AINA Logo
Publications

 

The ASTIS database cites the following 36 publication(s) by Brian Moorman. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Preservation of viral genomes in 700-y-old caribou feces from a Subarctic ice patch   /   Ng, T.F.F.   Chen, L.-F.   Zhou, Y.   Shapiro, B.   Stiller, M.   Heintzman, P.D.   Varsani, A.   Kondov, N.O.   Wong, W.   Deng, X.   Andrews, T.D.   Moorman, B.J.   Meulendyk, T.   MacKay, G.   Gilbertson, R.L.   Delwart, E.
(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v.111, no. 28, 2014, p.10,077-10,082, ill., map)
References.
This article contains supporting information online at www.pnas.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10. 1073/pnas.1410429111/-/DCSupplemental.
ASTIS record 80511.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1073/pnas.1410429111
Libraries: ACU

Viruses preserved in ancient materials provide snapshots of past viral diversity and a means to trace viral evolution through time. Here, we use a metagenomics approach to identify filterable and nuclease-resistant nucleic acids preserved in 700-y-old caribou feces frozen in a permanent ice patch. We were able to recover and characterize two viruses in replicated experiments performed in two different laboratories: a small circular DNA viral genome (ancient caribou feces associated virus, or aCFV) and a partial RNA viral genome (Ancient Northwest Territories cripavirus, or aNCV). Phylogenetic analysis identifies aCFV as distantly related to the plant-infecting geminiviruses and the fungi-infecting Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 and aNCV as within the insect-infecting Cripavirus genus. We hypothesize that these viruses originate from plant material ingested by caribou or from flying insects and that their preservation can be attributed to protection within viral capsids maintained at cold temperatures. To investigate the tropism of aCFV, we used the geminiviral reverse genetic system and introduced a multimeric clone into the laboratory model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. Evidence for infectivity came from the detection of viral DNA in newly emerged leaves and the precise excision of the viral genome from the multimeric clones in inoculated leaves. Our findings indicate that viral genomes may in some circumstances be protected from degradation for centuries. (Au)

B, I, H, F
Animal food; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Caribou; Genetics; Ice patches; Insects; Palaeontology; Plant diseases; Plants (Biology); Viruses

G0812
Selwyn Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon


Diet and habitat of mountain woodland caribou inferred from dung preserved in 5000-year-old alpine ice in the Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Galloway, J.M.   Adamczewski, J.   Schock, D.M.   Andrews, T.D.   MacKay, G.   Bowyer, M.E.   Meulendyk, T.   Moorman, B.J.   Kutz, S.J.
(The archaeology and paleoecology of alpine ice patches. Arctic, v. 65, suppl. 1, 2012, p. 59-79, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 76347.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic65-S-59.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic4185
Libraries: ACU

Alpine ice patches are unique repositories of cryogenically preserved archaeological artefacts and biological specimens. Recent melting of ice in the Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada, has exposed layers of dung accumulated during seasonal use of ice patches by mountain woodland caribou of the ancestral Redstone population over the past ca. 5250 years. Although attempts to isolate the DNA of known caribou parasites were unsuccessful, the dung has yielded numerous well-preserved and diverse plant remains and palynomorphs. Plant remains preserved in dung suggest that the ancestral Redstone caribou population foraged on a variety of lichens (30%), bryophytes and lycopods (26.7%), shrubs (21.6%), grasses (10.5%), sedges (7.8%), and forbs (3.4%) during summer use of alpine ice. Dung palynomorph assemblages depict a mosaic of plant communities growing in the caribou's summer habitat, including downslope boreal components and upslope floristically diverse herbaceous communities. Pollen and spore content of dung is only broadly similar to late Holocene assemblages preserved in lake sediments and peat in the study region, and differences are likely due to the influence of local vegetation and animal forage behaviour. The 5000-year legacy of summer use of alpine ice patches by mountain woodland caribou suggests that these small, long-lived features may be important for the health of caribou populations in the Selwyn/Mackenzie Mountain range. (Au)

I, H, F, B, J, E, U
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal waste products; Artifacts; Bones; Caribou; Climate change; Cores; Ice patches; Indian archaeology; Measurement; North Slavey Indians; Palaeobotany; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeoecology; Palynology; Parasites; Plant taxonomy; Plants (Biology); Radiocarbon dating; Recent epoch; Snow; Snowdrifts; Stratigraphy; Temporal variations; Wildlife habitat

G0812
Selwyn Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon


Morphology and development of ice patches in Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Meulendyk, T.   Moorman, B.J.   Andrews, T.D.   MacKay, G.
(The archaeology and paleoecology of alpine ice patches. Arctic, v. 65, suppl. 1, 2012, p. 43-58, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 76340.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic65-S-43.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic4184
Libraries: ACU

Permanent ice patches in the western Canadian Subarctic have been recently identified as sources of cryogenically preserved artifacts and biological specimens. The formation, composition, and constancy of these ice patches have yet to be studied. As part of the Northwest Territories (NWT) Ice Patch Study, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and ice coring were used to examine the stratigraphy and internal structure of two ice patches. Results show the patches are composed of a core of distinct offset units, up to several metres thick, covered by a blanket of firn and snow. The interfaces between the units of ice are often demarcated by thin sections of frozen caribou dung and fine sediment. Radiocarbon dates of dung extracted from ice cores have revealed a long history for these perennial patches, up to 4400 years BP. Ice patch growth is discontinuous and occurs intermittently. Extensive time gaps exist between the units of ice, indicating that summers of catastrophic melt can interrupt extended periods of net accumulation. The results of this work not only display the character of ice patch development, but also indicate the significant role that ice patches can play in reconstructing the paleoenvironmental conditions of an area. (Au)

F, B, I, J, E
Ablation; Accumulation; Animal distribution; Animal waste products; Antennae; Caribou; Climate change; Coring; Crystals; Firn; Geomorphology; Ground penetrating radar; Ice patches; Mass balance; Measurement; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeoecology; Radiocarbon dating; Recent epoch; Snow; Snowdrifts; Temporal variations

G0812
Keele River region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Selwyn Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Tulita region, N.W.T.


Modeling ground thermal conditions and the limit of permafrost within the nearshore zone of the Mackenzie Delta, Canada   /   Stevens, C.W.   Moorman, B.J.   Solomon, S.M.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.115, F04027, 2010, 13 p., ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 75999.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/2010JF001786
Libraries: ACU

This study examines the interrelated effects of snow and ice on ground thermal conditions beneath regions of shallow water within the nearshore zone of the Mackenzie Delta. Field- and model-based data were used to determine the thermal boundary conditions at the sediment bed surface and to define the contemporary limit of permafrost. Over two consecutive winters, mean sediment bed temperatures deviated up to 9.8°C beneath bottom-fast ice that ranged from 10 cm to 100 cm thick, with intrasite variability as much as 4.7°C. Measured and modeled temperatures were found to exponentially relate to the duration of time ice is bottom-fast with the sediment bed. Mean winter ground temperatures at this boundary were predicted within ±0.25°C of the observed measurements using numerical thermal modeling. As on-ice snow depth decreased, the limit of equilibrium permafrost shifted toward progressively deeper water because of longer durations of ice contact and greater heat loss from the ground. The critical water depth for permafrost under equilibrium conditions was 84 cm (calculated from an ice thickness of 93 cm), which is equivalent to an ice contact time of 142 days. Equilibrium permafrost was mapped beneath 393.8 km² of bottom-fast ice. An additional 387.9 km² exhibited seasonal ground freezing in the winter of 2006-2007. Areas affected by bottom-fast ice represent locations that are actively receiving sediment from distributary channels. These results provide the first estimates of contemporary permafrost distribution for shallow water regions of the outer Mackenzie Delta (Au)

C, B, G, F, Q, E, J
Active layer; Atmospheric temperature; Bathymetry; Bottom sediments; Boundaries; Breakup; Climate change; Coast changes; Effects of climate on permafrost; Fast ice; Formation; Frozen ground; Heat transmission; Mapping; Mathematical models; Offshore gas fields; Permafrost beneath oceans; Permafrost beneath rivers; River deltas; River ice; SAR; Sea level; Seasonal variations; Sedimentation; Snow; Soil temperature; Spatial distribution; Temperature; Thermal properties; Thermal regimes; Thickness

G0812, G07
Inuvik region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Estuary, N.W.T./Yukon; Middle Channel (Mackenzie River), N.W.T.; Olivier Islands, N.W.T.


Morphology and development of ice patches in N.W.T., Canada   /   Meulendyk, T.   Moorman, B.J.   Andrews, T.D.   MacKay, G.
In: Frozen pasts : 2nd International Glacial Archaeology Symposium, Trondheim, 5th-7th October 2010. - Trondheim, Norway : Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2010, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75391.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.ntnu.no/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=c3e937ae-9b71-4323-aae3-733470c0ea4b&groupId=10244

Permanent ice patches in the western Canadian subarctic have been identified as sources of cryogenically preserved artifacts and biological specimens. Recent archaeological work in the Yukon and Northwest Territories has revealed evidence of hunting by humans on the alpine patches for thousands of years. The role of ice patches as use areas for wildlife and repositories for artifacts is due to their persistence on the landscape. However, the formation, composition and constancy of these features have yet to be studied. As part of the N.W.T. Ice Patch Study, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and ice coring were used to examine the stratigraphy and internal structure of two ice patches. Results show the patches are composed of a core of staggered, distinct units, up to several meters thick, covered by firn and snow. The contacts between the ice layers are often demarcated by thin sections of frozen caribou urine, dung, and sediment. A formation model developed using GPR data and Carbon-14 dates extracted from the ice cores revealed a long history for these perennial patches (up to 4400 years BP). Extensive time gaps exist between the units of ice indicating that although snow deposition occurs every winter it is often melted and many years can pass before an annual deposition is preserved. These ice patches have shown stability in a variable climate, as their preservation is strongly controlled by topography and wind direction. The results of this work not only reveal the character of ice patch development, but also indicate the palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic significance of the ice patches. (Au)

F, B, E, I, J
Animal waste products; Cores; Firn; Formation; Ground penetrating radar; Growth; Ice patches; Melting; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeoecology; Radiocarbon dating; Sediments (Geology); Size; Snow; Snow stratigraphy; Thickness; Topography; Winds

G0812
Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Selwyn Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon


The use of ground-based photogrammetry and SAR interferometry to characterize the surface motion of an Arctic glacier   /   Whitehead, K.   Moorman, B.   Wainstein, P.
In: GEO2010 : 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference & 6th Canadian Permafrost Conference = 63e conférence géotechnique canadienne et 6e conférence canadienne sur le pergélisol, [Sept. 12-16, 2010]. - [Richmond, B.C.] : Canadian Geotechnical Society, 2010, p.1298-1306, ill., maps
References.
Proceedings distributed on a USB flash drive entitled: GEO2010 in the New West, Calgary, Alberta.
ASTIS record 73055.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/cpc/CPC6-1298.pdf
Libraries: OONL

Measurements of surface displacement made using GPS, SAR interferometry, and ground-based photogrammetry were compared for a number of targets located close to the terminus of a polythermal arctic glacier. The results showed that average measurements for the winter period made using GPS and SAR interferometry agreed well at most locations. Horizontal and vertical photogrammetric measurements were more variable, reflecting a greater sensitivity to seasonal flow variations. This study shows how the combination of these different measurement techniques is naturally complementary for studies of glacial dynamics. (Au)

F, C
Calving (Ice); Flow; Geographical positioning systems; Glacial melt waters; Glacier ice; Glaciers; Mass wasting; Measurement; Permafrost; Photography; SAR; Seasonal variations; Size; Temporal variations; Topography; Velocity

G0813
Bylot Island, Nunavut; Fountain Glacier, Nunavut


An investigation of the 3 km motion anomaly on Fountain Glacier using SAR interferometry and ground penetrating radar   /   Whitehead, K.   Moorman, B.   Wainstein, P.
In: GEO2010 : 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference & 6th Canadian Permafrost Conference = 63e conférence géotechnique canadienne et 6e conférence canadienne sur le pergélisol, [Sept. 12-16, 2010]. - [Richmond, B.C.] : Canadian Geotechnical Society, 2010, p.1323-1328, ill., maps
References.
Proceedings distributed on a USB flash drive entitled: GEO2010 in the New West, Calgary, Alberta.
ASTIS record 73026.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/cpc/CPC6-1323.pdf
Libraries: OONL

During an interferometric study of glacier velocities on Fountain Glacier, an anomalous fringe pattern was noticed on an ascending-pass interferogram from February 2009. Field investigations using ground penetrating radar revealed a series of unusual reflections at the base of the glacier. These were interpreted as being due to a body of subglacial water immediately down glacier from the visible anomaly. The detection of this water body is a consequence of the sensitivity of the interferometric technique, and also of a particularly favourable imaging geometry. (Au)

F, C
Glacial melt waters; Glacier ice; Glaciers; Ground penetrating radar; Hydrology; Icings; Mathematical models; Movement; Permafrost; SAR; Seasonal variations; Temperature; Velocity

G0813
Fountain Glacier, Nunavut


Hydro-physical conditions of an Arctic proglacial valley, Bylot Island   /   Wainstein, P.   Moorman, B.   Whitehead, K.
In: GEO2010 : 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference & 6th Canadian Permafrost Conference = 63e conférence géotechnique canadienne et 6e conférence canadienne sur le pergélisol, [Sept. 12-16, 2010]. - [Richmond, B.C.] : Canadian Geotechnical Society, 2010, p.1525-1532, ill., maps
References.
Proceedings distributed on a USB flash drive entitled: GEO2010 in the New West, Calgary, Alberta.
ASTIS record 73021.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/cpc/CPC6-1525.pdf
Libraries: OONL

Icings are one of the most dominant forms of extrusive ice in periglacial environments, with proglacial icings commonly found in the eastern Canadian Arctic and Scandinavia. They occur as a result of the combination of cold arctic climate, continuous permafrost and polythermal glaciers. The preservation of these cryo-hydrological features, such as the one in front of Fountain Glacier on Bylot Island, depends on the availability of subglacial water and on the balance between ice accretion and hydro-thermal erosion. Geophysical and topographical surveys were conducted to study the main hydro-physical conditions of the proglacial valley that are responsible for the preservation of Fountain Glacier icing. (Au)

F, C, A, E
Cores; Eskers; Flow; Geographical positioning systems; Geophysical exploration; Glacial landforms; Glacial melt waters; Glacier ice; Glaciers; Hydrology; Icings; Mass balance; Permafrost; Precipitation (Meteorology); Radar; Thickness

G0813
Fountain Glacier, Nunavut


Interannual changes in seasonal ground freezing and near-surface heat flow beneath bottom-fast ice in the near-shore zone, Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada   /   Stevens, C.W.   Moorman, B.J.   Solomon, S.M.
(Permafrost and periglacial processes, v. 21, no. 3, July/Sept. 2010, p. 256-270, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 72731.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/ppp.682
Libraries: ACU

Interannual changes in seasonal ground freezing and near-surface heat flow beneath zones of bottom-fast ice (BFI) were examined over the winters of 2005-06 and 2006-07 within the near-shore zone of the Mackenzie Delta, Canada. Winter variability in ground thermal conditions was determined at three monitoring sites. Ground-penetrating radar surveys were conducted in late winter to determine spatial variability in landfast ice conditions and the extent of ice-bonded sediments. Shallow water sites (<0.5m-water depth) were characterised by early onset of BFI, freezeback of the active layer and mean winter sediment bed temperatures ranging between -3°C and -10°C. In contrast, deep water sites (>1m of water) experienced prolonged periods of floating ice, which limited the duration of ice contact with the sediment bed and the depth of seasonal frost, and resulted in warmer winter ground temperatures (between -0.5°C and -2.6°C). Under similar water depths, interannual changes in ice growth altered the timing of BFI and winter heat loss from the ground. When comparing conditions over the two winters, 2005-06 was characterised by a decrease in ice thickness that limited the extent of BFI and seasonal cooling of the ground. These changes in ice conditions had a greater effect on the thermal conditions at sites where water depths were close to the maximum ice thickness. The short ice contact times at these sites are important to the thermal state of permafrost, as only minimal heat exchange contributing to permafrost cooling occurs prior to freezeback of the active layer. (Au)

C, G, F, B
Active layer; Bathymetry; Bottom sediments; Fast ice; Floods; Ground penetrating radar; Heat transmission; Permafrost; Permafrost beneath rivers; River ice; Seasonal variations; Sedimentation; Snow cover; Spatial distribution; Temperature; Temporal variations; Thermal regimes; Thickness

G0812
Garry Island, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Estuary, N.W.T./Yukon; Middle Channel (Mackenzie River), N.W.T.


Sensitivity of sediment bed temperatures to changes in on-ice snow thickness beneath near-shore zones of bottom-fast ice in the Mackenzie Delta   /   Stevens, C.W.   Moorman, B.J.   Soloman, S.M.
In: GEO2010 : 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference & 6th Canadian Permafrost Conference = 63e conférence géotechnique canadienne et 6e conférence canadienne sur le pergélisol, [Sept. 12-16, 2010]. - [Richmond, B.C.] : Canadian Geotechnical Society, 2010, p.1435-1440, ill., maps
References.
Proceedings distributed on a USB flash drive entitled: GEO2010 in the New West, Calgary, Alberta.
ASTIS record 72663.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/cpc/CPC6-1435.pdf
Libraries: OONL

This study examines the role that on-ice snow plays in regulating sediment bed temperatures beneath bottom-fast ice in the near-shore zone of the Mackenzie Delta. Field measurements indicate that mean winter sediment bed temperatures deviate up to 9.8°C (from -0.5°C to -10.3°C) in water ranging 10 cm to 100 cm deep. Intra-site variability in temperature over a two year period was as much as 4.7°C. Numerical thermal modeling confirms that the variability in sediment bed temperature is interrelated to the effects of snow on the duration of time ice is bottom-fast and the loss of heat from the underlying sediments. (Au)

C, F, G, J, D, E
Atmospheric temperature; Bathymetry; Bottom sediments; Breakup; Fast ice; Formation; Heat transmission; Mathematical models; Melting; Ocean temperature; Permafrost beneath rivers; River ice; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Sedimentation; Snow cover; Soil temperature; Temperature; Thawing; Thermal properties; Thermal regimes; Thickness

G0812, G07
Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Estuary, N.W.T./Yukon


Detection and characterization of massive ground ice using ground penetrating radar and seismic shothole records   /   Odell, D.E.   Smith, I.R.   Moorman, B.J.
In: GEO2010 : 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference & 6th Canadian Permafrost Conference = 63e conférence géotechnique canadienne et 6e conférence canadienne sur le pergélisol, [Sept. 12-16, 2010]. - [Richmond, B.C.] : Canadian Geotechnical Society, 2010, p.1284-1289, ill., map
References.
Proceedings distributed on a USB flash drive entitled: GEO2010 in the New West, Calgary, Alberta.
ESS contribution number 20090386.
ASTIS record 72354.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/cpc/CPC6-1284.pdf
Libraries: OONL

This study utilized Ground Penetrating Radar and seismic shothole drillers' log records to examine the occurrence, distribution and origin of massive ground ice at two locations in Northwest Territories. Through traverses along recent seismic cut-lines, discreet bodies of massive ice were identified in differing sedimentary facies within the Colville Hills, and Little Chicago - lower Mackenzie corridor study areas. Ice bodies are between 40-110 m in lateral extent and up to 3.6 m thick. Application of these complimentary methodologies demonstrates their utility to regional ground ice mapping as may be required for future regional infrastructure development activities. (Au)

C, B, A, E, Q
Active layer; Clay; Databases; Detection; Geographic information systems; Geology; Glacial deposits; Gravel; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Location; Maps; Measurement; Meteorology; Permafrost; Permafrost surveys; Petroleum pipelines; Sand; Sandstone; Sediments (Geology); Seismic surveys; Spatial distribution; Thickness

G0812
Bois, Lac des, region, N.W.T.; Little Chicago region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; N.W.T.


Glacial conditions responsible for the generation and preservation of Fountain Glacier proglacial icing : Bylot Island, Canada   /   Wainstein, P.   Moorman, B.   Whitehead, K.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. LM10.2-3.2, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71496.
Languages: English

The proglacial icing adjacent to Fountain Glacier, Bylot Island, is unique in the Canadian Arctic due to its perennial character. Observations show that the icing is partially eroded during the summer and is fully regenerated throughout the Arctic winter. Pressurized subglacial water storage is fundamental for the icing's regeneration and the combined action of a body of buried glacier ice and a proglacial thermal talik provide the subsurface connectivity needed to allow water to flow to the outwash plain. Studies have shown that there is a close relationship between the retreat of Fountain Glacier and morphological changes in the icing's thickness and in the location of its associated proglacial fountain. Although the interactions between glacier and icing have been well established, the specific glacial conditions responsible for allowing the preservation of the icing have not been yet fully explored. This study analyzes Fountain Glacier's subglacial morphological and thermal characteristics, by means of geophysical, topographical, photogrammetric and remote sensing techniques. Results indicate that Fountain Glacier presents favourable subglacial conditions to store and conduct water, assuring the preservation of the icing. First, low creep rates of cold ice lead to the preservation of well defined channelized subglacial drainage systems. A subglacial drainage model shows two main waterways used by subglacial water. The termini of both match the location of current ice collapse features and remnants of sediment filled subglacial conduits. Second, a reflection power analysis, conducted over the shallow geophysical data, suggests that the lower ablation area has a high accumulation of liquid water, particularly beneath the centre part of the glacier along the main supraglacial stream. Finally, a dielectric permittivity model constructed over the glacier - sediment interface, indicates that a considerable portion of the glacier is warm based; allowing water to flowthrough unfrozen subglacial sediments towards the proglacial icing. Keywords: proglacial icing, Canadian Arctic, glacial hydrology, fountain glacier. (Au)

C, F
Ablation; Drainage; Electrical properties; Flow; Glacial geology; Glacial melt waters; Glaciers; Groundwater; Hydrology; Icings; Remote sensing; Thermal regimes; Thickness

G0813
Fountain Glacier, Nunavut; Stagnation Glacier, Nunavut


Quantifying ice wedge and ground ice volume, Taglu Island, Mackenzie Delta, Canada   /   Bode, J.A.   Moorman, B. [Supervisor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, 2009.
110 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MR49743)
ISBN 978-0-494-49743-2
References.
Thesis (M.Sc.) - University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., 2009.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 76155.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/002/MR49743.PDF
Libraries: OONL

With potential development of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline in northern Canada, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand all aspects of the permafrost environment affected by this project. A major concern with development is terrain disturbance within the Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary resulting in an alteration of the subsurface thermal regime. Warming of the subsurface could lead to the melting of excess ground ice causing significant subsidence. A combination of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and remote sensing data were used to estimate ice wedge volume. The Mackenzie Valley Geotechnical database was used to estimate the volume of smaller bodies of ice. Combining these two, a map of estimated ground ice content was constructed. The ground ice estimates in the study area ranged from 9% to 79% for the top 5.5 meters of the subsurface. This means if the top 5.5 m of soil were to thaw, subsidence from melting of ice alone could be 0.39 m to 4.35 m. (Au)

C, F, Q, J, I
Active layer; Aerial photography; Birds; Boreholes; Climate change; Cores; Databases; Environmental impacts; Formation; Fracturing; Geographical positioning systems; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Ice wedges; Identification; Lakes; Mackenzie Gas Project; Mapping; Moisture content of permafrost; Patterned ground; Permafrost; Soil mechanics; Spatial distribution; Subsidence; Thawing; Thermal regimes; Thermokarst; Theses; Thickness; Wildlife habitat

G0821
Big Lake (69 24 N, 134 56 W) region, N.W.T.; Kendall Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Taglu Island, N.W.T.


Mapping subsurface conditions within the near-shore zone of an Arctic delta using ground penetrating radar   /   Stevens, C.W.   Moorman, B.J.   Solomon, S.M.   Hugenholtz, C.H.
(Cold regions science and technology, v. 56, no. 1, Apr. 2009, p. 30-38, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 73871.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2008.09.005
Libraries: ACU

This paper demonstrates the capabilities of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map and resolve shallow subsurface features in the near-shore zone: (i) ice conditions (floating or bottom fast); (ii) water bathymetry; (iii) sedimentary structures; and (iv) interfaces between frozen and unfrozen sediment. These features were resolved in the near-shore zone of the Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T., Canada, using multi-frequency (50, 100 and 250 MHz) GPR data collected in winter (2005 and 2006). The capability of GPR to resolve subsurface features in the near-shore zone was strongly controlled by bottom-fast and floating ice conditions. The latter were discriminated using a novel approach involving the energy return from the base of ice and the presence of ice-bottom multiples. Beneath zones of bottom-fast ice, sedimentary structures and interfaces between frozen and unfrozen sediment were discriminated by reflection geometry and amplitude. Beneath floating ice, water depths were measured to depths greater than 5 m using a multi-layer depth calculation. Overall, this research demonstrates that baseline information for geotechnical investigations and climate change research in Arctic coastal zones can be greatly enhanced with GPR data. (Au)

A, C, G, B, E, Q, F
Active layer; Antennae; Bathymetry; Bottom sediments; Climate change; Coast changes; Coasts; Effects monitoring; Electrical properties; Fast ice; Gas fields; Geophysical exploration; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Mapping; Measurement; Oil fields; Oil well drilling; Permafrost; Permafrost beneath rivers; River deltas; River ice; Sedimentary structures; Seismic surveys; Shore ice; Spatial distribution; Thawing; Thermal properties; Thickness

G0812
Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Middle Channel (Mackenzie River), N.W.T.


Nearshore geohazards in the southern Beaufort Sea, Canada   /   Solomon, S.M.   Forbes, D.F.   Fraser, P.   Moorman, B.   Sevens, C.W.   Whalen, D.
In: Proceedings of the ASME International Pipeline Conference, 2008 : presented at 2008 7th International Pipeline Conference, September 29-October 3, 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. - New York : ASME, 2008, v. 4 : pipelining in northern and offshore environments, IPC2008-64349, p. 281-289, ill., maps
References.
ASTIS record 74284.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1115/IPC2008-64349
Libraries: ACU

Proposed development of a gas pipeline southward from the Mackenzie Delta and the presence of known accumulations of gas and oil in the southern Beaufort Sea suggest that construction of pipelines and associated infrastructure in the nearshore are likely to be proposed in the future. Recent surveys undertaken by Natural Resources Canada and its partners have focused on the shallow, poorly mapped nearshore region of the Mackenzie Delta (<6 m water depth) that extends ~50 km offshore and lies largely within the landfast ice zone. Ice-keel scouring, strudel scour and nearsurface ice-bonding are being investigated. High resolution sidescan sonar and multibeam bathymetry systems were used to map the seabed over three consecutive years and show that ice keel scouring of the seabed is extensive. The maximum scour depth measured was 0.6 m in 6 m water depth with an average scour depth of 0.2 m. The same scours were visible in repeat surveys indicating that sedimentation was sufficiently low during the study, so that the scours were not infilled. Strudel drainage and associated seabed scour occurs when spring-melt river water overflows onto the surface of the landfast and bottomfast ice once discharge exceeds under-ice channel capacity, then drains back through the floating landfast ice via cracks and holes. Although common offshore of small deltas on the Alaska and Yukon coast, these features were first documented in the Mackenzie Delta area during field surveys in 2006 and 2007 that revealed strudel drainage (radial drainage patterns) features on the ice surface. A total of three strudel scours were later identified using swath-survey equipment in 1.2 m of water. The largest scour was 20 m wide with a maximum depth of 0.8 m below the surrounding seabed. Extensive surveys in Alaska have identified strudel scours exceeding 3 m below the seabed. Nearsurface ice-bonding and permafrost are known to occur in shallow water where sea ice freezes to the seabed. A combination of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and multi-year ground temperature measurements have been used to map the horizontal and vertical extent of nearsurface ice bonding in extensive shoals found off the front of the Mackenzie Delta. In the shallowest water depths permafrost extends to 22 m below the seabed with an active layer of less than 1.2 m. In deeper water, permafrost disappears but seasonal frost can form in the upper 2–3 m of the seabed. (Au)

B, A, Q, G, F, C, D, J
Active layer; Bathymetry; Boreholes; Bottom sediments; Breakup; Design and construction; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Fast ice; Gas pipelines; Geophysical exploration; Ground penetrating radar; Hydrographic surveys; Ice scouring; Mapping; Measurement; Ocean floors; Permafrost beneath oceans; Pressure ridges; River discharges; Rivers; SAR; Sea ice; Sediment transport; Sedimentation; Strudel scours; Temperature; Temporal variations; Thermal properties; Underwater pipelines

G07, G0812, G0811
Canadian Beaufort Sea; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, Yukon; Mackenzie River, N.W.T.; Middle Channel (Mackenzie River), N.W.T.


Estimation of ice wedge volume in the Big Lake area, Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada   /   Bode, J.A.   Moorman, B.J.   Stevens, C.W.   Solomon, S.M.
In: Ninth International Conference on Permafrost / Edited by Douglas L. Kane and Kenneth M. Hinkel. - Fairbanks, Alaska : University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 2008, v. 1, p. 131-136, ill., maps
References.
Proceedings available on paper, CD-ROM and the Web.
ASTIS record 72656.
Languages: English
Web: http://people.ucalgary.ca/~moorman/BNICOP2008.pdf
Web: http://research.iarc.uaf.edu/NICOP/DVD/1st%20to%209th%20Conference%20PDF%20files/09th%20International%20Conference%20on%20Permafrost%20Vol%201.pdf
Libraries: ACU

With potential development of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline in northern Canada, it becomes increasingly necessary to understand all aspects of the permafrost environment affected by this project. A major concern with development is terrain disturbance within the Kendall Island Bird Sanctuary, resulting in an alteration of the subsurface thermal regime. Warming of the subsurface could lead to the melting of excess ground ice causing further subsidence. A combination of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and remote sensing data were used to map the distribution of excess ground ice. The volume of wedge ice was calculated and then combined with a high-resolution digital elevation model to determine the location and amount of potential subsidence that could be induced by melting of subsurface excess ground ice. Although the distribution of excess ice in the Big Lake area is not uniform, its presence is substantial enough that melting may result in significant terrain alteration. (Au)

C, Q
Environmental impacts; Gas pipelines; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Ice wedges; Mackenzie Gas Project; Mapping; Mathematical models; Permafrost; Remote sensing; Subsidence; Thawing; Thermal regimes

G0821
Big Lake (69 24 N, 134 56 W) region, N.W.T.; Kendall Island Migratory Bird Sanctuary, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.


Seasonal changes in ground-penetrating radar signature observed at a polythermal glacier, Bylot Island, Canada   /   Irvine-Fynn, T.D.L.   Moorman, B.J.   Williams, J.L.M.   Walter, F.S.A.
(Earth surface processes and landforms, v. 31, no. 7, June 2000, p. 892-909, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 60869.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/esp.1299
Libraries: ACU

In recent years, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been increasingly used for characterization of subglacial and englacial environments at polythermal glaciers. The geophysical method is able to exploit the dielectric difference between water, air, sediment and ice, allowing delineation of subsurface hydrological, thermal and structural conditions. More recent GPR research has endeavoured to examine temporal change in glaciers, in particular the distribution of the cold ice zone at polythermal glaciers. However, the exact nature of temporal change that can be identified using GPR has not been fully examined. This research presents the results of three GPR surveys conducted over the course of a summer ablation season at a polythermal glacier in the Canadian Arctic. A total of approximately 30 km of GPR profiles were collected in 2002 repeatedly covering the lower 2 km of Stagnation Glacier, Bylot Island (72°58 N 78°22 W). Comparison between profiles indicated changes in the radar signature, including increased noise, appearance and disappearance of englacial reflections, and signal attenuation in the latter survey. Further, an area of chaotic returns in up-glacier locations, which was interpreted to be a wet temperate ice zone, showed marked recession over the course of the ablation season. Combining all the temporal changes that were detected by GPR, results indicate that a polythermal glacier may exhibit strongly seasonal changes in hydrological and thermal characteristics throughout the ice body, including the drainage of 17 000 m³ of temporarily stored intra-glacial meltwater. It is also proposed that the liquid water content in the temperate ice zone of polythermal glaciers can be described as a fraction of a specific retention capacity. (Au)

F, A
Ablation; Crevasses; Drainage; Glacial melt waters; Glaciers; Glaciology; Ground penetrating radar; Hydrology; Logistics; Mapping; Measurement; Runoff; Seasonal variations; Snowmelt; Spatial distribution; Temperature; Temporal variations; Testing; Thermal regimes

G0813
Stagnation Glacier, Nunavut


The long-term stability of survey monuments in permafrost   /   Tait, M.   Moorman, B.   Li, S.
(Application of geodetic techniques in engineering geology / Edited by S.C. Stiros and A. Chrzanowski. Engineering geology, v. 79, no. 1-2, 3 June 2005, p. 61-79, ill., maps)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 61241.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2004.10.010
Libraries: ACU

Monitoring the geological movements in areas of continuous permafrost requires that the surface movement due to the seasonal variation in the permafrost active layer be isolated from the underlying trend. Two potential ways of achieving this is to model the heave/settlement of the surface due to seasonal thaw/refreeze so that surface measurements can be utilised, or to place survey monuments that do not respond to the active layer and make point observations. This paper describes the requirements for monitoring natural trend and subsidence due to gas extraction in areas of the Mackenzie Delta/Beaufort Sea region of Canada, an area of continuous permafrost. Different solutions based on Differential Interferometric SAR and Differential Global Positioning are proposed to the monitoring problem based on the two methods of isolating the effects of permafrost movement described above. This paper reports on research undertaken to discover the long-term stability of survey monuments established in a test-bed in the area of the proposed gas extraction. Seven types of monument are present, with records of height variation available between 1987 and 1995. Two further epochs of measurement were made in 2003 and 2004, allowing analysis of a 17-year period to be made. Analysis of the data showed that only one type of monument displayed the required stability to model natural trend and subsequently to predict this trend in the analysis of subsidence caused by gas extraction. (Au)

C, Q, J, D, M
Active layer; Civil engineering; Deformation; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Floods; Gas fields; Geographical positioning systems; Ground ice; Instruments; Mapping; Mathematical models; Measurement; Movement; Oil well drilling; Permafrost; Permafrost beneath rivers; SAR; Sea level; Seasonal variations; Subsidence; Surveying; Temporal variations

G0812
Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Middle Channel (Mackenzie River), N.W.T.; Niglintgak Island, N.W.T.; Taglu Island, N.W.T.


Geocryological processes linked to High Arctic proglacial stream suspended sediment dynamics : examples from Bylot Island, Nunavut, and Spitsbergen, Svalbard   /   Irvine-Fynn, T.D.L.   Moorman, B.J.   Willis, I.C.   Sjogren, D.B.   Hodson, A.J.   Mumford, P.N.   Walter, F.S.A.   Williams, J.L.M.
(Canadian Geophysical Union - Hydrology Section / Edited by S. Beltaos, L.W. Martz, R.D. Moore and J. Pomeroy. Hydrological processes, v. 19, no. 1, Jan. 2005, p. 115-135, ill., maps)
References.
Paper originally presented in the hydrology session of the annual scientific meeting of the Canadian Geophysical Union held in Banff, May 2003.
ASTIS record 60881.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/hyp.5759
Libraries: ACU

Recent research has identified differences in processes contributing to suspended sediment concentration (SSC) dynamics in proglacial streams between High Arctic and alpine catchments, but does not examine processes explicitly linked to the periglacial environment. Three glacierized basins were studied: Austre Brøggerbreen and Midre Lovénbreen, Svalbard (79°N, 12°E) and Glacier B28, unofficially named Stagnation Glacier, Bylot Island, Nunavut (73°N, 78°W). SSC variations were modelled from continuous turbidity, discharge and meteorological data throughout the summer months. Three statistical tools were utilized: principal component analysis, change-point analysis and multivariate regression. These are shown to be effective in identifying subperiods of distinctive geocryological and glaciofluvial characteristics. Multivariate regression for the subseasons included autoregressive integrated moving-average modelling, and showed that SSC variations were related not only to discharge variability, but also to fluctuations in energy fluxes. The results are interpreted in terms of spatio-temporal changes in sediment mobilization and supply associated with changes in the relative importance of fluvial, glacial and periglacial processes. This evidence supports the notion of important linkages between glacial, fluvial and periglacial systems, but exemplifies distinct variability between High Arctic glaciers. (Au)

F, C, E, A
Atmospheric temperature; Creep; Diurnal variations; Drainage; Erosion; Flow; Frozen ground; Glacial melt waters; Glaciology; Hydrography; Hydrology; Logistics; Measurement; Meteorology; Permafrost; Rain; River discharges; Runoff; Seasonal variations; Snow; Solar radiation; Spatial distribution; Stream flow; Suspended solids; Temporal variations; Thaw flow slides; Thawing; Thermal regimes; Weather stations

G0813, G13
Stagnation Glacier, Nunavut; Svalbard


Glacier-permafrost hydrological interconnectivity : Stagnation Glacier, Bylot Island, Canada   /   Moorman, B.J.
(Cryospheric systems : glaciers and permafrost / Edited by C. Harris and J.B. Murton. Geological Society special publication, v.242, 2005, p. 63-74, ill., 1 map)
References.
Contributions to the conference "Cryospheric systems: glaciers and permafrost", held at the Geological Society of London in January 2003.
ASTIS record 60876.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.2005.242.01.06
Libraries: ACU

The complex thermal structure in areas where polythermal glaciers and continuous permafrost are present increases the potential for direct linkages between subsurface water conduits within glaciers and permafrost. In this study, hydrologic features of a glacier and the surrounding ice-cored moraines were examined and the potential for englacial water to flow out of the glacier and into the moraine was investigated. Ground-penetrating radar investigations, dye trace tests and direct observations of hydrological features (e.g., moulins, springs and caves) on and around Stagnation Glacier on Bylot Island, Arctic Canada, were undertaken. Data reveal that englacial conduits extend from the glacier into the adjacent ice-cored moraine. Glacial meltwater may have experienced variable flow conditions over the last 10 years and the conduit closures have occurred over a much longer time period. The study illustrates the interconnectivity of the glacial and permafrost hydrological systems. (Au)

F, A, C
Creep; Crevasses; Drainage; Dyeing; Eskers; Flow; Frost mounds; Glacial melt waters; Glacier caves; Glaciers; Glaciology; Ground penetrating radar; Hydrology; Icings; Logistics; Mapping; Measurement; Moraines; Permafrost; Runoff; Size; Springs (Hydrology); Suspended solids; Thermal regimes; Thickness; Velocity

G0813
Stagnation Glacier, Nunavut


Imaging periglacial conditions with ground-penetrating radar   /   Moorman, B.J.   Robinson, S.D.   Burgess, M.M.
(Permafrost and periglacial processes, v. 14, no. 4, Oct./Dec. 2003, p. 319-329, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 55435.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/ppp.463
Libraries: ACU

Three important parameters that need to be quantified for many permafrost studies are the location of ice in the ground, the position of thermal interfaces, and spatial variations of the water content in the active layer. The data from over 100 investigations in permafrost regions demonstrate that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) offers an effective way to measure these parameters at a scale appropriate for many process and geotechnical studies. Horizontal to gently-dipping interfaces between unfrozen and frozen subsurface zones (such as at the base of the active layer or a suprapermafrost talik) were repeatedly detected by GPR and indicated by strong, laterally-coherent reflections. Coherent reflections are not generated by steeply dipping thermal interfaces (greater than 45°). However, the transition from frozen to unfrozen ground can frequently be located from the radar-stratigraphic signatures of the two units. The radar-stratigraphic signature of excess ice in the subsurface is determined by the size of the body. Ice lenses that are smaller than the resolution of the GPR system frequently can be detected and are represented by chaotic or hyperbolic reflections, while the size of larger ice units can be resolved and is defined by distinct laterally-coherent reflection patterns. This enables the delineation of the vertical and lateral extent of massive ice bodies, and their structural setting. By making precise measurements of the direct ground wave velocity, the water content in the near-surface can be determined for uniform soils. It is demonstrated that by collecting a grid of GPR data the lateral variations in active-layer water content can then be estimated. (Au)

C, A, E, F, G, Q, L, B
Active layer; Airports; Antennae; Boreholes; Clay; Electrical properties; Eskers; Gravel; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Heat transmission; Ice; Icings; Insulating materials; Mapping; Measurement; Moisture transfer; Neutral stress; Noise; Norman Wells Oilfield Expansion and Pipeline Project; Peat; Permafrost; Petroleum pipelines; Rivers; Sedimentary structures; Sediments (Geology); Slopes; Soil temperature; Spatial distribution; Thawing; Thermal properties; Unfrozen water content of permafrost; Water

G0812, G0813
Carat Lake region, Nunavut; Fort Simpson region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Martin River region, N.W.T.; Norman Wells region, N.W.T.; Taltheilei Narrows region, N.W.T.


Investigations in glacial hydrology through the use of ground-penetrating radar   /   Lyttle, A.L.   Moorman, B.J. [Supervisor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, 2001.
xiii, 187 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MQ65115)
ISBN 0-612-65115-0
Appendix.
References.
Thesis (M.Sc.) - University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., 2001.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 55337.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU OONL

To date, most glacial hydrology research has been limited to the use of dye tracer experiments, hydrograph separation, and hydrochemistry. New ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems have recently been shown to be very effective in imaging detailed hydrological features such as conduits and cavities of glaciers. This research has utilized GPR to investigate the existence and structure of englacial and subglacial conduits and cavities within a glacier in the Canadian Arctic. The glacier studied, informally named Stagnation Glacier, is located on the south side of Bylot Island, Nunavut Territory. Previous research suggests that the glacier maybe polythermal. An extensive GPR survey was conducted on the lower part of the glacier and was used to model the hydrologic and thermal structure. GPR interpretation indicates the presence of hydrologic networks, zones of warm-ice and sediment accretion. This work provides further evidence that the ablation zone of Stagnation Glacier may be polythermal, and might be capable of forming, if not at least maintaining, extensive hydrologic networks and warm-ice zones. (Au)

F, A, E, B
Crevasses; Drainage; Flow; Geographical positioning systems; Glacial deposits; Glacial melt waters; Glaciers; Ground penetrating radar; Hydrology; Logistics; Mapping; Measurement; Melting; Moraines; Precipitation (Meteorology); Puddles; River discharges; Rivers; Rocks; Sedimentation; Size; Slopes; Spatial distribution; Temperature; Thermal regimes; Theses; Thickness; Topography

G0813
Bylot Island, Nunavut; Stagnation Glacier, Nunavut


The burial of ice in the proglacial environment on Bylot Island, Arctic Canada   /   Moorman, B.J.   Michel, F.A.
(Permafrost and periglacial processes, v. 11, no. 3, July-Sept. 2000, p. 161-175, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 48785.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/1099-1530(200007/09)11:3<161::AID-PPP347>3.0.CO;2-F
Libraries: ACU

In the proglacial environment on Bylot Island there are many occurrences of buried ice. Ground-penetrating radar and remote sensing techniques were combined with standard field observations to examine the processes and settings associated with the burial of surface ice, and the potential for preservation of buried ice. Of the different types of surface ice present (i.e. glacier, icing, permanent snow bank), glaciers were found to have the greatest potential for becoming buried, through sediment concentration at the surface during the melt-out of sediment-laden ice. A number of lateral and end moraines were found to have cores of glacial ice over 10 m thick. Deltaic sedimentation was also found to be effective at preserving buried glacial ice; however, the occurrence of this depositional setting is infrequent. The burial of icing and permanent snow banks was found not to occur to any great extent owing to their dynamic and generally erosional settings. Ground ice on Bylot Island is readily preserved owing to the cold ground temperatures. However, in a few locations recent fluvial activity had exposed massive ice bodies, resulting in the initiation of retrogressive thaw flows. Evidence of past thermokarst activity is widespread, but no evidence of current activity was discovered. (Au)

G, F, A, B, E
Erosion; Glaciation; Glacier lakes; Glacier variations; Glaciers; Glaciology; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Ice; Icings; Melting; Moraines; Permafrost; Remote sensing; River deltas; Sediment transport; Sedimentation; Snow; Snowpatches; Thermokarst

G0813
Bylot Island, Nunavut


The development and preservation of tabular massive ground ice in permafrost regions   /   Moorman, B.J.   Michel, F. [Supervisor]
Ottawa : Carleton University, 1998.
308 p.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. NQ26882)
ISBN 0-612-26882-9
Thesis (Ph.D.) - Carleton University, Ottawa, Ont., 1998.
The citation and abstract information in this record is used with the permission of ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained from UMI® Dissertation Services, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346 USA. Telephone: 734-761-7400. Web-page: wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations.
Appendices.
References.
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from PQDT.
ASTIS record 53010.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONL

An investigation of tabular massive ground ice was conducted to ascertain if ground ice has distinctive characteristics that could be measured and used to determine the origin of the ice. Initial studies were conducted on Bylot Island in the eastern Canadian Arctic, where some glaciers are rapidly retreating, resulting in buried massive ground ice. The environments with the greatest potential for the burial and preservation of massive ice were first examined and the processes of burial identified. It was determined that glacier end and lateral moraines have the greatest potential for preserving massive ice. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) methodology was developed for imaging the subsurface geometry and structure of glaciers, icing, and ground ice bodies. GPR was shown to be effective for mapping icing and glacier geometry, hydrology and subbottom structure, and possibly thermal conditions. GPR also proved effective at delineating the size and thickness of massive ground ice bodies. This revealed that the ice core in lateral and end moraines around Stagnation Glacier are continuous and extensive. Physical property analyses indicated that some ice types could not be differentiated on their physical properties alone. A methodology was thus developed for extracting and analyzing the gaseous component of ice which would provide a differentiating technique. This method enabled the measurement of the chemical and isotopic composition of the ice and gases, and direct age determination of the ice by radiocarbon dating of the CO2 in the bubbles. In testing the technique in the proglacial environment on Bylot Island, the environmental history of the site was linked to the more extensive ice core records from Greenland and Devon Island. Along with the other ice property analysis techniques, the gas analysis techniques were applied to three sites across the western Canadian Arctic (Peninsula Point, North Point, and Herschel Island). It was discovered that ground ice bodies in the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula and on Herschel Island were considerably younger than had been reported previously. In a detailed study of the massive ground ice at Peninsula Point it was determined that the ice mass developed from the segregation of ice formed from a ground water source. The ground water probably originated as glacial meltwater, with several different sources, each with different isotopic signatures. (Au)

C, F
Carbon dioxide; Chemical properties; Formation; Glacial melt waters; Glaciers; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Groundwater; Isotopes; Mapping; Measurement; Melting; Moraines; Permafrost; Physical properties; Radiocarbon dating; Theses

G0813, G0812, G0811, G10
Bylot Island, Nunavut; Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut; Greenland; Herschel Island, Yukon; North Point, N.W.T.; Peninsula Point, N.W.T.; Stagnation Glacier, Nunavut; Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, N.W.T.


The development of tabular massive ground ice at Peninsula Point, N.W.T., Canada   /   Moorman, B.J.   Michel, F.A.   Wilson, A.T.
(Permafrost : Seventh International Conference, June 23-27, 1998, Yellowknife, Canada : proceedings / Edited by Antoni G. Lewkowicz and Michel Allard. Collection Nordicana, no 57, 1998, p. 757-762, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 45349.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

By employing a recently developed technique for extracting and analyzing the gas content in ice, new information on the origin and age of the tabular massive ground ice body located at Peninsula Point, N.W.T., was acquired. The ice sublimation gas extraction technique was used to measure gas content, CO2 and N2O concentrations, and 13C and 18O isotope abundances. These data were supplemented by petrographic analysis of the ice core and 18O measurements of the H2O. From this new information it is apparent that the genesis of the ice body involves a complex history of ice segregation taking place as recently as 13,860 years BP. (Au)

C, B, A
Chemical properties; Composition; Cores; Formation; Glacial epoch; Glacial melt waters; Glaciation; Ground ice; Groundwater; Isotopes; Measurement; Palaeogeography; Physical properties; Pleistocene epoch

G0812
Peninsula Point, N.W.T.


14C dating of trapped gases in massive ground ice, western Canadian Arctic   /   Moorman, B.J.   Michel, F.A.   Wilson, A.
(Permafrost and periglacial processes, v. 7, no. 3, Sept. 1996, p. 257-266, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 62031.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1530(199609)7:3<257::AID-PPP220>3.0.CO;2-P
Libraries: ACU

A recently developed technique of gas extraction enables dating of an ice body by measuring the 14C of the CO2 trapped in gas bubbles within the ice. The gaseous component of the ice is extracted by sublimating the ice within a vacuum chamber. This enables the total gas volume, CO2 concentration, 14C/12C ratio, and 13C values to be determined. This technique was applied to dating massive ground-ice bodies in the western Canadian Arctic. Ground-ice samples from North Point, Peninsula Point, and Herschel Island yielded ages of 10,500 ± 120 BP, 13,860 ± 100 BP, and 17,570 ± 300 BP, respectively. These ages are younger than previously speculated for the massive ground ice in this region. The gas and CO2 contents and delta 13C values indicate the ice bodies were not formed directly from the compaction of snow. (Au)

C, F
Age; Carbon dioxide; Chemistry; Glaciation; Ground ice; Isotopes; Quality assurance; Radiocarbon dating

G0812, G0811
Herschel Island, Yukon; North Point, N.W.T.; Peninsula Point, N.W.T.


Isotopic variability in Arctic precipitation as a climatic indicator   /   Moorman, B.J.   Michel, F.A.   Dimmie, R.J.
(Geoscience Canada, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1996, p. 189-194, ill., 1 map)
References.
This edition of Geoscience Canada contains papers from the Geological Association of Canada Nuna Conference, Nunavut Environment Assessment Transect (NEAT), Pond Inlet, N.W.T., 14-18 June 1996.
Abstract also in French.
ASTIS record 52542.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Preliminary data are examined from a project in which the variability in the isotopic composition of precipitation across northern Canada and the implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction are examined. The data set shows a geographic variability of about 6‰ in isotopic composition of precipitation across the Canadian Arctic, roughly double the temporal variability seen in the ice core records from the last 10,000 years. The seasonal variability in average monthly delta 18O values from the arctic stations in 1991 was as much as 26‰. A snow and firn core collected on Bylot Island had a range of 14.8‰, compared to the range in average monthly precipitation of 25.6‰ covering the same time period. This difference in the observed seasonal range of values is the result of processes operating in the snow pack, such as vapor movement and molecular diffusion, and the strategy used in sampling the core. The results indicate that a much better understanding of the geographic and seasonal variation in the delta 18O values of precipitation is required before a direct linkage between the isotope records in ice cores and global climate change can be determined. Using recently developed radiocarbon dating techniques, buried glacier ice that has been preserved in permafrost may be able to provide the greater spatial and temporal detail required. (Au)

E, F, B
Atmospheric temperature; Chemistry; Climate change; Climatology; Composition; Cores; Glaciers; Oxygen-18; Palaeoclimatology; Precipitation (Meteorology); Radiocarbon dating; Rain; Seasonal variations; Snow; Spatial distribution; Temporal variations

G0813, G0812, G0824, G10
Alert, Nunavut; Bylot Island, Nunavut; Cambridge Bay (Settlement), Nunavut; Churchill, Manitoba; Eureka, Nunavut; Greenland; Hall Beach, Nunavut; Mould Bay (Weather Station), N.W.T.; N.W.T.; Nunavut; Pond Inlet (Hamlet), Nunavut; Resolute, Nunavut; Yellowknife, N.W.T.


Ground penetrating radar investigations of wood chip covered slopes along the Norman Wells pipeline (Northwest Territories) : 1991   /   Moorman, B.
Ottawa : Natural Resources Canada, 1994.
[125] p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Open file - Geological Survey of Canada, no. 2889)
Appendices.
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 79625.
Languages: English
Web: http://ftp2.cits.rncan.gc.ca/pub/geott/ess_pubs/194/194083/of_2889.pdf
Web: doi:10.4095/194083

This report documents work undertaken as part of the federal government's Permafrost and Terrain Research and Monitoring Program along the 869 km Norman Wells to Zama oil pipeline. The 324 mm diameter, shallow burial (1 m) pipeline, traverses the discontinuous permafrost zone of northwestern Canada and began operation in April 1985. A joint monitoring program with Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. was established following the signing of an Environmental Agreement between the pipeline company and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs (INAC). The Geological Survey of Canada of the Department of Natural Resources is a principal participant in this program. A major component of the research involves the detailed quantification of changes in the ground thermal regime, geomorphic and subsurface conditions at a series of instrumented sites and wood chip insulated slopes along the pipeline route. This project was developed in cooperation with the Terrain Sciences Division of the Geological Survey in order to examine and quantify the effects of pipeline construction, operation and maintenance in thaw sensitive terrain. Many components of this research are contracted out. The work undertaken in this consultant's report describes but one aspect of these site investigations. Interpretations contained herein are often limited to the specific database under analysis and thus may not represent an integrated or comprehensive analysis of all site observations. The opinions and views expressed by the authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect those of the Geological Survey of Canada or Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Funding for the research and analyses reported herein was provided by INAC through their Northern Affairs Program and the Northern Oil and Gas Action Plan (NOGAP), and by the Geological Survey of Canada through the Panel on Energy Research and Development (PERD) program. (Au)

C, Q, J, B
Antennae; Clay; Design and construction; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Forest products; Geophysical exploration; Ground penetrating radar; Instruments; Insulating materials; Interprovincial Pipe Line (NW) Ltd.; Mapping; Measurement; Norman Wells Oilfield Expansion and Pipeline Project; Permafrost; Petroleum pipelines; Quaternary period; Sand; Seasonal variations; Silt; Slopes; Soil stabilization; Soil temperature; Soil texture; Temporal variations; Thawing; Thermal regimes; Thermokarst; Velocity

G0812
Fort Simpson region, N.W.T.; Great Bear River region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Ochre River region, N.W.T.; Tulita region, N.W.T.; Wrigley region, N.W.T.


Examination of ice bodies in the proglacial environment   /   Moorman, B.J.   Michel, F.A.
In: Fifth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar. - [S.l. : s.n., 1994], p. 7
Abstract only.
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from NSTP.
ASTIS record 36770.
Languages: English

At the toe of mid and low latitude glaciers, ice melt is rapid and preservation of stagnant ice bodies is minimal and short-lived. In contrast, when high Arctic glaciers retreat, ice burial and long-term preservation are common. The processes of massive ice preservation in the proglacial environment were studied by using ground penetrating radar (GPR) to map the size, shape, and internal structure of stagnant ice bodies on Bylot Island in the northeastern Canadian Arctic. Numerous tests were performed with 400 V and 1000 V transmitters, and 25, 50, 100, and 200 MHz antennas, in step and continuous profiling mode to determine the optimum survey configuration to examine the three ice types present: glacier ice, proglacial icing ice, and buried ground ice. When surveying on glaciers, 50 MHz antennas with a 1000 V transmitter provided the best resolution to penetration trade-off, and profiling in continuous mode enabled large areas to be covered. In general, glaciers were very transparent to GPR, and information on the character of the glacier sole and sub-bottom sediment could be extracted. Abandoned drainage cavities within the glacier were also identified. Returns from the glacier base were recorded from as deep as l60 m. ... (Au)

F, C, B
Glacier ice; Glaciers; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Icings; Melting; Runoff; Sediments (Geology)

G0813
Bylot Island, Nunavut


Burial of glaciers on Bylot Island = Enfouissement de glaciers sur l'île Bylot   /   Moorman, B.   Michel, F.
In: Fourth National Student Conference on Northern Studies : Conference programme and abstracts, Government Conference Centre, Ottawa, November 26-27, 1994 = Quatrième conférence nationale des étudiants en études nordiques : Calendrier des événements et sommaires, Centre de Conférence du Gouvernement, Ottawa, du 26 au 27 novembre 1994. - Ottawa : ACUNS, 1994, p. [85]
Abstract only.
ASTIS record 36677.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

The northern Baffin Region is subject to unique conditions which result in the development of numerous massive ground ice deposits. This research project involves the investigation of ice burial processes and the characterization of buried massive ground ice bodies on Bylot Island. Much of Bylot Island is covered by a large ice field, with the ice accumulating in the central mountains, and glaciers flowing outwards towards the edges of the island. Even though many of the glaciers have common accumulation areas their individual mass balances appear to vary dramatically. While some of the glacier snouts are stationary, other nearby glaciers are retreating tens of meters per year. These rapidly retreating glaciers are producing the majority of the ground ice. As the glaciers retreat, sediment begins to accumulate on the surface from land slide activity, and the surficial concentration of internal sediment from ice melt. As the year round air temperatures are quite cold in this region, little surficial cover is required to insulate buried ice from melting. Aerial photography and satellite imagery were used to map and measure temporal changes in the extent of the surface ice. Ground penetrating radar was used to delineate the extent of surface and buried ground ice, measure the thickness of the overburden, and to map the internal structure of the ice bodies. Ice metamorphism during the burial and preservation process was studied by comparing the physical characteristics of buried and surface ice where sections were exposed. (Au)

F, C, A
Accumulation; Glaciers; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Ice cover; Landslides; Mapping; Mass balance; Physical properties; Satellite photography

G0813
Bylot Island, Nunavut


Permafrost investigations along the Norman Wells pipeline using ground penetrating radar = Recherches sur le pergélisol menées le long de l'oléoduc Norman Wells au moyen du radar de pénétration du sol   /   Moorman, B.   Robinson, S.   Burgess, M.   Judge, A.   Fridel, T.
In: Fourth National Student Conference on Northern Studies : Conference programme and abstracts, Government Conference Centre, Ottawa, November 26-27, 1994 = Quatrième conférence nationale des étudiants en études nordiques : Calendrier des événements et sommaires, Centre de Conférence du Gouvernement, Ottawa, du 26 au 27 novembre 1994. - Ottawa : ACUNS, 1994, p. [84]
Abstract only.
ASTIS record 36676.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

The Norman Wells oil pipeline traverses the zone of discontinuous permafrost. Negative environmental impacts from the clearing of the right of way and the burial and operation of the pipeline are of real concern. Slope erosion or failure due to ground thawing poses one of the greatest threats to the pipeline and the surrounding environment. Traditional methods for slope evaluation and monitoring cannot efficiently provide detailed enough information in complex settings. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is being evaluated as a means to provide more intensive monitoring of the permafrost conditions. GPR surveys were conducted on a number of different slopes along the pipeline to examine the subsurface thermal and physical structure. Lithological changes, thermal interfaces, and structural features could be mapped with the GPR to an average depth of 6 m with a resolution of 0.3 m. The high resolution data collected with the GPR indicate that there is thawing of permafrost on the right of way at some slopes, with the greatest thawing taking place near the pipe and towards the base of the slopes. (Au)

C, J, Q
Design and construction; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Ground penetrating radar; Permafrost; Pipelines; Slopes; Thawing

G0812
Norman Wells region, N.W.T.


Five year summary of GPR experiments and studies at The University of Calgary   /   Jol, H.M.   Smith, D.G.   Lawton, D.C.   Meyers, R.A.   Moorman, B.J.   Tarrant, P.M.   Stewart, R.R.   Fisher, S.C.
In: GPR '94 : Abstracts for poster papers : Fifth International Conference on Ground Penetrating Radar, June 12-16, 1994, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada. - Kitchener, Ontario : Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research : Canadian Geotechnical Society, 1994, p. 21-22
Cover title.
Abstract only.
Abstract for poster papers.
ASTIS record 34046.
Languages: English

Interpretation of internal structure and depth determination of subsurface sediments and water tables are significant problems facing geomorphologists, sedimentologists, Quaternary researchers, environmentalists, consultants and park interpreters. Attempts to better understand sediment depositional systems through stratigraphy, structure, facies, architecture and processes are a major research focus within the earth sciences. Such surficial sediments are often studied only by expensive drilling and trenching. It is in this context that ground penetrating radar (GPR) is such a powerful field data acquisition system because of its ability to cheaply and continuously image at very high resolution the upper 30 m of sediments. Over the past 5 years, we have conducted over 300 GPR field experiments and studies in North America. The objectives of these studies were: (1) to test and determine the reliability of radar, that reflections do correspond to real sedimentary structures in the subsurface; (2) to provide baseline data on a variety of depositional environments to be used in the earth science community; (3) to demonstrate how GPR profiles combined with stratigraphic analysis and lithostratigraphic data can be used to assess subsurface stratigraphy and identify large scale sedimentary structures, bedrock contacts and groundwater tables; (4) to improve subsurface prediction of sediment thicknesses, grain size and paleodepositional environments for applied problems such as environmental assessments and locations of facilities in different terrain; and (5) to support collaborative research linkages with industry, universities and government research institutes. Also, in conjuction with the Department of Geology and Geophysics, we are applying seismic processing techniques to the data as well as using the LANDMARK seismic interpretation workstation to generate various different perspectives of the radar data collected from grid profiles. The variety of sites investigated include: (a) sand and gravel deposits - deltas (fan-foreset, wave, braid, coastal (spits, barrier bars, strand plains), fluvial (braiding, anastomosing, meandering), glacial (kames, drumlins, eskers), valley fills, giant ripples, placer mining deposits, aggregate mining sites; (b) ice and water - depth, thickness, sub-bottom profiling; (c) peat - sub-peat topography, pipeline location, thickness; and (d) other - environmental (e.g. creosote), lava beds, catastrophic flood deposits, graveyards, disturbance zones, tectonic faults, healed slumps and failure planes. This research will: (1) provide a scientifically sophisticated and inexpensive means of determining subsurface facies, depth, volume and geometry of geomorphic features; (2) aid in understanding the complex architecture of depositional environments; and (3) lead to radar facies models of different fluvial, deltaic and coastal settings, as well as geotechnical and environmental applications. It is our hope that the resulting radar models will be of considerable value as analogues for environmental planning and assessments, geotechnical investigations, oil and gas reservoir models, aggregate, placer (gold, garnet) and peat mining assessment, and groundwater research. (Au)

A, B
Bottom sediments; Electronic data processing; Granular resources; Ground penetrating radar; River deltas; Sand; Sedimentary structures; Sedimentation; Seismic surveys; Soil mechanics; Spits (Geography); Stratigraphy

G08
Canada; United States


The ground penetrating radar revolution   /   Jol, H.M.   Smith, D.G.   Moorman, B.J.   Tarrant, P.M.   Meyers, R.A.   Hayes, M.B.
In: The International Association of Geomorphologists Third International Geomorphology Conference, August 23-28, 1993, programme with abstracts, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada / Compiled by Derek Ford, Brian McCann and Susan Vajoczki. - [Hamilton, Ont.] : printed at McMaster University, 1993, p. 166
Abstract only.
ASTIS record 33903.
Languages: English

Recently ground penetrating radar (GPR) has become a popular method for investigations of the shallow subsurface in the earth sciences due to the recent availability of portable, robust and digital radar systems. GPR has been used in a variety of earth science applications at the University of Calgary. We have investigated over 200 field sites during the past 3 years. The objective of our work is to show and discuss how GPR can be used to better understand modern and ancient deltaic, fluvial and coastal (lacustrine) processes and patterns, to reconstruct depositional environments. Profiling by GPR is similar to sonar and seismic reflection of electromagnetic (EM) energy. Reflections from subsurface sediment boundaries are caused by contrasts in dielectric properties of different sediment types or grain size. Changes in the dielectric constant can also affect the rate of energy attenuation. The effects enable the subsurface stratigraphy to be inferred from the character of the reflected signals. A pulseEKKO IV radar system was used to obtain the GPR profiles with single-fold data collected using a constant source-receiver offset with 25, 50, 100 and 200 MegaHertz antennae. One metre station spacings were used for all surveys to provide detailed horizontal resolution of stratigraphic structures. The profiles were processed and plotted (wiggle trace format) using pulseEKKO IV software (version 3.1). The common mid point technique was used to calculate near surface velocity measurements which could be used to infer a depth scale. GPR has been found to be a very effective method for mapping subsurface stratigraphy and sedimentary facies of deltaic, fluvial and coastal (lacustrine) deposits. In our experience GPR was found to be most effective (resolution and depth of penetration) in dry and/or wet (freshwater), clean (no silt or clay), silica sand and gravel deposits. When considering portability, resolution, cost effectiveness, and time efficiency in assessing the shallow subsurface (0-32 m) stratigraphy of sand, gravel and organic deposits, GPR is unmatched by any other methodology. With increased acquisition and research, GPR will become a major technique for assisting in our understanding of the near subsurface. (Au)

B, A
Antennae; Bottom sediments; Ground penetrating radar; Palaeogeography; River deltas; Rivers; Sedimentation; Stratigraphy

G0812, G082, G0813
Canadian Arctic; Middle North


The application of radar stratigraphic techniques to the investigation of massive ground ice at Yaya Lake, Northwest Territories [L'application des techniques de géoradar à l'étude des masses de glace au lac Yaya, T.N.-O.]   /   Robinson, S.D.   Moorman, B.J.   Judge, A.S.   Dallimore, S.R.   Shimeld, J.W.
(Student research in Canada's North : proceedings of the Third National Student Conference on Northern Studies, Ottawa, October 23-24, 1991 / Edited by W.O. Kupsch and J.F. Basinger. Musk-ox, no. 39, special publication, 1992, p. 39-49, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 34104.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Several Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys were conducted in the vicinity of a 16.5 m deep borehole near Yaya Lake, Richards Island, NWT. The objective of the research was to delineate the lateral extent, thickness, and internal character of the massive ground ice underlying the region. The borehole log was used as point source verification of the GPR survey interpretations. The initial surveys, carried out in April 1990, successfully mapped the upper and lower surfaces of the ice body. Additional surveys conducted in August determined the lateral extent of the ice body and examined the influence of seasonal variations in ground temperature on signal propagation. Surveys were carried out at centre frequencies of 25, 50, and 100 MHz to study the effect of increasing frequency on the character of the profiles. The base of the ice body was indicated on all of the profiles by a strong reflection varying in depth between 10 and 16 m. This corresponds to the contact between the ice and a clay till, which was observed in the borehole at 12.2 m depth. The top of the ice body was best delineated in the 50 MHz survey at a depth varying between 2.0 and 8.5 m, which corresponds well with borehole data. The 50 MHz surveys most clearly showed gross-scale internal structure of the ice and surrounding sediments. Along the surveyed lines, the massive ice body was found to have horizontal dimensions of at least 230 x 100 m and a maximum thickness of 10 m. (Au)

C
Boreholes; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar

G0812
Yaya Lake region, N.W.T.


Remote sensing of permafrost by ground-penetrating radar at two airports in Arctic Canada   /   Judge, A.S.   Tucker, C.M.   Pilon, J.A.   Moorman, B.J.
(Remote sensing of arctic environments. Arctic, v. 44, suppl. 1, 1991, p. 40-48, ill., map)
References.
Presented at the International Circumpolar Symposium on Remote Sensing of Arctic Environments, 1st, Yellowknife, N.W.T., 1-3 May 1990
ASTIS record 31326.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic44-S-40.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1569
Libraries: ACU

Over a cycle of seasons, ground-penetrating radar studies were carried out at Inuvik and Rankin Inlet, Northwest Territories. The two airports are part of the Forward Operating Location (FOL) program of the Department of National Defence and have been slated for significant upgrading of runways, taxiways and parking aprons. This provided a good opportunity to investigate the extent of permafrost and its seasonal variation at two locations distributed over a wide geographic area. The study method involved specific and repeated traverses with a Pulse EKKO III ground-penetrating radar unit. The survey was successful in locating massive ice bodies, imaging several existing problem areas beneath runways and mapping the seasonal depth of thaw in permafrost. The study results imply that future monitoring at FOL sites should be continued in light of suggested ground stability problems due to global warming. (Au)

C, L, E, B
Airports; Climate change; Design and construction; Effects monitoring; Frozen ground; Ground ice; Permafrost; Permafrost surveys; Remote sensing; Satellite photography; Spatial distribution; Stratigraphy; Thawing

G0813, G0812
Inuvik region, N.W.T.; Rankin Inlet (Hamlet) region, Nunavut


Ground probing radar investigations of gravel roadbed failures, Rae Access road, N.W.T.   /   LaFleche, P.T.   Judge, A.S.   Moorman, B.J.   Cassidy, B.   Bedard, R.
(Current research - Geological Survey of Canada, paper 88- 1D, p. 129-135, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 63342.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACSP

Ground probing radar surveys were undertaken, in early April 1987, along sections of the Rae Access road, near Fort Rae, N.W.T., to detect and delineate massive ground ice bodies. Such ground ice bodies were thought to be the cause of thaw degradation of the road embankment. Two sites were surveyed and an ice body was mapped at one of them. The ice was found to protrude almost to the bottom of the roadfill, indicating that further problems could be encountered at this site. Subsequent cracking and a collapse in the roadbed in September 1987 near this survey site, confirmed the survey results. A thicker clay layer at the second site limited the useful penetration of the radar system and prevented the detection of any possible ground ice. (Au)

C, B, L, E
Atmospheric temperature; Boreholes; Clay; Design and construction; Detection; Electrical properties; Embankments; Gravel; Ground ice; Ground penetrating radar; Maintenance; Mapping; Measurement; Permafrost surveys; Roads; Sand; Soil profiles; Soil temperature; Thaw settlement; Thawing

G0812
Rae region, N.W.T.


© Arctic Institute of North America. Records from this database may be used freely for research and educational purposes, but may not be used to create databases or publications for distribution outside your own organization without prior permission from ASTIS.