the Anderson River in the west to Rae Isthmus in the east, and from the Boothia Peninsula in the northeast to the vicinity of the Churchill River in the southeast. There are no reports of muskoxen ever having been seen on Melville Peninsula. As regards the arctic islands, there is evidence that they have occurred historically on all except Southampton, Meighen and Borden islands. In the rather controversial case of Baffin Island, Inuit oral tradition indicates that the species was exterminated from the island by the Inuit in the late 15th or early 16th century. (Au)
I, J, V, N
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal population; Expeditions; Fur trade; History; Hudson's Bay Company; Hunting; Inuit; Muskoxen; Subsistence; Trade and barter; Whaling; Wildlife management
G0812, G0813, G0824
Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Fort Churchill, Manitoba; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut
The site of Fort Magnesia, Payer Harbour, Pim Island, NWT / Barr, W. Blake, W.
(Polar record, v. 26, no.156, Jan. 1990, p. 39-42, ill.)
ASTIS record 45770.
The site of Fort Magnesia, the base hut of a three-man expedition to Payer Harbour, Pim Island, in the Canadian Arctic, has recently been rediscovered by a party from the Geological Survey of Canada. Erected by Robert Stein's party in summer 1899, and used by them for two years, the hut was almost certainly moved to another site by Robert E. Peary for his over-wintering in 1901-02. Only fragments of the hut now remain. Five graves, probably of Peary's Eskimo helpers, are located nearby. (Au)
Design and construction; Expeditions; Forts; Graves; Spatial distribution
North American Arctic; Pim Island, Nunavut
The Helgoland expedition to Svalbard : Die Deutsche Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer, 1889 / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 41, no. 3, Sept. 1988, p. 203-214, ill., maps)
Abstract in English and French.
ASTIS record 28560.
In the summer of 1898 the trawler Helgoland sailed north from Germany, bound for Svalbard. On board was a scientific expedition, the Deutsche Expedition in das Nordliche Eismeer, led by Fritz Romer and Fritz Schaudinn, and also a party of sportsmen led by Theodor Lerner. The main foci of the scientific effort were marine biology and ornithology. Pushing the ship to its limit, often in quite heavy ice and foul weather, the expedition pursued a complicated course around the archipelago. In terms of marine biology her scientists occupied 51 dredging stations and 82 plankton stations and collected an extremely rich assemblage of marine organisms. Perhaps the most exciting were a group of stations occupied on the continental slope to the north of Svalbard. Helgoland's captain, Kapitan Rudiger, made a number of corrections and additions to the map of Svalbard; his most significant contribution was the first accurate map of Kong Karls Land. Helgoland was also the first vessel to circumnavigate Nordaustlandet in a counterclockwise direction. (Au)
Deutsche Expedition in das Nordliche Eismeer, 1898; Expeditions; Exploration; Helgoland (Ship); Marine biology; Research
G12, G14, G03, G13
Arctic Ocean; Barents Sea; Greenland Sea; Kong Karls Land, Svalbard
The Soviet career of the schooner Polar Bear, 1925-28 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 24, no.148, Jan. 1988, p. 21-29, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 28163.
The schooner Polar Bear is best known for whaling and trading voyages in the Bering, Chukchi and Beaufort seas 1911-15, and as one of the vessels of Stefansson's Canadian Arctic Expedition 1915-18. This article summarizes her later career. In 1920 she ran aground in the Kolyma Delta and was abandoned. Refloated by a Soviet captain and crew in 1925 she was used to haul much-needed supplies from a cache near Chaunskaya Guba to Nizhnekolymsk. Renamed Polyarnaya Zvezda, in 1926 she made the first coastwise voyage of modern times from the Kolyma to the Lena, inaugurating a regular sea link with the Lena basin. In 1927 she carried building materials for a scientific station from Tiksi at the mouth of the Lena to Mys Shalaurova on Ostrov Bol'shoy Lyakhovskiy. After wintering at Yakutsk, in summer 1928 she towed a barge laden with supplies for the station down river to Tiksi and carried supplies and personnel to the station to Mys Shalaurova. The station is still in operation, an integral component of the network of support facilities which enables the Northern Sea Route to function. In 1929 the schooner was reported unfit for further duties; her subsequent fate is unknown. (Au)
Exploration; History; Polar Bear (Ship)
G141, G07, G04, G0815
Beaufort Sea; Bering Sea; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Chukchi Sea; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Russian Arctic waters
Francis Leopold McClintock (1819-1907) / Barr, W.
(Fortieth anniversary special issue. Arctic, v. 40, no. 4, Dec. 1987, p. 352-353, 2 ports.)
ASTIS record 32865.
Born in County Louth, Ireland, on 8 July 1819, the son of the head of the customs office at Dundalk, Leopold McClintock first went to sea aboard HMS Samarang as a first-class volunteer at the age of 12. Over the next 14 years, he slowly made his way up through the system, seeing service in such diverse places as the Gulf of California, Brazil, the Irish Sea, the Channel, the Caribbean, Newfoundland, Burmuda, and the Rio de la Plata. He was made lieutenant on 29 July 1845. ... In the spring of 1851, McClintock led one of the many sledge parties that fanned out from the ships. Leaving the ships on 15 April, he headed west along the south coasts of Cornwallis, Bathurst, Byam Martin, and Melville islands and reached Cape James Ross, situated on the southwest tip of Melville Island. Rounding the shores of Dundas Peninsula, he then cut back across that peninsula to the south coast before he headed for home, reaching the ships on 4 July. He had covered a distance of 1,240 km in 80 days. ... In the spring of 1853, McClintock led a party that achieved the distinction of making one of the two longest man-hauled sledge trips accomplished in the Canadian Arctic. McClintock crossed the "waist" of Melville Island to Hecla and Griper Bay, then coasted west to the island's northwest tips. Crossing Fitzwilliam Strait, he discovered and explored Prince Patrick Island, as well as the north coasts of Eglinton Island and the west and south coasts of Emerald Isle. In total he covered 2,125 km in l05 days. This record would be surpassed only by Lieutenant George Mecham's journey of 2,138 km in 84 days in the spring of 1854. ... He will be remembered by history as the man who refined the technique of arctic exploration of man-hauling to an amazingly high degree, despite the staggering inherent limitations of the technique, and as the man who solved - as far as it ever has been - the mystery of the fate of the Franklin expedition. (Au)
Biographies; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; History; McClintock, Sir Francis Leopold, 1819-1907; Search for Franklin; Sleds
Canadian Arctic Islands; Canadian Arctic Islands waters
Earl Grey : a name to live up to / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 23, no.146, May 1987, p. 593-596, ill.)
ASTIS record 20874.
The Canadian Coast Guard has recently taken delivery of a new icebreaking vessel, named Earl Grey after Albert Henry George, 4th Earl of Grey who was Governor General of Canada from 1904 until 1911. ... In terms of ice class she meets the standards of Lloyds 100 A1-1A Super and Canadian Arctic Class 2. ... The new Earl Grey is the second Canadian icebreaker of this name. [The first Earl Grey was built in 1909 and after a few years in Canadian waters was sold to the Russian Government to help maintain winter navigation to northern ports. Ultimately named the Fedor Litke, she made the first accident-free single-season traverse of the Northern Sea Route. The record of her accomplishments is given. She was finally broken up in 1959.] (Au)
Earl Grey (Ship); History; Icebreakers
Canadian waters; Russian Arctic waters
William Robert Hobson (1831-1880) / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 39, no. 2, June 1986, p. 184-185, 1 port., ill.)
ASTIS record 32633.
In April 1854 Dr. John Rae heard from Inuit at Pelly Bay an account of the last fateful days of Franklin's expedition, missing somewhere to the west for a number of years. ... When his report of his discovery reached England, Lady Jane Franklin mounted a private expedition ... to search for relics of the expedition on the site. Commander of the expedition was Captain Francis Leopold McClintock .... McClintock chose Lieutenant William Robert Hobson as his second-in-command. ... William joined the Navy in 1845 and was promoted to mate in 1852, in the interim serving aboard a number of ships on fairly routine duties. Early in 1853 he was appointed mate aboard Rattlesnake, which had been ordered to take supplies to Plover, waiting at Point Barrow, Alaska, in support of McClure's Investigator and Collinson's Enterprise. These latter ships had entered the Arctic via Bering Strait in 1850 to search for the Franklin expedition from the west. ... In February, Hobson, with two seamen and nine dogs, set off on a sledge journey northward across the Seward Peninsula to Chamisso Island. This had been set as the rendezvous for Frederick Beechey in Blossom and John Franklin during the latter's second land expedition in 1825-1827, and hence it was thought that Franklin might have headed here again. Hobson's task was to check for signs of Franklin at Chamisso Island. He returned to Rattlesnake on 27 March, having reached his goal and finding no sign of Franklin. ... On the basis of this arctic experience, McClintock chose Hobson as his second-in-command for his search expedition aboard Fox. Sailing from Aberdeen on 2 July 1857, Fox made her way north to Melville Bay, where she was caught in the pack ice and drifted for eight months before she could break free. The Fox found more secure winter quarters the next year at Port Kennedy, near the east end of Bellot Strait, and Hobson led several depot-laying trips to the west side of Boothia Peninsula. During a reconnaissance trip in February 1859, McClintock encountered Inuit near Cape Victoria who possessed various relics from the missing Erebus and Terror, and reported that one of them had been crushed west of King William Island. On the basis of this information McClintock and Hobson set off, each leading a party that included one man-hauled sledge and one dog sledge. ... Heading west across Ross Strait, Hobson and his men reached the coast of King William Island. Near Cape Felix they found a cairn and the remains of a camp; by the clothing and equipment scattered around, Hobson deduced it had been a hunting or observatory camp occupied for quite some time by a party from Erebus and Terror. Three days later they found another cairn, originally built by James Ross, and inside it, in a cylinder, the only record that has ever been found describing, in frustratingly brief terms, the final outcome of the Franklin expedition, including the information that Franklin had died in 1847 and ending with the horrifying announcement that the survivors were about to start to walk south to the nearest fur trade post. ... Hobson and his men continued south on 7 May. For nearly two weeks they struggled south along the barren west coast of King William Island despite almost constant blizzards. ... Hobson reached Simpson's cairn at Cape Herschel on the 19th. Next, he crossed Simpson Strait to the mainland and continued some distance farther east, finally turning back on the 21st. ... For his achievements on King William Island, made in the face of vile weather and despite a progressively incapacitating attack of scurvy, Hobson deserves better than the passing recognition that has been accorded to him. (Au)
Biographies; Cairns; Expeditions; Explorers; History; Hobson, William Robert, 1831-1880; Search for Franklin
G0815, G0813, G09
Bellot Strait region, Nunavut; Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut; Chamisso Island, Alaska; Felix, Cape, region, Nunavut; Herschel, Cape, Nunavut; King William Island, Nunavut; Terror Bay, Nunavut
The last known letter of Joseph-René Bellot / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 23, no.142, Jan. 1986, p. 61-66, ill., port.)
ASTIS record 18433.
Lieutenant de vaisseau Joseph-René Bellot ... was one of two French naval officers who served with Sir Edward Belcher in 1852-53, in part of the Royal Navy's massive search for traces of Sir John Franklin's missing ships HMS Erebus and Terror. Details of his arctic work are well known from his own writings and those of his contemporaries. A further small but interesting source of information has recently come to light in the form of the last letter which he is known to have written. Dated 8 August 1853, only 10 days before his death, the letter was addressed to Lieutenant de vaiseau Emile de Bray, another French officer in Belcher's squadron. It was incorporated complete in de Bray's own unpublished journal, a copy of which is held by the Scott Polar Research Institute (de Bray nd: 201-04). [The full text of the letter, in translation, is presented.] (Au)
Belcher, Sir Edward, 1799-1877; Bellot, Joseph-René, d. 1854; Expeditions; History
Beechey Island, Nunavut
On to the bay / Barr, W.
(Beaver, 1985  Autumn, p. 43-53, ill. (some col.))
ASTIS record 20121.
This article reconstructs the building of the Hudson Bay Railway. (ASTIS)
Bridges; Design and construction; Harbours; History; Railroads
Churchill, Manitoba; Manitoba
The expeditions of the First International Polar Year, 1882-83 / Barr, W.
Calgary, Alta. : Arctic Institute of North America, 1985.
vii, 222 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
(Technical paper - Arctic Institute of North America, no. 29)
ASTIS record 19471.
... The First International Polar Year was the brainchild of Lieutenant Karl Weyprecht of the Austro-Hungarian Navy. ... The scientific climate was right for a scheme such as Weyprecht's. ... The detailed instructions concerning the program may be found in the Appendix: in summary, the major features of that program were as follows. The main foci were meteorology, earth magnetism and aurora. ... In terms of meteorology all the stations carried out an identical range of "obligatory" observations. Atmospheric pressure and temperature, relative humidity, water vapor tension and wind speed and direction were recorded every hour. Cloud amount and type, direction of cloud movement and type of precipitation (if any) were observed every four hours. Total hours of sunshine and amount of precipitation were recorded daily. Soil temperatures were also measured every four hours; the number of sensors and their depths were variable. Thus the French at Bahia Orange took measurements at only two depths, 15 and 30 cm; the Austrians on Jan Mayen at seven depths down to 1.56 m. ... The magnetic program included regular hourly absolute measurements and measurements of magnetic variation. ... (Au)
V, E, B
Auroras; Expeditions; Exploration; Geomagnetism; History; International Polar Year 1882-83; Meteorology; Research; Research stations; Shipwrecks; Water vapour
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions
Imperial Russia's pioneers in arctic aviation / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 38, no. 3, Sept. 1985, p. 219-230, ill., map)
ASTIS record 17468.
In the summer of 1914 an extensive search was mounted by the Imperial Russian government for three expeditions, Sedov's, Brusilov's and Rusanov's, all of which had gone missing in the Arctic. As part of the search effort a naval pilot, Yan Iosifovich Nagurskiy, flying a French-built Maurice Farman floatplane, carried out an aerial search of a substantial portion of the west coast of Novaya Zemlya. In five major flights, totalling 10 hours 40 minutes in the air, Nagurskiy flew some 1060 km. This was the first successful attempt at operating an aircraft anywhere in the Arctic. During that same summer another naval pilot, D.N. Aleksandrov, attached to the Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition aboard Taymyr and Vaygach, assembled his machine, an Henri Farman, at Bukhta Emma in Chukotka, but it suffered some irreparable damage during a test flight. During the expedition's subsequent wintering off the west coast of Poluostrov Taymyr Aleksandrov used the aircraft engine to power an aerosled, which was successfully used on a survey trip in June 1915. This was probably the world's first functional aerosled. (Au)
Aerial surveys; Air transportation; Aleksandrov, D.N.; Expeditions; Explorers; Gidrograficheskaia ekspeditsiia Severnogo Ledovitogo okeana, 1910-1915; Nagurskiy, Yan Iosifovich, b. 1888
G14, G141, G04
Chukotskiy Poluostrov, Russian Federation; Novaya Zemlya, Russian Federation
The shipping crisis in the Soviet eastern Arctic at the close of the 1983 navigation season / Barr, W. Wilson, E.A.
(Arctic, v. 38, no. 1, Mar. 1985, p. 1-17, ill.)
ASTIS record 16730.
During September 1983 an unusually early freeze-up and persistent northwesterly winds that drove heavy multi-year ice into Proliv Longa and against the north coast of Chukotka resulted in a critical situation with regard to shipping in the Soviet eastern Arctic. Ports such as Zelenyy Mys and Mys Shmidta were prematurely closed by ice, leaving Pevek as the only functioning port in this part of the Arctic. Worse still, dozens of ships were beset in the ice at various points from the mouth of the Indigirka east to Bering Strait. One freighter, Nina Sagaydak, was crushed and sank near Kosa Dvukh Pilotov on 8 October; a sister ship, Kolya Myagotin, was badly holed and barely managed to limp out of the Arctic. Practically all available ice breakers, including the nuclear-powered icebreakers Lenin, Leonid Brezhnev and Siber', were transferred from the western to the eastern Arctic to free the jammed ships. Ultimately all were rescued, but it was late November before the last ship sailed from Pevek. Many ships were forced to head west from Pevek to the Atlantic, rather than attempt to battle their way through the heavy ice in Proliv Longa in order to return to their Pacific home ports. Singled out for particular praise in Soviet post-mortems of the crisis were the nuclear-powered icebreakers and the new Noril'sk class (SA-15) icebreaking freighters, several of which came straight from the Finnish shipyards to help rectify the situation in the eastern Arctic. (Au)
Harbours; Ice navigation; Icebreakers; Marine transportation
Russian Arctic waters
Otto Sverdrup (1854-1930) / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 72-73, 1 port.)
ASTIS record 32590.
The adventures and expeditions of Otto Sverdrup chronicled in this profile encompass the first attempted crossing of the Greenland Ice Cap on skis, his several expeditions to study ice drift in the ship Fram, which he supervised the building of, his extensive exploration of Bache Peninsula and other islands within the Sverdrup Islands group, and his command of the whaling ship Eclipse and search for the missing Rusanov and Brusilov expeditions in the Kara Sea and command of the icebreaker Svyatogor. (ASTIS)
Biographies; Expeditions; Explorers; Foreign relations; Fram (Ship); History; Icebreakers; Skiing; Sleds; Sovereignty; Sverdrup, Otto, 1854-1930
G0813, G0815, G13, G10, G09, G141
Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Greenland; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Norway; Sverdrup Islands, Nunavut
Journey to the mouth of the Mackenzie River / de Sainville, E. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Fram (Bangor, Me.), v. 1, no. 2, Summer 1984, p. 541-551, map)
(Bulletin de la Société de Géographie, 1898, Ser. 7, v. 19, p. 291-307, map)
Translated from: Bulletin de la Société de Géographie, 1898, Ser. 7, v. 19, p. 291-307, map.
ASTIS record 16063.
The writer travelled in May 1889 by the shallow-draft steamer, 'Athabasca' as far as Grand Rapids, then had a flat-bottomed boat built and hired six Metis and Indians and a guide to descend the Mackenzie. "Armed with letters of introduction to the Company's representatives, I received the most gracious welcome and the most obliging cooperation everywhere." (ASTIS)
V, L, T
Ethnology; History; Inland water navigation; Native peoples; Rivers
Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River, N.W.T.
The fate of Rusanov's Gerkules expedition in the Kara Sea, 1913; some further details and recent developments / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 22, no.138, Sept. 1984, p. 287-304, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 15758.
The Russian explorer V.A. Rusanov's geological expeditions to Novaya Zemlya (1908-11) gained him the experience that, in 1912, secured his appointment as leader of a government expedition to Svalbard. In the sealing ship Gerkules Rusanov and 14 others left Aleksandrovsk on 26 June, spending most of July and August staking claims, collecting specimens and inspecting coalmining operation around the islands. In late August Gerkules headed east for Novaya Zemlya and an attempt at the Northeast Passage. Neither ship nor crew were seen again, but relics of the expedition have since been found on islands in the Kara Sea; in 1978 a plaque commemorating the expedition was erected on Mys Primetnyy, where a campsite and many relics were identified. (Au)
Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; Gerkules (Ship); History; Rusanov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich, 1875-1913?
G141, G14, G13
Barents Sea; Karskoye More; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Novaya Zemlya, Russian Federation; Svalbard
Observations in the East Greenland Sea in 1874 and views on the best route to the North Pole / Gray, D. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Fram (Bangor, Me.), v. 1, no. 1, Winter 1984, p. 240-244)
Translated from: Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, no. 3, 1875, p. 105-108.
ASTIS record 15133.
In a letter, David Gray comments on ice observations he made during voyages in the Greenland Sea, and speculates on the best possible route to the North Pole. (ASTIS)
Exploration; Gray, David, 1829-1896
Greenland Sea; North Pole
Captain David Gray (1829-1896) and his views on the "open polar sea" / Barr, W.
(Fram (Bangor, Me.), v. 1, no. 1, Winter 1984, p. 235-239, figures, map)
ASTIS record 15132.
... During his 43 years as a whaling captain he took 198 whales (i.e. bowheads, Balaena mysticetus) and 168,956 seals (mostly harp seals, Phoca groenlandica). ... As a seaman and navigator he was without equal. He never lost a ship and never ran aground. The letter quoted here in full provides clear proof of his intimate knowledge of and deep interest in the topic of sea ice behavior and distribution. ... It is interesting to note that Captain Gray felt that the main cause for the decline in the kill of bowheads was the introduction of steam power. He felt that the whales could detect the noise of an engine at a great distance and gave the ships a wide berth. ... In this area, unfortunately, events have proven Captain Gray to have been sadly wrong. ... The letter which he wrote to Dr. August Petermann, the distinguished German geographer, and which appears here for the first time in English presents some fascinating insights into the whole area of ice distribution and behavior as seen by a man who, at the time of writing, had been handling ships in ice for 26 years. In assessing his comments one has to recall what was (and was not) known about the Arctic Basin at the time. ... Given the fact that he did not have at his disposal the data which emerged from Fram's drift and from all the later expeditions into the Arctic Basin, many of Captain Gray's observations are impressive in the extreme. Particularly noteworthy is his attempt to calculate the volume of ice evacuated from the Arctic Basin via the East Greenland Current in a particular season. When one considers the vast mass of ice involved, and realizes that Captain Gray had no reliable information on the relative areas of land and sea within the Arctic Basin, the pattern of ocean currents within it, or indeed if there even was an Arctic Basin as we know it, it is easy to grasp why he deduced from this spectacular phenomenon that the ocean area from which the ice originated must be left partially or totally ice-free. (Au)
V, G, N
Gray, David, 1829-1896; History; Ice cover; Sea ice; Spatial distribution; Whaling
G09, G03, G12
Arctic Ocean; Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Greenland Sea
Lieutenant Herbert Schroder-Stranz's expedition to Svalbard, 1912-1913 : a study in organizational disintegration / Barr, W.
(Fram (Bangor, Me.), v. 1, no. 1, Winter 1984, p. 1-64, figures, map)
ASTIS record 15126.
[The events of this article] are centred on the Deutsche Artische Expedition, more commonly known as the Schroder-Stranz Expedition. While they featured extensively in the contemporary headlines of the German press, they made scarcely a ripple elsewhere, and nowadays the entire episode is largely forgotten, even in Germany. The intent of this article is to rectify this situation. (Au)
Deutsche Arktische Expedition, 1912-1913; Expeditions; Explorers; History; Schroder-Stranz, Herbert, b. 1884
G13, G141, G03
Arctic Ocean; Barents Sea; Nordaustlandet, Svalbard
Christopher Middleton (ca. 1690-1770) / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 36, no. 1, Mar. 1983, p. 98-99, ill.)
ASTIS record 32561.
... He appears to have gone to sea at quite an early age, his service aboard Hudson's Bay Company ships beginning around 1719, possibly even earlier. Early in his career Middleton established his reputation as a meticulous and innovative navigator: in the spring of 1726 he published a paper in the Royal Society's Philosophical Transactions on the variation of the magnetic needle in Hudson Bay. The following year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, a great honour for a ship's captain of only two years' standing. Shortly afterwards, Middleton's path crossed that of Arthur Dobbs, an influential Anglo-Irish landowner and a hard-line free trader who bitterly resented the Hudson's Bay Company's monopoly. Furthermore, Dobbs was convinced that a practicable Northwest Passage could be found via Hudson Bay and he decided to pursue its discovery, incidentally hoping to break the Company's monopoly in the process. Using his considerable influence in London, Dobbs persuaded the Admiralty to mount an expedition to search for the Northwest Passage via Hudson Bay. Further, by arranging a commission for Middleton in the Navy, Dobbs induced him to leave the company and to command this enterprise. ... Leaving Churchill on 30 June 1742, Middleton's ships headed north. They discovered and entered Wager Bay but were then locked in the bay for several weeks by drifting ice. By means of boat journeys, however, Middleton established to his own satisfaction that the Northwest Passage did not lie through Wager Bay. Emerging again into Roes Welcome Sound pushed north once more, only to have his hopes dashed on reaching the cul-de-sac of Repulse Bay. Frozen Strait was still ice-covered; hence, there was no chance of pursuing the search into Foxe Basin. Having called at Marble Island for water, Middleton sailed for home, satisfied in his own mind that there was no route to the Pacific through Hudson Bay. ... To Middleton we owe the exploration and mapping of Wager Bay, the northern part of Roes Welcome Sound, and Repulse Bay. Such a highly qualified judge as Captain W.E. Parry, for whom Middleton's discoveries were the starting point of his own second expedition, was extremely impressed by the carefulness and accuracy of Middleton's observations and surveying. It is extremely ironic that, while the names of Lieutenant John Rankin and Arthur Dobbs are commemorated in the place names of Rankin Inlet and Cape Dobbs, Christopher Middleton's name appears nowhere on the map of the Hudson Bay area. Rectification of this situation is long overdue. (Au)
Biographies; Expeditions; Explorers; History; Hudson's Bay Company; Mapping; Middleton, Christopher, ca. 1690-1770; Navigational aids
G0814, G0815, G0824
Churchill, Manitoba; Hudson Bay; Repulse Bay, Nunavut; Roes Welcome Sound, Nunavut; Wager Bay, Nunavut
"Geodesist Gvozdev was here in 1732" (eighteenth century cartographic traditions in the representation of the discoveries in Bering Strait) / Gol'denberg, L.A. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography and geology, v. 7, no. 3, July-Sept. 1983, p. 214-223, figures)
Reprinted from: Izvestiya Vsesoyuznogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva, v. 114, no. 6, p. 526-532.
ASTIS record 14273.
In 1732 a Russian naval expedition aboard the ship Sv. Gavrill, led by geodesist M.S. Gvozdev reached Bering Strait and sighted and mapped the Diomede Islands and a section of the Alaskan coast in the area of Cape Prince of Wales. Gvozdev thus became not only the first person to determine incontestably that America was not joined to Asia, but also the first European to see any part of Alaska. Maps produced in 1743, incorporating Gvozdev's discoveries, had a major impact on the cartographic representations of this area thereafter, although since these manuscript maps remained classified by the Navy Department some imaginative (and erroneous) anomalies also continued to appear, even in Russian maps, for a number of decades. The author proposes that the Diomede Islands and Cape Prince of Wales be officially renamed the Gvozdev Islands and Cape Gvozdev respectively. ... (Au)
Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; Gvozdev, Mikhail Spiridonovich, 18th cent.; History; Mapping
G04, G06, G14
Alaska; Bering Strait; Little Diomede Island, Alaska; Ratmanova, Ostrov, Russian Federation
Stability of the surface in mechanical disturbance associated with northern development / Grave, N.A. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography and geology, v. 7, no. 3, July-Sept. 1983, p. 175-186, figure)
Reprinted from: Izvestiya AN SSSR, Seriya geograficheskaya, 1982, no. 6, p. 54-62.
ASTIS record 14271.
After an introduction devoted to generalities concerning the impact of development, specifically removal or disruption of vegetation, on the depth of thaw in permafrost zones and hence on the probable incidence of thermokarst, the author introduces a map of zonations of surface stability within the permafrost zones of the USSR. The categories mapped vary from "Areas with severely unstable surfaces" prone to extreme thermokarst development if the vegetation cover is destroyed, to "Areas with relatively stable surfaces," largely confined to areas with low ice content or to areas of bedrock outcrop. The author recognizes that his map has limitations of scale and that on the basis of it one can make only general statements as to the probability of certain impacts arising from industrial activities in any particular area. An increase in scale of the map would be one obvious necessary refinement for this to become a truly useful tool, but even this small-scale map is at least a starting point towards monitoring the cryolithozone with a view to environmental protection. ... (Au)
C, M, J, H, N
Engineering; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Land clearing; Maps; Permafrost; Plant cover; Soil mechanics; Soil stabilization; Thawing; Thermal properties; Thermokarst
Sibir', Russian Federation
Geographical aspects of the First International Polar Year, 1882-1883 / Barr, W.
(Annals of the Association of American Geographers, v. 73, no. 4, Dec. 1983, p. 463-484, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 14031.
1983 marks the centennial of a milestone event in the history of scientific research in the polar regions, the First International Polar Year. A total of 14 stations was established in the polar regions by 12 different nations, along with a number of subsidiary stations. Focusing primarily on meteorology, geomagnetism, and auroral studies, scientists at these stations carried out a standardized, synchronized program of observations for a full calendar year. In terms of the geographical spinoff from the project, several of the expeditions made notable contributions in the area of exploration and mapping, particularly the American expedition to Ellesmere Island and the French expedition to Cabo de Hornos (Cape Horn). The meteorological program naturally produced a wealth of raw data, which are now of great value as a basis for comparisons. Although geomorphology was not part of the official program, several of the scientists made very useful observations, particularly in the area of periglacial forms and processes. Concerning the marine environment the Dutch expedition, whose ship was adrift in the ice of the Kara Sea for the entire year, contributed very valuable observations on the nature and behavior of sea ice. Its oceanographic contribution was also extremely significant, as was that of the French expedition to Cabo de Hornos. Scientists from several of the expeditions also made extensive and valuable pioneer observations of the indigenous peoples in their respective areas. Worthy of particular mention here are studies of the Eskimo of the North Slope by the American expedition to Point Barrow, of the Inuit of Cumberland Sound by a scientist with the German expedition to Baffin Island, and of the Yahgan Indians of Tierra del Fuego by the French expedition to Cabo de Hornos. (Au)
X, V, A, F, G, D, E, H
Baffin Island Eskimos; Expeditions; Exploration; Geomorphology; Glaciology; History; Human geography; International Polar Year 1882-83; Meteorology; Oceanography; Plant distribution; Research; Sea ice
Materials on the history of Captain De Long's American polar expedition aboard 'Jeannette' / Laptev, S.N. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography and geology, v. 7, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1983, p. 233-280)
Reprinted from Izvestiia Vsesoyuznogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva, no. 74, 1942, p. 16-57.
ASTIS record 13988.
Just over a century ago, on 13 June 1881, Jeannette, the expedition vessel of Lieut. George W. De Long's expedition to the North Pole, was crushed by the ice and sank to the north of the New Siberian Islands. Her crew headed south across the ice by sledge and boat, through the New Siberian Islands and then across the Laptev Sea, Bound for the Lena Delta. The three boats became separated in a gale and one disappeared completely. Of the other two boats, that commanded by engineer George W. Melville reached land safely and her crew was fortunate enough soon to make contact with the local inhabitants; they were all saved. The crew of the other boat, commanded by De Long himself, wandered through the desolate winter landscape of the Lena Delta, until all but two men died of starvation and exposure. A complex search operation was mounted, with the full-scale co-operation of the Russian Government. ... The author of the present article has drawn attention to the substantial amount of archival material on these topics still extant in Siberia, and using these materials has been able to add some very interesting detail to the story. Of particular interest is his treatment of the matter of the reaction of the Russian authorities at various levels to the proposal to transport the bodies of the dead Americans overland to European Russia; particular concern was expressed as to the disruption and possibly real hardship which would arise from this project's inevitable demand for sledge reindeer on the local people of the Lena Valley. Perhaps the most striking aspect is the enormous amount of purely humanitarian assistance and co-operation extended to the American survivors and the various search parties not only by Russian officialdom, but by the local people of the Lena Delta, often at considerable inconvenience and expense to themselves. ... (Au)
De Long, George Washington, 1844-1881; Expeditions; Explorers; History; Jeannette (Ship); Polar Expedition of 1879-1881; Ships; Shipwrecks; Starvation
Laptevykh More; Lena, Reka, Russian Federation; Novosibirskiye Ostrova, Russian Federation; Russian Arctic waters
New Wales, New Denmark, or New Yorkshire? / Barr, W.
(Canoma, v. 9, no. 2, Dec. 1983, p. 30-33, figures)
(Musk-ox, no. 15, 1975, p. 67-70)
This article originally appeared in the Musk-ox, no. 15, 1975, p. 67-70.
ASTIS record 13869.
At present, the area lying inland of the western and southwestern coasts of Hudson Bay does not enjoy a single regional name, but is divided between the provinces of Ontario, Manitoba, and possibly Saskatchewan and the Keewatin District of the Northwest Territories. For a considerable period subsequent to its discovery by Europeans, however, this area was designated by a varied, conflicting and over-lapping sequence of names, all of which have now disappeared from the maps and from general usage. ... (Au)
Geographical names; History
G0814, G0813, G0824, G0825
Hudson Bay; Hudson Bay region, Manitoba; Hudson Bay region, Ontario
The last journey of Peter Tessem and Paul Knutsen, 1919 / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 36, no. 4, Dec. 1983, p. 311-327, figures)
ASTIS record 13331.
In September 1919, when Amundsen's ship Maud left her winter quarters near Mys Chelyuskina to continue east along the Siberian coast, two men, Peter Tessem and Paul Knutsen, were deliberately left behind. Their instructions were to wait until freeze-up, then sledge to the weather station at Dikson in order to deliver the expedition's mail and the accumulated scientific data of the past year. The two men did not reach their destination. In the spring of 1921 a Soviet-Norwegian search expedition, travelling overland, established that the two men had passed Mys Vil'da in November 1919; at that point all was well. Farther west, near Poluostrov Mikhaylova, the remains of a campfire were found together with charred bones which were thought to be the remains of one of the Norwegians; it was assumed that one man had died and that his companion had cremated the corpse. In 1922 a geological expedition led by N. N. Urvantsev found the mail and scientific data that Tessem and Knutsen had been carrying, abandoned near the mouth of the Zeledeyeva, and the Norwegians' skis, abandoned at the mouth of the Uboynaya. Finally a skeleton, thought to be that of Tessem, was found on the shore within sight of the weather station at Dikson. Recent evidence indicates that the campfire near Poluostrov Mikhaylova relates to the missing Rusanov expedition, and not to Tessem and Knutsen; furthermore, there has been recent debate as to whether the skeleton so close to Dikson was that of Tessem or Knutsen (Au)
Amundsen, Roald Englebregt Gravning, 1872-1928; History; Maud (Ship); Ships
Dikson, Russian Federation; Karskoye More
Lieutenant Nordqvist's account of the Vega Expedition (1878-79) / Barr, W.
(Polar geography and geology, v. 7, no. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1983, p. 1-8)
ASTIS record 12390.
On 24 April 1880, A.E. Nordenskiold's expedition ship Vega steamed into Stockholm harbor to a tumultuous welcome. During the previous two years she had added greatly to Sweden's reputation in the area of exploration and research. Not only had she completed the first traverse of the Northeast Passage, she had also made the first circumnavigation of Eurasia and, during a wintering on the Chukchi coast, her scientists had added immeasurably to our knowledge of the environment and people of that area. ... Although an account of the expedition had been commissioned by the Russian Geographical Society ... and Nordqvist did submit such a report, it was not published at the time. Some 20 years ago, however, it was discovered, along with related correspondence and extracts from Nordqvist's diary, by the Soviet Arctic historian, M.I. Belov, in the Scientific Archives of the Geographical Society USSR. Belov published an article to alert historians and scientists to this find (Belov, 1960) and, shortly afterward, he published the journal, some of the correspondence and extracts from Nordqvist's diary (Belov, 1964). In view of Belov's recent death and since 1983 marks the 125th anniversary of Nordqvist's birth, it is felt that publication of an English version of Nordqvist's account is particularly opportune. (Au)
Expeditions; Explorers; Nordenskiöld, Nils Adolf Erik, 1832-1901; Vega (Ship)
Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation
Robert Stein's expedition to Ellesmere Island, 1899-1901 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 21, no.132, Sept. 1982, p. 253-274, ill., figures)
ASTIS record 11125.
... Stein developed an all-absorbing fascination for Arctic exploration, and in 1893 he began promoting a plan for exploring one of the largest remaining blank spots on the map of the Canadian Arctic .... The entire length of the west coast of Ellesmere Island, from Graham Island in the south, discovered by Sir Edward Belcher in 1853 (Belcher, 1855), to Albert Point in the north, reached by Aldrich and Gifford of the Nares expedition in May 1876 (Nares, 1878) a distance of some 600 km, was still completely unexplored. And naturally, there was absolutely no information as to what lay west of Ellesmere Island. ... Stein's expedition must be rated among one of the least effectual which had ever crossed the Arctic Circle for two reasons. Firstly it had the misfortune to rely too heavily for logistics and support on another expedition, R.E. Peary's, to whom its needs inevitably ranked quite low in any list of priorities. Secondly, it found itself competing, in terms of area of operations, with one of the most impressive Arctic exploring expeditions of all time, namely that of Otto Sverdrup. ... Without Peary's continued, if somewhat distant, interest in the activities and welfare of Stein and his companions, another tragedy could easily have occurred on Pim Island. ... [In 1902] Stein published his short paper on Eskimo music based on his observations at Kap York and Fort Magnesia ... the only publication he produced on the basis of his Arctic experience. (Au)
Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; Inuit; Music
Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Pim Island, Nunavut
The German expedition at Clearwater Fiord, 1882-83 / Barr, W. Tolley, C.
(Beaver, 1982  Autumn, p. 36-45, ill. (some col.))
ASTIS record 10674.
A hundred years ago, German scientists were taking hourly meteorological and magnetic readings at Clearwater Fiord, Baffin Island. Their contribution to the first International Polar Year was an unbroken record of observations over a period of 359 days. (Au)
Deutsche Nord-Expedition, 1882-1883; Geomagnetism; History; Meteorology; Research
Baffin Island, Nunavut; Clearwater Fiord, Nunavut; Shilmilik Bay, Nunavut
The first Soviet convoy to the mouth of the Lena / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 35, no. 2, June 1982, p. 317-325, ill., map)
ASTIS record 10586.
In 1933 the newly-formed Glavsevmorput' (Chief Administration of the Northern Sea Route) dispatched the first convoy of freighters via the Northern Sea Route to the mouth of the Lena to deliver cargoes bound for the Yakut ASSR. It consisted of three freighters and was escorted by the icebreaker Krasin. Despite heavy ice conditions in the Kara Sea two of the ships reached Tiksi, their destination, and unloaded their cargoes. The third ship, bound for Bukhta Nordvik with an oil exploration expedition, ran aground near its destination and turned back. Severe ice conditions in Proliv Vil'kitskogo forced all three ships to winter at the Ostrova Samuila. A shore station was built and a full scientific programme maintained all winter. Urvantsev, the chief scientist, took the opportunity to make a winter reconnaissance survey of the northern portion of Poluostrov Taymyr using half-tracks. The convoy was freed from the ice by the icebreaker Fedor Litke in the summer of 1934 and having completed their tasks all three ships ultimately returned safely to Arkhangel'sk. (Au)
History; Icebreakers; Marine navigation; Marine transportation
Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Tiksi, Russian Federation
Mikula : a Canadian icebreaker repatriated / Barr, W. Appleton, T.E.
(Polar record, v. 21, no.130, Jan. 1982, p. 51-58, ill.)
ASTIS record 8850.
The authors recount the history of the Canadian ice-breaker Mikula, concentrating particularly on its operations in the Barents and White Seas during World War I. (ASTIS)
History; Icebreakers; World War I
Barents Sea; Beloye More
Development of the Canadian north / Cherkasov, A. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Musk-ox, no. 29, 1981, p. 55-69, tables)
Translated from: Kanada na poroge 80-kh godov : ekonomika i politika / A. Cherkasov. - Moscow : Izdatel'stvo "Nauka," 1979.
ASTIS record 12411.
This is a translation of one chapter from, 'Kanada na poroge 80-kh godov : ekonomika i politika' [Canada on the threshold of the 80s : economics and politics] by Dr. Cherkasov of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. It's value lies in the opportunity it affords Canadian scholars of gaining insight into the way Canada is perceived by other nations. The focus of this chapter is on the peculiarities of the new phase of exploitation of the Arctic Archipelago resources. (ASTIS)
R, Q, P
Economic policy; Energy policy; Government; Mineral industries; Mining; Petroleum industry
Aleksandr Vasil'yevich Kolchak : arctic scientist and explorer / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 20, no.129, Sept. 1981, p. 507-524, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 9300.
Aleksandr Vasil'yevich Kolchak is undoubtedly best remembered by history for the role he played in the Russian civil war, and especially for his role as 'Supreme Ruler of All the Russias', in sole command of the White Russian armies in Siberia and with his seat of government at Omsk .... Probably the best-known incident of his entire career is the one that ended it: in the early hours of 7 February 1920 ... he was executed by a Bol'shevik firing squad .... To those familiar with only this final phase of Kolchak's career it may come as a surprise to learn that as a young naval lieutenant he participated in one important Arctic expedition and led another. Later, as captain, he played a critical role in the initiation and planning of a third Arctic expedition, one of the most important expeditions in Siberian Arctic waters before the Revolution. (Au)
Exploration; Explorers; History; Kolchak, Aleksandr Vasil'evich, 1873-1920; Research
Economic-geographic peculiarities of the development of transport and economic development in the American North / Fadeev, A.I. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography and geology, v. 5, no. 2, Apr.-June 1981, p. 96-107, figure)
(Izvestiia. Seriia geograficheskaia - Akademiia Nauk SSSR, 1979, no. 5, p. 72-81, figure)
Bibliography : p.106-107.
ASTIS record 8607.
The author examines the relationships between transport in the areas of recent development in the American North and the extreme natural and economic conditions, the influence of transport developments on the economic structure and economic specialization, and also special government policies with regard to providing transport in these areas. ... (Au)
Economic conditions; Economic development; Economic policy; Environmental impacts; Socio-economic effects; Transportation
Alaska; Canadian Arctic
The history of the glaciation of Svalbard / Troitskii, L.S. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography and geology, v. 5, no. 2, Apr.-June 1981, p. 57-81, figures, table)
Reprinted from Oledeneniye Shpitsbergena (Sval'barda) / L.S. Troitskiy, et al. Moscow : Nauka, 1975, p. 226-241.
ASTIS record 8605.
A study of the stratigraphy of Pleistocene deposits found on Svalbard in recent years has permitted researchers to outline the principal stages in the glaciation of the archipelago during the Middle and Upper Pleistocene and to correlate them with events in Northern Eurasia and North America. ... (Au)
Glacial epoch; Glacial geology; Glaciation; Pleistocene epoch; Stratigraphy
Baron Eduard von Toll's last expedition : the Russian Polar Expedition, 1900-1903 / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 34, no. 3, Sept. 1981, p. 201-224, ill., figures, photos.)
ASTIS record 7590.
Zarya, the expedition vessel of the Russian Polar Expedition of 1900-1903 mounted by the Imperial Academy of Sciences and led by arctic geologist Baron Eduard von Toll, sailed from St. Petersburg on 21 June 1900. Toll planned to spend a first winter on the little-known east coast of Poluostrov Taymyr, and a second winter on "Zemlya Sannikova", a landmass which he believed lay to the north of the Novosibirskiye Ostrova. Owing to ice conditions, Zarya spent her first winter on the west coast of Poluostrov Taymyr, where the expedition members made substantial contributions to knowledge of the geography, meteorology, geology, biology and magnetology of the area. A search for "Zemlya Sannikova" during the 1901 navigation season proved inconclusive and Zarya spent the second winter of the expedition at Bukhta Nerpalakh on Ostrov Kotel'nyy. In spring of 1902 Toll with three companions started north for Ostrov Bennetta by sledge and kayak. Zarya attempted to reach Ostrov Bennetta to evacuate the baron's party but was unable to do so because of severe ice conditions. Two search parties were dispatched in the spring of 1903; one, under M.I. Brusnev, searched the shores of the Novosibirskiye Ostrova; the other, led by A.V. Kolchak, travelled by whaleboat to Ostrov Bennetta. There he found signs that the Baron and his companions had reached the island, and also a note to the effect that they had left the island again, by kayak, in November 1902. No further traces of the four men have ever been found. (Au)
Exploration; Explorers; History; Russian Polar Expedition, 1900-1903; Von Toll, Eduard, 1858-1902; Zarya (Ship)
Laptevykh More; Russian Arctic
Background to the note found on Herald Island : the Arctic cruise of U.S.S. Rodgers in 1881 / Barr, W.
(Polar geography and geology, v. 5, no. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1981, p. 6-20, figure)
ASTIS record 7461.
A hundred years ago, in the summer of 1881, the Rodgers, commanded by Lieut. Robert M. Berry was dispatched to the Chukchi Sea to search for the Jeannette, which under the command of Lieut. Comdr. George W. De Long had entered the Chukchi Sea in an attempt to reach the North Pole in the summer of 1879 and had not been heard from. After searches of Wrangel Island and Herald Island, during one of which the recently discovered note was left, Lieutenant Berry established winter quarters at St. Lawrence Bay, on the Siberian side of the Bering Strait. On Nov. 30, 1881 the Rodgers was lost by fire but the entire crew escaped. They spent the winter as guests of the local Chukchi and were evacuated by the U.S. revenue steamer Thomas Corwin in May 1882. (Au)
Exploration; History; Ships; U.S.S. Rodgers (Ship)
Chukchi Sea; Geral'd, Ostrov, Russian Federation; Vrangelya, Ostrov, Russian Federation
The first tourist cruise in the Soviet Arctic / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 33, no. 4, Dec. 1980, p. 671-685, ill.)
ASTIS record 6009.
In the summer of 1931 the icebreaking steamer Malygin sailed from Arkhangel'sk, bound for Zemlya Frantsa Iosifa with the first Soviet tourist cruise to the Arctic, the main objective being to visit the various historic sites of the archipelago. The steamer also made a rendezvous with the airship Graf Zeppelin at Bukhta Tikhaya. Other historic sites visited included Mys Flora, Bukhta Teplitsa and Camp Zeigler on Ostrov Al'dzher. Of special historical interest was the recovery of a message left by Baldwin at his satellite camp at the west end of Ostrov Al'dzher. A significant contribution to the charting of the archipelago was the discovery that Jackson's "Arthur Island" and "Alfred Harmsworth Island" were in fact a single island, for which the name Ostrov Artura was retained. Surprises such as this, a brief accidental grounding, and a three-day drift amongst ice and in dense fog probably combined to persuade the Soviet authorities not to repeat this experiment for several decades. (Au)
Exploration; History; Icebreakers; Malygin (Ship); Tourist trade; Travels
Barents Sea; Frantsa-Iosifa, Zemlya, Russian Federation; Karskoye More
Cryogenic texture and some characteristics of ice formation in the active layer / Parmuzina, O.IU. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography and geology, v. 4, no. 3, July-Sept. 1980, p. 131-152, ill.)
(Problemy kriolitologii, no. 7, 1978, p. 141-164)
Translation of Russian original by William Barr.
ASTIS record 5938.
On the basis of an analysis of data from four sample plots at Ust'-Yeniseysk, the author presents a detailed study of the sequence of events associated with the freezing and thawing of the active layer. By the time freezing was complete the active layer had assumed a binary structure with an upper streaky horizon with streaks of segregated ice, overlying a horizon with a massive cryogenic texture. ... but significant changes occurred once thawing had begun ... formation of streaks of segregated ice was occurring in the still frozen part of the active layer while thawing was proceeding from the surface. The author has correlated variations in this and other phenomena with differences in moisture content, temperature gradients and rates of thawing. (Au)
Active layer; Formation; Frozen ground; Ground ice; Melting; Moisture content of frozen ground; Temperature; Thawing
Sibir', Russian Federation
General Miller's flight from Arkhangel'sk, February 1920 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 20, no.125, May 1980, p. 119-125, map, photos.)
ASTIS record 5731.
This article chronicles the escape of General Miller and his staff and supporters from Arkhangel'sk, February 1920, in what the author calls "one of the most bizarre episodes in Arctic marine history." (ASTIS)
History; Koz'ma Minin (Ship); Miller, Yevgeniy K.
Russian Arctic; Russian Federation
Eighteenth century Eskimo land cessions in northern Labrador / Treude, E. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Musk-ox, no. 26, 1980, p. 3-12, ill., map)
(Polarforschung, bd. 47, heft 1/2, 1977, p. 61-71, ill.)
Translation of: Eskimoische landabtretung in Nordlabrador im 18. jahrhundert. Polarforschung, v.47, no.1/2, 1977, p.61-71.
ASTIS record 5530.
In the light of demands made by the Eskimo on the federal government during the past few years for official recognition of their aboriginal title to the land, this article is of particular interest, for it focusses attention on the only land cession treaties ever concluded by the Eskimo. During the second half of the eighteenth century Moravian missionaries purchased land from the northern Labrador Eskimo for three proposed mission stations. Descriptions of the negotiations as well as the text of the only extant land purchase agreement are here reproduced from records available in the Mission Archives at Herrnhut/Oberlausitz. (Au)
V, T, S
Inuit; Moravians; Native land claims
The drift of Lenin's convoy in the Laptev Sea, 1937-1938 / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 33, no. 1, Mar. 1980, p. 3-20, map, photos.)
ASTIS record 4012.
As a result of various miscalculations 25 ships underwent an enforced wintering at various points in the Soviet Arctic in the winter of 1937-1938. Among the vessels involved was a convoy of six ships led by the icebreaker Lenin, which spent the winter drifting in the Laptev Sea. Several of the ships were severely damaged by ice pressure, and one ship was crushed and sank. Early in 1938 all superfluous personnel were flown south to Tiksi in an emergency airlift operation. The author presents the first detailed English-language account of this wintering. (Au)
Icebreakers; Lenin (Ship); Ships; Shipwrecks
Laptevykh More; Tiksi, Russian Federation
First voyage to the Kolyma : the Soviet north-east Polar expedition 1932-33 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 19, no.123, Sept. 1979, p. 563-572, ill., map, photo.)
ASTIS record 3803.
The North-East Polar Expedition must be viewed in the context of its times. As a project undertaken during the First Five Year Plan it bears the hallmark of other such Soviet projects, many of them on a much larger scale - namely, an almost frenetic effort to achieve unrealistic targets, often with inadequate equipment and at the cost of immense human suffering. ... Given the severe weather conditions, however, one can only be amazed at the expedition's achievement. It is only to be regretted that such a superb record of Arctic seamanship should have been associated with the establishment and maintenance of the slave labour economy of the Kolyma basin. (Au)
History; Marine transportation; North-East Polar Expedition, 1932-33; Ships
Chukchi Sea; Russian Arctic waters; Vostochno-Sibirskoye More
Newfoundland ship made Soviet Arctic history / Barr, W.
(Canadian geographic, v. 99, no. 2, Oct./Nov. 1979, p. 30-35, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 3038.
A brief history of the Sedov (alias Beothic) an icebreaking steamer that began her life as a Newfoundland sealing ship, was sold to Russia in 1915 as an icebreaker, and then from 1937-1940 completed an epic 812-day drift across the Arctic basin with a 15-man crew gathering a remarkable accumulation of scientific data. (ASTIS)
Exploration; Sedov (Ship), 1937-1940
Russian Arctic waters
Canadian nordicity : it's your North, too / Hamelin, L.-E. Barr, W. [Translator]
Montreal : Harvest House, [c1979].
xv, 373p. : maps, tables ; 22 cm.
Translation of Nordicité canadienne.
ASTIS record 2260.
Libraries: ACU SSU
Geographically, the book covers not only the Northwest Territories and the Yukon but also the middle north corridor of seven provinces. The author studies the interplay of geography, ethnology, industry, settlement, communications and government and corporate policies as they influence the Canadian North. (ASTIS)
Economic conditions; Geography; Government; Government relations; Indians; Inuit; Nordicity
Canadian Arctic; Middle North
The drift of Lieutenant Brusilov's Svyataya Anna, 1912-1914 / Barr, W.
(Musk-ox, no. 22, 1978, p. 3-30, ill., maps, photo., table)
ASTIS record 3358.
In the summer of 1912 Lieutenant G.L. Brusilov of the Imperial Russian Navy mounted a private expedition to traverse the Northern Sea Route from west to east aboard the auxiliary schooner Sv. Anna. The ship became beset in the Kara Sea just west of Poluostrov Yamal in October 1912 and drifted steadily northwards with the ice. By April 1914 she was still drifting, some 110 km due north of Zemlya Frantsa Iosifa. ... eleven of her crew ... left the ship with sledges and kayaks in an attempt to reach land. ... only two men ultimately survived. They brought south with them a copy of the ship's journal .... The main body of this article consists of the first English translation of that journal. ... sledge journey is also described, as are the search attempts mounted by the Tsarist government. The scientific results derived from the ship's journal include the discovery of the Sv. Anna Trough, and the prediction, subsequently verified, of the existence of Ostrov Vize in the Kara Sea. (Au)
Brusilov, Georgii L'vovich, 1884-1914; Exploration; Sv. Anna (Ship), 1912-1914
Karskoye More; Russian Arctic waters
Aspects of mesoclimatic distribution of air temperature and precipitation over High Arctic tundra, Axel Heiberg Island, N.W.T., Canada / Ohmura, A. Muller, F. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography, v. 2, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1978, p. 270-284, charts, map)
(Geographica helvetica, v. 32, no. 4, 1977, p. 185-194)
Present study is part of the Axel-Heiberg Expeditions of McGill University and of the Technical University in Zurich.
ASTIS record 2250.
... The authors have attempted ... an analysis of data from nine climatological stations distributed over some 40 km² of west central Axel Heiberg Island, N.W.T., and ranging in altitude from sea level to 800 m. Temperature and precipitation data are analyzed for the summer months (May-August), the specific parameters under consideration being daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, daily temperature range, diurnal amplitude, aperiodic daily temperature change and precipitation. The aspects of length of frostfree period and number of freeze-thaw cycles are also examined. ... (Au)
Atmospheric temperature; Climatology; Precipitation (Meteorology); Tundra ecology
Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut
Protection of the environment in permafrost areas / Melnikov, P.L. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography, v. 2, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1978, p. 232-239)
(Letopis' severa, 1977, no. 8, p. 106-115)
Report on the proceedings of a Conference on Environmental Protection in Permafrost Areas, Moscow, October 27 to 29, 1975.
ASTIS record 2247.
... Attention was focused chiefly on such topics as groundwater pollution, provocation of thermokarst, and revegetation of disrupted landscapes. ... Considerable stress was laid upon the importance of special courses and training for engineers and others involved in development of permafrost areas. ... (Au)
Environmental policy; Environmental protection; Permafrost; Water pollution
The drift and rescue of Solovei Budimirovich in the Kara Sea, January-June 1920 / Barr, W.
(Canadian Slavonic papers, v. 20, no. 4, Dec. 1978, p. 483-503, map)
ASTIS record 2022.
Describes the rescue of the Russian steamer Solovei Budimirovich which had jammed in the ice in the Kara Sea and had been drifting for 5 months with 85 people on board. (ASTIS)
Icebreakers; Solovei Budimirovich (Ship)
S.S. Nascopie : Newfoundland sealing steamer / Barr, W.
(Newfoundland quarterly, v. 10, no. 1, Fall, 1978, p. 19-28, ill.)
ASTIS record 2017.
Describes the history of the S.S. Nascopie, an icebreaker originally used as a sealing ship and later bought by Hudson's Bay Company to serve her trading posts in the far north. (ASTIS)
Nascopie (Ship); Sealing; Ships
Man's impact on tundra ecosystems / Kriuchkov, V.V. Barr, W. [Translator]
In: Chutkaia subarktica / [by] V.V. Kriuchkov. Moscow : Nauka, 1976, p. 113-134
(Polar geography, v. 2, no. 3, July-Sept. 1978, p. 200-215, ill.)
ASTIS record 1786.
Some of these areas of concern are ... deterioration of reindeer pastures; ... the problem of pollution of Subarctic rivers and lakes by industrial and domestic wastes, ... rapid deforestation resulting from forest fires and felling of trees ... and the resultant retreat of the treeline. ... a drastic reduction in the self-purification capacity of the air, and of increased atmospheric pollution in densely populated areas .... (Au)
Environmental impacts; Land use; Pollution; Reindeer; Taiga ecology; Treeline; Tundra ecology
Changes in the amount of multi-year ice in Arctic seas during the current cooling trend / Bulatova, L.V. Zakharov, V.F. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography, v. 2, no. 3, July-Sept. 1978, p. 216-218, map)
(Voprosy Poliarnoi okeanologii / Edited by L.V. Bulatova and N.F. Kudriavtseva. Trudy - Leningrad. Arkticheskii i Antarkticheskii Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut, v.319, 1978, p. 39-41)
Translation of: Izmenenie kolichestva mnogoletnikh l'dov v Arkticheskikh moriakh v epokhu sovremennogo pokholodaniia.
ASTIS record 1784.
The authors investigate the impact of the cooling trend that has prevailed since the early 1940s on ... changes in the average concentration of old ice, i.e., older than one year, ... and changes in the position of the southern boundary of the old ice.. Both criteria show differences between the Western Arctic and the Eastern Arctic, with the dividing line at approximately 160° E. ... (Au)
Effects of climate on ice; Sea ice
Russian Arctic waters
The voyage of Sibiryakov, 1932 / Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 19, no.120, Sept. 1978, p. 253-266, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 1773.
Describes the voyage of the icebreaker Aleksandr Sibiryakov through the Northern Sea Route in 1932, and assesses the success of the voyage. (ASTIS)
Exploration; Ships; Sibiriakov (Ship)
Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Russian Arctic waters
Current climatic changes and their impact on the ice regime of the Arctic seas / Zakharov, V.F. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography, v. 2, no. 2, Apr.-June 1978, p. 115-119, maps)
(Voprosy Poliarnoi okeanologii / Edited by L.V. Bulatova and N.F. Kudriavtseva. Trudy - Leningrad. Arkticheskii i Antarkticheskii Nauchno-Issledovatel'skii Institut, v.319, 1978, p. 33-38, maps, table)
Translation of: Sovremennye izmeneniia klimata i ikh proiavleniia v ledovom rezhime Articheskikh Morei.
ASTIS record 1290.
The author utilizes ice data from Arctic stations and from ice reconnaissance flights to investigate the impact of the cooling trend that began in the early 1940s on sea ice conditions in the Soviet Arctic. ... (Au)
Climate change; Climatology; Effects of climate on ice; Sea ice
Arctic waters; Russian Arctic; Russian Arctic waters
Urban planning and construction in the Kola North (Part III) / Makhrovskaia, A.V. [et al] Barr, W. [Translator]
In: Planirovka i zastroyka gorodov Kol'skogo Severa. - Leningrad : Construction Literature Publishers, 1972, p. 41-57
(Polar geography, v. 2, no. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1978, p. 42-52, ill.)
Translation of article appearing in Planirovka i zastroyka gorodov Kol'skogo Severa. Leningrad, 1972.
ASTIS record 184.
The last of three articles on town planning in the Kola Peninsula portion of the Soviet North (the Kola North) discusses the layout of the principal cities and suggests ways of improving the urban structure in light of local physical constraints. (Au)
Planning; Regional planning; Towns
Kol'skiy Poluostrov, Russian Federation
The first Soviet high-latitude expedition / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 30, no. 4, Dec. 1977, p. 205-216, ill., figure)
ASTIS record 10365.
The ice-breaking steamer Sadko put to sea in June 1935 under N.M. Nikolayer with 35 scientists on board with the first Soviet high-latitude expedition under the charge of G.A. Ushakov. The Sadko expedition was highly successful and the forecast of a favourable ice year was accurate. (ASTIS)
Expeditions; First Soviet High-latitude Expedition, 1935; Sadko (Ship); Ships
Arctic Basin; Russian Arctic waters
Charting the Russian Northern Sea Route. The Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition, 1910-1915 / Starokadomskii, L.M. Barr, W. [Editor and Translator]
Montreal : Arctic Institute of North America, 1976.
xxxiv, 332p. : ill., maps, photos. ; 22cm.
ASTIS record 6380.
Libraries: ACU SSU
The work of the Imperial Navy icebreaking steamers Taymyr and Vaygach during the period 1910-15, which forms the substance of Dr. Starokadomskiy's book, represents the first modern attempt at a systematic survey of the arctic waters to the north of Siberia, through which runs the transport artery known as the Northern Sea Route. Since those initial surveys, and particularly since 1934 under the Soviet regime, the Northern Sea Route has become an important communications artery of the Soviet Union. ... (Au)
Explorers; Gidrograficheskaia ekspeditsiia Severnogo Ledovitogo okeana, 1910-1915; Ice navigation; Icebreakers
G03, G141, G04
Arctic Ocean; Russian Arctic waters
Cost analysis of modern hunting among the Inuit of the Canadian Central Arctic / Muller-Wille, L. Barr, W. [Translator]
(Polar geography, v. 2, no. 2, Apr.-June 1978, p. 100-114, map, tables)
(Kanada und das Nordpolargebiet, [papers] / Symposium on Canada and the Northern Polar Regions, Trier, G.F.R., 30 October - 1 November, 1976 / Edited by Hrsg. von Ludger Muller-Wille [und] Hellmut Schroeder-Lanz. Trierer Geographische Studien, Sonderheft 2, p. 87-104, map, tables)
ASTIS record 1289.
... The paper presents data that were collected in Repulse Bay, N.W.T., in 1973 in order to arrive at a cost analysis of modern hunting within the superimposed framework of a "mixed economy" based on both the traditional subsistence economy and wage employment. ... (Au)
T, R, N
Economic conditions; Hunting; Income; Inuit; Subsistence
South to emlya Frantsa Iosifa! The cruise of Sv. Anna and Al'banov's sledge journey, 1912-14 / Barr, W.
(Canadian Slavonic papers, v. 17, no. 4, Winter 1975, p. 567-595, maps)
ASTIS record 28039.
On 20 July 1914 (O.S.) Sv. Foka, the expedition vessel of Sedov's North Pole voyage, slowly approached Mys Flora on Ostrov Nortbruka in Zemlya Frantsa losifa. Sedov had died four months earlier, just short of Ostrov Rudolfa, in a hopeless attempt at reaching the North Pole. The expedition vessel was now heading home from her winter quarters at Tikhaya Bukhta on Ostrov Gukera, under the command of Dr. P. G. Kushakov, but first she had to make an emergency call at Mys Flora. Sv. Foka was completely out of coal and even to reach Mys Flora, the crew were breaking up all non-essential partitions in the ship, and the stokers were firing the boilers with this assorted lumber and with walrus blubber. At Mys Flora Kushakov was counting on being able to demolish the wooden building surviving from Jackson's expedition of 1894-97, and to derive sufficient fuel from this source to get Sv. Foka at least beyond the southern limits of the pack ice, from where she could proceed under sail. As Foka approached the cape, to everybody's amazement a man was spotted on shore. As the ship dropped anchor, the man launched a kayak and paddled out to her. As he came alongside, he shouted something to the crew who were lining the rail: he spoke Russian! Clambering aboard, he introduced himself as Valerian Ivanovich Al'banov, navigation officer of the steamer Svyataya Anna of the Brusilov expedition. ... (Au)
V, L, G
Expeditions; History; Marine navigation; Sea ice; Ships; Survival; Sv. Anna (Ship), 1912-1914
G03, G141, G14
Arctic Ocean; Frantsa-Iosifa, Zemlya, Russian Federation; Karskoye More
A zonal system of allowances for northern workers : an example of applied geography / Hamelin, L.-E. Barr, W. [Translator]
[S.l. : s.n., 1974?].
 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
This paper originally appeared in French as: Un système zonal de primes pour les travailleurs du Nord: un exemple de géographie appliquée, in: Cahiers de Géographie de Québec, 14 année, nr. 33:309-328(1970) and 34:5-27 (1971).
ASTIS record 17924.
Allowances for northern workers constitute a deliberate attempt at ironing-out the disparities in income within the country. This study, which is applicative in nature, comprises three parts. The first is factual, and consists of a presentation of the various characteristics of the northern labour-force, and of the system of allowances disbursed at present. This labour-force displays a marked imbalance between supply and demand, from one project site to another, from one season to another, and from one wage category to another, resulting in a striking mobility of labour. As for the present allowances, they represent an anarchic complex of independent regimes, of which the best devised in Canada is that of the Federal Government. The second part of the text is more properly conceptual, and similarly is divided into two sections. The first deals with types of allowances, with their problems and general effects. The second presents a definition, a delimitation and a zonation of the North by means of an index which allows one to quantify nordicity as a basis for calculating the allowances. The third part of this study proposes an all-inclusive universal system of allowances, applicable throughout the Canadian North. The calculations can be made quite simply by applying an appropriate percentage to a ceiling cash sum. From southern Canada to northern Canada, the allowance increases from $600 to $2,700 per year. However, due to the distribution of workers, the majority of allowances would not exceed $1,000. Certain adjustments are envisaged, concerning long-term employment and the participation of married couples. A worker in the Extreme North, with the help of his allowance could amass in 32 years an income which would necessitate 50 years of work in the south of Canada. A single sound system of allowances could encourage the harmonious development of the North. (Au)
Income; Nordicity; Social policy; Welfare
Canadian Arctic; Middle North
Otto Sverdrup to the rescue of the Russian Imperial Navy / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 27, no. 1, Mar. 1974, p. 2-14, 1 map)
ASTIS record 10249.
Otto Sverdrup, one of Norway's greatest explorers, is usually remembered for his participation, as captain of Fram, in Nansen's memorable drift of 1893-96, and for his remarkably successful exploratory expedition in 1898-1902, again in Fram, to what are now the Queen Elizabeth Islands. ... But several later arctic exploits of Otto Sverdrup's, although in some ways ranking equally as high as the better known expeditions, have achieved relatively little renown. One of these was his leadership of the search-and-rescue expedition aboard Eklips in the Kara Sea in 1914-15 .... it is fair to say that had it not been for Sverdrup, and had ice conditions in the summer of 1915 been more severe, the Russian Imperial Navy might have experienced a major disaster. The initial objectives of Sverdrup's expedition were two missing expeditions: those of G. L. Brusilov aboard Sv. Anna, and of V. A. Rusanov aboard Gerkules. Lieutenant Brusilov had mounted a private expedition to traverse the Northern Sea Route from west to east. ... The second expedition, that of V. A. Rusanov, appears to have been even less well planned. ... As early as 1913, some public anxiety began to be expressed in Russia about the whereabouts of the expeditions of Brusilov and Rusanov as well as that of Sedov aboard Sv. Foka, which had left Arkhangelsk the previous year in an attempt to reach the Pole. ... The almost impossible task of searching for Brusilov and Rusanov was entrusted to Otto Sverdrup, in Eklips. The whereabouts of the Sv. Anna were totally unknown; however, he was to search the coasts of the Kara Sea from the north island of Novaya Zemlya to the mouth of the Yenisei, and on to Mys Chelyuskina, and also Ostrov Uyedineniya .... She sailed from Christiania (Oslo) on 13 July 1914 .... By the 16th, she was already beset and drifting with the ice; this drift, alternating with occasional spells of independent progress ... continued until 20 August, when Eklips encountered unbroken ice, and for severalweeks further progress was blocked. It was here ... that around noon on 9 September, one of her radio transmissions was answered by a completely unexpected call: Taymyr and Vaygach located at the Ostrova Firnleya. ... This, as it turned out, was to be an extremely fortunate encounter for Taymyr and Vaygach, the two Russian Imperial Navy icebreakers of the Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition which since 1910 had been engaged in making the first accurate survey of the arctic coasts of Siberia as an essential preliminary to establishing a practicable Northern Sea Route. ... on 9 September, off the Ostrova Firnleya, Taymyr was caught between two large icefields, pivoting around each other, and was severely nipped. She received heavy damage .... Vaygach also suffered from ice pressures: she broke a propeller blade ... and was taking water at a rate of 3 tons per hour. ... It was in the midst of all this anxiety, tension and bustle that the Taymyr's radio-operator had chanced to pick up Eklips's transmission and had successfully made contact. ... But Taymyr's and Vaygach's problems were not over .... a wintering was inevitable and imminent. ... on 20 January, Eklips made two-way radio contact with Yugorskiy Shar. Sverdrup sent a short telegram to St. Petersburg with the details of the location and condition of all three ships. ... Sverdrup was informed that the search for Rusanov and Busilov had been called off and that Eklips was now assigned to helping Taymyr and Vaygach .... by noon on 16 September 1915, Eklips was making fast alongside the city wharf at Arkhangelsk, with Vaygach and Taymyr right behind her. The city gave both the Russian crews and Sverdrup and his crew a hero's welcome. Thus ended not only the through-passage of the Northern Sea Route by Taymyr and Vaygach, but also a complicated and well-mounted precautionary rescue operation, in which Otto Sverdrup played an eminent and worthy role. Finally, it should be mentioned that Sverdrup was to head further Russian expeditions and was to come to the rescue of Russian sailors again, but in the service of the Soviet rather than the Tsarist regime. ... (Au)
Postglacial isostatic movement in northeastern Devon Island : a reappraisal / Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 24, no. 4, Dec. 1971, p. 249-268, ill., figures, map, tables)
ASTIS record 10160.
Amended emergence and uplift curves are presented for the Truelove Inlet area. The new curves are based mainly on radiocarbon dates from whalebone, driftwood and basal peat. The marine limit lies at 76 m a.s.l., and dates to approximately 9450 BP, which is also considered to be the date of deglaciation; total postglacial uplift is 107 m. The rate of uplift during the first thousand years following deglaciation reached 4.05 m per century, which is markedly less rapid than was previously reported. The rate of uplift decreased steadily thereafter and, at present, appears to be matched by eustatic sea level rise. What had appeared to be fossil evidence of restrained rebound at the onset of uplift was probably due to accidental mixing during collection of interstadial shells with postglacial shells. The total amount of postglacial uplift, and the rates of uplift, have probably been somewhat suppressed by the close proximity of the Devon Island Ice Cap. (Au)
Truelove Lowland, Nunavut
Devon Island programs, 1967 / Barr, W. Barrett, P.E. Hussell, D.J.T. King, R.H. Koerner, R.M.
(Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 44-50)
ASTIS record 55097.
The Arctic Institute's facilities on Devon Island were again used during the summer of 1967 by field parties studying glaciology, glacio-isostatic geomorphology, periglacial geomorphology, ornithology, and botany. In addition, an expedition photographer recorded the summer's activities with still photographs and on 16 mm. colour film. Field camps were established at various locations and the studies were pursued from these as well as from the Base Camp close to Cape Sparbo. ... (Au)
F, A, I, H, E, C
Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut; Truelove Lowland, Nunavut
Devon Island programs, 1966 / Barr, W. Brooke, R.C. Hussell, D.J.T. King, R.H. Koerner, R.M.
(Arctic, v. 20, no. 1, Mar. 1967, p. 44-49, map)
ASTIS record 55201.
Five field parties availed themselves of the facilities at the Arctic Institute's Base Camp on Devon Island during the 1966 field season. Each party consisted of two men (or in the case of the glaciology party, one man and one woman). The general areas of study were glaciology, botany, ornithology, periglacial geomorphology, and glacioisostatic geomorphology. A base-camp staff of three, including two Boy Scouts, provided a valuable service in maintaining the Base Camp, and in assisting the various field parties as required. The first party flew to Devon Island from Resolute Bay on 11 June, and the remainder followed on 16 and 29 June. Some of the party left Devon Island by air on 13 August, while the remainder were evacuated by the icebreaker John A. Macdonald on 29 August. Transport to and from Devon Island was greatly simplified through the kind assistance of Dr. F. Roots of the Polar Continental Shelf Project; whenever weather and the needs of his own project permitted, he made every effort to assist in the movement of equipment and personnel to and from Devon Island. ... (Au)
F, A, C, H, I, E
Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut; Truelove Lowland, Nunavut
Devon Island programs, 1965 / Barr, W. Koerner, R.M.
(Arctic, v. 19, no. 2, June 1966, p. 201-204, map)
ASTIS record 55194.
The Arctic Institute of North America has made available for future research the facilities left by the Devon Island Expedition of 1960-63. These facilities consist of four Jamesway huts equipped to support research workers at the base, two Massey Ferguson tractors, one weasel and a large range of equipment designed to outfit scientists working in the field away from the base camp. In 1965, taking advantage of these facilities, two scientific programs were followed. The first, in geomorphology, was essentially a base-camp-oriented project run by two men. The second, in glaciology, was a field-oriented program run by two men and one woman working on the ice cap and three outlet valley glaciers. The geomorphology program was supported entirely by the Arctic Institute of North America. The glaciology program received financial support from the Arctic Institute of North America, U.S. Army Natick Laboratories, and the Royal Geographical Society. ... (Au)
F, A, C
Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut; Truelove Lowland, Nunavut
Postglacial isostatic movement in northeastern Devon Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago / Muller, F. Barr, W.
(Arctic, v. 19, no. 3, Sept. 1966, p. 263-169, ill.)
ASTIS record 9994.
The limit of marine submergence of the last glaciation in the Cape Sparbo region varied in elevation from 65 m at Base Camp lowland, 73 m in Sparbo-Hardy lowland, to 82 m in the Skogn area; these variations are in part due to differences in time of deglaciation. Radiocarbon dates of marine shells indicate that the region was clear of ice by 15,500 yr BP; that the most rapid isostatic uplift occurred 9000-8000 yr BP and that the total rebound was about 110 m. The oldest dates, 15,000 and 13,000 BP, if correct, indicate the slow onset of isostatic uplift. (AB)
Deglaciation; Glaciation; Sea level
Skogn, Cape, region, Nunavut; Sparbo, Cape, region, Nunavut; Truelove Lowland, Nunavut
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