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The ASTIS database cites the following 9 publication(s) by Martin Raillard. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Vegetation mapping of Banks Island with particular reference to Aulavik National Park   /   Larter, N.C.   Raillard, M.   Epp, H.   Nagy, J.A.
Yellowknife, N.W.T. : Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources, 2009.
ix, 35 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(File report - Northwest Territories. Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources, no.138)
References.
ASTIS record 68466.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data were used to classify vegetation types on Banks Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Digital image enhancements were used to classify land cover types by entering information from 531 training areas, including 359 within the boundaries of Aulavik National Park (ANP), visited during summers 1993-1997. A draft classification was verified by a ground inspection of 201 sites. The resulting map had a 25 m resolution and was differentiated into 10 land cover classes. Accuracy assessment of the classification ranged from 67-100%, averaging ca. 90% over all verified plots. The 10 land cover classes included: sedge-dominated dry tundra (covering 22.2% of Banks Island); wet sedge meadow (20.6%); hummock tundra (15.3%); mesic meadow (10.6%); stony/sandy barren (8.7%); grass-dominated dry tundra (8.2%); successional dry tundra (3.8%); water/snow/ice (5.7%); bare ground (3.6%); and unclassified/clouds and shadow (1.3%). The classification was most accurate when classes could be differentiated by microtopography, as with hummock tundra (97% accuracy), or by the presence of surface water, as for wet sedge meadows (95% accuracy). The accuracy was reduced when classes were distinguished by abundance and composition of plant cover (67-92%). Nevertheless, this study indicates that Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data can be used successfully for vegetation mapping over large areas in the mid-Arctic latitudes. Intensive vegetation surveys within ANP reported 11 species of vascular plants new to the park, of which seven were new records for Banks Island. (Au)

H, A, I, J, N
Animal population; Mapping; Meadows; Parks; Plant cover; Plant distribution; Quality assurance; Satellite photography; Sedges; Topography; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G0812
Aulavik National Park, N.W.T.; Banks Island, N.W.T.


High grazing impact, selectivity, and local density of muskoxen in central Ellesmere Island, Canadian High Arctic   /   Raillard, M.   Svoboda, J.
(Arctic, antarctic, and alpine research, v. 32, no. 3, Aug. 2000, p. 278-285, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 48586.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.2307/1552526
Libraries: ACU

Grazing activities and densities of muskoxen in Sverdrup Pass, Central Ellesmere Island, were investigated by use of an automatic camera monitoring system from May to August, 1987 and by direct observation from March to May 1988. Average seasonal density of muskoxen was 6.4 ± 1.9 (S.E.M.) animals/km² resulting in an average of 48.3 ± 5.1 (S.E.M.) % of available shoots grazed in meadow stands. These figures far surpass previous estimates of density or impact of muskoxen in the High Arctic. It shows that in some high arctic plant communities herbivores can reach high densities and have a high impact, even though aerial survey counts of large areas indicate low average animal densities. Muskoxen selected wet and mesic meadow communities between April and August. In March and early April of 1988 muskoxen grazed valley slopes with little snow cover and little vegetation. In total, 82.8% of the grazing time between 18 May and 18 August 1987, was spent in meadows, despite the fact that these communities covered only 31% of the study area. Muskoxen were therefore highly selective grazers. (Au)

I, H, J
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal population; Environmental impacts; Grazing; Meadows; Muskoxen; Wetlands

G0815
Sverdrup Pass, Nunavut


Forage use by muskoxen in High Arctic sedge meadows [L'utilisation du fourrage par les boeufs musqués dans les prés humides de carex dans l'Haut-Arctique]   /   Raillard, M.   Murray, J.   Svoboda, J.
(Student research in Canada's North : proceedings of the Third National Student Conference on Northern Studies, Ottawa, October 23-24, 1991 / Edited by W.O. Kupsch and J.F. Basinger. Musk-ox, no. 39, special publication, 1992, p. 189-195, 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 34135.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

At Sverdrup Pass, central Ellesmere Island, 48.3 per cent of the available shoots in wet sedge meadows were grazed by muskoxen, and 43.7 per cent of these were grazed outside the growing season. Only 4.6 per cent of shoots were grazed during the growing season. The biomass and nutrient distribution in this intensely grazed polar oasis was investigated in detail. The below-ground portion of plants accounted for 94 per cent of the total biomass and 82, 82, and 81 per cent of the total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively. Of the above-ground portion, only the leaf tissue 1.5 cm above the ground/moss surface was available to muskox grazing, which at peak growth accounted for only 2 per cent of the total sedge biomass and 8, 7, and 6 per cent of the total N,P, and K, respectively. Therefore, despite intense grazing, muskoxen affected only a small portion of the overall pool of biomass and nutrients. However, they acted both as a shortcut in the decomposition of organic matter and recycling of nutrients from the above-ground tissue to the soil and as nutrient exporters to other communities. The comparison of the net above- and below-ground primary production of grazed and ungrazed sedge meadows indicates that grazing may stimulate plant production and that high arctic meadow ecosystems can tolerate intense grazing. (Au)

I, H, J
Animal food; Biomass; Grazing; Meadows; Muskoxen; Plant growth; Plant nutrition; Primary production (Biology); Sedges

G0813
Sverdrup Pass, Nunavut


Muskox grazing and biomass/nutrient pool in High Arctic sedge meadows, Sverdrup Pass, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. = Pâturage du boeuf musqué et ensemble biomasse/éléments nutritifs dans les terres humides de l'Extrême Arctique, col Sverdrup, île Ellesmere, T.N.-O.   /   Raillard, M.   Murray, J.   Svoboda, J.
In: Third National Student Conference on Northern Studies : abstracts of papers / Sponsored by Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs and Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies. - Ottawa : ACUNS, 1991, p. 159-160
Abstract only.
ASTIS record 32262.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

Herbivores are traditionally considered to play only a minor role in the breakdown of organic matter and nutrient recycling in high arctic ecosystems. However, at Sverdrup Pass, 43.7% of the available shoots were grazed by muskoxen in wet sedge meadows in the fall, winter and spring of 1986/87. The biomass distribution and nutrient pool of the meadows was investigated. The below ground portion accounted for 94% of the total biomass and 82, 82, and 81% of total N, P, and K, respectively. Aboveground, only the leaf tissue 1.5 cm above the ground/moss surface was available to muskox grazing, which at peak accounted for only 2% of the total sedge biomass and 8, 7 and 6% of the total N, P. and K, respectively. Therefore, muskoxen affected only a small portion of the overall pool of biomass and nutrients. However, they acted as a shortcut in both the decomposition of organic matter and the recycling of nutrients from the aboveground plant tissue to the soil. Results indicate that the carrying capacity for herbivores in high arctic meadows may be higher than previously assumed. Large below ground biomass, and a variety of feedback processes allow the plants to cope with grazing. (Au)

H, I, J
Animal ecology; Animal food; Biodegradation; Biomass; Muskoxen; Plant nutrition; Sedges; Tundra ecology

G0813
Sverdrup Pass, Nunavut


Muskox winter feeding strategies at Sverdrup Pass, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T.   /   Raillard, M.   Svoboda, J.
(Student research in Canada's North : proceedings of the Second National Student Conference on Northern Studies, Ottawa, November 23-24, 1988 / Edited by J.F. Basinger and W.O. Kupsch. Musk-ox, no. 37, Winter 1989, p. 86-92, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 34284.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Winter grazing patterns and habitat preferences of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) were studied in March, April, and May 1988 at Sverdrup Pass, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T. (79 08 N; 80 30 W). Muskoxen selected land with shallow snow (P <0.05) in March and early April. Later, the snow temperature increased and the animals were able to penetrate the snow crust. Beginning in late April muskoxen selected lusher areas with deeper snow cover. Snow-penetrability, which combines snow depth and snow hardness, was measured with a Swiss Ramsonde. A snow penetrability map was produced for an area of 4 km². It shows large differences in snow conditions among plant communities. While 40% of the area was snow free for most of the winter, many sites had more than 20 cm of very hard snow. The lushest stands, the wet sedge meadows, could not be reached until April. Muskoxen dug for food in snow mainly with their front hooves at a rate of 610 ±69.0 (SE) strokes per hour of uninterrupted grazing. They uncovered and grazed an average of 21 ±7.4 (SE) m² in this time. Available forage in these areas averaged 31 ±4.7 (SE) g/m². A total of 57 ±3.8 (SE) % of this biomass was used. Muskoxen consumed 374 ±129.2 (SE) g per hour of uninterrupted grazing. Daily food consumption in meadows is estimated to be 2752 ±951.0 (SE) g. Implications for muskox population regulations are suggested and discussed. (Au)

I, H, J, F
Animal behaviour; Animal food; Animal population; Biomass; Grazing; Muskoxen; Snow; Wildlife habitat; Winter ecology

G0813
Sverdrup Pass, Nunavut


Niche differentiation of Carex aquatilis var. stans and Eriophorum triste sharing the wet meadow habitat in Sverdrup Pass, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T.   /   Daly, T.   Raillard, M.   Svoboda, J.
(Student research in Canada's North : proceedings of the Second National Student Conference on Northern Studies, Ottawa, November 23-24, 1988 / Edited by J.F. Basinger and W.O. Kupsch. Musk-ox, no. 37, Winter 1989, p. 68-75, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 34282.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Two dominant sedge species, Eriophorum triste and Carex aquatilis var. stans, occur each as almost pure stands and co-exist in various proportions throughout the wet sedge meadows in Sverdrup Pass. These species are morphologically highly convergent. However, the fact that they co-exist suggests that competition between them is minimized through niche differentiation. Opposite trends of shoot density across four different edaphic parameters suggest that niche differentiation is occurring. This is especially apparent for peat depth. A significant difference was also found between the depth of rhizomes where the two species occur together. Comparative phenometric and demographic measurements indicate significant differences in shoot growth rates, shoot die back, and degree of rhizomatous spreading between Carex aquatilis var. stans and Eriophorum triste. The importance of such differentiation in growth strategies is related to observations that muskoxen preferentially graze Carex-dominated stands in the summer and Eriophorum-dominated stands in the winter. It is suggested that niche differentiation, in combination with selective seasonal grazing by muskoxen, are two important mechanisms maintaining the co-existence of these species in Sverdrup Pass. (Au)

H, J, I
Grazing; Meadows; Muskoxen; Peat; Plant distribution; Plant growth; Sedges; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat

G0813
Sverdrup Pass, Nunavut


New fossil forest site at Irene Bay, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T.   /   Thurston, T.   Raillard, M.   Svoboda, J.
(Student research in Canada's North : proceedings of the Second National Student Conference on Northern Studies, Ottawa, November 23-24, 1988 / Edited by J.F. Basinger and W.O. Kupsch. Musk-ox, no. 37, Winter 1989, p. 98-102, ill., 2 maps)
References.
ASTIS record 29177.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

An extensive locality with several sites containing scattered remains of fossilized tree stumps and branches was discovered at the northern fringes of Irene Bay (79 04 N; 81 35 to 81 50 W) in June 1988. The fossilized wood appears as pale orange "rock" outcrops. They contrast with a dark substrate of rolling hills which steeply rise from the Bay and are vegetated by prostrate shrubs of arctic willow at present. In some areas the stumps are clustered indicating the position, aspect and tree density of ancient forest stands. In other situations they emerge in layers from the stratified sediments, being exposed by ongoing slope erosion. There are also single stumps present in the area. The largest tree stump found was 64 cm in diameter and had 22 growth rings per cm. Its lifespan was estimated around 700 years. In contrast pieces of petrified wood with growth rings up to 7 mm thick were also found suggesting a fast growing tree variety in a moist environment. The texture of the wood, although highly petrified, is well preserved with relatively little pressure deformation. Many stumps are inbedded in a black carbonized granulate matter believed to be a former litter or peat layer. No discernable structures such as cones, leaf or twig remains were identified in this material to this date. (Au)

B, H
Aspect; Fossil forests; Palaeobotany; Plant growth

G0813
Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Irene Bay region, Nunavut


Snow, temperature, and moisture regime in selected muskoxen grazed communities, Sverdrup Pass, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T.   /   Thurston, T.   Raillard, M.
(Student research in Canada's North : proceedings of the Second National Student Conference on Northern Studies, Ottawa, November 23-24, 1988 / Edited by J.F. Basinger and W.O. Kupsch. Musk-ox, no. 37, Winter 1989, p. 43-53, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 29133.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Parameters related to snow, near the ground temperatures, and soil moisture qualities in three major plant communities grazed by muskoxen: arctic willow, mesic and wet sedge meadow, were investigated in the summer of 1987 and 1988. This paper supports a larger study on muskoxen impact on vegetation within the same study area. Snow measurements were carried out during the arctic spring of 1987, and included snow depth, cover, density, and temperature. Snow depth and cover was insignificantly greater in the willow than in the meadow stands. Both communities shared a similar exponential melt pattern. Snow temperatures were significantly similar between willow and wet meadow stands initially displaying a range in temperature from top to bottom of 11° C which gradually decreased to about 5° C (when 0° C at snow surface), as melt progressed. Also, as snow temperature increased, snow density increased in both communities from 0.30 g/ml to about 0.48 g/ml above the ground ice. (Au)

H, J, F, E, C, I
Animal food; Arctic willows; Atmospheric temperature; Density; Meadows; Muskoxen; Sedges; Snow; Snowmelt; Soil moisture; Temperature; Thickness; Tundra ecology

G0813
Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Sverdrup Pass, Nunavut


Muskox activity patterns and plant community preferences on central Ellesmere Island   /   Raillard, M.   Rahn, T.   Svoboda, J.
In: Student research in Canada's North : Proceedings of the National Student Conference on Northern Studies, November 18-19, 1986 / Edited by W. Peter Adams and Peter G. Johnson. - Ottawa : ACUNS, 1988, p. 396-398
References.
Abstract in English and French.
ASTIS record 28335.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

An intensive study of muskoxen grazing was conducted in a selected portion of Sverdrup Pass in July 1986. The Pass is a deglaciated valley between two major ice fields. It connects the extensive range of muskoxen at Fosheim Peninsula with the vegetated lowlands at the east coast in the Bache Peninsula horseshoe. The valley is fairly vegetated mainly by stands of willow communities and some sedge meadows which support the migrating herds. The population of muskoxen was 54 animals during the July 17, 1986 census. For the purpose of this study a representative cross-section of the valley (ca. 8 km2) was chosen in the central part of the Pass and a vegetation map of this "Intensive Study Site" (ISS) was outlined. A lookout was established on an elevated but hidden place from which the entire ISS could be observed on a 24 hour basis. The presence, position and activity (grazing, resting, moving) was observed every hour between 8.00 - 22.00 and every two hours between 22.00 - 8.00 and recorded on the map. From the collected data the following information was extracted: The animal migration patterns, preference for plant communities, mean rate of travel, mean occupation time within the ISS and preferred communities. From the beginning till mid- July the animals grazed mainly in the willow stands, later meadows were more utilized. Many stands were visited by the migrating herds repeatedly and grazed intensively. Our observations suggest that the vegetation of the Sverdrup Pass is under severe grazing pressure. However a dynamic equilibrium has been established between muskox population and the vegetation complexes and is maintained by the positive plant - herbivore interactions. (Au)

I, H, J
Animal behaviour; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal migration; Meadows; Muskoxen; Plants (Biology); Sedges; Willows

G0813
Sverdrup Pass, Nunavut


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