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The ASTIS database cites the following 33 publication(s) by Nic Larter. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Cadmium and other elements in tissues from four ungulate species from the Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Larter, N.C.   Macdonald, C.R.   Elkin, B.T.   Wang, X.   Harms, N.J.   Gamberg, M.   Muir, D.C.G.
(Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, v.132, Oct. 2016, p. 9-17, ill., map)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 82587.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2016.05.018
Libraries: ACU

Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and 15N and 13C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species. Mean renal Cd concentration was highest in moose (48.3 mg/kg ww), followed by mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) (13.9 mg/kg ww) and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) (5.78 mg/kg ww). No local sources of Cd were evident and the elevated levels in moose are considered to be natural in origin. Conversely, total Hg concentration was significantly higher in mountain caribou kidney (0.21 mg/kg ww) than in moose (0.011 mg/kg ww). 134Cs (t=2.1 gamma) in mountain goat and Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli) muscle is evidence of deposition from the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011. 137Cs (t=30.2 gamma) in all four ungulates is primarily a remnant of the nuclear weapons tests of the 1960s. The levels of both nuclides are low and the risk to the animals and people consuming them is negligible. Stable isotope delta 15N and delta 13C signatures in muscle showed a separation between the mountain caribou, with a lichen-dominated diet, and moose, which browse shrubs and forbs. Isotope signatures for mountain goat and Dall's sheep showed generalist feeding patterns. Differences in elemental and radionuclide levels between species were attributed to relative levels of metal accumulation in the different food items in the diets of the respective species. Kidneys from each species showed minor histological changes in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, although glomerular changes were rare and all changes were rare in mountain goat kidney. Kidney function was not expected to be affected in any species. Provisional Monthly Intake recommendations from the WHO indicate that Cd in moose organs will continue to be a public health care concern. However, traditional foods continue to be an important nutritional component of northern diets, particularly in consideration of the shift towards store-bought food. (Au)

I, E, J, N, T
Air pollution; Animal food; Animal health; Biological sampling; Cadmium; Carbon; Caribou; Dene Indians; Detection; Food; Health; Heavy metals; Hunting; Internal organs; Isotopes; Lipids; Mercury; Moose; Mountain goats; Mountain sheep; Nitrogen; Radionuclides; Risk assessment; Subsistence; Toxicity; Ungulates

G0812
Deh Cho Region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon


Multi-element, radionuclide and stable isotope analysis of kidney, muscle and Trichinella presence in mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the NWT   /   Larter, N.C.   Macdonald, C.R.
[Yellowknife, N.W.T.] : N.W.T. Environment and Natural Resources, 2015.
v, 41 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Manuscript report - Northwest Territories. Dept. of Renewable Resources, no. 249)
Cover title.
Appendices.
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 81604.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/sites/default/files/manuscript_report_no._249.pdf

Kidney and muscle of 17 mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the NWT collected between 2011 and 2013 were analyzed for 33 elements plus mercury and radionuclides. The concentrations of most elements were significantly higher in kidney than in muscle, and only increased significantly (P<0.05) with age for arsenic, lead and thallium. The highest kidney:muscle ratio was observed for cadmium (252), followed by molybdenum (40.4). Total mercury concentration was 7.2 times higher in kidney than muscle. The stable isotope signatures for delta 13C and delta 15N indicate that the mountain goat consumes a generalist diet (grasses, lichens, shrubs), which is intermediate to the mountain caribou and the moose. Histological survey of goat kidney indicates low numbers of artifacts, with the most common being lymphohistiocytic inflammation (five out of 14 kidneys surveyed) and pigment deposits (four out of 14, with one scored a two). These are considered to be relatively minor changes, with no evidence of any significant changes that have been reported to be associated with high levels of cadmium and other elements. No relationship was observed between the age of the harvested goat, or the concentration of metals, and changes in the kidney. Tongue samples from nine mountain goats were negative for the presence of Trichinella spp. The results of the analysis for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in three liver samples have not been completed yet. (Au)

I, N, H, K
Age; Animal food; Animal health; Animal population; Bioaccumulation; Biological sampling; Cadmium; Carbon; Caribou; Detection; Food; Health; Heavy metals; Hunting; Internal organs; Isotopes; Lichens; Mass spectrometry; Mercury; Metals; Moose; Mountain goats; Mountain sheep; Nitrogen; POPs; Radionuclides; Risk assessment; Trichinella; Willows

G0812
Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Nahanni Butte region, N.W.T.; South Nahanni River region, N.W.T.


Multi-elements, radionuclides and persistent organics in tissues of mountain goats in Northwest Territories   /   Larter, N.C.   Macdonald, C.R.   Muir, D.   Elkin, B.T.   Wang, X.
In: Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council : proceedings of the Nineteenth Biennial Symposium, June 2-5, 2014, Fort Collins, Colorado. - Bozeman, Mont. : NWSGC, 2014, p. 98-107, ill., maps
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References.
ASTIS record 81610.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.nwsgc.org/proceedings/NWSGC-2014/098_Larter-et-al_2014.pdf

There has been limited study on mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) inhabiting the Mackenzie Mountains of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada. As part of a larger study on sympatric ungulates of the area, we collected kidney, liver, and muscle samples from adult male mountain goats to document concentrations of heavy metals and other elements, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and radionuclides, as well as stable isotope signatures. Most elemental concentrations were higher in kidney; only aluminum, magnesium, potassium and antimony were higher in muscle tissue. Cadmium had the highest kidney:muscle (251) ratio; mean concentration in kidney was 28.3 mg/kg (dry weight). Mean total mercury in kidney was 0.3 mg/kg (dry weight). 137Cs and 40K levels were relatively consistent, with means of 6.46 and 108 Bq/kg, respectively. 134Cs presence in only the 2011 samples is a clear marker of deposition from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan. POPs were present at sub-ng/g (wet weight, ww) concentrations in liver similar to measurements in other ungulates in the NT. Chlorobenzenes (0.49 0.12 ng/g ww), toxaphene (0.40 0.32 ng/g ww), and DDT-related compounds (0.29 0.21 ng/g ww) were the major POPs detected. Mean stable isotope signatures for delta 13C (-24.8) and delta 15N (1.53) reflect the generalist diet composition. Based upon the low reported concentrations of trace elements and radionuclides, no concerns about consumption of mountain goats were identified in an assessment of the data by health authorities. (Au)

I
Animal food; Biological sampling; Cadmium; Heavy metals; Internal organs; Isotopes; Lipids; Mercury; Mountain goats; POPs; Radionuclides; Ungulates

G0812
Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon


Mackenzie Mountain non-resident and non-resident alien hunter harvest summary 2012   /   Larter, N.C.   Allaire, D.G.
[Yellowknife, N.W.T.] : N.W.T. Environment and Natural Resources, 2013.
ix, 82 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Manuscript report - Northwest Territories. Dept. of Renewable Resources, no. 234)
Cover title.
Appendices.
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 79024.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/_live/documents/content/234_Manuscript.pdf

Each of the eight licenced outfitters and Renewable Resource Officers with the Sahtu and Dehcho Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) regional offices collected data on big game harvested in the Mackenzie Mountains during the 2012 hunting season. Harvest data and observations of wildlife from non-resident and non-resident alien hunters (collectively called non-resident for this report) were recorded. For 2012, 396 hunters bought non-resident licences. This is higher than the average 365 (range 321-407) sold to non-resident hunters from 1991-2012, but similar to sales over the past eight years. Hunters (n=301) from outside Canada (non-resident aliens) were primarily from the USA (n=234) and comprised 59% of the outfitted hunters; 12, 12, and 7 hunters were from Germany, Mexico, and Spain respectively. There were 95 (24%) Canadian hunters, whose residency was from outside the Northwest Territories (NWT), of these 84 were from Alberta (AB) or British Columbia (BC). Of the 396 non-resident licence holders, 361 came to the NWT and most spent at least some time hunting. Two-hundred and seventy tags were purchased for Dalls sheep; 207 rams were harvested (including seven by resident hunters). The average annual ram harvest over the past 22 years was 197. The mean (SD) age of harvested rams was 10.9+1.6 years, equalling the highest average age since records have been kept (1967), and the 25th consecutive year the average age of harvested rams from the Mackenzie Mountains has been >=9.5 years. The average right horn length was 89.9 cm, with the percent of broomed horns considerably lower than average. Hunters reported seeing more legal rams (horns at least curl) than rams with horns < curl during their hunts, average eight legal rams/hunt. Based upon hunter observations we estimated 53.9 lambs and 86.9 rams per 100 ewes, respectively. In 2012, 300 tags were purchased for northern mountain caribou, the second highest since reporting started in 1991. The harvest of 168 bull caribou was higher than the average of 159 (range 117-191) from the past 22 years. Hunters observed an estimated 39.5 caribou calves and 46.5 bulls per 100 adult female caribou, respectively. One hundred and fifteen tags were purchased for moose, the third highest recorded. The harvest of 85 bull moose in 2012 is the greatest since reporting started in 1991. Hunters observed an estimated 32.7 moose calves and 87.5 bulls per 100 adult female moose, respectively. The number of calves per 100 adult females is higher than the average 30:100 recorded since 1995. Since 2004 the ratio has been >=30:100. The 42 tags purchased in 2012 for mountain goats was similar to the average of 43 tags purchased for last eight years. Twelve goats (all males) were harvested, a harvest similar to that reported in 2006 and 2010. The mean age, determined by horn annuli of 12 harvested goats, was 7.1 years (range 3.5-14.5 years); three goats were >10 years old. Hunters observed an estimated 51.8 goat kids and 71.9 billies per 100 adult nannies. Twenty-four wolves were harvested from 292 tags purchased, including five harvested during hunts in March 2013, a time outside of the usual hunting season in the mountains. The harvest of 24 wolves in 2012 is the greatest since reporting started in 1991. From 1991-2011 the mean annual wolf harvest was 15. Hunters observed 253 wolves in 2012 (range 142-317 observed 1995-2011). No wolverines were harvested from 153 tags purchased in 2012. Hunters observed 29 wolverines in total including observations of three pairs of animals. No black bears were harvested from 16 tags purchased. Only five black bears have been harvested in the Mackenzie Mountains since 1991. Black bears were observed north of 64N latitude. There has been no grizzly bear hunting season for non-residents since 1982. One nuisance grizzly bear was killed this year. Hunter satisfaction remains high; 98% of respondents (n=212) rated their experience as either excellent (93%) or very good (5%). The high quality hunting experience, the abundance of wildlife in the Mackenzie Mountains (both game and predators), and the impressive management and stewardship of the land were specifically commented on. Repeat clients (28% of respondents) had returned for a 2nd to 20th hunt, and 93% of respondents indicated they would like to return in future years. Disappointingly, we received only 60% of the voluntary hunter observation forms, returning to pre-2004 levels. However, the new reporting system we designed with the Association of Mackenzie Mountain Outfitters (AMMO) for summarizing wild game meat records continues to work extremely well. This is the second year in a row we have been able to summarize information about meat distribution for all eight outfitters. We estimated a minimum of least 24,961 kg (54,915 lbs.) of wild game meat, mostly moose and mountain caribou, was distributed locally in 2012. Replacement cost of meat from local northern retailers is estimated conservatively at $624,025 using $25/kg average replacement cost. The distribution of wild meat by outfitters to the community of Nahanni Butte was timely as the community was rebuilding from a June flood that had destroyed all food supplies. Although the boundaries of Nahanni National Park Reserve (NNPR) were substantially expanded in 2009, affecting outfitting zones D/OT/01, D/OT/02, and S/OT/03, until negotiations between these outfitters and Parks Canada are completed, ENR will continue to issue licences, tags, and export permits for harvesting big game by these three outfitters in their zones. (Au)

N, I, S, R
Age; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Black bears; Boundaries; Caribou; Co-management; Furbearing animals; Hunting; Licences; Moose; Mountain goats; Mountain sheep; Parks; Social surveys; Socio-economic effects; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Tourist trade; Wildlife management; Wolverines; Wolves

G0812
Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Nahanni National Park, N.W.T.; Richardson Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.


Mackenzie Mountain non-resident and non-resident alien hunter harvest summary 2011   /   Larter, N.C.   Allaire, D.G.
[Yellowknife, N.W.T.] : N.W.T. Environment and Natural Resources, 2012.
x, 72 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Manuscript report - Northwest Territories. Dept. of Renewable Resources, no. 220)
Cover title.
Appendices.
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 79023.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.enr.gov.nt.ca/_live/documents/content/220_manuscript.pdf

Each of the eight licenced outfitters and Renewable Resource Officers with the Sahtu and Dehcho Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) Regional offices collected data on big game harvested in the Mackenzie Mountains during the 2011 hunting season. Harvest data and observations of wildlife from non-resident and non-resident alien hunters (collectively called non-resident for this report) were recorded. For 2011, 396 hunters bought non-resident licences. This is higher than the average 363 (range 321-407) sold to non-resident hunters from 1991-2011. Hunters purchased the second greatest number of wolf and wolverine tags since records started in 1995. Hunters (n=304) from outside Canada (non-resident aliens) were primarily from the USA (n=242) and comprised 61% of the outfitted hunters; 14, 8, and 8 hunters were from Germany, Mexico, and Belgium respectively. There were 92 (23%) Canadian hunters, whose residency was from outside the Northwest Territories (NT). Of the 396 non-resident licence holders, 352 came to the NT and most spent at least some time hunting. Two-hundred and fifty-one tags were purchased for Dalls sheep; 181 rams were harvested (including six by resident hunters). The average annual ram harvest over the past 21 years is 197. The mean (SD) age of harvested rams was 10.8 + 1.7 years, the second highest average age since records have been kept (1967), and the 24th consecutive year the average age of harvested rams from the Mackenzie Mountains has been >=9.5 years. The average right horn length was 90.5 cm. Hunters reported seeing more legal rams (horns at least curl) than rams with horns < curl during their hunts, average eight legal rams/hunt. Based upon hunter observations we estimated 55.8 lambs and 91.4 rams per 100 ewes, respectively. In 2011, more tags were purchased for northern mountain caribou (n=314) than in any year since reporting started in 1991. The harvest of 181 bull caribou was higher than the average of 157 iii (range 117-191) from the past 21 years. Hunters observed an estimated 44.0 caribou calves, and 35.3 bulls per 100 adult female caribou, respectively. More tags were purchased for moose in 2011 (n=121) than in the previous 21 years. The harvest of 78 bull moose in 2011 is the greatest since reporting started in 1991. Hunters observed an estimated 33.0 moose calves, and 123.1 bulls per 100 adult female moose, respectively. The number of calves per 100 adult females is higher than the average 30:100 recorded since 1995 and the eleventh time in the past 17 years when the ratio has been >30:100. More tags were purchased in 2011 for mountain goats (n=55) than in the previous 21 years. Twenty goats harvested (18 billies and two nannies) a similar harvest to that reported from 2007-2009. The mean age, determined by horn annuli of 16 harvested goats, was 6.4 years (range 2.5-11.5 years); two goats were >10 years old. Hunters observed an estimated 64.2 goat kids and 59.4 billies per 100 adult nannies. Twenty-one wolves were harvested from 285 tags purchased, including two harvested during hunts in April 2012, a time outside of the usual hunting season in the mountains. During 1991-2011 mean annual wolf harvest was 15 (range 7-23). Hunters observed 184 wolves in 2011 (range 142-317 observed 1995-2010). Two wolverines were harvested from 163 tags purchased in 2011. Hunters observed 30 wolverines in total including observations of two and three animal groups. The number of wolverine observed in 2011 is similar to 2010, up from a low in 2007, and similar to the numbers observed during 1995-1999 and 2004-2006. A single black bear was harvested from 32 tags purchased. Only four black bears have been harvested in the Mackenzie Mountains since 1991. There has been no grizzly bear hunting season for non-residents since 1982. Three nuisance grizzly bears were killed this year. Hunter satisfaction remains high; 96% of respondents (n=210) rated their experience as either excellent (90%) or very good ( 6%). A number of hunters made specific comments about the high quality hunting experience, the abundance of wildlife in the Mackenzie Mountains (both game and predators), and the impressive management and stewardship of the land; 24% were repeat clients returning for a (range 2nd to 20th) hunt in the Mackenzie Mountains, and 95% indicated they would like to return in future years. Disappointingly, we received only 62% of the voluntary hunter observation forms, returning to pre-2004 levels. However, the new reporting system we designed with the Association of Mackenzie Mountain Outfitters (AMMO) for summarizing wild game meat records has worked extremely well. This year we were able to summarize information about meat distribution for all eight outfitters. We estimated that at least 24,750 kg (54,450 pounds) of wild game meat, mostly moose and mountain caribou, was distributed locally in 2011. Replacement cost of meat from local northern retailers is estimated conservatively at $618,750, using $25/kg average replacement cost. We will continue with this reporting system in future. The boundaries of Nahanni National Park Reserve were substantially expanded in 2009. For a third year there were comments questioning the size of the Nahanni National Park Reserve expansion. The new boundary overlaps outfitting zones Ramhead, South Nahanni, and Nahanni Butte by 4.7%, 27.2% and 79.4% of the total area respectively. However, until negotiations between these outfitters and Parks Canada are completed ENR will continue to issue licences, tags, and export permits for harvesting by these three outfitters in their zones. (Au)

N, I, S, R
Age; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Black bears; Boundaries; Caribou; Co-management; Furbearing animals; Hunting; Licences; Moose; Mountain goats; Mountain sheep; Parks; Social surveys; Socio-economic effects; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Tourist trade; Wildlife management; Wolverines; Wolves

G0812
Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Nahanni National Park, N.W.T.; Richardson Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.


Growth in skull length and width of the arctic wolf : comparison of models and ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.   Bartareau, T.M.
(Arctic, v. 65, no. 2, June 2012, p. 207-213, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 76434.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic65-2-207.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic4201
Libraries: ACU

We compared four classical nonlinear growth curves (Gompertz, Logistic, Richards, and von Bertalanffy) in modeling observed skull condylobasal length and zygomatic width as a function of age in wild arctic wolves (Canis lupus arctos). We analyzed gender-specific growth patterns and the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in this species as revealed by the best model from these alternatives. For both genders and skull size measurements, the size-at-age data provided the best support for the von Bertalanffy model because of higher fitting degrees, lower root mean squared standard deviation of data points about the fitted growth curve, Akaike weight of 37.4% or higher, and fewer parameters derived directly from metabolic laws. Male asymptotic condylobasal length was 3.2% longer, and zygomatic width 4.1% wider, than in females. Sexual size dimorphism in this species develops in part because males grow faster, which might benefit them in terms of reproductive success and the capture and killing of large ungulate prey. (Au)

I, J
Age; Animal anatomy; Animal food; Animal growth; Dentition; Gender differences; Intestines; Measurement; Muskoxen; Necropsy; Size; Wolves

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Sachs Harbour (Settlement), N.W.T.; Ulukhaktok, N.W.T.; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Body length and mass growth of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in northern Canada : model selection based on information theory and ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism   /   Bartareau, T.M.   Cluff, H.D.   Larter, N.C.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 89, no. 11, Nov. 2011, p.1128-1135, ill., maps)
References.
French abstract provided.
ASTIS record 77461.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1139/z11-088
Libraries: ACU

We compared four nonlinear growth functions in modeling body length and mass size-at-age data for the brown bear (L., 1758) in northern Canada of wide-ranging body sizes and ages. Then, we analyzed the sex differences in patterns of growth and ontogeny of sexual dimorphism in this species revealed by the best model from these alternatives. The von Bertalanffy function proved to be the most parsimonious model because it was easy to fit, with higher fitting degrees, lower root mean squared standard deviation of data points about fitted growth curve, larger Akaike weight, and fewer parameters derived directly from metabolic laws that accurately estimated the observed body length and mass growth profiles. Our growth models indicated an association between sexual growth divergence and the onset of reproduction in females, together with more rapid and prolonged male growth. These findings suggest that sexual size dimorphism develops in part by constraints on female growth from high energetic costs of reproduction. In contrast, males do not experience a comparable energetic trade-off after reaching sexual maturity and apparently allocate available energetic resources to growing faster and longer to produce larger body size, which benefits more competitive males in terms of increased reproductive success. (Au)

I
Animal growth; Animal live-capture; Animal reproduction; Biological sampling; Dentition; Energy budgets; Gender differences; Grizzly bears; Mathematical models; Measurement; Metabolism; Size

G0812, G0813
Coronation Gulf region, Nunavut; Great Bear Lake region, N.W.T.; Kugluktuk region, Nunavut; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.


Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada   /   Larter, N.C.   Forbes, L.B.   Elkin, B.T.   Allaire, D.G.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 47, no. 3, July 2011, p. 745-749, map)
References.
ASTIS record 74883.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.7589/0090-3558-47.3.745
Libraries: ACU

Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources. (Au)

I, K
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Animal taxonomy; Biological sampling; Black bears; Diseases; Effects monitoring; Food; Grizzly bears; Health; Invertebrate larvae; Parasites; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Trichinella; Wolves

G0812, G0811
Deh Cho Region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Nahanni Butte region, N.W.T.


Serum biochemistry, serology, and parasitology of boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Johnson, D.   Harms, N.J.   Larter, N.C.   Elkin, B.T.   Tabel, H.   Wei, G.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 46, no. 4, Oct. 2010, p.1096-1107, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 77861.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.7589/0090-3558-46.4.1096
Libraries: XQKNRC ACU

Boreal caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are an ecologically and culturally important wildlife species and now range almost exclusively in the boreal forests of Canada, including the Northwest Territories, northern Alberta, and British Columbia. Boreal caribou are threatened throughout their Canadian range because of direct and indirect natural and anthropogenic factors. In the Northwest Territories, however, they have a continuous range that overall has not yet been subjected to the same degree of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation and degradation that has occurred elsewhere in Canada. To monitor the health of boreal caribou populations and individuals, we collected blood from 104 adult, female boreal caribou captured between March 2003 and February 2006 and measured serum biochemical parameters. Serum creatinine was higher in pregnant than in nonpregnant caribou. Several biochemical parameters differed among years, but they tended to be similar to those reported for reindeer. Serum antibodies were found to an alphaherpesvirus, Toxoplasma gondii, and to the Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in 37.5, 2.9, and 1.3% of boreal caribou, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from 149 boreal caribou, and Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, Giardia sp. cysts, trichostrongyle ova, dorsal-spined nematode larvae, cestode ova, and Eimeria sp. were found. Trypanosoma sp. was detected in the blood of 72.1% of boreal caribou. Eimeria sp., Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia sp. have not been previously reported in boreal caribou. (Au)

I, N
Animal health; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Parasites; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G0812
Fort Simpson region, N.W.T.; Jean Marie River region, N.W.T.; Kakisa Lake region, N.W.T.; Trout Lake (60 35 N, 121 19 W) region, N.W.T.


Amphibian chytrid fungus and ranaviruses in the Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Schock, D.M.   Ruthig, G.R.   Collins, J.P.   Kutz, S.J.   Carrire, S.   Gau, R.J.   Veitch, A.M.   Larter, N.C.   Tate, D.P.   Guthrie, G.   Allaire, D.G.   Popko, R.A.
(Chytridiomycosis : an emerging disease / Edited by A. Hyatt, C. Carey, A. Cunningham, and R. Speare. Diseases of aquatic organisms, v. 92, no. 2-3, Nov. 2010, p. 231-240, maps)
References.
This paper was supplied by the authors as being funded by an IPY project on caribou.
ASTIS record 73509.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3354/dao02134

Pathogens can cause serious declines in host species, and knowing where pathogens associated with host declines occur facilitates understanding host-pathogen ecology. Suspected drivers of global amphibian declines include infectious diseases, with 2 pathogens in particular, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviruses, causing concern. We explored the host range and geographic distribution of Bd and ranaviruses in the Taiga Plains ecoregion of the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2007 and 2008. Both pathogens were detected, greatly extending their known geographic distributions. Ranaviruses were widespread geographically, but found only in wood frogs. In contrast, Bd was found at a single site, but was detected in all 3 species of amphibians in the survey area (wood frogs, boreal chorus frogs, western toads). The presence of Bd in the Northwest Territories is not congruent with predicted distributions based on niche models, even though findings from other studies at northern latitudes are consistent with those same models. Unexpectedly, we also found evidence that swabs routinely used to collect samples for Bd screening detected fewer infections than toe clips. Our use and handling of the swabs was consistent with other studies, and the cause of the apparent lack of integrity of swabs is unknown. The ranaviruses detected in our study were confirmed to be Frog Virus 3 by sequence analysis of a diagnostic 500 bp region of the major capsid protein gene. It is unknown whether Bd or ranaviruses are recent arrivals to the Canadian north. However, the genetic analyses required to answer that question can inform larger debates about the origin of Bd in North America as well as the potential effects of climate change and industrial development on the distributions of these important amphibian pathogens. (Au)

I, H, J
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal live-capture; Animal population; Biological sampling; Frogs; Fungi; Genetics; Proteins; Viruses

G0812
Blackstone River region, N.W.T.; Colville Lake region, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope region, N.W.T.; Fort Liard region, N.W.T.; Jean Marie River region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Nahanni National Park, N.W.T.; Norman Wells region, N.W.T.; Wrigley region, N.W.T.


Levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, and zinc in various tissues of moose harvested in the Dehcho, Northwest Territories   /   Larter, N.C.   Kandola, K.
(Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health. Securing the IPY legacy : from research to action, July 11-16, 2009, Yellowknife, Canada / Edited by S. Chatwood, P. Orr, and T. Ikheimo. Circumpolar health supplements, no. 7, 2010, p. 351-355)
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 72280.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.circumpolarhealthjournal.net/public/journals/32/chs/CHS_2010_7_ICCH14.pdf
Libraries: ACU MWM

OBJECTIVES: Moose is an important traditional food for residents of the Dehcho, who want to know what the contaminant levels are in the country foods they consume. STUDY DESIGN: As part of a moose monitoring program involving local First Nations, we collected tooth, kidney and liver samples from 46 moose harvested by local residents in Mackenzie and Liard River drainages (MLR). Similar samples were collected from 18 moose taken by sport hunters in the southern Mackenzie Mountains (SMM). METHODS: We measured arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc levels in tissue samples; teeth were used to determine animal age. RESULTS: Levels of cadmium, mercury and zinc were higher in moose harvested from SMM. The mean level of cadmium in kidneys from moose harvested in the SMM was 222.5 g/g (wet wt) and in livers 30.9 g/g (wet wt). In contrast, for moose harvested by local residents in the MLR, the mean level of cadmium in kidneys and livers was 26.8 and 2.7 g/g (wet wt), respectively. Based on a Health Canada risk assessment of these findings, a public health advisory for the consumption of moose organs was issued. Levels of cadmium in the muscle (0.1 g/g, wet wt) and levels for all other elements were similar to those reported elsewhere and were not of a human health concern. Cadmium and zinc levels were positively related with moose age. CONCLUSIONS: Bioaccumulation of cadmium by willow trees in areas with high naturally occurring geologic sources of cadmium is a likely hypothesis for the high renal cadmium levels reported in moose harvested in the SMM. (Au)

I, H, J, K, R, Y, B
Age; Animal food; Arsenic; Bioaccumulation; Biological sampling; Cadmium; Dentition; Effects monitoring; Food; Food chain; Geology; Health; Indians; Internal organs; Lead; Mercury; Moose; Selenium; Spatial distribution; Specifications; Willows; Zinc

G0812
Deh Cho Region, N.W.T.; Liard River region, British Columbia/N.W.T./Yukon; Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.


A program to monitor moose populations in the Dehcho region, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Larter, N.C.
(Alces, v. 45, 2009, p. 89-99, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 74439.
Languages: English
Web: http://alcesjournal.org/alces/article/viewFile/19/17
Libraries: ACU

Moose (Alces alces) are an important traditional and spiritual resource for residents of the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories. Maintaining healthy and sustainable populations of moose for future generations is a goal of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR). Following a regional wildlife workshop with Dehcho First Nations, the need for a program to determine baseline information on moose populations and to foster community-based monitoring of moose in the Dehcho was identified. Such a program needed to be established prior to future proposed developments including the Mackenzie Gas Project. After extensive community consultation between local First Nations and ENR, a baseline aerial survey over a large area of the Dehcho was designed, and was to be followed by an annual monitoring program. Two key components identified for the annual monitoring program were an aerial survey and harvest sampling. The aerial survey would provide information on moose density and calf production, and harvest sampling would provide information on the relative health and physical condition of animals consumed by local residents. In light of increasing developmental pressures in the region, such information collected over time is important to harvesters, First Nations, wildlife managers, and land use planners alike because it should document change in the quantity and quality of a key traditional wildlife resource. Population estimates from the aerial surveys indicated that the estimated population density and calf:cow ratios were reasonable. Harvest data indicated low incidence of diseases and parasites, low levels of cadmium in organ tissue, and that moose were mostly in good or excellent body condition based on observation and fat indices. This study is an example of successfully combining the knowledge and cooperation of First Nation moose harvesters with the technical support of government biologists to secure valuable biological information for baseline data to monitor change associated with development in a region. (Au)

I, N, T
Aerial surveys; Age; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Bones; Cadmium; Dentition; Effects monitoring; Fats; Food; Geographic information systems; Hunting; Internal organs; Metis; Moose; Parasites; Planning; South Slavey Indians; Wildlife management

G0812
Deh Cho Region, N.W.T.; Liard River region, British Columbia/N.W.T./Yukon; Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.


Vegetation mapping of Banks Island with particular reference to Aulavik National Park   /   Larter, N.C.   Raillard, M.   Epp, H.   Nagy, J.A.
Yellowknife, N.W.T. : Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources, 2009.
ix, 35 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(File report - Northwest Territories. Dept. of Environment and Natural Resources, no.138)
References.
ASTIS record 68466.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data were used to classify vegetation types on Banks Island in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Digital image enhancements were used to classify land cover types by entering information from 531 training areas, including 359 within the boundaries of Aulavik National Park (ANP), visited during summers 1993-1997. A draft classification was verified by a ground inspection of 201 sites. The resulting map had a 25 m resolution and was differentiated into 10 land cover classes. Accuracy assessment of the classification ranged from 67-100%, averaging ca. 90% over all verified plots. The 10 land cover classes included: sedge-dominated dry tundra (covering 22.2% of Banks Island); wet sedge meadow (20.6%); hummock tundra (15.3%); mesic meadow (10.6%); stony/sandy barren (8.7%); grass-dominated dry tundra (8.2%); successional dry tundra (3.8%); water/snow/ice (5.7%); bare ground (3.6%); and unclassified/clouds and shadow (1.3%). The classification was most accurate when classes could be differentiated by microtopography, as with hummock tundra (97% accuracy), or by the presence of surface water, as for wet sedge meadows (95% accuracy). The accuracy was reduced when classes were distinguished by abundance and composition of plant cover (67-92%). Nevertheless, this study indicates that Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper data can be used successfully for vegetation mapping over large areas in the mid-Arctic latitudes. Intensive vegetation surveys within ANP reported 11 species of vascular plants new to the park, of which seven were new records for Banks Island. (Au)

H, A, I, J, N
Animal population; Mapping; Meadows; Parks; Plant cover; Plant distribution; Quality assurance; Satellite photography; Sedges; Topography; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G0812
Aulavik National Park, N.W.T.; Banks Island, N.W.T.


Trout Lake boreal caribou study : progress report, February 2006   /   Larter, N.C.   Allaire, D.G.
Fort Simpson, N.W.T. : ENR (GNWT), 2006.
[11] p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Northern Gas Project Secretariat public registry for the review of the Mackenzie Gas Project - Joint Review Panel : intervenors)
Indexed from a PDF file on the Web.
Cover title.
References.
Report provided for posting on the Joint Review Panel's public registry for intervenors in the Mackenzie Gas Project assessment.
ASTIS record 59109.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.ngps.nt.ca/Upload/Interveners/Government%20of%20the%20Northwest%20Territories/Attach2_TL_Boreal_Caribou.pdf

Background: In response to the new federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) and following extensive consultation with the Sambaa K'e Dene Band (SKDB) membership of Trout Lake, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR), Dehcho Region initiated an ecological study of boreal caribou in the Trout Lake area during spring 2004. With limited scientific knowledge about boreal caribou in the area, SKDB saw the benefits of combining information from this study with their own traditional knowledge study to fill knowledge gaps in traditional information. Ten female boreal caribou were collared in the Celibeta Lake area (Fig. 1, area A) in order to document seasonal range use and movements, calving period and areas, and fidelity of seasonal range use and movements over a 4-5 year period. Collared females would also provide information on calf production, calf survival, and adult female survival (Larter and Allaire 2005). Other ecological studies of boreal caribou are being conducted in this and other regions of the Northwest Territories to increase our knowledge of boreal caribou so that in the face of increasing development pressures informed decisions regarding land use can be made. Because caribou collared in 2004 were not distributed throughout the Trout Lake traditional harvesting area (crusty snow conditions restricted caribou distribution), at the request of SKDB an additional 8 satellite collars were deployed on female boreal caribou in other areas to the north and east of Trout Lake in spring 2005 (Fig. 1, Area B). The information provided from animals in the Trainor Lake area could also be used by SKDB for their area of interest as a Protected Area. ... Boreal caribou continue to utilize areas of heavy and tall timber during the snow free seasons and when not in the heavily treed areas their pelage blends in well with the vegetation. The extreme difficulty in getting visual observations from fixed-wing aircraft necessitated extra relocation flights with rotary aircraft. Our data on calf production and calf survival through summer is still limited. Of 13 collared female caribou entering the calving season we know one was not pregnant based upon a blood test. Seven of the remaining 12 collared females (58%) had calves. Two of those 7 calves were lost before 23 September (71% survived till fall); one was lost in June. Based upon observations from the January 2006 capture operation we know that animals #116 and #117 still had calves at heel. The much greater success rate in getting visual observations during winter when groups are larger provides an opportunity to conduct aerial sex/age class counts of enough animals to estimate the ratio of calves to females present in late-winter. Our first class count is scheduled for March 2006. ... Although the Trout Lake study area is considered relatively pristine, the Dehcho Land Use Plan (DLUP) indicates a noticeable linear footprint on the landscape. Of the six predator related mortalities 2 occurred <100m from a linear feature, 2 occurred 300-350m from a linear feature, and 2 occurred 1.7-2.3km from a linear feature. The animal that died of old age died 200m from the nearest linear feature. These distances are all based upon the location of the collar in relation to the digital DLUP linear footprint. ... A number of collared caribou have died since we initiated this study. Of the 10 animals captured in March/April 2004, 5 have died (#'s 101, 102, 103, 104, and 107). Of the 8 animals captured in March 2005, 2 have died (#'s 110 and 113). There is strong evidence to suggest that all but one of the mortalities were caused by wolf predation. The remaining animal appears to have died of old age. Six of the 7 mortalities occurred between mid-April and mid-June. The majority of female mortalities in the Cameron Hills study area have also occurred during the pre-calving and calving period (D. Johnson pers. comm.). The other mortality occurred in September. (Au)

J, Q, R, T, I, N, L, F
Aerial surveys; Age; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal live-capture; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Animal tagging; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Design and construction; Environmental impact assessment; Environmental impacts; Forest fires; Gas pipelines; Joint Review Panel (Canada); Land use; Mackenzie Gas Project; Mapping; Native peoples; Necropsy; NGL pipelines; Oil well drilling; Predation; Public hearings; Public participation; Radio tracking of animals; Roads; Satellite communications; Seasonal variations; Seismic surveys; Snowfall; Species at Risk Act, 2002; Subsistence; Taiga ecology; Traditional knowledge; Traditional land use and occupancy; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management; Wolves

G0812, G0821
British Columbia, Northern; Cameron Hills, Alberta/N.W.T.; Deh Cho Region, N.W.T.; Inuvik region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Trainor Lake region, N.W.T.; Trout Lake (60 35 N, 121 19 W) region, N.W.T.


Ebbutt Hills boreal caribou study progress report, February 2006   /   Larter, N.C.   Allaire, D.G.
Fort Simpson, N.W.T. : ENR (GNWT), 2006.
[8] p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Northern Gas Project Secretariat public registry for the review of the Mackenzie Gas Project - Joint Review Panel : intervenors)
Indexed from a PDF file on the Web.
Cover title.
References.
Report provided for posting on the Joint Review Panel's public registry for intervenors in the Mackenzie Gas Project assessment.
ASTIS record 59108.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.ngps.nt.ca/Upload/Interveners/Government%20of%20the%20Northwest%20Territories/Attach3_EH_Boreal_Caribou.pdf

Background: In response to the new federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) and following extensive consultations with the Liidlii Kue First Nations (LKFN) and Fort Simpson Mtis Local (FSML) membership of Fort Simpson, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Dehcho Region, initiated an ecological study of boreal caribou in the Fort Simpson area during spring 2005 (Fig. 1). There was limited scientific knowledge about boreal caribou in the area and LKFN and FSML members saw the benefits of combining their own traditional knowledge of caribou in the area with the scientific information this study could provide. The study area included portions of the proposed Mackenzie Gas Pipeline route. The ecological study involved the deployment of satellite radio collars on female boreal caribou in order to document seasonal range use, seasonal movements, calving areas and calving time, fidelity of range use and seasonal movements over a 4-5 year period. Collared females would also be used to provide information on calf production, calf survival, and adult female survival. This study would be one of a number of ecological studies being conducted on boreal caribou in this and other regions of the Northwest Territories to increase our knowledge of boreal caribou so that in the face of increasing development pressures informed decisions regarding land use could be made. ... (Au)

J, Q, R, T, I, N, L
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal live-capture; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Caribou; Design and construction; Environmental impact assessment; Environmental impacts; Gas pipelines; Hunting; Joint Review Panel (Canada); Land use; Mackenzie Gas Project; Mapping; Mathematical models; Native peoples; NGL pipelines; Oil well drilling; Predation; Public hearings; Public participation; Radio tracking of animals; Regional planning; Satellite communications; Seasonal variations; Seismic surveys; Species at Risk Act, 2002; Subsistence; Taiga ecology; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife law; Wildlife management; Wildlife Management Advisory Council (N.W.T.); Wolves

G0812
Deh Cho Region, N.W.T.; Ebbutt Hills, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River, N.W.T.


Seasonal changes in the composition of the diets of Peary caribou and muskoxen on Banks Island   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.
(Polar research, v. 23, no. 2, Dec. 2004, p. 131-140, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 57350.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1111/j.1751-8369.2004.tb00003.x
Libraries: ACU

Caribou and muskoxen are the only ungulate species occupying Arctic tundra environments. We analysed plant fragments found in fresh (<4 hr old) samples of faecal material to determine the diets of Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) on Banks Island, Canada. Willow was a major component of the diets of both animals, dominating the caribou diet during summer and representing substantial proportions of the muskoxen diet during at least seven months of the year. The diet of caribou was more diverse than that of muskoxen and was dominated by sedge, willow (Salix arctica), legume (Astragalus spp., Oxytropis spp.) and Dryas integrifolia. The diet of muskoxen was dominated by sedge and willow. There was substantial overlap (up to 70%) in the diets of these herbivores with the similarity more pronounced in areas of high muskox density (ca. 1.65 animals/km). We discuss herbivore diets in relation to foraging behaviour and forage availability. (Au)

I, H, E, J, F
Animal behaviour; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Biomass; Caribou; Dryas; Environmental impacts; Grazing; Hares; Legumes; Lichens; Light; Meadows; Muskoxen; Plant distribution; Plant growth; Proteins; Ptarmigan; Seasonal variations; Sedges; Snow cover; Tundra ecology; Willows; Winter ecology

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Population demography of High Arctic caribou on Banks and Melville islands   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.
(Proceedings of the 9th North American Caribou Workshop, Kuujjuaq, Qubec, Canada, April 23 to 27, 2001 / Edited by S. Couturier and Q. van Ginhoven. Rangifer, special issue no. 14, 2003, p. 153-159, ill., maps)
References.
Also available on the Web.
ASTIS record 64905.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.twodeadducks.net/rangifer/pdf/SI_14_153.pdf
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

Caribou numbers, Rangifer tarandus pearyi, (excluding calves) on Banks Island were estimated (standard error of the estimate) at 1005 (SE133) in 1992, 709 (SE128) in 1994 and 436 (SE71) in 1998; no paired estimates were different (P<0.05). On Melville Island caribou numbers were similar in 1987 and 1997 with estimates of 729 (SE104) and 787 (SE97), respectively. We conducted annual sex and age classification surveys during July on Banks Island from 1994-2000 and on Melville Island from 1998-2000. The number of calves per 100 >= two-year-old females ranged from 24.0 in 1994 to 74.3 in 1998 on Banks Island, and from 44.8 in 1999 to 80.0 in 1998 on Melville Island. Recruitment rate ranged from 18.6% during 1997/1998 to 27.5% during 1999/2000 on Banks Island and from 16.7% during 1997/1998 to 25.0% during 1999/2000 on Melville Island. There has been an increasing trend in the rate of recruitment on both islands during the last three years of the study. (Au)

I, E, J, H
Aerial surveys; Age; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Caribou; Climatology; Endangered species; Environmental impacts; Hunting; Muskoxen; Plant distribution; Plant growth; Polar deserts; Predation; Quotas; Snow; Temporal variations; Wildlife habitat; Winter ecology; Wolves

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Observations of wood bison swimming across the Liard River, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Larter, N.C.   Nishi, J.S.   Ellsworth, T.   Johnson, D.   More, G.   Allaire, D.G.
(Arctic, v. 56, no. 4, Dec. 2003, p. 408-412, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 52879.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic56-4-408.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic637
Libraries: ACU

We observed a group of 18 wood bison, of mixed sex and age classes, swimming across a 1.7 km wide section of the Liard River on 16 July 2002. Water levels and flow rates were above the long-term average for that time of year, and there was a river current of 14-16 km/h. The animals took at least 27 minutes to negotiate their 3.6 km swim. Younger animals were able to keep more of their head and body above the water level than older mature males. Calves of the year, observed swimming across a secondary channel of the river on 15 July 2003, had only their heads above water. Bison are capable of swimming across lakes and rivers (Wood Buffalo National Park, Yellowstone National Park), but well-documented cases of bison navigating rapidly flowing northern rivers are rare. Open-water crossings of the Liard River are important to the ecology of the Nahanni wood bison population, especially since seismic activity in the Liard River Valley is likely to increase. (Au)

I, F, J, H, G, B
Age; Animal behaviour; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal mortality; Animal population; Breakup; Environmental impacts; Grazing; Lakes; North American bison; River banks; River discharges; River ice; Rivers; Sedges; Seismic surveys; Stream flow; Water level; Wildlife habitat; Willows

G0812, G0821
Blackstone River region, N.W.T.; British Columbia, Northern; Kotaneelee River region, N.W.T.; Liard River region, British Columbia/N.W.T./Yukon; Liard River, British Columbia/N.W.T./Yukon; Muskeg River region, N.W.T.; Nahanni Butte region, N.W.T.; Netla River region, N.W.T.


Prey specialization may influence patterns of gene flow in wolves of the Canadian Northwest   /   Carmichael, L.E.   Nagy, J.A.   Larter, N.C.   Strobeck, C.
(Molecular ecology, v. 10, no. 12, Dec. 2001, p.2787-2798, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 77308.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01408.x
Libraries: ACU

This study characterizes population genetic structure among grey wolves (Canis lupus) in northwestern Canada, and discusses potential physical and biological determinants of this structure. Four hundred and ninety-one grey wolves, from nine regions in the Yukon, Northwest Territories and British Columbia, were genotyped using nine microsatellite loci. Results indicate that wolf gene flow is reduced significantly across the Mackenzie River, most likely due to the north-south migration patterns of the barren-ground caribou herds that flank it. Furthermore, although Banks and Victoria Island wolves are genetically similar, they are distinct from mainland wolf populations across the Amundsen Gulf. However, low-level island-mainland wolf migration may occur in conjunction with the movements of the Dolphin-Union caribou herd. Whereas previous authors have examined isolation-by-distance in wolves, this study is the first to demonstrate correlations between genetic structure of wolf populations and the presence of topographical barriers between them. Perhaps most interesting is the possibility that these barriers reflect prey specialization by wolves in different regions. (Au)

I, J, A
Adaptation (Biology); Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal live-capture; Animal migration; Animal population; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Forest ecology; Genetics; Moose; Predation; Rivers; Topography; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat

G0811, G0812, G0821, G0813, G0815, G03
Amundsen Gulf, N.W.T.; Arctic Ocean; Banks Island, N.W.T.; British Columbia, Northern; Canadian Arctic Islands; Great Bear Lake region, N.W.T.; Inuvik region, N.W.T.; Kluane Plateau, Yukon; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River, N.W.T.; N.W.T.; Paulatuk region, N.W.T.; Richardson Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Rocky Mountains, British Columbia; Tuktoyaktuk region, N.W.T.; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Yukon


Overwintering changes in the urine chemistry of muskoxen from Banks Island   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.
(The Journal of wildlife management, v. 65, no. 2, Apr. 2001, p. 226-234, ill., 2 maps)
References.
ASTIS record 50450.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.2307/3802901
Libraries: ACU

The levels of various metabolites in urine have been used to assess winter nutritional deprivation in cervides; however, few studies have assessed this technique for other ungulates. Between March 1993 and May 1998, we collected >400 snow-urine samples from muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. We determined urea nitrogen:creatinine (UN:C) and cortisol:creatinine (C:C) for each sample. Ratios of both UN:C and C:C decreased from early to mid-winter and increased from mid- to late-winter. The pattern of decreasing UN:C and C:C from early to mid-winter is different from that found in other studies and is not likely a reflection of superior animal condition in mid-winter. Muskoxen have a variety of physiological adaptations to minimize energy requirements and expenditures during winter, and these adaptations may cause the reduced UN:C and C:C we found during mid-winter. Urea N:C were greater for muskoxen in areas of high density and in years when winter forage quality was greater. Cortisol:creatinine ratios were greater during the winter when southern Banks Island experienced severe icing conditions. Our findings indicate these ratios may be useful measures of the ability of winter habitats to support muskoxen on Banks Island, provided winter forage quality is also measured. Whether UN:C of 4.0 mg/mg represents severe dietary restriction and possible starvation in muskoxen, as it does for bison (Bison bison), remains to be addressed. (Au)

I, J, H
Adaptation (Biology); Animal food; Animal health; Animal physiology; Animal waste products; Chemical properties; Grazing; Metabolism; Muskoxen; Nitrogen; Sedges; Snow; Starvation; Wildlife habitat; Winter ecology

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Variation between snow conditions at Peary caribou and muskox feeding sites and elsewhere in foraging habitats on Banks Island in the Canadian High Arctic   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.
(Arctic, antarctic, and alpine research, v. 33, no. 2, May 2001, p. 123-130, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 50407.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.2307/1552212
Libraries: ACU

Between October 1993 and May 1998 we measured snow depth (cm), density (g/cm), and resistance (kg cm) adjacent to 53 Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) and 134 muskox (Ovibos moschatus) feeding craters on Banks Island in the Canadian High Arctic. Measurements were taken in early (26 October-18 November), mid- (12 February-1 March), and late-winter (20 April-4 May). Concurrently, we recorded snow depth, density, and resistance along fixed transects in the four habitats used by foraging caribou and muskoxen. Caribou craters were found predominantly (94%) in upland habitats; upland barren (UB), hummock tundra (HT), and stony barren (SB). Caribou abandoned craters in the more rolling UB and HT when snow was shallower, less dense, and less resistant than average snow conditions in these habitats; in most cases the differences were significant (P < 0.01). In SB, the habitat with the shallowest snow, caribou cratered through snow conditions similar to the average found in this habitat. During winter 1994-95, when snow depth, density, and resistance was greatest, we located caribou craters only in SB. Muskox craters were found almost exclusively (96%) in wet sedge meadows (WSM); the habitat with deepest snow. Muskoxen abandoned crater sites when snow depth, density, and resistance was less (P < 0.01) than average conditions in WSM, regardless of animal density. Muskoxen in low density areas were faced with deeper snow, particularly in late-winter, and they abandoned crater sites when snow depth was greater (P < 0.004) than muskoxen in high density areas. During winter 1994-95, muskox cratered through deeper, denser, and more resistant snow than during winter 1997-98 when snow conditions were the least severe of the study. We discuss our results in relation to the population dynamics of Peary caribou and muskoxen on Banks Island. (Au)

F, I, J, H
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal mortality; Animal population; Caribou; Density; Grazing; Heat transmission; Meadows; Measurement; Muskoxen; Plant distribution; Sedges; Snow; Snow water equivalent; Thickness; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat; Winter ecology

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Calf production, calf survival, and recruitment of muskoxen on Banks Island during a period of changing population density from 1986-99   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.
(Arctic, v. 54, no. 4, Dec. 2001, p. 394-406, ill., 2 maps)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 028-02)
References.
ASTIS record 48905.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic54-4-394.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic796
Libraries: ACU

Population estimates for muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) (age > 1 year) on Banks Island increased from 29 168 (SE 2104) in 1985 to a peak of 64 608 (SE 2009) in 1994 and then declined to 45 833 (SE 1938) in 1998. From 1986 to 1999, annual sex and age classification surveys of muskoxen were conducted during summer. We estimated calf production (number of calves per 100 females aged 2 years or more), calf survival, and recruitment (number of yearlings per 100 females aged 2 years or more). Calf production ranged from 31.3 to 56.3 and was similar between periods of increasing and decreasing density (mean = 42.3 vs. 40.8). Calf survival ranged from 23% to 83% and was generally higher while density was increasing than during its decline (mean = 60 vs. 45). Survival at a given density was lower following the 1994 peak in density. Recruitment ranged from 10.0 to 41.7 and was higher (p = 0.06) during the period of increasing density than during the decline (mean = 28.0 vs. 17.2). Calf survival and recruitment were lowest following two consecutive severe winters, but animal density explained more of the variation in survival and recruitment than did late-winter snow depth. There was a positive relationship between the proportion of sedge (Carex spp., Eriophorum scheuchzeri) in the summer diet and calf survival and recruitment. Patterns of calf survival and recruitment plotted against density were consistent with those modelling a density-dependent relationship. Our results suggest that severe weather alone cannot explain the fluctuations in the population dynamics of Banks Island muskoxen and that underlying density-dependent responses acting upon calf survival and recruitment offer an alternative explanation. (Au)

I, F, J
Animal food; Animal population; Animal waste products; Grazing; Muskoxen; Sedges; Snow; Willows; Winter ecology

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Overwinter changes in urea nitrogen:creatinine and cortisol:creatinine ratios in urine from Banks Island Peary caribou   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.
(Proceedings of the Eighth North American Caribou Workshop, Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada, 20-24 April 1998 / Edited by Rick Farnell, Don Russell and Debbie van de Wetering. Rangifer, special issue no. 12, 2000, p. 125-132, ill. 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 51714.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Over 200 snow urine samples were collected from Banks Island Peary caribou between March 1993 and May 1998. Most (n=146) samples were collected during 3 time periods in 5 successive years: early winter (3 November-3 December), mid-winter (9 February-l March), and late-winter (23 April-2 May). We determined the ratios of urea nitrogen:creatinine (U:C) and cortisol:creatinine (C:C) for each sample. U:C ratios had significant year, time, and year x time interaction effects. Mid-winter ratios were higher than early or late-winter ratios. U:C ratios ranged from 0.53 to 19.05 mg/mg, and were lowest in 1997-98. Five calf caribou sacrificed in February 1994 had significantly (P<0.02) higher U:C ratios than other caribou in mid-winter. Three adult male and 2 calf caribou sacrificed in November 1993 had U:C ratios similar to other caribou in early winter. Sacrificed caribou were in similar condition to animals that have been harvested for subsistent use in other years, not overly fat nor in an advanced state of starvation. U:C ratios for Peary caribou range from 10 to ca. 100-fold higher than those reported for barren-ground caribou; ratios >60-fold higher than those indicative of prolonged undernutrition in barren-ground caribou were common. This difference is likely because the winter diet of Peary caribou has a higher crude protein content than that of barren-ground caribou. C:C ratios had significant year and year time interaction effects, and were highest in 1996-97 and 1997-98. C:C ratios of sacrificed caribou were similar to those of other animals during early and mid-winter. C:C ratios for Peary caribou ranged from 0.0120 g/mg to 0.2678 g/mg; ratios indicative of morbidity in mule deer were common. C:C and U:C ratios from the same individuals were not correlated (R=-0.073). Monitoring U:C ratios of Banks Island Peary caribou may provide useful management information. (Au)

I, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal food; Animal physiology; Animal waste products; Biochemistry; Biological sampling; Caribou; Metabolism; Nitrogen; Snow; Starvation; Wildlife management; Winter ecology

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Calf production and overwinter survival estimates for Peary caribou, Rangifer tarandus pearyi, on Banks Island, Northwest Territories   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.
(Canadian field-naturalist, v.114, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 2000, p. 661-670, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 48362.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

In response to declining numbers of Peary Caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) on Banks Island, sex and age classification surveys were conducted systematically from 1993-1999. Previous surveys (1982-1991) had been conducted sporadically. We compiled all data to estimate calf production (ratio of calves per 100 >=2 year-old females) and overwinter survival. Calf production, estimated for 11 years, ranged from 24.0 to 75.6 and was >=50.0 in eight years. Overwinter survival, estimated for seven years, ranged from 23-86% and was >=50% in four years. We partitioned classification data into five different circannual periods: calving (May and June; n=5), summer (July and August; n=8), fall/rut (September through 10 November; n=5), winter (11 November through March; n=8), and pre-calving (April; n=3). A Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated year effects (P=0.06) on the ratio of calves per 100 >=2 year-old females; ratios were higher during 1995, 1996, and 1999. There was no relationship between reduced calf production or overwinter survival and increased snow depth or hardness. The drop in number of Banks Island Caribou (>=1 year-old) from 709 (SE 128) in 1994 to 436 (SE 71) in 1998 has happened despite high calf production, high overwinter survival of calves, and less severe winter snow conditions. (Au)

I, J
Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Bioclimatology; Caribou; Winter ecology

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


An aerial survey of muskoxen in the Paulatuk area of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, March 1997   /   Larter, N.C.
Inuvik, N.W.T. : Dept. of Resources, Wildlife & Economic Development, 1999.
v, 27 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
Appendices.
References.
Manuscript report no. 116.
Indexed from a photocopy.
ASTIS record 58239.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

A strip transect survey was conducted on March 10, 11, 12, 18 and 19, 1997 in an area bounded by the Amundsen Gulf to the north, the Inuvialuit Settlement Region Boundary (68 N latitude) to the south, the 12745' W longitude to the west, and portions of the Brock, Hornaday and Horton Rivers to the east. Forty-four groups of muskoxen were observed, 253 adults and 33 calves on transect and 133 adults and 10 calves off transect. The estimate of non-calf muskoxen was 2567 724 (SE of the estimate), density estimate 0.07/km. Percent calves of the surveyed population (on transect) was 11.5%. The population estimate is not significantly different from those determined from previous surveys of similar area conducted in the 1980's. Winter distribution of animals was different from that in the 1980's. Few animals were located in areas considered to be high density in 1980 and 1983. Few animals were seen in the barren lands to the north and east of the survey area. The majority of the animals were found below treeline to the southwest, or associated with the river breaks along the Horton, West, and Anderson Rivers. Maximum harvest levels from 1991-1995 represent 1.5% of the current population estimate. (Au)

I, J, N, E
Aerial surveys; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Caribou; Environmental impacts; Hunting; Meteorology; Muskoxen; Quotas; Seasonal variations; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management; Winter ecology

G0812
Aklavik region, N.W.T.; Amundsen Gulf region, N.W.T.; Anderson River region, N.W.T.; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Brock River region, N.W.T.; Dempster Highway region, N.W.T.; Horton River region, N.W.T.; Inuvialuit Settlement Region mainland, N.W.T.; Paulatuk region, N.W.T.; West River region, N.W.T.


Seasonal changes in arctic hare, Lepus arcticus, diet composition and differential digestibility   /   Larter, N.C.
(Canadian field-naturalist, v.113, no. 3, July-Sept. 1999, p. 481-486, 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 47230.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The composition of plant tissues in the stomach contents and faecal pallets of Arctic Hares (Lepus arcticus) on Banks Island was described for summer (July and August), early winter (November), mid-winter (February), and late winter (April) to assess seasonal differences in diet composition and relative differential digestibility of forage groups consumed. Hare diet was dominated by Arctic Willow (Salix arctica) throughout winter (ca. 78-95%); in summer the diet became more diverse and legumes (Astragalus alpinus, Oxytropis Maydelliana) predominated (ca. 70%). The proportion of forages in the diet determined by analysing stomach contents was not significantly different from that determined by analysing faecal pellets during all time periods. No forage classes were over- or under-represented in faecal pellets in any time period. Summer availability of willows on Banks Island could be substantially reduced following winters when high numbers of Arctic Hares and Muskoxen have been feeding on Arctic Willows. (Au)

I, H, J
Animal behaviour; Animal food; Animal waste products; Arctic willows; Biological sampling; Grazing; Hares; Internal organs; Legumes; Necropsy; Tundra ecology

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Evidence of overwinter growth in Peary caribou, Rangifer tarandus pearyi, calves   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.
(Canadian field-naturalist, v.109, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1995, p. 446-448)
References.
ASTIS record 60240.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Female Peary Caribou calves were collected on Banks Island during early winter (November-December 1993) and mid-winter (February 1994). Calves collected in February (aged 8 months) had significantly larger femur, tibia, and metarsus bones than those collected in November/December (aged 5-6 months), possibly indicating overwinter growth. (Au)

I, J, N, F
Age; Animal food; Animal growth; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Bioclimatology; Biological sampling; Bones; Caribou; Endangered species; Freezing rain; Measurement; Predation; Size; Wildlife management; Winter ecology; Wolves

G0812, G0813
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Southampton Island, Nunavut


Ice conditions survey, Banks Island, October/November 1993   /   Larter, N.C.   Nagy, J.A.
Inuvik, N.W.T. : Dept. of Renewable Resources, 1994.
iv, 18 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
(Manuscript report - Northwest Territories. Dept. of Renewable Resources, no. 77)
Appendix.
Cover title.
Indexed from a photocopy.
Referernces.
ASTIS record 58395.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Between 26 October and 5 November, 1993 aerial and ground surveys were conducted on southern Banks Island to determine the extent and severity of early winter icing conditions. Twenty-one randomly located sites were visited. Snow-pack conditions were assessed by measuring the different layers of snow and ice present, and by estimating snow-pack hardness with a Rammsonde penetrometer. At 8 sites ice conditions were deemed severe. Based on the distribution of severely iced and relatively ice-free sites, approximately 50% of the traditional caribou wintering ground had severe icing conditions. Snow-pack hardness was measured at caribou and muskox feeding sites in order to assess what conditions the animals were capable of cratering through. (Au)

F, I, J
Aerial surveys; Animal food; Caribou; Density; Icing; Instruments; Measurement; Muskoxen; Snow; Surface properties; Wildlife habitat; Winter ecology

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Forage fiber analyses : a comparison of two techniques   /   Larter, N.C.
(Wildlife research, v. 19, no. 3, 1992, p. 289-293)
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from NSTP.
ASTIS record 32931.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1071/WR9920289

Forage fibre contents is frequently used as index of forage quality where high fibre content indicates low forage quality. Fibre content is usually estimated by the familiar acid-detergent fibre (ADF) technique. An alternative method, the acid-pepsin digestibility (AP) technique, provides an estimate of forage digestibility where low digestibility indicates a high fibre content. Fibre content estimates in herbaceous forage were compared by the ADF and AP techniques. There was a strong negative correlation between the fibre content, as determined by ADF, and the digestibility, as determined by AP, in a wide variety of herbaceous forages. This suggests that both techniques provide a very similar estimate of forage quality in herbaceous forages. Contrastingly, a similar analysis on willow and lichen showed a poor correlation between techniques, suggesting dissimilar estimates of fibre content of these forages. (Au)

H, I
Animal food; Grazing; Lichens; Willows

G0812
Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary, N.W.T.


Size and composition of the Mackenzie Wood Bison population in 1989   /   Gates, C.C.   Larter, N.C.   Komers, P.E.
(File Report - Northwest Territories. Dept. of Renewable Resources, no. 93)
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from NSTP.
ASTIS record 32249.
Languages: English

Wood bison introduced to the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary in 1963 increased at a mean exponential growth rate of r = 0.215 during the period 1964 to 1987. The rate of population growth has slowed since 1975. However, with the continued increase in herd size a controlled hunt was allowed for the first time during the 1987/88 hunting season. Four bison were killed from a quota of 20 males. Twenty males were killed in 1988/89 when the quota was increased to 40 males. A census was conducted in March 1989, employing a combination of total counts and sampling to estimate bison numbers. The number of bison estimated in the sampled strata was 1048 + 229 (s.e.). Total population size was estimated to be 2431 bison based on census results. The calculated 95% confidence range for the annual exponential rate of increase (r) between 1987 and 1989 based on the census estimate was 0.07 to 0.26. A demographic model was constructed to provide alternative estimates of population size and rate of increase, based on the 1987 total count and demographic parameters. With this method the estimated size of the herd in March 1989 was 2040 and a growth rate for 1988/89 of r = 0.11 was calculated, accounting for hunting losses and estimated natural mortality. The accidental loss of 177 bison caused by deteriorating ice on Falaise Lake in May 1989 resulted in a total population of 1863 in June 1989 and a net rate of increase of r = 0.02 for 1988/89. (Au)

I, N
Animal mortality; Animal population; Hunting; North American bison; Quotas; Wildlife management

G0812
Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary, N.W.T.


Larter studies dynamics of bison population and its associated plant community   /   Larter, N.C.
(1990 Jennifer Robinson and Lorraine Allison Memorial Scholarship recipients. Information north, v. 16, no. 4, Dec. 1990, p. 5-7, ill., 1 map)
ASTIS record 30719.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... Now in his third year of doctoral studies in zoology at the University of British Columbia, Nicholas Larter is researching another expanding herbivore population - that of the wood bison of the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary, west of Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories. The growth of the Mackenzie wood bison herd has provided an excellent opportunity for demographic study of an erupting herbivore population and its effects on the associated plant community. The results of Nic's research of wood bison population dynamics and their implications for wood bison management policies will be timely and important particularly given the present controversy surrounding the fate of the bison population of Wood Buffalo National Park. (Au)

I, H
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal mortality; Animal population; Grasses; Lichens; North American bison; Radio tracking of animals; Sedges; Toxicity; Trace elements; Ungulates; Wildlife management; Willows

G0812
Fort Providence region, N.W.T.; Fort Smith region, N.W.T.


Growth and dispersal of an erupting large herbivore population in northern Canada : The Mackenzie wood bison (Bison bison athabascae)   /   Gates, C.C.   Larter, N.C.
(Arctic, v. 43, no. 3, Sept. 1990, p. 231-238, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 30646.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic43-3-231.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1616
Libraries: ACU

In 1973, 18 wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) were introduced to the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary. The population has grown at a mean exponential rate of r = 0.215 0.007, reaching 1718 bison >= 10 months of age by April 1987. Analysis of annual population growth revealed a maximum exponential rate of r = 0.267 in 1975, followed by a declining rate, reaching a low value of r = 0.013 in 1987. Selection predation on calves was proposed as a mechanism to explain the declining rate of population growth. The area occupied by the population increased at an exponential rate of 0.228 0.017 km/yr. The dispersal of mature males followed a pattern described as an innate process, while dispersal of females and juveniles exhibited characteristics of pressure-threshold dispersal. (Au)

I
Animal distribution; Animal population; North American bison; Predation

G0812
Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary, N.W.T.


Ecology of the wood bison in the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Larter, N.C.
(Journal of northern sciences, Spring 1987, p. 71-79, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 21337.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This paper presents preliminary results of an ongoing ecological study of the wood bison herd in the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary. The herd is estimated to number 1600, and the behavioral results depart from that known about plains bison. (Au)

I, J
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; North American bison; Parks; Wildlife management

G0812
Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary, N.W.T.


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