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The ASTIS database cites the following 55 publication(s) by Frank Miller. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Long-term control of Peary caribou numbers by unpredictable, exceptionally severe snow or ice conditions in a non-equilibrium grazing system   /   Miller, F.L.   Barry, S.J.
(Arctic, v. 62, no. 2, June 2009, p. 175-189, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 67177.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic62-2-175.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic130
Libraries: ACU

The number of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic, is at an all-time known low. Yet some populations are still hunted, and there is no adequate monitoring program in place to determine the consequences. We evaluate information from the Peary caribou population on the south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands as a standard for an accurate and realistic assessment of what controls Peary caribou population dynamics. Between 1973 and 1997, major population crashes related to severe winter or spring weather are known to have occurred on the south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands in four caribou-years (i.e., 1 July-30 June). Population losses were 67% in 1973-74, 33% in 1994-95, 78% in 1995-96, and 83% in 1996-97. There is no evidence for direct density-dependent responses during either the favorable weather years of population growth or during any one of the years with a disastrous die-off. It appears that Peary caribou on the Queen Elizabeth Islands are living in a non-equilibrium grazing system driven mainly by abiotic factors (emergent properties), particularly by exceptionally unfavorable snow or ice conditions. Changing levels of predation by the High Arctic gray wolf (Canis lupus arctos) compound the uncertainty. In this High Arctic ecosystem, non-equilibrium-governed population dynamics plus wolf predation represents an appropriate conceptual model for Peary caribou populations on the Canadian High Arctic islands. The application of our findings to decision making, together with an adequate monitoring program by the responsible agencies, would promote the biological management and ecological conservation of Peary caribou on the Queen Elizabeth Islands. (Au)

I, H, J, E, F
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal food; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Biomass; Caribou; Effects of climate on plants; Grazing; Meteorology; Plant growth; Plants (Biology); Polar deserts; Predation; Primary production (Biology); Snow; Storms; Temporal variations; Tundra ecology; Winter ecology; Wolves

G0813
Alexander Island, Nunavut; Bathurst Island, Nunavut; Cameron Island, Nunavut; Massey Island, Nunavut; Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut; Vanier, Ile, Nunavut


Near-total loss of caribou on south-central Canadian Arctic Islands and the role of seasonal migration in their demise   /   Miller, F.L.   Barry, S.J.   Calvert, W.A.
(Arctic, v. 60, no. 1, Mar. 2007, p. 23-36, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 61115.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic60-1-23.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic262
Libraries: ACU

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) on the south-central Canadian Arctic Islands (Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell islands) declined by 98% sometime between 1980 and 1995 - a near-total loss of a known genetically distinctive group of Arctic Island caribou. In contrast, caribou on the adjacent Boothia Peninsula seemingly increased by 38% from 1985 to 1995, while experiencing heavy annual hunting pressure. Our evaluation leads us to three primary conclusions. 1) It would have been biologically impossible for the estimated 1985 population on Boothia Peninsula (4831 ±543 SE caribou one year old or older) to sustain the estimated annual harvest of 1100 one year old or older animals without continual annual ingress of caribou from beyond Boothia Peninsula. Our analysis of the 540 possible combinations of population parameters indicates that at any size within ±2 SE of the 1985 estimate (3745-5917 caribou one year old or older), the Boothia Peninsula caribou population would have gone to "mathematical extirpation": 99% of the combinations by 1995 and 100% by 1999. 2) The continued unsustainable level of harvest was masked by the annual winter infusion of migrant caribou onto Boothia Peninsula from Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell islands. 3) Caribou persisted on Boothia Peninsula, but only because of the simultaneous near elimination of the Arctic Island caribou ecotype in the Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell islands geographic population. This caribou resource cannot be properly conserved without adequate monitoring and periodic estimates of population sizes and annual harvest rates throughout the entire Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell islands-Boothia Peninsula complex. (Au)

I, N
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Caribou; Endangered species; Extirpation; Hunting; Mathematical models; Predation; Wildlife management

G0813
Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut; Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Russell Island (74 00 N, 98 25 W), Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut; Taloyoak, Nunavut


A near-total decline in caribou on Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell Islands, Canadian Arctic   /   Gunn, A.   Miller, F.L.   Barry, S.J.   Buchan, A.
(Arctic, v. 59, no. 1, Mar. 2006, p. 1-13, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 58542.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic59-1-1.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic358
Libraries: ACU

The number of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) on Prince of Wales, Somerset, and Russell islands in the south-central Canadian Arctic declined by 98% in 15 years, from an estimated 6048 (16% calves) in 1980 to an estimated 100 (0% calves) in 1995. Those estimates were obtained by systematic aerial surveys that used the same design and methods and comparable survey coverage. We do not have the data needed to determine the rate of decrease between 1980 and 1995 or its possible causes. There is no evidence for large-scale winter mortality in any one year or few consecutive years. A probable explanation for the decline is consequential reductions in long-term survival rates, both of breeding females and of calves in their first year of life, associated with continued caribou harvesting and markedly increased wolf (Canis lupus) predation on the dwindling number of caribou through the 1980s and early 1990s. The delay in detecting the decline and the lack of understanding of its causes will handicap the development of an ecologically sound recovery plan. As previous caribou declines have been followed by recovery, some comfort may be drawn from the likelihood of unaided recovery. However, the number of caribou has declined to the point where recovery will be tenuous and lengthy, at best. Unaided recovery could easily fail to occur, so we should not be complacent, especially as extirpation of these few remaining caribou would remove a distinct genetic group and reduce the biodiversity of caribou on Canada's Arctic Islands. (Au)

I, E, J, N, L, T
Aerial surveys; Animal anatomy; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Biological sampling; Biology; Caribou; Climate change; Co-management; Communication; Creation of Nunavut; Detection; Environmental impacts; Genetics; Growing season; Hunting; Inuit; Meteorology; Parasites; Plant distribution; Predation; Public opinion; Seasonal variations; Snowfall; Species at Risk Act, 2002; Temporal variations; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management; Winter ecology; Wolves

G0813
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Bathurst Island, Nunavut; Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut; Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Resolute, Nunavut; Russell Island (74 00 N, 98 25 W), Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut; Taloyoak, Nunavut


Catastrophic die-off of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Canadian High Arctic   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.
(Arctic, v. 56, no. 4, Dec. 2003, p. 381-390, ill., maps)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 022-03)
References.
ASTIS record 52874.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic56-4-381.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic635
Libraries: ACU

The Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) is an endangered species in Canada, having been in an overall decline since 1961. Sightings of Peary caribou were compared from two aerial searches, in 1993 and 1998, on Bathurst and its neighbouring islands, western Queen Elizabeth Islands in the Canadian High Arctic. The comparison indicated a near-total (98%) cataclysmic decline in the number of Peary caribou seen per unit of search effort. In summer 1993, 2400 caribou were counted during 33.8 h of low-level helicopter searches. In contrast, in summer 1998, only 43 caribou were seen within the same area during 35.2 h of low-level helicopter searches. The frequency of observation was markedly different: 118.3 caribou/100 min in 1993, but only 2.0 caribou/100 min in 1998. The number of carcasses indicated that the decline resulted from deaths and not from mass emigration. Males died at a disproportionately higher rate than females among all 1+ yr old caribou, and bulls (4+ yr) compared to cows (3+ yr) had died at an even greater rate. Widespread, prolonged, exceptionally severe snow and ice conditions from 1994-95 to 1996-97 caused the die-off. Trends in snowfall are consistent with predictions for global warming in the western Canadian High Arctic. Future climate change may increase the frequency of years with unfavorable snow and ice conditions, which could prevent or at least impede future recovery of Peary caribou populations on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands, particularly to sizes that would support subsistence harvesting. (Au)

I, E, F, H, G, L
Aerial surveys; Age; Animal food; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Caribou; Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Effects of climate on plants; Effects of climate on snow; Endangered species; Extirpation; Gender differences; Grazing; Helicopters; Icing; Icing conditions; Necropsy; Plant growth; Plants (Biology); Seasonal variations; Snow; Starvation; Temporal variations; Winds

G0812, G0813
Bathurst Island, Nunavut; Cameron Island, Nunavut; Marc, Ile, Nunavut; Massey Island, Nunavut; Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut; Vanier, Ile, Nunavut


Andrew Hall Macpherson (1932-2002)   /   Miller, F.L.
(Arctic, v. 55, no. 4, Dec. 2002, p. 403-406, 1 ill.)
ASTIS record 50678.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic55-4-403.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic724
Libraries: ACU

... As a teenager, Andrew was already living adventures that are the dreams of many teenage boys. From 1949 to 1957, before joining the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), he gained a lifetime of memories and valuable experience as a member of eight scientific expeditions to the Canadian Arctic. He served as a seasonal field assistant to scientists, working on contracts for the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, the Defence Research Board, the Arctic Institute of North America, the Department of Northern Affairs, and the National Museum of Canada. He made most of his early trips to the Arctic in the company of his mentor and lifelong friend Thomas (Tom) Henry Manning, famed Arctic explorer and geographer-biologist. ... His time in the Arctic convinced Andrew that he wanted to be an Arctic wildlife biologist. So, after completing a B.Sc. degree in Zoology (geology and geography) in 1954 at Carleton College, Ottawa, he went on to complete a M.Sc. in Zoology in 1957 at McGill University, Montreal. ... In April 1958, he joined the CWS to work on Arctic wildlife problems. With glowing annual appraisals, he moved up through all the grades of biologist (I-IV) in only six years .... He continued his studies at McGill and in 1967 received a Ph.D. for his seminal study, The Dynamics of Canadian Arctic Fox Populations. ... In August 1967, Andrew left the Canadian Wildlife Service for a temporary position on the staff of the Science Secretariat, Science Council of Canada, as a project officer for studies in Canadian biological science. Once again, he expressed his desire to be a moving force, or at least a significant contributor to meaningful advances. ... In 1970, a promotion to Director, Western & Northern Region, of the Canadian Wildlife Service brought Andrew to Edmonton, Alberta. ...He ... remained regional director of CWS until 1974. When the department reorganized into five regions, Andrew took a significant promotion to Regional Director General, Environment Management Service, Environment Canada, Western & Northern Region, where he remained until 1986. Always looking for new challenges, he took a temporary posting between April and August 1985 as Acting Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Planning, Environment Canada, in Hull, Quebec. Finally in 1986, apparently sensing the approaching end to his career as a public servant and ever willing to accept one more formidable task, Andrew became Director General, Northwest Territories Region, Northern Affairs Program, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. At the time, he said that he was still interested in innovative management challenges, implementing change, and redirecting programs into promising new avenues. In his Yellowknife position, he helped prepare for the creation of Nunavut, remaining in that position until his retirement in 1988. Once retired, he devoted himself to geopolitical and environmental causes. Andrew had a particularly strong concern about the growth of human population, its toll on natural habitats, and the ever-spiralling rates of consumption of resources. This concern led him to help found the Sustainable Population Society. ... Andrew's publications deal with a wide range of subjects, from conservation, ecology, population dynamics, wildlife management, taxonomy, zoogeography, social and environmental issues, and Inuktitut names for birds and mammals, to popular hunting and fishing articles. Perhaps his personal favorite was his book, The Canadian Ice Angler's Guide, published in 1985 by Lone Pine Publications. There is no doubt that Andrew Macpherson was by anyone's standards a highly intelligent, successful, personable, humorous, and inquisitive person. ... Andrew appeared to be quite successful at keeping his priorities right! [managing to keep his perspective and order priorities for the greatest enjoyment of life]. ... I would like to think that Andrew Macpherson is perched on a high prominence overlooking a game-choked valley and a fish-laden stream - his eternal "happy hunting ground"! ... (Au)

Y, I, N, R
Biographies; Canadian Wildlife Service; Civil servants; Creation of Nunavut; Macpherson, Andrew Hall, 1932-2002; Scientists; Wildlife management

G0812, G0813
Canadian Arctic


Multi-island seasonal home range use by two Peary caribou, Canadian High Arctic islands, Nunavut, 1993-94   /   Miller, F.L.
(Arctic, v. 55, no. 2, June 2002, p. 133-142, maps)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 013-02)
References.
ASTIS record 49615.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic55-2-133.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic697
Libraries: ACU

A female and a male Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) were captured on 29 July 1993 on Massey Island, south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands, Nunavut, Canada. Each was fitted with a satellite telemetry neck-collar, released, and tracked by satellite from 1 August 1993 to 31 July 1994. The female caribou used five islands and the male caribou used six islands as seasonal and (collectively) as annual home range. They used five of the six islands (Vanier, Cameron, Alexander, Massey, and Marc) both during the same time periods and at different times. Bathurst Island was used only briefly and only by the male. The male and female occupied the same island at the same time during 54% of the 1993-94 annual cycle. Their seven periods of common occupancy ranged in length from 5 to 88 consecutive days. During the study period, the female moved from one island to another on 11 separate occasions, and the male, on 16 occasions. The female's periods of residence on each island ranged in length from 4 to 95 consecutive days, and the male's from 2 to 169 consecutive days. Their seasonal and annual range-use patterns suggest a degree of flexibility and adaptability to a variable and taxing environment and indicate the important role that relatively small islands play in the ecology of Peary caribou. (Au)

I, J
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal live-capture; Animal migration; Caribou; Gender differences; Islands; Radio tracking of animals

G0813
Canadian Arctic Islands; Massey Island, Nunavut


Status of endangered and threatened caribou on Canada's Arctic Islands   /   Gunn, A.   Miller, F.L.   Nishi, J.
(Proceedings of the Eighth North American Caribou Workshop, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada, 20-24 April 1998 / Edited by Rick Farnell, Don Russell and Debbie van de Wetering. Rangifer, special issue no. 12, 2000, p. 39-50, 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 51693.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) on the Canadian Arctic Islands occur as several populations which are nationally classified as either endangered or threatened. On the western High Arctic (Queen Elizabeth) Islands, Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi) declined to an estimated 1100 caribou in 1997. This is the lowest recorded abundance since the first aerial survey in 1961 when a high of ca. 24 363 caribou was estimated on those islands. Peary caribou abundance on the eastern Queen Elizabeth Islands is almost unknown. On the southern Arctic Islands, three caribou populations declined by 95-98% between 1973 and 1994 but our information is unclear about the numerical trends for the two other populations. Diagnosis of factors driving the declines is complicated by incomplete information but also because the agents driving the declines vary among the Arctic's different climatic regions. The available evidence indicates that severe winters caused Peary caribou die-offs on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands. On Banks Island, harvesting together with unfavourable snow/ice conditions in some years accelerated the decline. On northwestern Victoria Island, harvesting apparently explains the decline. The role of wolf predation is unknown on Banks and northwest Victoria islands, although wolf sightings increased during the caribou declines. Reasons for the virtual disappearance of arctic-island caribou on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands are uncertain. Recovery actions have started with Inuit and Inuvialuit reducing their harvesting but it is too soon to evaluate the effect of those changes. Recovery of Peary caribou on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands is uncertain if the current trends toward warmer temperatures and higher snowfall persist. (Au)

I, N, J, E, T
Aerial surveys; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal taxonomy; Caribou; Climate change; Endangered species; Grazing; Hunting; Inuit; Muskoxen; Predation; Quotas; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management; Wolves

G0813, G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic Islands; Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Wolf-sightings on the Canadian Arctic Islands   /   Miller, F.L.   Reintjes, F.D.
(Arctic, v. 48, no. 4, Dec. 1995, p. 313-323, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 36809.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic48-4-313.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1253
Libraries: ACU

A wolf-sighting questionnaire was sent to 201 arctic field researchers from many disciplines to solicit information on observations of wolves (Canis lupus spp.) made by field parties on Canadian Arctic Islands. Usable responses were obtained for 24 of the 25 years between 1967 and 1991. Respondents reported 373 observations, involving 1203 wolf-sightings. of these, 688 wolves in 234 observations were judged to be different individuals; the remaining 515 wolf-sightings in 139 observations were believed to be repeated observations of 167 of those 688 wolves. The reported wolf-sightings were obtained from 1953 field-weeks spent on 18 of 36 Arctic Islands reported on: no wolves were seen on the other 18 islands during an additional 186 field-weeks. Airborne observers made 24% of all wolf-sightings, 266 wolves in 48 packs and 28 single wolves. Respondents reported seeing 572 different wolves in 118 separate packs and 116 single wolves. Pack sizes averaged 4.8±0.28 SE and ranged from 2 to 15 wolves. Sixty-three wolf pups were seen in 16 packs, with a mean of 3.9±2.24 SD and a range of 1-10 pups per pack. Most (81%) of the different wolves were seen on the Queen Elizabeth Islands. Respondents annually averaged 10.9 observations of wolves/100 field-weeks and saw on average 32.2 wolves/100 field-weeks/yr between 1967 and 1991. Average rates of wolf observations/100 field-weeks (28.5, 13.6 vs 5.7; p<0.005) and mean numbers of different wolves seen/100 field-weeks (92.3, 37.5 vs. 15.4; p<0.005) were markedly greater during 1967-75 and 1989-91 than in 1976-88. Relative differences in the reported rates of wolf observations on the Queen Elizabeth Islands in 1967-75, 1976-88, and 1989-91 follow the relative abundance of the wolf's major prey, Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), on those islands during those periods. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal population; Caribou; Muskoxen; Predation; Research personnel; Social surveys; Wolves

G0813
Canadian Arctic Islands


Inter-island water crossings by Peary caribou, south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands   /   Miller, F.L.
(Arctic, v. 48, no. 1, Mar. 1995, p. 8-12, 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 35664.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic48-1-8.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1219
Libraries: ACU

Satellite and conventional radio telemetry were used to obtain information on daily and seasonal movements of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) on south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories, Canada. Seventeen Peary caribou were captured in 1993 and fitted with telemetry neck collars. Seven collars housed both a Satellite Platform Transmitter Terminal package and radio telemetry package; the other 10 collars all housed only the radio telemetry package. Three of the collared caribou, along with at least 16 of their companion animals, made inter-island water crossings by swimming between Ile Vanier and Massey or between Massey Island and Ile Marc in August 1993. Of particular note is that two-month-old calves, as well as adult caribou, were involved in some of the frigid saltwater crossings. The water crossing between Ile Vanier and Massey Island required a minimum straight-line swim of 2.5 km and that between Massey Island and Ile Marc a minimum 1.6 km swim, depending on points of entry and exit from the water. That evidence composes the first documented account of Peary caribou swimming between any of the Queen Elizabeth Islands. (Au)

I
Animal behaviour; Animal migration; Caribou; Radio tracking of animals; Telemetry

G0815
Bathurst Island waters, Nunavut; Queen Elizabeth Islands waters, N.W.T./Nunavut


Peary caribou calving and postcalving periods, Bathurst Island complex, Northwest Territories, 1992   /   Miller, F.L.
Edmonton, Alta. : Canadian Wildlife Service, Prairie and Northern Region, 1994.
ix, 99 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
(Technical report series - Canadian Wildlife Service, no.186)
ISBN 0-662-21195-2
References.
ASTIS record 36584.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) were aerially surveyed on south-central Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories, Canada in June and July 1992 to obtain data on relative numbers, sex/age composition, distributions, movements, chronology of calving period, calf production, and early survival of calves. The sex/age composition of caribou on Massey Island was skewed and bulls were essentially lacking there. The frequencies of occurrence of caribou between 5-8 July 1992 on Alexander Island and Massey Island were greater than expected by chance alone (P <0.005) when compared on a relative landmass basis with the other three western major satellite islands and Bathurst Island. Nonsystematic aerial searches yielded sightings of a maximum of 1174 different individual 1+ year-old caribou and 470 calves between 5 and 8 July 1992. Most of the caribou were seen on Bathurst Island: mostly on the northern part of the island, north of Polar Bear Pass; and mainly on interior areas in June, shifting to coastal areas in early July. Caribou continued to move counterclockwise around Bathurst Island, beginning some time before late May and persisting into, at least, mid July 1992. Calving peaked during the 2nd and 3rd weeks of June, then continued through the last days of June and possibly into the first week of July 1992. By 8 July 1992 there were about 94 and 62 newborn calves seen per 100 breeding cows and per 100 1+ year-old females, respectively. It appears that about 100% of the theoretical average rate of pregnancy was realized for all 2+ yr-old females within the Bathurst Island complex in 1992. Early mortality of calves appears to have been 6% or slightly less. Snow depth measurements (N=5481) were obtained from 639 sample sites at 71 stations during May-June 1992. Snow cover was highly variable and some small patches of snow-free ground existed on exposed sites. Measured snow depths ranged from 1 to 79 cm before snow melt was advanced in late June 1992. Where snow cover persisted on individual sample sites, it averaged 20-23 cm between 29 May and 22 June on the 7.5-km snow/ice course and 13-16 cm between 27 May and 21 June on the 1-km course. Subsequently, ground fast ice accumulated only at 49% of the stations and 43% of the sample sites. Ground fast ice on the 7.5-km course averaged 6.0 cm (±4.2 cm SD) and ranged from 2 to 14 cm in thickness, while on the 1-km course it averaged 3.2 cm (±2.2 cm SD) and ranged from 1 to 11 cm in thickness. No positive direct evidence was obtained for Peary caribou foraging or even attempting to dig forage craters in the snow cover at any time between 27 May and 1 July 1992 anywhere within the Bathurst Island complex. (Au)

I, F, C, E, N, T
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Caribou; Grazing; Ground ice; Helicopters; Hunting; Inuit; Measurement; Meteorology; Snow; Snow cover; Thickness

G0813
Bathurst Island, Nunavut


Nonrandom distribution of antlers cast by Peary caribou bulls, Melville Island, Northwest Territories   /   Miller, F.L.   Barry, S.J.
(Arctic, v. 45, no. 3, Sept. 1992, p. 252-257, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 32507.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic45-3-252.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1399
Libraries: ACU

An aerial survey was carried out in July 1987 to determine the pattern of distribution of antlers cast by Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) bulls on north-central and northeastern Melville Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Four transect lines were flown parallel to the coastal shorelines of Hecla and Griper Bay and adjacent Sabine Bay at distances of about 0.8, 2.4, 5.0, and 10.0 km inland. A four-person survey crew was used in a Bell-206B turbo-helicopter flown at about 90 m above ground level and at an air speed of about 160 km/h. We recorded 531 antlers cast by bulls along ca. 1110 km of transects: 55% within 1.6 km of the seacoast and 89% within 3.2 km. Antlers were not randomly distributed along or among transects (p<0.05). The antlers were clumped in distribution and their numbers declined significantly with distance from the seacoast (p<0.05). We suggest that use of such coastal rutting areas by low-density populations of Peary caribou would confer, without any precognition or anticipation on the part of the animals, maximal timely contact between rutting bulls and cows in heat during the short temporal peak of the autumn rut by reducing a two-dimensional search problem to an essentially linear one. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal population; Antlers; Caribou

G0813, G0812
Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Status report on the Peary caribou, Rangifer tarandus pearyi, in Canada   /   Miller, F.L.
[Ottawa : Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, 1991].
v, 116 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Alternate title according to COSEWIC website: Update COSEWIC status report on the Peary caribou Rangifer tarandus pearyi in Canada.
Indexed from a photocopy.
References.
ASTIS record 58336 describes the 2004 version of the status update report.
ASTIS record 58333.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) populations on the Queen Elizabeth Islands of the Canadian High Arctic have suffered a continual overall drastic decline of about 90% in the past three decades. Their island-populations are now mere remnants of their former sizes and their future survival is endangered and in doubt. The plight of the Peary caribou on the Queen Elizabeth Islands should be recognized and those caribou should be reclassified as an "Endangered" form of wildlife in Canada. This would be a beneficial first step in advancing the conservation and preservation of the Peary caribou. The most biologically sound and necessary approach for the proper conservation of Peary caribou involves first the recognition of those populations of R.t. pearyi on the Queen Elizabeth Islands as genetically and possibly ecologically distinct from all other forms of Rangifer, including those forms of "arctic-island" caribou (R.t. groenlandicus x Pearyi) on the southern tier of Arctic Islands. ... (Au)

I, J, N, T, H, F
Adaptation (Biology); Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Biology; Caribou; Endangered species; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Evolution (Biology); Genetics; Grazing; Hunting; Inuit; Lichens; Muskoxen; Natural area preservation; Plant distribution; Predation; Quotas; Refugia; Seasonal variations; Self-determination; Snowfall; Temporal variations; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management; Winter ecology; Wolves

G0813, G0812, G10
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut; Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Greenland; King William Island, Nunavut; Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut; Stefansson Island, Nunavut


Estimating Bathurst Island Peary caribou and muskox populations   /   Miller, F.L.
(Arctic, v. 44, no. 1, Mar. 1991, p. 57-62, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 30820.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic44-1-57.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1519
Libraries: ACU

Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskox (Ovibos moschatus) numbers were estimated by systematic aerial survey on Bathurst Island and Bathurst's five western major satellite islands of Vanier, Cameron, Alexander, Massey and Marc, Northwest Territories, in 1985 and 1988. The surveys were carried out as part of the Canadian Wildlife Service's most recent evaluation of the status of Peary caribou (1984-88). In July 1985, 727 Peary caribou and 547 muskoxen were estimated on the six-island survey area and in July 1988, 1034 Peary caribou and 522 muskoxen. Post-parturient caribou cows and their newborn calves occurred at significantly greater rates on Massey Island than on the remainder of the survey area in both years. The 1985 and 1988 survey results, plus results from earlier surveys within the area, are used to illustrate how annual inter-island variation in range use within the survey area by varying numbers of caribou could confound population estimates based on aerial surveys of only Bathurst Island that do not also include, at least, the five western major satellite islands. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal food; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Caribou; Muskoxen

G0813
Alexander Island, Nunavut; Bathurst Island, Nunavut; Cameron Island, Nunavut; Mare, Ile, Nunavut; Massey Island, Nunavut; Vanier, Ile, Nunavut


Peary caribou and muskoxen on Melville and Byam Martin Islands, Northwest Territories, July 1987   /   Miller, F.L.
Edmonton, Alta. : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1988.
vii, 58 p. : ill., 1 map ; 28 cm.
(Technical report series - Canadian Wildlife Service, no. 37)
ISBN 0-662-16023-1
References.
ASTIS record 39901.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

An aerial survey to determine numbers and distributions of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos mochatus) was flown between 1 and 22 July 1987. The survey area included Melville and Byam Martin islands, Northwest Territories, in the Canadian Archipelago. A systematic unbounded line transect survey was flown at about 90 m above ground level along transects at 6.4-km intervals, for an overall coverage of about 27%. The survey aircraft was a Bell-206B turbo-helicopter on high-skid gear, equipped with an Omega/VLF Navigation System. A four-person survey crew was used. We observed 418 caribou and 2855 muskoxen on Melville Island and 90 caribou and 70 muskoxen on Byam Martin Island. Numbers of caribou and muskoxen were estimated at about 943 and 5652 on Melville and 98 and 100 on Byam Martin, respectively. Overall estimated mean density for all caribou was 2.2 caribou/100 km˛ on Melville and 8.4 caribou/100 km˛ on Byam Martin and for all muskoxen was 13.4 muskoxen/100 km˛ on Melville and 8.6 muskoxen/100 km˛ on Byam Martin. Caribou calves represented 19.4% of all caribou seen on Melville and 18.9% of all caribou seen on Byam Martin. Muskox calves represented 15.2% of all muskoxen seen on Melville and only 2.9% of all muskoxen seen on Byam Martin. Muskoxen have increased markedly within the 1987 two-island survey area by about 140% from 1974. Peary caribou have continued to decline markedly in number within the 1987 survey area by about a further 39% from 1974 and an overall 92% from 1961. The number of Peary caribou summering within the 1987 survey area would not safely support essentially any significant level of sustained annual harvest; especially, if it involved the removal of breeding age females. (Au)

I, J
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal population; Caribou; Helicopters; Muskoxen

G0813, G0812
Byam Martin Island, Nunavut; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Mortality of migratory barren-ground caribou on the calving grounds of the Beverly herd, Northwest Territories, 1981-83   /   Miller, F.L.   Broughton, E.   Gunn, A.
[Ottawa] : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1988.
26 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Occasional paper - Canadian Wildlife Service, no. 66)
ISBN 0-662-16263-3
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 39900.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The mortality of migratory barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) on the calving grounds of the Beverly caribou herd, District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories, was investigated in 1981, 1982, and 1983. Two hundred and eighty-seven dead or incapacitated newborn caribou calves were found and necropsied between 31 May and 20 June 1981, 8 and 23 June 1982, and 6 and 17 June 1983. Wolf (Canis lupus) predation was the single most important cause of newborn calf mortality (68.5%), followed by atelectasis (fetal and neonatal) (14.2%), pathophysiological disorders (6.7%), separation or abandonment (6.2%), pneumonia (4.0%), and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) predation (0.4%). The samples of cows that died shortly before, during, or after calving in 1981-83 are too small to allow evaluation of the causes and magnitude of mortality among breeding females of the Beverly caribou herd. Management measures to help safeguard against the deaths of newborn calves, including maintenance of wolf numbers and minimization of human activities on the calving grounds, are discussed. (Au)

I, J
Animal diseases; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Caribou; Grizzly bears; Necropsy; Predation; Wildlife management; Wolves

G0813
Nunavut; Sand Lake region, Nunavut; Sandhills Lake region, Nunavut


Nursing by muskox calves before, during, and after helicopter overflights   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.   Barry, S.J.
(Arctic, v. 41, no. 3, Sept. 1988, p. 231-235)
Abstract in English and French.
References.
ASTIS record 28563.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic41-3-231.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1722
Libraries: ACU

Nursing bouts by 15 muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calves were measured to evaluate potential use of nursing behaviour as an indicator of muskox responses to helicopters. The muskox calves nursed 225 times during 313 hours of observation: 63% under undisturbed conditions; 12% when helicopter overflights took place; and 25% following those overflights. During exposure to the helicopter, the calf moved to the cow and then sometimes took the opportunity to nurse. Younger calves nursed relatively longer and more often than older calves; they also performed 68% of the nursings that occurred during helicopter overflights. Frequency and duration of nursing bouts are known to be related to the age of calves. This paper demonstrates that these aspects of nursing vary within or among muskox herds and concludes that observations of nursing at this level of effort cannot be employed with any confidence as a monitoring indicator of muskox response to helicopters. (Au)

I, L
Animal behaviour; Environmental impacts; Helicopters; Muskoxen; Noise

G0813
Canadian Arctic Islands


Peary caribou and muskoxen on Prince Patrick Island, Eglinton Island, and Emerald Isle, Northwest Territories, July 1986   /   Miller, F.L.
Edmonton, Alta. : Canadian Wildlife Service, Western and Northern Region, 1987.
ix, 65 p. : ill., 1 map ; 28 cm.
(Technical report series - Canadian Wildlife Service, no. 29)
ISBN 0-662-15652-8
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 44287.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

An aerial survey to determine numbers and distributions of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) was flown between 4 and 13 July 1986. The survey area included Prince Patrick Island, Eglinton Island, and Emerald Isle, Northwest Territories, in the Canadian Archipelago. A systematic unbounded line transect survey was flown at about 90 m above ground level along transects at 6.4 km intervals, for an overall coverage of about 27%. The survey aircraft was a Bell-206B turbo-helicopter on floats, equipped with an Omega/VLF Navigation System. A four-person survey crew was used. Only 62 caribou and 51 muskoxen (1+ yr-old), 21 caribou calves, and two muskox calves were seen during the survey. Numbers of caribou and muskoxen within the entire survey area were estimated at 247 and 165, respectively. Overall estimated density for all caribou was 1.38 caribou/100 km˛ and for all muskoxen was 0.92 muskoxen/100 km˛. The estimated number of caribou was greatest on Prince Patrick Island but the highest density was estimated for caribou on Eglinton Island. Both the estimated number and the estimated density of muskoxen were greatest on Eglinton Island. Caribou calves represented 26.7% of all caribou and muskox calves only 2.5% of all muskoxen seen on and off survey. Large portions of Prince Patrick Island were resurveyed by air once and the whole of Eglinton Island twice at higher coverages between 17 and 29 July 1986. Overall resurvey results supported the overall findings from the aerial survey but some within island differences occurred, particularly for muskoxen. A better estimation of muskoxen on Eglinton Island is 136 at 8.76 muskoxen/100 km˛. Also, a better measure of proportional representation of muskox calves in July 1986 is 7%. Muskoxen appear to have increased within the 1986 survey area by about 27% from 1974. Peary caribou appear to have continued to decline in number within the 1986 survey area by about a further 63% from 1974and an overall 90% from 1961. The number of Peary caribou summering within the 1986 survey area would not safely support essentially any level of sustained annual harvest; especially, if it involved the removal of breeding age females. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal population; Caribou; Muskoxen

G0812
Eglinton Island, N.W.T.; Emerald Isle, N.W.T.; Prince Patrick Island, N.W.T.


Preliminary annotated bibliography : Peary caribou and related literature   /   Ealey, D.M.   Nietfeld, M.T.   Miller, F.L. [Editor]   Canadian Wildlife Service
Edmonton, Alta. : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1986.
ii, 291 p. ; 28 cm.
(NOGAP project no. C.08 : Inter-island movements of Peary caribou across Prince of Wales Strait between Banks and Victoria islands)
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from NOGAP.
ASTIS record 21041.
Languages: English
Libraries: AEECW OORD

[This] bibliography includes abstracts and annotations of most Peary caribou references to 1984. ... In addition to articles and reports on Peary caribou, some relevant references on adjacent range to that of the Peary caribou or dealing with intergrade populations of caribou are included - notably Boothia Peninsula and northern Greenland. ... The bibliography ... comprises three sections: (1) full reference and abstracts, (2) annotations relating to localities, (3) annotations relating to subjects of relevance to Peary caribou biology. ... (Au)

I
Animal distribution; Bibliographies; Biology; Caribou

G0813, G10
Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut; Greenland; Nunavut


Inter-island movements of Peary caribou across Prince of Wales Strait between Banks and Victoria Islands   /   Miller, F.L.   Canadian Wildlife Service [Sponsor]   Canada. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada [Sponsor]
Edmonton, Alta. : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1986.
43 leaves : maps ; 28 cm.
(NOGAP project no. A.13 : Impacts of oil and gas-related activities on caribou)
(NOGAP project no. C.08 : Inter-island movements of Peary caribou across Prince of Wales Strait between Banks and Victoria islands)
Cover title.
Alternate title: An investigation of the possible inter-island movements of Peary caribou across the sea ice of Prince of Wales Strait between Banks and Victoria islands.
Indexed from a photocopy.
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 20752.
Languages: English
Libraries: AEECW MWFW OORD ACU

A bibliography of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) literature was compiled that includes most references up to 1984. The bibliography is comprised of three sections: (1) full references and abstracts; (2) annotations relating to localities; and (3) annotations relating to subjects of relevance to Peary caribou biology. Unsystematic searches were carried out by helicopter during March and May-June 1985 to obtain evidence of inter-island movements of caribou across the sea ice of Prince of Wales Strait. The search area included all of Prince of Wales Strait, northern Amundsen Gulf, and the adjacent land areas of eastern Banks and western Victoria Islands, Northwest Territories. No direct evidence was obtained for caribou travelling on the sea ice of Prince of Wales Strait or northern Amundsen Gulf. However ... indirect evidence suggested that such movements may have occurred. (Au)

I, G, J
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal migration; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Antlers; Bibliographies; Biology; Caribou; Effects monitoring; Endangered species; Genetics; Helicopters; Sea ice; Wildlife management

G0815, G0813
Amundsen Gulf, N.W.T.; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Prince of Wales Strait, N.W.T.; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Observations of barren-ground caribou travelling on thin ice during autumn migration   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.
(Arctic, v. 39, no. 1, Mar. 1986, p. 85-88, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 18480.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic39-1-85.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic2052
Libraries: ACU

In October 1982 we observed the consequences of migrating barren-ground (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) encountering lake ice too thin to bear their weight. The observations were made on a portion of taiga winter range of the Beverly caribou herd during autumn migration in the Northwest Territories. We observed caribou hesitating to cross ice that had no snow cover and also saw caribou breaking through ice. Bulls had greater difficulty extricating themselves from the ice water than did relatively light-bodied cows and young individuals. We necropsied one bull that we found dead after it had broken through the ice and remained in the water for more than 20 hours. The bull had died apparently from stress and hypothermia and had heavily traumatized areas on its forelegs and sternum from struggling to break the ice. We could not evaluate the overall extent of injuries and mortalities to caribou from their encounters with thin ice, although we observed signs that at least hundreds had broken through the ice on different lakes. (Au)

I
Animal behaviour; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Caribou; Necropsy

G0813
Nunavut


Mortality of newborn migratory barren-ground caribou calves, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Miller, F.L.   Broughton, E.   Gunn, A.
(Caribou management, census techniques, status, in eastern Canada : proceedings of the Second North American Caribou Workshop, Val Morin, Quebec, 17-20 October 1984 / Edited by T.C. Meredith and A.M. Martell. McGill sub-arctic research papers, no. 40, 1985, p. 303)
Abstract only.
ASTIS record 29662.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Helicopter searches were made for dead caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) on the Beverly calving ground in the Northwest Territories between 31 May and 20 June 1981, 8-23 June 1982, and 6-17 June 1983. Two hundred and eighty-seven newborn calves were found and necropsied during those search periods in 1981-83. The causes of death were determined with certainty for 225 of the calves: 154, wolf (Canis lupus) predation; 1, grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) predation; 14, fetal atelectasis (stillbirths); 18, neonatal atelectasis (premature births or in-utero complications); 14, separation or abandonment (malnutrition/starvation complex); 15, patho-physiological disorders; and 9, pneumonia. Thirty-two calves were classified as suspect cases: 19, wolf predation; and 13, fetal or neonatal atelectasis. The cause(s) of death could not be determined for the remaining 30 calves. Wolf predation was the single most important cause of calf mortality in each of the 3 years. (Au)

I
Animal diseases; Animal food; Animal mortality; Caribou; Grizzly bears; Necropsy; Predation; Starvation; Wolves

G0812, G0813
N.W.T.; Nunavut


Some physical characteristics of caribou spring migration crossing sites on the Dempster Highway, Yukon Territory   /   Miller, F.L.
In: Caribou and human activity : proceedings of the 1st North American Caribou Workshop, Whitehorse, Yukon, 28-29 September 1983 / Edited by A.M. Martell and D.E. Russell. - Ottawa : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1985, p. 15-21, 1 map
(NOGAP project no. A.13 : Impacts of oil and gas-related activities on caribou)
References.
ASTIS record 27763.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU OORD

Springtime migration across the Dempster Highway by barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) of the Porcupine Herd was observed indirectly in April 1981 by driving along the Highway and locating caribou trails that crossed the road. Between km 100 and 371, 1681 caribou trails in nine spring migration zones crossed the Dempster Highway. The overall width of those zones averaged 9.0±4.8 km standard deviation, range 2-18 km. Physical characteristics measured at 31 approaches and departures of caribou trails that crossed the Dempster Highway were among the most difficult physical obstructions that caribou would encounter when crossing the highway between km 100 and 371. Snow depth was shallow and did not impede caribou crossing the Highway in spring 1981. When caribou closely paralleled the Highway by travelling on the frozen Blackstone or Ogilvie rivers, they preferred leaving the streams to cross the Highway where the streams flowed against the road embankment or on open areas, muskegs, lateral streams, and gravel ramps. The openness and associated visibility at some caribou crossing sites along the Dempster Highway may be, however, more a function of the presence of the Blackstone and Ogilvie rivers and the funnelling effect of adjacent terrain than active selection by the caribou. Caribou trails crossing the Dempster Highway appeared to be distributed in proportion to the relative occurrence of treed and open road side, although actual paths within an area may have occurred more often on relatively open sites. Caribou managers should strive to minimize the caribou's bad experiences with traffic, hunting, and predator activities in association with the Dempster Highway. (Au)

I, L, J
Animal migration; Caribou; Environmental impacts; Predation; Roads; Trails

G0811
Blackstone River region, Yukon; Dempster Highway region, Yukon; Ogilvie River region, Yukon


Behavioural responses of barren-ground caribou cows and calves to helicopters on the Beverly Herd calving ground, Northwest Territories   /   Gunn, A.   Miller, F.L.   Glaholt, R.   Jingfors, K.
In: Caribou and human activity : proceedings of the 1st North American Caribou Workshop, Whitehorse, Yukon, 28-29 September 1983 / Edited by A.M. Martell and D.E. Russell. - Ottawa : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1985, p. 10-14
(NOGAP project no. A.13 : Impacts of oil and gas-related activities on caribou)
References.
ASTIS record 27211.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU OORD

In June 1982, 16 post-calving aggregations of mainly cow-calf pairs of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) were exposed on the Beverly Herd calving ground to a helicopter overpass and landing nearby. We describe the responses of these caribou to helicopter landings preceded by an overpass at 300 m above ground level. The helicopter landed between 300 and 2,200 m from a group of caribou already under observation and shut-down for 20 min before taking off. No statistical differences were found between pre- and post-landing behaviours or activity patterns of the exposed caribou. Observed responses of the caribou in the 16 aggregations suggested that walking by cows and walking, trotting, or galloping by calves were greater after the departure of the helicopter. The frequency and duration of nursing bouts was slightly less during landing than before or after the landing; however, the frequency of attempted nursing did not change. Caribou that resumed foraging tended to orient their foraging away from the helicopter landing point and to drift perceptibly away. The caribou in 13 of the 16 aggregations exposed to helicopter landings were displaced 1-3 km by the time they were out of sight. (Au)

I, L, J
Aircraft disturbance; Animal behaviour; Animal food; Caribou; Environmental impacts; Helicopters; Milk; Noise; Wildlife habitat

G0813
Beverly Lake region, Nunavut


Surplus killing as exemplified by wolf predation on newborn caribou   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.   Broughton, E.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 63, no. 2, Feb. 1985, p. 295-300)
References.
ASTIS record 15823.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1139/z85-045
Libraries: ACU

We searched for newborn calf carcasses of migratory barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in June 1982 in the Northwest Territories. On 17 June, we found 34 calves killed by wolves (Canis lupus), clumped in a 3 mi˛ area. The calves had been killed apparently within minutes of each other and about 24 h before being found. Wolves had not fed on 17 of the carcasses and had only partially eaten the other 17. Ground observations illustrate the speed of and efficiency with which wolves can kill calves .... We attributed the surplus killing of newborn caribou calves to their high densities and their vulnerability on the calving grounds. We recommend that a distinction be made between "surplus killing" and "excessive killing" by predators. (Au)

I, J
Animal behaviour; Animal ecology; Animal mortality; Animal population; Caribou; Predation; Wolves

G0813
Beverly Lake region, Nunavut


Caribou, Rangifer tarandus   /   Miller, F.L.
In: Wild animals of North America : biology, management and economics / Edited by J.A. Chapman and G.A. Feldhamer. - Baltimore, Md. : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982, ch. 47, p. 923-959, ill., 1 map
References.
ASTIS record 44206.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The Queen Charlotte Island's caribou (R. t. dawsoni) probably became extinct shortly after 1910 (Banfield 1963). The causes for its extinction are unknown, but it is suggested that habitat deterioration through amelioration of the climate and loss of genetic plasticity through isolation were more important than hunting or other human interference (Banfield 1963). The caribou is the only North American cervid that has established year-round populations north of the treeline, into some of the harshest lands in North America. The caribou first appeared in Europe in the mid-Pleistocene about 440,000 years ago and is a primitive member of the deer family Cervidae (Banfield 1961, 1974). In North America, caribou were probably in Alaska and the Yukon before the Wisconsin glaciation, but their earlier occurrences and origin are, as yet, undescribed (Banfield 1961). The features that suggest the primitive nature of Rangifer include the possession of antlers by both sexes, long metapodial bones, well-marked tarsal and interdigital glands, and relatively simple crests on the cheek teeth (Banfield 1974). Banfield's (1961) revision of Rangifer is an excellent source for the Paleontological record, vernacular names, previous revisions, and the current taxonomy. Supplementary information is in Kelsall (1968). (Au)

I
Animal anatomy; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal growth; Animal live-capture; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal physiology; Animal population; Animal tagging; Caribou; Glaciation; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G081, G06
Alaska; Canadian Arctic


Wolf-related caribou mortality on a calving ground in north-central Canada   /   Miller, F.L.
(Wolves in Canada and Alaska : their status, biology, and management : proceedings of the Wolf Symposium in Edmonton, Alberta, 12-14 May, 1981 / Edited by L.N. Carbyn. Canadian Wildlife Service report series, no. 45, 1983, p. 100-101, ill.)
ASTIS record 43749.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Mortality of newborn barren-ground caribou was studied 1 June-29 July 1970. The study was carried out on the calving ground of the Kaminuriak caribou in the south-central District of Keewatin, NWT, by low-level aerial searches. Fifty-seven calf carcasses were found and necropsied. Predation by wolves accounted for 31.6% of the deaths of newborn calves. Other causes of death included abandonment by maternal cows (separation), stillbirths, physiological or pathological disorders, malnutrition, pneumonia, and injuries, in that order of frequency. High loss of caribou calves shortly after birth and throughout the first year of life to wolves is a major limitation to population growth. Thus, the desirability of reducing predation by wolves on caribou calves should be considered by wildlife management agencies. ... Wolf predation accounts for a large proportion of the deaths of newborn caribou, especially during calving periods with favourable weather and foraging conditions, when mortality of neonate caribou caused by other factors is negligible. There are few data on the impact of wolves on newborn caribou. Therefore I am presenting findings from our 1970 study of calf mortality on the calving ground of the Kaminuriak caribou (Miller and Broughton 1974) to provide some insight on the subject. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal mortality; Animal population; Caribou; Hunting; Predation; Wildlife management; Wolves

G0813
Nunavut


Restricted caribou harvest or welfare - northern native's dilemma   /   Miller, F.L.
(Proceedings of the Third International Theriological Congress, Helsinki, 15-20 August, 1982. [Volume] VII. Third International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium, Saariselka, 23-26 August, 1982 / Edited by E. Pulliainen. Acta zoologica Fennica, no. 175, 1983, p. 171-175)
References.
ASTIS record 13385.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This is an opinion paper on the apparent impact that hunting by native peoples is having on large herds of migratory barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in northern Canada. Rapidly expanding native populations, increased access, communication, wage economy and modern technology have influenced the hunting of caribou to the point where maintenance of some herds at present numbers is impossible and their continued survival is doubtful. Restrictive regulations on native hunting of caribou could not be enforced, even if they were imposed. Therefore, native hunters must exercise self-restraint or the herds will dwindle to mere remnants of their former numbers or vanish. Only through intensive, biologically sound management with full native cooperation will caribou remain an item in the diets of northern Canadians. (Au)

I, T
Animal mortality; Animal population; Caribou; Food; Hunting; Native peoples; Population; Subsistence

G081
Canadian Arctic


Mortality of newborn migratory barren-ground caribou calves, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Miller, F.L.   Broughton, E.   Gunn, A.
(Proceedings of the Third International Theriological Congress, Helsinki, 15-20 August, 1982. [Volume] VII. Third International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium, Saariselka, 23-26 August, 1982 / Edited by E. Pulliainen. Acta zoologica Fennica, no. 175, 1983, p. 155-156, table)
References.
ASTIS record 13381.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Helicopter searches were made for dead caribou ... on the Beverly herd calving ground in the Northwest Territories between 31 May and 22 June 1981. Seventy-nine calves and seven cows were found and necropsied. The causes of death were determined with certainty for 48 of the calves: wolf ... predation, 23; grizzly bear ... predation, 1; fetal or neonatal atelectasis, 16; separation or abandonment, 3; pneumonia, 2; trauma, 2 and shock, 1. Four of the seven cows necropsied had died from complications associated with giving birth; two from grizzly bear predation; and one from wolf predation. (Au)

I
Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Caribou; Necropsy; Predation; Wildlife management; Wolves

G0813
Nunavut


Size and status of an inter-island population of Peary caribou   /   Gunn, A.   Miller, F.L.
(Proceedings of the Third International Theriological Congress, Helsinki, 15-20 August, 1982. [Volume] VII. Third International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium, Saariselka, 23-26 August, 1982 / Edited by E. Pulliainen. Acta zoologica Fennica, no. 175, 1983, p. 153-154, table)
References.
ASTIS record 13380.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

We established the size of the inter-island population of Peary caribou ... on Prince of Wales, Somerset and their satellite islands in July 1980. The estimate of 5,022 caribou at least 1-year old was obtained from an aerial survey of linear transects 1.6 km wide; the islands were stratified and coverage ranged from about 8 to 34%. Previous aerial surveys in 1974 and 1975 are not strictly comparable with our survey but their results and our observations during studies in 1976-77 suggest a relatively stable population on the island complex. Proportion of calves in the population varied between 22.5% in 1974, 25% in 1975 and 13% in 1980. The future status of the population has to be considered in light of industrialization in the Arctic and resulting changes in hunting patterns of the Inuit. (Au)

I
Animal distribution; Animal population; Caribou; Hunting

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Russell Island (74 00 N, 98 25 W), Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut


Caribou disturbance research on the Beverly calving grounds, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Jingfors, K.   Gunn, A.   Miller, F.L.
(Proceedings of the Third International Theriological Congress, Helsinki, 15-20 August, 1982. [Volume] VII. Third International Reindeer/Caribou Symposium, Saariselka, 23-26 August, 1982 / Edited by E. Pulliainen. Acta zoologica Fennica, no. 175, 1983, p. 127-128)
References.
ASTIS record 13372.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Concerns over the exploration for minerals on the tundra ranges of migratory barren ground caribou ... resulted in the implementation of special Caribou Protection Measures in the Northwest Territories of Canada. These measures, administered by the Federal Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, limited the exploration activities of mining companies during the calving and post-calving periods (15 May to 31 July) of the Beverly and Kaminuriak herds. As an initial step to evaluating the Caribou Protection Measures, and to develop appropriate methodology for measuring some behavioural responses to disturbance, we field-tested a sampling design for measuring undisturbed behaviour of cow-calf pairs on the Beverly calving ground in 1981. Activity budgets and the frequency of events that may be influenced or indicative of disturbance, such as nursings, alarm stances and aggressive acts, were recorded during the calving and early post-calving periods. We emphasized rigorous definitions of behavioural states and events to reduce observer errors and to ensure repeatability. In 1982, we used the same design during controlled experiments involving exposure to man-induced disturbance (helicopter landing and human activities on the ground). (Au)

I
Animal behaviour; Caribou; Wildlife management

G0813
Nunavut


Foraging behaviour of Peary caribou in response to springtime snow and ice conditions   /   Miller, F.L.   Edmonds, E.J.   Gunn, A.
[Ottawa : Canadian Wildlife Service], 1982.
41 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Occasional paper - Canadian Wildlife Service, no. 48)
ISBN 0-662-12017-5
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 11794.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Studies of snow and ice conditions on Prince of Wales and Somerset islands; of inter-island movements of Peary caribou ... between those two islands and the Boothia Peninsula; and of springtime foraging behaviour of Peary caribou were carried out during 1979 and 1980 in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Caribou in the Prince of Wales Island-Somerset Island-Boothia Peninsula complex function as an inter-island population with Prince of Wales serving as the major summering area for most of the caribou that winter on Somerset Island and the northern Boothia Peninsula. Comparison of spring snow and ice conditions suggests that there should be more snow-free caribou range available sooner on eastern Prince of Wales Island than on western Somerset Island. However, snow-covered ranges on either island would be iced over and unavailable to caribou at that time of the year. Peary caribou select poorly vegetated, windblown snow-free patches or cratering areas with shallow snow at the edge of snow-free sites or shallow fresh snow areas for springtime foraging sites because of the relative availability of forage. Inter-island movements, special springtime foraging behaviour, and late calving are some of the adaptive strategies that Peary caribou have evolved in response to restricted forage availability. The complex ecological relation of Peary caribou with their environment in the spring of the year warrants further study for a more detailed understanding of the key to caribou survival in the Canadian High Arctic. (Au)

I, F, H, C, G
Adaptation (Biology); Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal migration; Animal population; Caribou; Ground ice; Plants (Biology); Sea ice; Snow cover; Spatial distribution; Tundra ecology; Winter ecology

G0813, G0815
Barrow Strait, Nunavut; Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut; Franklin Strait, Nunavut; Peel Sound, Nunavut; Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut


Muskox bull killed by a barren-ground grizzly bear, Thelon Game Sanctuary, N.W.T.   /   Gunn, A.   Miller, F.L.
(Arctic, v. 35, no. 4, Dec. 1982, p. 545-546)
References.
ASTIS record 10773.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic35-4-545.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic2364
Libraries: ACU

The carcass of an adult muskox bull (Ovibos moschatus) killed by a barren-ground grizzly bear (Ursus arctos richardsoni) was found in the Thelon Game Sanctuary. It is suggested that adult muskox bulls along the Thelon River system have become prey for at least some grizzly bears that have learned to ambush them in dense vegetation. (Au)

I
Animal food; Animal mortality; Grizzly bears; Muskoxen; Predation

G0812, G0813
Thelon Game Sanctuary, N.W.T./Nunavut


The current status and future of Peary caribou Rangifer tarandus pearyi on the Arctic Islands of Canada   /   Gunn, A.   Miller, F.L.   Thomas, D.C.
(Biological conservation, v. 19, 1980-81, p. 283-296, 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 35536.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/0006-3207(81)90004-5
Libraries: ACU

The Peary caribou Rangifer tarandus pearyi is an unique subspecies confined almost entirely to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The decline of the population by 89% on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands between 1961 and 1974 has continued until at least 1977. The decline was principally caused by climatic changes but Peary caribou are potentially under additional pressure from hunting and disturbances associated with increasing industrial activities. We believe there are only 10-15,000 Peary caribou in Canada, and the subspecies was classified as "Threatened" in 1979. The population dynamics of Peary caribou are unique among North American ungulates because weather, especially winter weather, dominates not only the reproductive rate but also recruitment and adult survival. The inter-island movements are a significant adaptation not only to sparse ranges and snow conditions, but also to recolonisation of islands that periodically, through a series of severe winters, lose their caribou. (Au)

I, J, E
Adaptation (Biology); Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Caribou; Climatology; Endangered species; Snow; Wildlife management

G0813, G0812
Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut


Play by Peary caribou calves before, during, and after helicopter harassment   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 59, no. 5, May 1981, p. 823-827, tables)
References.
ASTIS record 6890.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1139/z81-118
Libraries: ACU

We observed 93 bouts of play behaviour by Peary caribou ... calves on northeastern Prince of Wales Island, Northwest Territories, between 23 June and 16 August 1977. Play consisted of 58 contagious, 20 exploratory, 13 agonistic, and 2 sexual bouts. Calves engaged in 30 bouts of play during the undisturbed phase, 30 bouts during the harassed phase, and 33 bouts during the recovery phase of the observations. Play was proportionately most frequent during the harassed phase, least frequent during the undisturbed phase, and occurred slightly less than expected during the recovery phase (P < 0.005). We speculate that (1) Peary caribou calves were more excited than adult companions by helicopter; (2) this higher excitement led to a general readiness to be active; and (3) when adults did not overtly respond, the readiness of the calves to be active was released as play. Therefore, play by Peary caribou should not be used as an indication of a total lack of stress during or shortly after periods of harassment. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Aircraft disturbance; Animal behaviour; Caribou

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut


The Bailey Point region and other muskox refugia in the Canadian Arctic : a short review   /   Thomas, D.C.   Miller, F.L.   Russell, R.H.   Parker, G.R.
(Arctic, v. 34, no. 1, Mar. 1981, p. 34-36, figures, table)
References.
ASTIS record 6503.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic34-1-34.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic2500
Libraries: ACU

The muskox (Ovibos moschatus) is widely distributed over much of arctic Canada but only at a few locations do their densities remain high and populations relatively stable. These refugia constitute the most favourable muskox ranges in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago .... Refugia for muskoxen in the High Arctic include lowlands on eastern Axel Heiberg Island in the Mokka Fiord region, the lowlands of northeastern Devon Island, and the Bailey Point region of Melville Island .... All of those regions historically have supported high densities of muskoxen from time to time but the Bailey Point region must be considered the best habitat for muskoxen in the Canadian High Arctic. ... (Au)

I
Animal distribution; Muskoxen; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G0813, G0812
Bailey Point, N.W.T.; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut


Some observations on springtime snow/ice conditions on 10 Canadian High Arctic islands - and a preliminary comparison of snow/ice conditions between eastern Prince of Wales Island and western Somerset Island, N.W.T., 5 May-2 July 1979   /   Miller, F.L.   Kiliaan, H.P.L.
[Ottawa] : Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1980.
11 p. : 1 ill. ; 28 cm.
(Progress notes - Canadian Wildlife Service, no. 116)
References.
ASTIS record 5805.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Snow and ice measurements were made between 5 May and 2 July 1979 to gain insight into the timing, duration and extensiveness of springtime accumulations of ground-fast ice and superimposed ice lenses in the snow cover. ... Preliminary comparisons suggest that more snow-free range should be available sooner to Peary caribou on eastern Prince of Wales Island than on western Somerset. However, snow-covered ranges on either island would be iced over and unavailable to Peary caribou at that time of the year. ... (Au)

I, F, E
Animal behaviour; Animal food; Caribou; Ice; Snow cover; Snowmelt

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut


Behavioral responses of muskox herds to simulation of cargo slinging by helicopter, Northwest Territories   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.
(Canadian field-naturalist, v. 94, no. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1980, p. 52-60, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 4125.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

During a study of helicopter harassment of three different Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) herds we flew two sets of overflights with five passes each and one set of six passes in 1976 and 27 sets of overflights with six passes each in 1977 to simulate exposure to cargo slinging operations. ... In 1977, but not in 1976, there was a trend toward decreasing responsiveness within the series of passes, which indicated short-term habitation by the Muskoxen to the helicopter flying at high altitudes (>180 m above ground level). There was consistent variation in the levels of responses among the three herds when similarly harassed, that allowed us to characterize one herd as "calm," one "excitable," and one intermediate. Results from repeated simulations of cargo slinging over the three identifiable Muskox herds suggest that Muskoxen in the most "excitable" herd exhibited most long-term habituation. There was no evidence that the exposure of those Muskoxen to the levels of helicopter harassment we used caused any injuries, herd splintering, or range abandonment. (Au)

L, I
Aircraft disturbance; Animal behaviour; Muskoxen

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut


Inter-island movements of Peary caribou in the Prince of Wales Island-Somerset Island-Boothia Peninsula complex, Northwest Territories, May-July 1979   /   Miller, F.L.   Kiliaan, H.P.L.
[Ottawa] : Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, 1980.
7 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Progress notes - Canadian Wildlife Service, no. 107)
References.
ASTIS record 4087.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Locations, directions and origins and destinations of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) trails across the sea-ice of (1) Baring Channel between Mecham and Russell islands and northern Prince of Wales Island, (2) Peel Sound between eastern Prince of Wales Island and western Somerset Island, (3) Franklin Strait between the Boothia Peninsula and southeastern Prince of Wales Island, and Bellot Strait between the northern Boothia Peninsula and southern Somerset Island were obtained during snowmobile treks and helicopter flights from 5 May to 1 July 1979. ... For the first time, west to east inter-island movements ... were detected in the spring of 1979 on the sea-ice of Peel Sound between eastern Prince of Wales Island and western Somerset Island, and on the sea-ice of Franklin Strait between the northern Boothia Peninsula and southeastern Prince of Wales Island. Otherwise, the patterns of inter-island movements of Peary caribou in the study area were in agreement with those of 1977 and 1978. (Au)

I
Animal migration; Caribou; Trails

G0813
Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic Islands; Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut


Caribou and muskoxen response to helicopter harassment, Prince of Wales Island, 1976-77   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.
[Ottawa : Environmental-Social Program, Northern Pipelines], 1979.
xvii, 176p. : ill., figures, map, tables ; 28cm.
(ESCOM report, no. AI- 30)
(AIPP report, 1978)
References.
ASTIS record 3512.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU SSU

This report provides information on overt behavioural responses of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) to simulations of three likely categories of helicopter activities that would be associated with construction of a gas pipeline in Arctic Canada. The study was carried out on Prince of Wales and Russell islands, Northwest Territories, in summers 1976 and 1977. ... Our results indicated that (1) the responsiveness of cows and calves of both species and solitary bull muskoxen, (2) group size and type, (3) number of calves in a group, (4) the position of the sun and direction of the wind relative to the helicopter flight, (5) previous activity of the animals, and (6) the terrain where the animals were sampled are all factors contributing to the levels of responses exhibited by harassed animals. There was an inverse relationship between response levels and the altitude of the helicopter overflights or the distance away for a helicopter landing and our recommendations were based on that relationship. ... there is a vital need for additional baseline data, especially on affinities for and locations of critical areas such as calving grounds, post-calving areas, rutting areas and migratory routes. (Au)

I, Q
Aircraft disturbance; Animal behaviour; Caribou; Environmental impacts; Gas pipelines; Muskoxen; Polar Gas Project; Ungulates

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Russell Island (74 00 N, 98 25 W), Nunavut


Responses of Peary caribou and muskoxen to turbo-helicopter harassment, Prince of Wales Island, Northwest Territories, 1976-77   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.
[Ottawa] : Canadian Wildlife Service, [c1979].
90 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Occasional paper - Canadian Wildlife Service, no. 40)
ISBN 0-662-10400-5
References.
Cover title: Responses of Peary caribou and mukoxen to helicopter harassement.
ASTIS record 2362.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

This report provides information on overt behavioural responses of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) to simulations of three likely categories of helicopter activity that would be associated with construction of a gas pipeline in Arctic Canada. The study was carried out on Prince of Wales and Russell islands, Northwest Territories, in summers 1976 and 1977. ... In total 28.7% (211) of the Peary caribou IRS and 12.3% (147) of muskox IRS responded at the extreme level to the harassment. ... (Au)

L, I
Aircraft disturbance; Animal behaviour; Caribou; Environmental impacts; Gas pipelines; Muskoxen

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Russell Island (74 00 N, 98 25 W), Nunavut


Interactions between men, dogs and wolves on western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Miller, F.L.
(Musk-ox, no. 22, 1978, p. 70-72)
References.
ASTIS record 42562.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... As exploration and development activities increase in the High Arctic so will interactions between man and wildlife. Grace (1976) has reported on interactions between men and wolves in the vicinity of the Atmospheric Environment Service weather station at Eureka on Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories. This note reports hitherto lacking observations of interactions between men, dogs (Canis familiaris) and wolves on some other High Arctic islands between 1972 and 1974. ... Whether or not any of these events discussed herein will come to pass is debatable - but the future of High Arctic wolves is questionable and these possibilities should be considered in devising new regulations. (Au)

I, J, E
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Denning; Dogs; Environmental impacts; Environmental policy; Research stations; Weather stations; Wolves

G0813
Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut


Responses of Peary caribou and muskoxen to helicopter harassment, Prince of Wales Island, Northwest Territories, 1976-77   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.   Arctic Islands Pipeline Program (Canada) [Sponsor]   Polar Continental Shelf Project (Canada) [Sponsor]   Canadian Wildlife Service [Sponsor]   Environmental-Social Program, Northern Pipelines (Canada) [Sponsor]
[S.l.] : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1978.
2 v. (xxxviii, 588 leaves) : ill. ; 28 cm.
In: CWS/AIPP completion report, 1978
Data obtained as a result of investigations carried out under the Arctic Islands Pipeline Program.
Final report to the Environmental Management Service, Department of Environment, Edmonton, Alberta.
Mostly tables and graphs.
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 35389.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This report provided information on overt behavioural responses of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibus moschatus) to simulations of three likely categories of helicopter activities that would be associated with construction of a gas pipeline in Arctic Canada. The study was carried out on Prince of Wales and Russell islands, Northwest Territories, in summers 1976 and 1977. One, three-man team and a Bell 206B turbo-helicopter were used in July and August 1976 and four, two-man teams and a Bell 206B were used in June through August 1977. All helicopter harassment overflights were flown at less than 400 metres above ground level (m agl): mostly below and above 200 m agl in 1976 and 1977, respectively. The maximum response of an animal during an overflight was taken as a measure of harassment. In total, 3,939 individual maximum response samples (IRS) of Peary caribou were obtained during 671 harassment overflights and 4,011 IRS of muskoxen during 315 overflights: 64.0% of the Peary caribou samples and 43.6% of the muskox samples responded overtly to the helicopter overflights. It was judged that the 12.1% (477) of the Peary caribou samples and the 21.0% (841) of the muskox samples that were still responding at the extreme level after completion of the overflights represented the animals most seriously affected by the helicopter harassment. Helicopter landings were made on 116 occasions nearby 736 Peary caribou samples and 69 touchdowns near 1,192 muskox samples. In total, 31.9% (211) of the Peary caribou and 12.3% (147) of IRS from landings nearby muskoxen responded at the extreme level to the harassment. Our results indicated that (1) the responsiveness of cows and calves of both species and solitary bull muskoxen, (2) group size and type, (3) number of calves in a group, (4) the position of the sun and direction of the wind relative to the helicopter flight, (5) previous activity of the animals and (6) the terrain where the animals were sampled are all factors contributing to the levels of responses exhibited by harassed animals. There was an inverse relationship between response levels and the altitude of the helicopter overflights or the distance away for a helicopter landing and our recommendations were based on that relationship. Evidence for habituation was detected within but not between sets of passes simulating cargo slinging. The levels of harassment did not cause any visible pathological conditions or lead to group splintering and/or calf desertion. It is not known, however, what the actual short-term costs of harassment to the individuals were in energy, or what are the potential long-term effects to the populations. If we are to advise wisely on the conservation of Peary caribou and muskoxen there is a vital need for additional baseline data, especially on affinities for and locations of critical areas such as calving grounds, post-calving areas, rutting areas and immigrational routes. (Au)

I, L, Q, J
Aircraft disturbance; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal migration; Caribou; Design and construction; Gas pipelines; Helicopters; Muskoxen; Noise; Polar Gas Project; Wildlife management

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Russell Island (74 00 N, 98 25 W), Nunavut


A preliminary study of some observable responses by Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) to turbo-helicopter induced harassment, Prince of Wales Island, Northwest Territories, July-August 1976   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.
Ottawa : Indian and Northern Affairs, 1978.
xiv, [149]p. : figures, tables ; 28cm.
(ESCOM report, no. AI- 8)
(AIPP preliminary report, 1977)
Cover title: Caribou and musk-oxen response to turbo-helicopter harassment on Prince of Wales Island.
References.
Contents: - Pt.I. Muskoxen. - Pt.II. Peary caribou.
ASTIS record 2679.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Documents the responses of muskoxen and Peary caribou to helicopter induced harassment in Prince of Wales Island, N.W.T. The helicopter harassment was designed to simulate three kinds of activity associated with the construction and maintenance of a pipeline: reconnaissance and inspection flights, cargo-slinging and landings and ground activity. The responses of the animals were noted as extreme, strong, moderate or mild. (ASTIS)

L, I
Aircraft disturbance; Animal behaviour; Caribou; Environmental impacts; Gas pipelines; Muskoxen; Polar Gas Project

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut


Inter-island movements of Peary Caribou south of Viscount Melville Sound, Northwest Territories   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.
(Canadian field-naturalist, v. 92, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1978, p. 327-333, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 1614.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Locations, directions, and destinations of Peary Caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) trails across sea-ice of Peel Sound and Baring Channel between Somerset and Prince of Wales and Prince of Wales and Russell islands, respectively, were obtained during helicopter searches in June 1977. ... On sea-ice 158 trails were found and an additional 31 trails were seen on land adjacent to sea-ice crossings, which indicated inter-island movements had taken place. ... The inter-island movements would likely be vulnerable to the potential disturbance of an all-year open water tanker route to ship liquid natural gas from Melville Island to southern markets. (Au)

I
Animal migration; Caribou; Environmental impacts; Marine LNG transportation; Trails

G0813, G0812
Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut; Viscount Melville Sound region, N.W.T./Nunavut


Unreliability of strip aerial surveys for estimating numbers of wolves on western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories   /   Miller, F.L.   Russell, R.H.
(Canadian field-naturalist, v. 91, no. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1977, p. 77-81)
References.
ASTIS record 66103.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Numbers of wolves (Canis lupus arctos) were obtained by aerial survey and by ground observation on western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories. Six transect-strip "census" aerial surveys were flown in March-April and July-August of each year from March 1972 to August 1974. The estimates based on aerial surveys were usually misleading. The behavior of observed wolves and their associations with other animals or objects that helped attract the observer's attention to the wolves greatly influenced the number of observations. These reported shortcomings of aerial surveys must be considered during any future attempts at determining numbers of wolves. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal population; Animal taxonomy; Caribou; Denning; Muskoxen; Seasonal variations; Temporal variations; Wolves

G0812, G0813
Baffin Island, Nunavut; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Prince Patrick Island, N.W.T.; Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut


Distributions, movements and numbers of Peary caribou and muskoxen on western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories, 1972-74   /   Miller, F.L.   Russell, R.H.   Gunn, A.
[S.l.] : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1977.
55 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Canadian Wildlife Service report series, no. 40)
ISBN 0-660-01057-0
References.
ASTIS record 39898.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

We flew three late winter and three summer standard "transect census," 1.6 km wide strip surveys for Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands 1972-74. Technical and weather delays prevented uniform coverage of the survey area. The results are comparable with a previous survey in 1961 for Peary caribou but not for muskoxen. Since 1961 Peary caribou have decreased between 87% and 100% on all islands surveyed in 1972-74. There appears to have been an increase in numbers of muskoxen between 1961 and 1973 with recolonization of Prince Patrick Island. In winter 1973-74 there was high mortality of muskoxen with an overall loss of 35%. Eastern Melville Island, especially the Dundas Peninsula, is the heartland for caribou, some of which move to Prince Patrick to winter. We used aerial dye-spraying to mark the animals and noted their subsequent locations to document the inter-island movements. Southwestern Melville Island, especially Bailey Point area, is the heartland for muskoxen. In summer 1974 more than 25% of all Peary caribou and muskoxen estimated were on the Dundas Peninsula and Bailey Point, which are 6% and 1% of the landmass of the western Queen Elizabeth Islands respectively. On large islands caribou moved to high, dry sites on coastal areas in early spring and late summer; in the interior they preferred drier sites intermediate in elevation. All year muskoxen preferred well-vegetated sedge (Carex spp.) meadows and willow (Salix spp.) slopes on coastal sites at low elevations. Summer movements to the interior were usually restricted to shores of watercourses and adjacent drainage slopes. Caribou group sizes were influenced by forage availability: relatively large aggregations form in summer with favourable forage conditions but break up into small groups and singles in winters. For muskoxen under average conditions the pattern of group sizes is opposite of that observed for caribou, but under severe nutritional stress the large winter groups split up. Most single muskoxen occur during the summer. The marked decreases in numbers are attributed to a combination of high winter mortality in some years and an overall low rate of births and recruitments between 1961 and 1974 for caribou, and at least 1972-74 for muskoxen. We believe a series of years with unfavourable snow and ice conditions made forage unavailable and restricted, and thus caused the decreases in numbers of both species. Currently numbers of both Peary caribou and muskoxen are dangerously low on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands - their conservation and preservation must be considered. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal tagging; Caribou; Dyeing; Muskoxen

G0813, G0812
Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut


Interisland movements of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) on western Queen Elizabeth Island, arctic Canada   /   Miller, F.L.   Russell, R.H.   Gunn, A.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 55, no. 6, June 1977, p.1029-1037, 2 maps)
References.
ASTIS record 38905.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1139/z77-131
Libraries: ACU

To verify that Peary caribou were making seasonal interisland movements, we used an aerial dye-spray method. In April 1974, about 230 caribou were dye-marked green, and about 200 were marked red on Prince Patrick and Eglinton islands respectively. Aerial searches in June and July 1974 located 41 sightings of dye-marked animals. Of animals marked on Prince Patrick Island 4 were seen on Melville Island, 3 on Eglinton Island, and 16 on Prince Patrick. Of sightings of animals marked on Eglinton Island, there were 6 on Prince Patrick Island and 12 on Eglinton. Maximum distance travelled (vector sum on horizontal plane) by marked caribou was 450 km, from Prince Patrick Island to eastern Melville Island. The study indicates that high proportions of the caribou population seasonally range over two or more islands of the western Queen Elizabeth Group. Therefore, complete evaluation of animal range requirements on an island basis should take into consideration seasonal changes in numbers of caribou that are due to interisland movements. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal tagging; Caribou; Dyeing; Identification

G0813, G0812
Eglinton Island, N.W.T.; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Prince Patrick Island, N.W.T.


A preliminary study of some observable responses by Peary caribou to helicopter induced harassment, Prince of Wales Island, Northwest Territories, July-August 1976   /   Miller, F.L.   Gunn, A.
[Ottawa] : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1977.
23p. : map, tables ; 28cm.
(Progress notes - Canadian Wildlife Service, no. 79)
References.
ASTIS record 588.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

On Prince of Wales Island, Northwest Territories, during July and August 1976 we observed the overt behavioural responses of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) to a Bell-206 turbo-helicopter. We designed our helicopter harassment to simulate three likely categories of activity associated with the construction and maintenance of a pipeline: reconnaissance and inspection flights (single and multiple passes and/or circles); cargo-slinging (multiple passes) and work parties (landings and ground activity). We obtained 2674 caribou samples excluding 113 samples analyzed separately (in this note) in simulated work parties. ... In total 2337 (87.4% of total sampled) caribou responded in detectable manner to helicopter induced harassing stimuli: 40.4% trotted, 13.2% galloped, 12.7% walked, 21.0% were alerted but remained in place. The remaining 12.6% did not respond in a detectable manner and appeared to remain unalerted and engaged in pre-harassment activities: 8.5% foraging and 4.1% bedded. ... Caribou in large groups responded more than caribou in small groups. As expected, lower flights elicited greater responses but the roles of factors such as sun position, terrain, and wind direction relative to the helicopter and animals in influencing response levels require further analyses. (Au)

L, I
Aircraft disturbance; Animal behaviour; Caribou

G0813
Prince of Wales Island, Nunavut


Distributions, movements and numbers of Peary caribou and muskoxen on western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories, 1972-74   /   Miller, F.L.   Russell, R.H.
Ottawa : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1976.
493 leaves : ill., maps ; 29 cm.
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 66094.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

We flew three late winter and three summer surveys of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands 1972-74. We flew standard "transect census" strip surveys at mainly 25% coverage using strips 1.6 km wide. Technical and weather delays prevented uniform coverage of the survey area. The results are comparable for Peary caribou but not for muskoxen with a previous survey in 1961. Peary caribou have decreased since 1961 between 87% and 100% on all islands surveyed in 1972-74. There appeared to have been an increase in numbers of muskoxen between 1961 and 1973 with recolonization of Prince Patrick Island. In winter 1973-74 there was high mortality of muskoxen with an overall loss of 35%. Eastern Melville Island especially the Dundas Peninsula is the heartland for caribou, some of which move to Prince Patrick to winter. We used aerial dye-spraying and subsequent locations of marked animals to document the inter-island movements. South-western Melville Island especially the Bailey Point area is the heartland for muskoxen. In summer 1974 more than 25% of all Peary caribou and muskoxen estimated were on the Dundas Peninsula and Bailey Point areas respectively. The two areas are 6% and 1% of the landmass of the western Queen Elizabeth Islands respectively. On large islands caribou moved to high, dry sites on coastal areas in early spring and late summer: in the interior they showed a preference for drier sites intermediate in elevation. Muskoxen showed a year-round preference for well-vegetated sedge (Cares spp.) meadows and willow (Salix spp.) slopes on Coastal sites at low elevations. Summertime movements to the interior were usually restricted to shores of watercourses and adjacent drainage slopes. Caribou group sizes were influenced by forage availability: relatively large aggregations form in summer with favourable forage conditions but break up into small groups and singles in winter. For muskoxen under average conditions the pattern of group sizes is opposite of that observed for caribou, but under severe nutritional stress the large winter groups split up. Most single muskoxen occur during the summer. The marked decreases in numbers are attributed to a combination of high winter mortality in some years and an overall low rate of births and recruitments between 1961 and 1974 for caribou, and at least 1972-74 for muskoxen. We believe a series of years with unfavourable snow and ice conditions made forage unavailable and restricted, and thus caused the decreases in numbers of both species. Currently numbers of both Peary caribou and muskoxen are dangerously low on the western Queen Elizabeth Islands - their conservation and preservation must be considered. (Au)

I, E, F, N
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Animal tagging; Caribou; Dogs; Dyeing; Grazing; Meteorology; Muskoxen; Predation; Seasonal variations; Snow; Temporal variations; Wildlife management; Wolves

G0813, G0812
Bathurst Island, Nunavut; Byam Martin Island, Nunavut; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Prince Patrick Island, N.W.T.; Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut


The recent decline of Peary caribou on western Queen Elizabeth Islands of Arctic Canada   /   Miller, F.L.   Russell, R.H.   Gunn, A.
(Polarforschung, bd. 45, heft 1, 1975, p. 17-21, map)
References.
ASTIS record 41317.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10013/epic.29418.d001
Libraries: ACU

The numbers and distributions of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) on western Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories were determined by aerial surveys based on a standard census strip method. Surveys were flown in March-April and July-August periods in 1972, 1973, and 1974. Comparison of the 1973 and 1974 surveys with those results of a comparable survey in 1961 showed an overall decline of 89% in numbers of caribou between 1961 and 1974. Percentage reduction of caribou numbers from 1961 to 1974 followed a west-east gradient on the three major islands: Prince Patrick 72%, Melville 87%, and Bathurst 92%. The marked decrease in numbers of caribou is attributed to a combination of high winter mortality in some years and an overall low rate of births and recruitment from 1961 to 1974. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Caribou

G0813, G0812
Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T./Nunavut


Biology of the Kaminuriak population of barren-ground caribou. Part 2 : Dentition as an indicator of age and sex; composition and socialization of the population   /   Miller, F.L.
Ottawa : Information Canada, 1974.
88 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Canadian Wildlife Service report series, no. 31)
Appendices.
References.
NRC Library copy is incomplete.
ASTIS record 35443.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

Canadian Wildlife Service biologists collected a total of 999 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) during four periods of each year from March 1966 to July 1968. Nine hundred and forty-three caribou were from the Kaminuriak Population which ranges over an area of about 282,000 km˛ in northern Manitoba, northeastern Saskatchewan, and the south-eastern District of Keewatin, Northwest Territories, and 56 were from the Beverly Population, which ranges west of the Kaminuriak Population. Collections were taken so as to obtain animals during the major life history phases of the annual cycle. Males totalled 436 and females 563. The adult segment, 46 months of age or over, comprised 178 males and 306 females. The age composition of the Kaminuriak Population was estimated from tooth eruption and replacement, by linear dental measurements, and by microscopic examination of annuli in the cementum of mandibular teeth, prepared histologically. The age data were used to determine the effects of natality and mortality on the population and the sexes and ages of animals grouping together at different times of the year. The degree of segregation and associated socialization was measured by classifying the groups from which the collections were made and by observing group structuring throughout the study period. The high degree of segregation in the caribou bands and direct observations of groups, particularly in the spring, lead to the conclusion that caribou are socially cohesive. I postulate that the primary function of postcalving aggregations is socialization; such aggregations provide favourable situations for the regrouping of former winter bands. I believe that such regrouping is necessary because (1) the core of the wintertime cow-juvenile band is formed by a matriarchal bloodline which may be supplemented from time to time by neighbouring caribou; and (2) the bull band, the basic male social unit, maintains from year to year a distribution of breeding bulls that will ensure, under natural conditions, a supply of breeders. The large base of juvenile and subadult animals in the collection indicated that the population has the potential to increase rapidly. Prime animals 4 to 6 years old were well represented, suggesting an expanding, or at least stable, population. High representation of males and females in the adult segment continued until the 9th year. Once they reached their prime, however, males apparently had a higher rate of death than females. It is suggested that the rate of birth for males and females is about equal and mortality for males and females is constant until the prime of life. ... (Au)

I
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Caribou; Dentition

G0813, G0823, G0824
Baker Lake region, Nunavut; Manitoba, Northern; Saskatchewan, Northern


Preliminary surveys of Peary caribou and muskoxen on Melville, Eglinton, and Byam Martin islands, Northwest Territories, 1972   /   Miller, F.L.   Russell, R.H.   Urquhart, D.R.
Ottawa : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1973.
51 leaves : maps ; 29 cm.
Preliminary report: CWSC 1422.
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 66088.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

In 1972 the Northwest Territories Game Management Service advised the CWS that they were considering plans for harvesting Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus peary) on Melville Island by Eskimos, and requested an evaluation of the possible impact on the caribou population. Because of the N.W.T. G.M.S. request investigations were begun there. Aerial surveys in 1972 were carried out by CWS on Melville Island and the adjacent islands of Eglinton (lat. 75° 45' N, long. 118° 30' W) and Byam Martin (lat. 75° 20' N. long. 104° 20' W). The only extensive aerial survey of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and caribou on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, N.W.T., was conducted by CWS in the summer of 1961 (Tener, 1963). Tener (1963) estimated that in July, 1961 almost half of the total Peary caribou on the Queen Elizabeth Islands were on Melville Island .... The islands were surveyed by use of a standard strip survey method. Parallel flight lines were drawn at 4-mile intervals on 1:250,000 scale, topographical maps. On Eglinton and Byam Martin islands the flight lines were oriented east-west. On the much larger Melville Island we divided the landmass on the basis of major land units which provided convenient strata for surveying. A Helio-Courier fixed-wing aircraft, Nahanni Air Services, was used for the first survey which was in March and April. Subsequent surveys in May and August were flown in Hiller 1100 and Bell 206 turbo-helicopters, Klondike Aviation. ... (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal population; Caribou; Muskoxen; Predation; Seasonal variations; Temporal variations; Wolves

G0813, G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Byam Martin Island, Nunavut; Dundas Peninsula, N.W.T./Nunavut; Eglinton Island, N.W.T.; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Sabine Peninsula, N.W.T./Nunavut


Preliminary surveys of Peary caribou and muskoxen on Melville, Eglinton, and Byam Martin Islands, Northwest Territories, 1972   /   Miller, F.L.   Russell, R.H.   Urquhart, D.R.
[S.l.] : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1973.
9 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
(Progress notes - Canadian Wildlife Service, no. 33)
References.
ASTIS record 39760.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Aerial surveys of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) were carried out on Melville, Eglinton, and Byam Martin islands during March-April and August 1972. Only the eastern half of Melville Island, plus Eglinton and Byam Martin islands, were surveyed in August. A standard strip aerial survey method was used. All flights were made at 500 feet above the ground. An observer on each side of the aircraft counted animals on ˝-mile strips for 25 per cent coverage of the three islands. Estimates of 685,553, and 4 caribou were obtained for Melville, Eglinton, and Byam Martin islands, respectively, for March-April. Data obtained in August, however, indicated a marked change for Melville (2,580) and Eglinton (79). The observers were unable to recognize short yearling caribou in March-April and saw no calves in August. In March-April, populations of muskoxen on Melville, Byam Martin, and Eglinton islands were estimated at 3,408, 147, and 24. The muskoxen population on the eastern half of Melville Island was estimated at 972 in March-April and 999 in August. The percentage of short yearlings to total muskoxen in March-April was 13.3 per cent and calves to total muskoxen in August was 10.5 per cent. The percentages of muskoxen observed within 2 miles of the seacoast were 67 per cent in March-April and 43 per cent in August: the decrease in summer was significant (P<0.01). Caribou showed an affinity for the drier inland lichen areas during both surveys. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal population; Caribou; Muskoxen; Predation; Wolves

G0813, G0812
Byam Martin Island, Nunavut; Eglinton Island, N.W.T.; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Distribution and movements of barren-ground caribou from the Kaminuriak population during calving and postcalving periods, 1970   /   Miller, F.L.
Ottawa : Canadian Wildlife Service, 1972.
vii, 36 leaves : maps ; 29 cm.
(Completion report - Canadian Wildlife Service, 1412)
Photocopy.
References.
ASTIS record 35465.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The distribution and movements of the Kaminuriak population of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) were investigated between June 1 and July 29, 1970. The Kaminuriak caribou calved in June on the open tundra in central Keewatin, Northwest Territories. In 1970 most of them calved between latitudes 63 00 and 63 40 and longitudes 93 20 and 95 00. The peak of calving took place between June 4 and 10. Large postcalving groups of several thousand caribou had formed by June 12. One area north of Parker Lake (63 38 N, 95 12 W) and one area north of MacQuoid Lake (63 33 N, 94 36 W) were occupied by most of the maternal cows and their newborn calves from June 15 until June 28. The postcalving migratory period began on June 28: with caribou moving south-southwest, south, and south-southeast for about 375 Km (235 miles) to the McConnell River drainage about July 28. The migrating caribou occurred in three distinct aggregations. Any disruption of caribou movements could be detrimental to cow and calf survival because of unknown and new dangers along new routes. Caribou return annually to the same areas for calving. Migratory barren-ground caribou may be endangered by changes in the landscape which accompany economic development of natural resources on their ranges. The greatest current threat to their social behaviour and annual movement patterns is the construction of pipelines for transporting petroleum. Little is known of the external stimuli and social forces which influence caribou migrations and affinities for specific areas such as calving grounds, or of how these forces might be altered by environmental disturbances. Further behavioural studies are necessary to resolve such problems. (Au)

I
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Caribou; Radio tracking of animals

G0813, G0812, G0823, G0824
Manitoba, Northern; N.W.T.; Nunavut; Saskatchewan, Northern


Group cohesion and leadership response by barren-ground caribou to man-made barriers   /   Miller, F.L.   Jonkel, C.J.   Tessier, G.D.
(Arctic, v. 25, no. 3, Sept. 1972, p. 193-202, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 10190.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic25-3-193.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic2961
Libraries: ACU

Barren-ground caribou Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus of the Kaminuriak population on the Canadian mainland west of Hudson Bay make annual migrations of several hundred kilometres to and from their calving ground. A man-made barrier to corral caribou for marking and release failed because caribou would not leave the frozen water course at the entrance to the corral, nor would they readily deviate from learned travel routes. Some caribou delayed their migration northward until they found ways to circumvent the barrier. Other caribou overcame the man-made obstacle and continued on their set course. Any disruption of caribou movement could be detrimental to cow and calf survival because of increased dangers along new routes chosen and the delay of pregnant cows in reaching the calving grounds. (Au)

I, J

G082


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