The ASTIS database cites the following 11 publication(s) by Dave Norton. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.

Observations on shorefast ice dynamics in Arctic Alaska and the responses of the Iņupiat hunting community   /   George, J.C.   Huntington, H.P.   Brewster, K.   Eicken, H.   Norton, D.W.   Glenn, R.
(Human dimensions of the Arctic system / Edited by H.P. Huntington. Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 363-374, ill.)
ASTIS record 55066.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic514
Libraries: ACU

Although shorefast sea ice forms a platform that facilitates travel, camping, and hunting by Iņupiat subsistence hunters and fishers in the western Arctic, the nearshore sea-ice zone remains an unforgiving and dynamic environment. Traditional hunters constantly hone site-specific experiences and skills with which to optimize the reward-to-risk ratio inherent in operating from this coastal ice. Nearshore ice conditions nevertheless can change suddenly, endangering even the most experienced subsistence hunters. This study examines two (of several) 20th-century events, 40 years apart, in which shorefast ice failed, threatening Iņupiat whale hunters with loss of confidence, livelihood, and life. These events differed in character. In one event, the shorefast ice was "crushed" by moving ice floes. In the other, the shorefast ice broke free of land. Our examination focuses on the relationship of subsistence hunters to the ice, the environmental causes of ice failures, the evolving technology for predicting ice behavior, and the longer-term implications of global change for this system. The complexity of geophysical processes underlying coastal ice behavior makes ice failures unpredictable. Thus, hunters must assume and manage risk. The variable and uncertain environment to which whale hunters are accustomed has produced an inherent flexibility that has helped them adapt to new conditions and will continue to do so in the future. (Au)

G, D, E, F, T, N, R, L, V
Breakup; Calving (Ice); Climate change; Fast ice; Forecasting; Formation; Fracturing; Ice floes; Ice leads; Inuit; Mass balance; Mechanical properties; Movement; Ocean currents; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Oral history; Pack ice; Polynyas; Pressure ridges; Radio; Risk assessment; Safety; SAR; Satellites; Sea level; Search and rescue; Social change; Social surveys; Storm surges; Storms; Subsistence; Tides; Traditional knowledge; Velocity; Water masses; Whaling; Winds

Chukchi Sea

Drift velocities of ice floes in Alaska's northern Chukchi Sea flaw zone : determinants of success by spring subsistence whalers in 2000 and 2001   /   Norton, D.W.   Gaylord, A.G.
(Human dimensions of the Arctic system / Edited by H.P. Huntington. Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 347-362, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 55065.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic513
Libraries: ACU

By March each year, coast-influenced sea ice in Alaska's northern Chukchi Sea consists of the shorefast ice itself plus ice floes moving in a zone that extends from immediately beyond the shorefast ice to coherent pack ice, some 100 km farther offshore. Because westward-drifting polar pack ice encounters fewer landmasses (and less resistance from them) once it passes Point Barrow, a semipermanent polynya or flaw zone dominates coastal ice in this region. Iņupiat residents use open water in flaw leads to hunt migrating bowhead whales from mid-April to early June. Although Iņupiat hunters grasp the nature and importance of ice in motion beyond their horizon, the flaw zone has received less scientific attention than either shorefast ice or polar pack ice farther offshore. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery is a form of remote sensing recently made available that allows us to address ice movement at a spatial scale familiar to traditional hunters. SAR-tracked ice movements differed between 2000 and 2001, illustrating contrasts between adverse and optimal conditions for spring whaling at Barrow. Case studies of ice-floe accelerations in the two contrasting seasons suggest that many variables influence ice motion. These include weather, seafloor topography, currents, sea-level changes, and events that occurred earlier during an annual accretion of ice. Adequate prediction of threats to ice integrity in the northern Chukchi Sea will require adjustments of our current concepts, including 1) recognizing the pervasive influence of the flaw zone; 2) replacing a focus on vessel safety in ice-dominated waters with an emphasis on ice integrity in high-energy environments; and 3) chronicling ice motions through coordinated ground observation and remote sensing of March-June events in future field studies. (Au)

G, D, E, I, T, N, L
Atmospheric pressure; Boats; Bowhead whales; Fast ice; Forecasting; Geographical positioning systems; Ice floes; Ice leads; Infrared remote sensing; Inuit; Movement; Ocean currents; Pack ice; Polynyas; Risk assessment; Safety; SAR; Satellites; Sea level; Seasonal variations; Spatial distribution; Storm surges; Storms; Submarine topography; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Velocity; Whaling; Winds

G04, G07, G06
Alaskan Beaufort Sea; Barrow region, Alaska; Barrow waters, Alaska; Chukchi Sea

A review of apparent 20th century changes in the presence of mussels (Mytilus trossulus) and macroalgae in Arctic Alaska, and of historical and paleontological evidence used to relate mollusc distributions to climate change   /   Feder, H.M.   Norton, D.W.   Geller, J.B.
(Arctic, v. 56, no. 4, Dec. 2003, p. 391-407, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 52876.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic636
Libraries: ACU

Live mussels attached to fresh laminarioid brown algae, all fastened to clusters of pebbles and small cobbles, were repeatedly cast ashore by autumn storms at Barrow, Alaska, in the 1990s. Specimens of Laminaria saccharina and L. solidungula shorten by 100 km a 500 km gap (Peard Bay to Stefansson Sound) between previously known concentrations of these kelp species. For the genus Mytilus, a 1600 km gap in fully documented locations existed between Kivalina in the southern Chukchi Sea and the Mackenzie River delta. Barrow specimens were identified using a mitochondrial DNA marker as M. trossulus, an identity consistent with dispersal from the Pacific-Bering side of the Arctic. Live mussels and macroalgae were neither washed up by storms nor collected by active biological sampling during extensive benthic surveys at Barrow in 1948-50. We cannot interpret the current presence of these bivalves and macrophytes as Arctic range extensions due to warming, similar to those manifested by the tree line in terrestrial systems and by Pacific salmon in marine environments. Supplemental information and critical evaluation of survey strategies and rationales indicate that changes in sea temperatures are an unlikely cause. Alternative explanations focus on past seafloor disturbances, dispersal from marine or estuarine refugia, and effects of predators on colonists. This review suggests refining some interpretations of environmental change that are based on the extensive resource of Cenozoic fossils of Arctic molluscs. (Au)

I, J, H, E, B, D
Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal population; Animal taxonomy; Benthos; Biological sampling; Cenozoic era; Climate change; Estuarine ecology; Genetics; Identification; Invertebrate larvae; Kelps; Marine ecology; Mussels; Ocean temperature; Ocean waves; Palaeontology; Predation; Refugia; Storms; Temporal variations; Wildlife habitat; Winds

G06, G07, G04
Alaskan Beaufort Sea; Alaskan waters; Barrow region, Alaska; Barrow waters, Alaska; Bering Sea; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Chukchi Sea; Kivalina, Alaska; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Peard Bay, Alaska; Stefansson Sound, Alaska

Coastal sea ice watch : private confessions of a convert to indigenous knowledge   /   Norton, D.W.
In: The earth is faster now : indigenous observations of Arctic environmental change / Edited by Igor Krupnik and Dyanna Jolly. - Fairbanks, Alaska : Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, 2002, p. 126-155, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 49598.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... the following is one duly humble perspective on recent experiences working with members of both the subsistence and research communities. A combination of need and opportunity stimulated formation of an interdisciplinary and intercultural team to design and execute a demonstration project, the subject of which is nearshore sea ice in the western Arctic. Success of this project will be measured in terms of improved capability to predict changes in stability of nearshore ice as a platform for subsistence activities and in terms of methodological contributions. Our research project took shape in early 1999, when colleagues in Barrow, Alaska, were especially concerned with public safety for the hundreds of people who would occupy landfast ice during the annual spring subsistence hunt for the bowhead whale ... in April-June of each year. In mid-May of 1997, a large slab of nearshore sea ice bearing dozens of subsistence whalers had broken loose from landfast ice near Barrow and floated north into the Beaufort Sea. ... North Slope Borough Search and Rescue helicopter pilots plucked all 154 marooned crewmembers from twelve camps on the drifting ice .... With respect to understanding nearshore sea ice, fraternizing with scientists show no sign of displacing traditional knowledge. Nor do scientists' technological shortcuts of satellite imagery, tide gauge data, and measurements of under-ice currents seem as likely to corrupt traditional knowledge as to encourage it. The health of traditional knowledge depends upon continuity, or continued receptivity by coming generations, who must master TEK and pass it on. ... (Au)

T, E, G, N
Climate change; Effects monitoring; Effects of climate on ice; Elders; Environmental impacts; Inuit; Meteorology; Participatory action research; Public participation; Remote sensing; Research; Safety; Satellite photography; Sea ice; Search and rescue; Socio-economic effects; Subsistence; Traditional knowledge; Whaling

G07, G06
Alaskan Beaufort Sea; Barrow region, Alaska

The Barrow Symposium on Sea Ice, 2000 : Evaluation of one means of exchanging information between subsistence whalers and scientists   /   Huntington, H.P.   Brower, H.   Norton, D.W.
(Arctic, v. 54, no. 2, June 2001, p. 201-204, ill.)
ASTIS record 48065.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic780
Libraries: ACU

A Barrow Symposium on Sea Ice (BSSI) was held in early winter 2000. The National Science Foundation (U.S.) funded this symposium as the keystone event in a project designed to ally traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) with formal ice research and remote sensing. The goal of the project was to stimulate substantive interactions between scientists and technicians who study sea ice on one hand, and Inupiat Eskimos (primarily whaling captains and their crews) who use the ice routinely for travel, camping, and hunting, on the other. From different perspectives, at different scales, and for different purposes, the two groups have accumulated extensive knowledge of ice characteristics and dynamics. We evaluate strengths and weaknesses of the workshop format as a means of exchanging information between scientific and traditional knowledge.... To continue to develop the interactions and shared purposes that characterized the BSSI, a core group of participants needs to meet periodically to review progress on sea ice research in the region, and to seek ways to promote further collaboration between ice observers from the subsistence community and scientists. Research on sea ice appears likely to continue to flourish near Barrow. Both whalers and scientists are eager to share information and insights. Facilitating that exchange is not a trivial task. To be successful in the long run, the promising start made by the BSSI needs to be followed up with refinements in collaborative field research, as well as by regular opportunities for scientists and whalers to learn from one another. (Au)

G, T, A
Epistemology; Inuit; Remote sensing; Research; Safety; Science; Sea ice; Traditional knowledge; Whaling

Barrow, Alaska

Theme schools : from manifesto to paradigm for undergraduate students   /   Norton, D.W.   Kassam, K.-A.S.
(Arctic, v. 50, no. 1, Mar. 1997, p. 87-94, ill.)
ASTIS record 39924.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1092
Libraries: ACU

In sciences, when anomalies or discrepant observations generate a crisis, so that the old way of looking at things no longer suffices to explain or predict observable events, scientists construct a new paradigm (Kuhn, 1996). Despite vast differences in our backgrounds and in the attributes of our widely separated home institutions, we have arrived at strikingly similar perceptions of the need to fashion a new paradigm within undergraduate education. By aligning the anomalies and assembling experiences from several correlative efforts within the old paradigm, we have begun to distill some tenets of a coherent rationale for student-centred learning, built around the concepts inherent in a "theme school." These tenets are especially relevant to small, widely dispersed northern communities. Much of the following discussion originates in our shared disappointments with the effectiveness of education by the traditional Euro-American undergraduate paradigm when applied to northern environments and rural communities. Nevertheless, we are not institution-bashing: we owe much, after all, to the institutions that provided us with a point of departure for exploring alternatives and supplements. (Au)

R, T
Arctic Institute of North America; Curricula; Higher education; Intercultural education; Native peoples

G06, G08
Alaska; Canada

Research advances on anadromous fish in Arctic Alaska and Canada : nine papers contributing to an ecological synthesis   /   Norton, D.W. [Editor]
Fairbanks, Alaska : Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, 1989.
165 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Biological papers of the University of Alaska, no. 24)
ASTIS record 55962.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... Slaybaugh, Gallaway, and Baker's description of the databank is the first of nine papers in this volume, and it serves as a link betwen the two components of the Synthesis Project. ... [the formulation of a unified and distilled databank upon which contractors, regulatory agencies, and scientists could draw and the publication of a substantial body of analyses in refereed scientific literature.] The eight papers that follow the one introducing the databank ... survived an external peer review process .... First in this series of eight papers is Peter Craig's review of the strategy of anadromy, or amphidromy, in arctic fishes. It may be argued whether his contribution correctly interprets strategies; it cannot be argued that assessment of the effects of coastal intrusions on andromous fishes is feasible in the absence of some interpretation of the adaptive value of these strategies. In the following paper, Schmidt, Griffiths, and Martin present recent findings on the biological aspects of the impressive ability of arctic fishes to survive arctic winters. This paper pursues one of the important theses advanced in Craig's review, hence its placement here in the sequence. Our ignorance of how anadromous fishes use arctic winter habitats is nearly complete. This paper suggests some approaches to abating this ignorance. The next paper returns to near the core of the issues that have defied resolution since 1975. Habitat utilization in the vicinity of artificial causeways has defined much of the debate underlying this volume. Robert Fechhelm and his coauthors make an indepth analysis of data from the vicinity of the West Dock in Prudhoe Bay. In 1983, a paper was published hypothesizing that all Arctic cisco populations in Alaska are migrants or strays from Canadian stocks that spawn only in the Mackenzie River drainage system (Gallaway et al. 1983, Biol. Pap. Univ. Alaska, No. 21: 4-23). So long as this hypothesis remains plausible, it affects the evaluation of the threats to Arctic cisco posed by causeways. As international resources dependent upon a single drainage system for their reproductive performance, the Arctic cisco populations in Alaska would be more affected by conditions along an obligatory migratory route to and from their habitats in arctic Alaska than if these populations originated from multiple stocks using widely dispersed drainages. Two papers in this sequence address the stock origin theory from different perspectives. Larry Moulton's paper examines the transport of young Arctic cisco along the coast and into the Colville River system in 1985. The paper by John Bickham and coauthors examines the stock origin theory for Arctic cisco from the genetic standpoint. Advocacy for both sides of the issue (particularly that for prohibition of further causeway construction) has placed great emphasis on quantitatively defining summer habitats of anadromous fishes. This habitat evaluation has been carried out in terms of the dynamics of plumes and water mass characteristics, and responses of fish to these changes. Continued use or misuse of habitat evaluation procedures prompted Neill and Gallaway to write the next paper. More than one referee expressed delight that these authors dared to adopt such an unconventional approach in their numerical modeling exercise. One of the justifications that could be made for the extraordinary levels of investment in studies of arctic anadromous fish is the importance of these fish stocks socially and culturally to native residents along the arctic coast. The next paper, by Peter Craig, is a review of what is known about subsistence use of anadromous fish stocks at coastal villages in arctic Alaska. This is an important interdisciplinary contribution, because the investigators who deal with subsistence harvest are traditionally quite separated from the biologists making environmental assessments. The two groups have tended to use different methodology, their reports and documents have gravitated to distinct pools of gray literature, and Craig's paper attempts to bridge this gap. The final paper in this volume is likely to be the one to draw the eventual critical judgment of scientists upon the whole collection. Gallaway, Gazey, and Moulton sum up their collective understanding about Arctic cisco in the form of a population model. The paper ventures long-range predictions about the populations of Arctic cisco as they will be sampled by the commercial fishery of the Colville River. The model presented in this paper is a synthesis of several of the current hypotheses. It stands as a testable statement on just how well the processes governing populations of arctic anadromous fishes are known. As this collection went to press, the fall 1988 fishery on the Colville River was yielding the low numbers of Arctic cisco predicted by the model (L.L. Moulton, J.W. Helmericks, pers. comm.). ... We cannot claim to have closed the information gap. During the 3 years it has taken to prepare the databank and the publication components of the original Synthesis Project, field investigations have continued on Alaska's North Slope. The number of data on arctic anadromous fishes collected annually has exceeded the total number collected in the entire previous decade. The fate of those expensive data is an unresolved question. Some would argue that it is time for the public sector or academia to step forth and assume responsibility for stewardship of this information. It will be up to others to judge the merits of this collection and, in particular, to evaluate the wisdom of setting aside a portion of the cost of massive, continuing technical investigations for investment in synthesis and publication of results. (Au)

I, N, J, D, F, L, T, Q
Adaptation (Biology); Animal distribution; Animal growth; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Arctic char; Biological sampling; Causeways; Coregonus; Databases; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Fish management; Fish spawning; Fisheries; Fishes; Fishing; Forecasting; Fresh-water ecology; Genetics; King salmon; Land use; Marine ecology; Mathematical models; Native peoples; Ocean temperature; Offshore oil well drilling; Pink salmon; Research; Rivers; Seasonal variations; Smelts; Subsistence; Temperature; Temporal variations; Water masses; Wildlife habitat; Winter ecology

G06, G07, G0811, G04, G0812
Alaska; Alaska, Northern; Alaskan Beaufort Sea; Alaskan waters; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Colville River, Alaska; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Yukon River, Alaska/Yukon; Yukon, Northern

Fairbanks Institute for Rural Alaskans   /   Norton, D.W.
(Information north, v. 13, no. 2, Feb. 1987, p. 3)
ASTIS record 21209.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The underlying aim of RAHI when it was set up by several rural Alaskan legislators in 1981-82 was to redress or overcome some severe disadvantages faced by rural Alaska students in trying to complete an undergraduate education. ... It was becoming apparent that native leadership would be called upon urgently to manage the affairs of regional native corporations and other political and cultural units in rural Alaska within the decade. (Au)

R, T
Education; Native peoples; Rural Alaska Honors Institute; University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Fairbanks, Alaska

Beaufort Sea winter watch : ecological processes in the nearshore environment   /   Norton, D.W.
(Arctic project bulletin, no. 29, 1980, p. 1-57, ill.)
Results of meeting addressing winter studies in the coastal Beaufort Sea, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 19-20 March, 1980.
ASTIS record 4503.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... "winter" beginning about 1 October and lasting until 1 July was addressed in this report. The purposes of this report are 1) to articulate our developing understanding of the interplay between physical and biological processes during the defined winter period, 2) to make our best judgements on the sensitivity of the winter events to oil and gas activities, and 3) to formulate specific and general research plans for further winter studies, and non-winter studies suggested by winter results to date. (Au)

J, Q
Environmental impacts; Marine ecology; Petroleum industry; Research; Winter ecology

Alaskan Beaufort Sea

Some relationships between environmental assessments and Arctic marine development   /   Norton, D.W.
In: POAC 79 : the Fifth International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, August 13-18, 1979, proceedings. - [Trondheim, Norway : Norwegian Institute of Technology], 1979, v. 1, p. 407-421, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 5562.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... Alaskan North Slope, coastal and nearshore environmental analyses of the Beaufort Sea, in advance of a proposed oil and gas lease sale there, provide case studies of how ecological understanding can affect technology and the course of arctic marine development. ... The proposition is advanced that thorough, cost-effective ecological and environmental analyses, particularly in the Arctic, are sound investments, for both government and private enterprise. (Au)

Q, J
Environmental impacts; Environmental policy; Offshore oil fields; Petroleum leases; Socio-economic effects

G04, G07, G061
Alaskan waters

Shorebirds and oil development in the Copper River delta area, Alaska   /   Senner, S.E.   Norton, D.W.
In: Science in Alaska 1976 : proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Alaska Science Conference, Fairbanks, Alaska, August 4-7, 1976 / Edited by G.C. West. - Fairbanks, Alaska : Alaska Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, [1978], vol. II, p. 208-295, ill., map
ASTIS record 17840.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Projected activities relating to petroleum and natural gas in Prince William Sound and the northern Gulf of Alaska will include oil tanker traffic to and from Valdez and the exploration and possible development of outer continental shelf lease tracts in the north Gulf. Additionally, a natural gas liquefaction and tanker facility is proposed for Point Gravina, about 25 km northwest of Cordova. If this facility is constructed, there will be a large thermal discharge into the cold waters of Prince William Sound, with unknown consequences for intertidal and marine organisms (Federal Power Commission Staff, 1976). We have established that many millions of Western Sandpipers and Dunlins - representing significant fractions of their species populations - pass through the C-BRD [Copper-Bering River Delta] system. We must now address the more fundamental question of how the migratory shorebirds relate to their intertidal environment. We have done so by considering the food habits of Westerns and Dunlins in the C-BRD system and their physiological condition, in terms of body fat, upon entering and leaving the system. (Au)

I, Q
Animal food; Animal migration; Animal physiology; Dunlins; Environmental impacts; Intertidal zones; Marine ecology; Marine petroleum transportation; Petroleum industry; Sandpipers

G06, G061
Copper Delta, Alaska; Prince William Sound, Alaska

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