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The ASTIS database cites the following 13 publication(s) by Emma Stewart. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Governance of Arctic expedition cruise ships in a time of rapid environmental and economic change   /   Dawson, J.   Johnston, M.E.   Stewart, E.J.
(Ocean & coastal management, v. 89, Mar. 2014, p. 88-99, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 79069.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.12.005
Libraries: ACU

Changes in seasonal climate patterns and decreasing sea ice cover have facilitated an increase in navigable waters throughout Arctic Canada and resulted in the urgent need for new approaches to ocean, coastal, and vessel management. Increased access has resulted in a significant expansion of Arctic shipping activity over the past decade with one of the fastest growing sectors being expedition cruising. This paper presents an assessment of the existing marine regulations and governance structures that manage the cruise sector in Arctic Canada and provides a critical evaluation of its effectiveness considering recent and rapid growth. Using a variety of sources, including interviews with community residents and key informant stakeholders, analysis of changing ship volumes over the past decade, and an inventory of institutional governance for the sector, the major governance challenges for the industry were identified. Also identified are potential strategies for mitigating these challenges. Results of the analysis raise concerns that there is no central authority to govern the growth of the industry, no specific sector or operator management plan, and no site guidelines for highly visited shore locations (other than in protected areas). Instead, governance occurs within the complex multi-jurisdictional regulatory frameworks that exist for all shipping in the region. The paper concludes that under current conditions there are significant barriers to supporting development of this sector while avoiding human, environmental and security problems in the near-to medium-term future. (Au)

R, T, L, G, E, D
Climate change; Communication; Government regulations; Inuit; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Public opinion; Regulatory agencies; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Ships; Social surveys; Socio-economic effects; Temporal variations; Tourist trade

G0813, G081, G0815
Cambridge Bay (Settlement), Nunavut; Canadian Arctic waters; Gjoa Haven (Settlement), Nunavut; Iqaluit, Nunavut; Kuujjuaq, Québec; Nain, Labrador; Northwest Passage; Pond Inlet (Hamlet), Nunavut; Ulukhaktok, N.W.T.


Cruise tourism and residents in Arctic Canada : development of a resident attitude typology   /   Stewart, E.J.   Dawson, J.   Draper, D.
(Journal of hospitality and tourism management, v. 18, no. 1, Apr. 2011, p. 95-106, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 76647.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1375/jhtm.18.1.95
Libraries: ACU

The Canadian Arctic represents an emerging market in the rapidly evolving polar cruise sector. Since 1984 when cruises began in this region, cruise ship activity has been sporadic, but in 2006 the number of cruises to Nunavut doubled from 11 to 22. This elevated level of growth has persisted with ice strengthened cruise vessels conducting between 23 and 26 separate cruises through Arctic Canada each year from 2007 to 2010. With a warming climate some suggest this trajectory of growth will continue as sea ice diminishes and passages open up. Despite this growth little is known about this burgeoning sector from the perspectives of local residents. Through two community case studies local attitudes toward cruise tourism are positioned in a resident attitude typology. In Cambridge Bay, where cruise tourism is just emerging, resident attitudes were found to gravitate toward the passive-favourable areas of the typology. By contrast, in Pond Inlet, which is one of the most visited cruise destinations in Nunavut, attitudes were more varied with some individuals expressing degrees of resistance. The article suggests that if local people are to become engaged participants in the development of cruise tourism in Nunavut, then it is critical that resident attitudes and aspirations are articulated, respected and acted upon. (Au)

R, T, L
Inuit; Public opinion; Ships; Social surveys; Socio-economic effects; Tourist trade

G0813, G081, G0815
Cambridge Bay (Settlement), Nunavut; Canadian Arctic waters; Northwest Passage; Pond Inlet (Hamlet), Nunavut


Ethical considerations of last chance tourism   /   Dawson, J.   Johnston, M.J.   Stewart, E.J.   Lemieux, C.J.   Lemelin, R.H.   Maher, P.T.   Grimwood, B.S.R.
(Special issue : ecotourism and ethics. Journal of ecotourism, v. 10, no. 3, Nov. 2011, p. 250-265, ill.)
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 76623.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1080/14724049.2011.617449
Libraries: ACU

Global environmental change is altering natural and built systems in many regions of the world and such changes play a significant role in an emerging travel trend that has been labelled 'last chance tourism' (LCT). In LCT, tourism demand is based on the desire to see these vulnerable places and features before they disappear or are essentially and irrevocably changed. The paradox in this new form of travel lies in the fact that the tourists often travel long distances and, thus, are disproportionately responsible per capita for increased greenhouse gas emissions and various other stressors that have the potential to alter further the very attractions being visited. The emergence of LCT requires careful ethical consideration and adds a new twist to the debate about 'loving a destination to death'. In this case, the relationship is indirect and intangible, and is complicated by spatial and temporal lags, as well as the complex system of biophysical interactions at the heart of climate change. LCT presents a situation that is considerably more difficult to manage and mitigate than those where tourism involves only direct and local impacts. Through a praxis/reflective approach, we discuss this complexity and the various ethical issues associated with marketing and managing LCT. In order to provide context and clarification of the LCT concept, we use one of the most evocative symbols of climate change, the polar bears of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, as a source of empirical evidence and a foundation for exploring ethical considerations. (Au)

R, I, J, E, S, G
Bioclimatology; Climate change; Economic development; Effects monitoring; Endangered species; Environmental impacts; Ethics; Management; Marketing; Melting; Polar bears; Sea ice; Social change; Social surveys; Socio-economic effects; Sustainable economic development; Tourist trade; Wildlife habitat

G0824
Churchill, Manitoba


Coping with change and vulnerability : a case study of resident attitudes toward tourism in Cambridge Bay and Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada   /   Stewart, E.J.   Draper, D.   Dawson, J.
In: Polar tourism : human, environmental and governance dimensions / Edited by P.T. Maher, E.J. Stewart and M. Lück. - Putnam Valley, N.Y. : Cognizant Communication, 2011, ch. 3, p. 33-53, ill., maps
References.
ASTIS record 76195.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Nunavummiut, the Inuit people of Nunavut, have been exposed to unprecedented sociocultural, economic, political, and environmental change since the latter half of the 20th century (Nuttall, 1998; Nuttall & Callaghan, 2000), making change a normal state of being for the communities of Canada’s most northerly territory. However, it is the warming global climate that has thrust the Arctic and its residents into the international limelight. This is because the Arctic will experience the effects of a warming climate first, and more acutely, than anywhere else on earth (Arctic Climate Impact Assessment [ACIA], 2004). Although the long-term implications of climate change for Inuit only are partially known, many claim that changes to the Arctic environment are already threatening to undermine indigenous human rights (Nuttall, Forest, & Mathiesen, 2008). In this respect, global climate change is claimed to pose serious challenges for many aspects of northern life (Ford, Smit, & Wandel, 2006; Smit & Wandel, 2006). However, little is known about the implications of climate change for the continued development of tourism in the Canadian Arctic. This absence of research is a travesty for those residents in Nunavut who rely either wholly on tourism for their income or partially for supplementary income. It was largely the cold climate, ice, snow, wildlife, and indigenous people that attracted tourists to Nunavut in the first place (Stewart, Draper, & Johnston, 2005). Ironically, in light of a warming climate, now it appears that more tourists want to visit these polar landscapes before they are gone forever. The irony lies in the fact that long-haul air travel necessary to reach these remote Arctic locations means that tourists are contributing to the demise of the places they visit. Termed “last chance” tourism in the popular media, this rush to the Arctic may have important short-, medium and long-term consequences for tourism in Nunavut. However, the nature of wise consequences is poorly understood. Some commentators suggest that a warming may permit easier access (Furgal & Prowse, 2008), allowing “last chance” tourists to see icebergs and polar bears before it is too late, and providing Nunavut with opportunities to benefit economically, at least in the short to medium term. Other commentators are more cautious, indicating that climate change may be problematic and more variable for tourism in northern communities in the long term than was previously imagined (Stewart, Howell, Draper, Yackel, & Tivy, 2007). Despite the susceptibility to global climate change of both the tourism industry and the residents that tourism supports, there has been limited research incorporating resident attitudes about current and future tourism development in Nunavut. Using the concepts of social adaptation and vulnerability, this chapter presents a case study of resident attitudes toward tourism in two Nunavut communities. The chapter begins with a brief overview of these concepts and outlines how this perspective is useful in understanding tourism in light of the changing Arctic environment. This overview provides a basis for understanding the vulnerability of tourism across Nunavut in general, and specifically in the case study communities of Cambridge Bay and Pond Inlet. The ways in which residents of these two communities assess the current and future nature of tourism in their own localities is presented. (Au)

R, J, T, E, L, G
Adaptability (Psychology); Climate change; Culture (Anthropology); Economic conditions; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Human ecology; Inuit; Marine navigation; Public opinion; Sea ice; Ships; Social change; Socio-economic effects; Tourist trade

G0813, G081
Cambridge Bay (Settlement), Nunavut; Canadian Arctic waters; Pond Inlet (Hamlet), Nunavut


Polar tourism : human, environmental and governance dimensions   /   Maher, P.T. [Editor]   Stewart, E.J. [Editor]   Lück, M. [Editor]
Putnam Valley, N.Y. : Cognizant Communication, 2011.
xi, 306 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
ISBN 978-1-882345-55-7
References.
ASTIS record 76193.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The academic study of tourism has become well established over the last few decades, leading to important developments in theory, policy, and practice in many disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. Yet in an otherwise growing literature, authored monographs and edited volumes on tourism and the activities of tourists and tourism operators in the polar regions have, until recently, remained few and far between relative to the extensive work carried out in other regions of the globe. The gaps are gradually being filled in, however, and more scholars are turning their attention to tourism in the Arctic and Antarctic as both phenomenon and process. This cohesive and solid book, ably edited by Patrick Maher, Emma Stewart, and Michael Luck, makes a distinctive contribution to this emerging body of work by focusing on human, environmental, and governance issues, and by bringing together a group of scholars noted for the original empirical work they do on some of the most pressing issues surrounding tourism and its social, political, economic, and environmental dimensions. Tourism in the polar regions has undergone dramatic growth over the last decade or so, with both the Arctic and Antarctic becoming increasingly popular destinations. Areas that saw relatively few tourists 20 years ago are now experiencing a rapid rise in the seasonal appearance of sojourners, who mainly arrive during the summer months. Tourism is increasingly seen by regional and national authorities as an important aspect of economic development and is being readily encouraged. Greenland's government, for instance, made tourism one of three focus areas for its development strategy in 1991, and tourist numbers have risen 10-fold since then. The polar regions represent, in the public imagination at least, some of the last wilderness places left on earth. Marketed as remote, cold, pristine, and untouched, the Arctic and Antarctic promise to offer something different to the tourist in terms of experiencing extraordinary environments and, in the Far North, unique indigenous cultures. ... Global climate change ... adds a sense of urgency for those with dreams of traveling to the Arctic or Antarctic, and tour operators play on this by marketing their tours as something that people may not be able to experience once the snow vanishes, the ice shelves break up, and the ice sheets melt. This notion of “last chance tourism” is only beginning to be studied by the academic community (see Lemelin, Dawson, Stewart, Maher, & Luck, in press). There is growing global interest in the polar regions, and both the Arctic and Antarctic have moved to the center of debate about global environmental change, global warming, sovereignty, resource development, and the sustainability of indigenous and local livelihoods. How will tourism develop in these parts of the world in the future? The chapters in this volume contribute to debates in basic and applied approaches to the study of tourism, but they speak specifically to the importance of research into the possible environmental, economic, and cultural impacts of tourism and appropriate management structures and policies that need to be adopted if tourism in the polar regions is to develop into something that can occur in the best interests of communities, wildlife, and the environment. (Au)

R, J, T, E
Climate change; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Ethics; Human ecology; Native peoples; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Tourist trade

G01
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Polar regions


A matter of good fortune? The grounding of the Clipper Adventurer in the Northwest Passage, Arctic Canada   /   Stewart, E.J.   Dawson, J.
(Arctic, v. 64, no. 2, June 2011, p. 263-267, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 74024.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic64-2-263.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic4113
Libraries: ACU

... Because of its hazardous ice conditions, the Canadian Arctic was a latecomer to the burgeoning polar cruise industry: the first cruise was offered in 1984. Since 2006, some regions, especially the Northwest Passage, have witnessed considerable growth in this sector. Despite this growth, cruise operators in Arctic Canada have kept a good human safety profile, although there is a "lengthy record and anecdotal history of groundings and other bumbles" (Jones, 1999:31). In August 1996, for example, the Hanseatic ran aground in the Simpson Strait, perforating two of the ship's fuel reservoirs, and all 153 passengers had to be evacuated by helicopter (Grenier, 2004). The latest of these incidents came in August 2010, when the Clipper Adventurer grounded on an underwater cliff in Coronation Gulf in the Northwest Passage. Although there was no loss of life or environmental catastrophe, the incident showed the stark reality of the individual, cultural, and environmental risks associated with polar travel, and it should send a warning to decision makers about the complexities of managing and governing cruise activities in Arctic waters. After an overview of Arctic cruise trends in Canada, we explore briefly what happened to the Clipper Adventurer during the summer of 2010 and comment on the implications of that incident for the governance of cruise tourism in Arctic Canada, particularly in relation to safety issues ... (Au)

R, L, D, B, G
Accidents; Amundsen (Ship); Bathymetry; Canadian Coast Guard; Government regulations; Hydrographic surveys; Icebreakers; Intrusions (Geology); Marine navigation; Marine transportation; Risk assessment; Safety; Sea ice; Search and rescue; Ships; Sonar; Temporal variations; Tourist trade

G0815
Coronation Gulf, Nunavut; Northwest Passage


Climate change and cruise tourism in Arctic Canada   /   Dawson, J.   Stewart, E.J.   Pentelow, L.J.   Smit, B.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. LM9.4-6.4, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71569.
Languages: English

Changes in seasonal climate patterns, including a decrease in sea ice thickness and abundance has facilitated an increase in navigable cruise shipping routes in certain regions of Arctic Canada. As a result, the number of cruise itineraries to the Canadian Arctic doubled between 2005 and 2006 and increased by an additional 14% between 2007 and 2009. Cruise itineraries scheduled for the upcoming 2010 season are similar to those observed last season but include the addition of three cruise vessels that have not traditionally operated in the Canadian Arctic. Despite observed growth in Arctic Canada's polar expedition cruising market, little is known about the implications that tourism development may have for local residents or regional communities. This presentation outlines the results of on-going research, which seeks to understand the risks and opportunities associated with changing environmental conditions that are influencing development of the cruise tourism sector in Arctic Canada. Specifically, the presentation will include: 1) outline of sea ice change in the region, 2) analysis of changing Arctic cruise itineraries between 2005 and 2010 including routes taken by cruise vessels, as well as communities and other locations visited, 3) inventory of institutional bodies and policy frameworks that regulate cruise tourism in Arctic Canada, and 4) discussion of existing opportunities and barriers to future cruise tourism development. Keywords: climate change, Arctic Canada, cruise tourism, management. (Au)

R, G, T, E, L
Climate change; Community development; Economic development; Effects of climate on ice; Expeditions; Inuit; Management; Marine navigation; Maritime law; Public participation; Risk assessment; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Ships; Socio-economic effects; Temporal variations; Thickness; Tourist trade; Villages

G081
Canadian Arctic


Resident attitudes toward cruise tourism in Nunavut, Arctic Canada   /   Stewart, E.J.   Dawson, J.   Draper, D.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. EM9.4-6.2, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71363.
Languages: English

Since 2006 cruise traffic has increased across Canada's most northerly territory, Nunavut. To date, the region's busiest cruise season was 2008 during which an estimated 26 separate cruises carried approximately 2,400 passengers to community and shore locations. With a warming climate and a reduced sea ice cover of Arctic waters some suggest this trajectory of growth will continue. However, very little is known about local attitudes toward this burgeoning sector. This presentation aims to describe the general growth patterns and variability of cruise tourism activities in Nunavut, as well as highlight resident attitudes toward the localised effects of the cruise phenomenon. The results are drawn from case studies of two Nunavut communities that have experienced different volumes of cruise activity since the first cruise to Nunavut in 1984. The Inuit community of Pond Inlet on the northern shores of Baffin Island is the most visited Nunavut cruise destination, while Cambridge Bay in the Kitikmeot is emerging as an important stopping off point for an increasing number of passengers travelling the Northwest Passage. The case studies presented utilise Butler's (1975) four cell typology to help classify resident attitudes toward tourism. The typology depicts attitudes toward tourism according to one of four proto-typical forms depending on (a) resident attitudes measured along a 'positive-negative' continuum and (b) resident behaviour measured along an 'active-passive' continuum. In Cambridge Bay, the least developed of the two communities, resident attitudes tended to gravitate toward the passive-favourable dimensions of the typology. By contrast, in Pond Inlet attitudes were more variable with some individuals expressing varying degrees of resistance toward cruise tourism. The presentation suggests that if local people are to become engaged participants in cruise tourism development in Arctic Canada, resident attitudes and aspirations need to be articulated, respected and acted upon. Keywords: tourism, resident attitudes, cruise, Nunavut. (Au)

R, T, L
Inuit; Public opinion; Ships; Socio-economic effects; Tourist trade

G0813, G0815, G09
Cambridge Bay (Settlement), Nunavut; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Northwest Passage; Pond Inlet (Hamlet), Nunavut


Cruise tourism and sea ice in Canada's Hudson Bay region   /   Stewart, E.J.   Tivy, A.   Howell, S.E.L.   Dawson, J.   Draper, D.
(Arctic, v. 63, no. 1, Mar. 2010, p. 57-66, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 69630.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic63-1-57.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic647
Libraries: ACU

Tourism in the Hudson Bay region of central northern Canada generally is associated with non-consumptive forms of nature-based activities (such as polar bear viewing). However, the region has experienced variable growth in the cruise sector in recent years. This paper examines patterns of cruise activity in all subregions of the Hudson Bay region during three cruise seasons (2006, 2008, and 2009) and mainly reveals a pattern of decline. Since the prevalence of sea ice is an important part of visitor experiences of polar cruises, we examine sea ice change and occurrence of icebergs in the Hudson Bay region. Our sea ice analysis suggests that the length of the navigable shipping season is increasing in this region, which may facilitate both earlier and later shipping. But in terms of cruise traffic, we suggest that the demise of ice coverage signals a possible decline in cruise activity in most of the Hudson Bay region because ice-supported wildlife may shift north with the diminishing ice regime. Given the possible environmental and socio-cultural implications of changing cruise activity patterns in the Arctic and the absence of broad-scale monitoring and surveillance of the industry, use of these available data sources is vital to building a clearer picture. (Au)

R, L, G, E, J
Animal distribution; Canadian Coast Guard; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Effects of climate on ice; Environmental impacts; Formation; Ice forecasting; Ice navigation; Icebergs; Islands; Marine transportation; Marketing; Melting; Passive microwave remote sensing; Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Search and rescue; Seasonal variations; Ships; Socio-economic effects; Temporal variations; Thermodynamics; Tourist trade; Wildlife habitat

G0814, G0813, G0826, G0815, G0827, G09, G0824
Akpatok Island, Nunavut; Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Baffin Island waters, Nunavut; Baffin Island, Nunavut; Churchill, Manitoba; Hudson Bay; Hudson Bay region; Labrador Sea; Labrador waters; Northwest Passage; Nunatsiavut, Labrador; Nunavik, Québec


Framework for assessing adaptation in Arctic communities to changes in tourism as climate change opens up Arctic cruise opportunities   /   Dawson, J.   Stewart, E.J.   Johnston, M.E.   Andrachuk, M.   Lemelin, H.R.   Smit, B.   Maher, P.
In: ArcticNet programme 2009 : annual scientific meeting, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. = ArcticNet programme 2009 : réunion scientifique annuelle, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2009, p. 90-91
Abstract of a poster presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 73256.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arcticnetmeetings.ca/asm2009/docs/asm2009_programme_long.pdf
Libraries: ACU

This poster presents a framework to analyze the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of communities to tourism, and of the tourism industry itself, to various changes including climate change. An assessment of both industry and community is essential in order to fully understand the current and future reality of tourism and the impacts tourism change may have on Arctic communities. The approach underscores the importance of understanding adaptation from the perspective of the local community, local and non-local stakeholders, and local decision-makers, while simultaneously recognizing the vulnerability of the tourism industry. Research in the Canadian Arctic has documented Inuit sensitivities to changing climatic, economic, social and political conditions. Much of the research on climate change has focused on impacts, despite the established need for research that contributes to community adaptation to changes that are already underway. A decrease in sea ice thickness and extent is currently influencing an increase in navigable cruise shipping routes in certain regions of Arctic Canada, including north Baffin and the Northwest Passage. Despite observations of growth in the polar expedition cruising market, little is known about the implications of increased cruise activity for communities in Arctic Canada. The framework considers the numerous social, economic, cultural and political stimuli that additionally influence vulnerability and adaptive capacity of communities in a context of on-going environmental and social change. Tourism is an industry that holds economic promise for small, northern communities and is seen by many northern communities as an important option in their efforts towards attaining sustainable economies. Yet, tourism is an industry that is influenced by a range of local and global factors, making it inherently unstable and vulnerable to change through both internal (i.e. local acceptance, management, formal and informal institutional arrangements) and external stressors (i.e. 911, SARS, pandemics, social trends). The economic opportunities could be significant for communities experiencing increased visitation, but due to the rapid increase in cruise traffic, social and environmental sustainability of local communities is currently compromised and requires careful consideration and adaptive community planning. (Au)

R, E, S, L, D, G, J
Adaptability (Psychology); Climate change; Community development; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Ice cover; Marine navigation; Melting; Planning; Sea ice; Ships; Socio-economic effects; Sustainable economic development; Tourist trade

G081
Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters


The sinking of the MS Explorer : implications for cruise tourism in Arctic Canada   /   Stewart, E.J.   Draper, D.
(Arctic, v. 61, no. 2, June 2008, p. 224-228, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 64339.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic61-2-224.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic68
Libraries: ACU

Built in 1969, and affectionately known as "the little red ship," the MS Explorer was the first vessel specifically designed for transport of passengers in the polar regions .... Under the name Lindblad Explorer, she took passengers to Antarctica in the 1969-70 austral summer (Splettstoesser, 2000), and in 1984 she was the first ship to take visitors through the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic. These achievements earned the Explorer an esteemed reputation in the niche polar travel sector. Ironically, however, the Explorer was also the first cruise ship to sink in polar waters, off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, in November 2007 .... This incident is a sad tribute to the veteran polar cruise ship and a concern for all who support responsible tourism in Antarctica and who care about the conservation of the Antarctic environment. A major incident involving a cruise vessel, such as this, came as little surprise; it was an accident some observers had predicted was waiting to happen (Stewart and Draper, 2006). This prediction was premised on the facts that the number of cruise vessels operating in both the Arctic and Antarctic had been increasing and that, since 2000, large cruise liners that were not ice-strengthened had entered the Antarctic cruise market. What came as a surprise was that the first sinking was of a veteran ice-strengthened vessel designed and purposely outfitted for polar travel. Even more surprising was that, at the time of the incident, the cruise ship was operating in seemingly benign ice and calm weather conditions. This essay provides an overview of polar cruise tourism trends, highlighting the important role played by the ill-fated Explorer and describing briefly what happened to her in Antarctica, and comments on the implications of the incident for cruise tourism in light of climate warming in the Arctic. ... (Au)

L, R, W, V, J
Calving (Ice); Climate change; Emergency planning; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Expeditions; Government regulations; History; Ice navigation; Ice shelves; Icebergs; Icebreakers; Maintenance; Marine pollution; Oil spills; Planning; Safety; Sea ice; Search and rescue; Ships; Shipwrecks; Socio-economic effects; Specifications; Testing; Tourist trade; Travels

G15, G0815, G0813
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters; Arctic waters; Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters; Northwest Passage


Sea ice in Canada's Arctic : implications for cruise tourism   /   Stewart, E.J.   Howell, S.E.L.   Draper, D.   Yackel, J.   Tivy, A.
(Arctic, v. 60, no. 4, Dec. 2007, p. 370-380, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 62962.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic60-4-370.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic194
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

Although cruise travel to the Canadian Arctic has grown steadily since 1984, some commentators have suggested that growth in this sector of the tourism industry might accelerate, given the warming effects of climate change that are making formerly remote Canadian Arctic communities more accessible to cruise vessels. Using sea-ice charts from the Canadian Ice Service, we argue that Global Climate Model predictions of an ice-free Arctic as early as 2050-70 may lead to a false sense of optimism regarding the potential exploitation of all Canadian Arctic waters for tourism purposes. This is because climate warming is altering the character and distribution of sea ice, increasing the likelihood of hull-penetrating, high-latitude, multi-year ice that could cause major pitfalls for future navigation in some places in Arctic Canada. These changes may have negative implications for cruise tourism in the Canadian Arctic, and, in particular, for tourist transits through the Northwest Passage and High Arctic regions. (Au)

R, L, G, E
Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Environmental impacts; Forecasting; Ice cover; Ice navigation; Icebreakers; Marine navigation; Melting; Planning; Sea ice; Ships; Socio-economic effects; Spatial distribution; Temporal variations; Thickness; Tourist trade

G081
Canadian Arctic waters; Northwest Passage


A review of tourism research in the polar regions   /   Stewart, E.J.   Draper, D.   Johnston, M.E.
(Arctic, v. 58, no. 4, Dec. 2005, p. 383-394, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 58153.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic58-4-383.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic452
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

Polar travel has grown dramatically in the last two decades and in recent years has become the focus of academic inquiry. Using a model initially developed for understanding the nature of culture, action, and knowledge in the development of human geography, we explore the nature, scale, and scope of research related to tourism in the Arctic and the Antarctic. We take a comparative approach to highlight the tourism issues that are largely similar in the two polar regions. Polar tourism research appears to cluster around four main areas: tourism patterns, tourism impacts, tourism policy and management, and tourism development. By assessing these emerging research clusters, we identify research gaps and potentially fruitful lines of inquiry. (Au)

R, J, T, I
Animal diseases; Education; Environmental impacts; Expeditions; Government regulations; Human ecology; Management; Native peoples; Planning; Psychology; Research; Research funding; Research personnel; Scientists; Social interaction; Socio-economic effects; Sustainable economic development; Tourist trade

G01, G0824, G13
Antarctic regions; Churchill, Manitoba; Norway; Polar regions; Svalbard


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