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The ASTIS database cites the following 42 publication(s) by P. Whitney Lackenbauer. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


India and the Arctic : revisionist aspirations, Arctic realitie   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(Jindal global law review, v. ?, no. ?, 2017, 32 p., ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 83160.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s41020-017-0040-4
Libraries: ACU

India has divergent views about circumpolar affairs. One dominant view holds that the region is a “global commons,” rather than the preserve of the Arctic coastal states with their narrow national interests, and that India should lead international efforts to preserve the Arctic environment and freeze out resource development and militarization (akin to the Antarctic model)—in short, a Polar Preserve narrative. Another view suggests that geostrategic dynamics and weak governance point to a growing Arctic Race that threatens to undermine regional (and even global) peace and security. Accordingly, some commentators argue that India, as a strong advocate of nuclear disarmament, should push for a demilitarized and nuclear-free Arctic. Others frame India’s interests in the context of regional rivalries, particularly with China, and potential impacts on Indian security from the “new Great Game” emerging in the Arctic. Another emerging Indian narrative argues that India should avoid the role of a “revisionist actor” and, instead, can benefit from engaging in established governance fora like the Arctic Council, improving its understanding of emerging Arctic political, economic, and strategic dynamics, and partnering with Arctic states on science and resource development. This narrative situates India in an emerging Arctic Saga, where enhanced cooperation and coordination with Arctic states (particularly Norway and Russia) can serve India’s national and international interests—and those of the world’s inhabitants more generally. (Au)

R, J, L, G, E
Arctic Council; Climate change; Economic conditions; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Foreign trade; Geopolitics; Government; Government regulations; Marine navigation; Melting; Military operations; Natural resource management; Science; Sea ice

G02, G16
Arctic regions; India


Western Electric turns North : technicians and transformation of the Cold War Arctic   /   Farish, M.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
In: Ice blink : navigating northern environmental history / Edited by Stephen Bocking and Brad Martin. - Calgary, Alberta : University of Calgary Press, 2017, ch. 8, p. 261-292, ill.
References as endnotes.
Open access.
Available online and in paper.
ASTIS record 83114.
Languages: English
Web: http://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/51791/10/9781552388556_chapter8.pdf
Libraries: ACU

... This chapter is concerned with one set of installations that had recently been engineered by Western Electric employees sent out on those worldwide assignments, namely the radar stations established across Canada's arctic reaches in the early years of the Cold War. As the Technograph advertisement indicated, Western Electric had "handled” the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line, which the company- with the help of Pentagon partners, almost three thousand sub-contractors, and a host of geologists, oceanographers, meteorologists, and other scientists- built from Alaska to Iceland in the 1950s and early 1960s. The prospect of a high-arctic radar network that could detect hostile bombers, a project US Air Force officials had dismissed as excessively expensive and technologically dubious when it was first contemplated in 1946, received presidential approval in the aftermath of the Soviet detonation of a hydrogen bomb in 1953. The United States paid for and established the radar chain across the seventieth parallel, three-quarters of which was in Canada; a formal agreement on the matter was settled by the two states in November 1954. The DEW Line was completed by 1957, its creation an extraordinary feat of "geographical engineering" that altered the military, logistical, environmental, and social characteristics of the North American Arctic. The consequences of these endeavours have recently achieved notoriety in Canada. Over the last two decades, the remnants of the DEW Line have been targeted by a massive, $500 million effort, undertaken by contractors and northern residents, to remove debris and decontaminate sites rife with toxic waste. Our focus here is on the conception, siting, and initial construction of the Line, and expressly on the roles played by Western Electric technicians-to borrow a useful term from the period- in the Canadian and Alaskan north during an era of dramatic arctic militarization. ... (Au)

V, L, R, T, J, M
Aerial photography; Communication; Construction in cold weather; Design and construction; DEW Line; Hazardous waste; History; Military operations; Native peoples; Radar; Reclamation; Shelters; Socio-economic effects

G0813, G06
Barrow, Alaska; Cambridge Bay (Settlement) region, Nunavut


Lessons in Arctic operations : the Canadian army experience, 1945-1956   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Kikkert, P.
[Calgary, Alta : Centre for Military and Strategic Studies], 2016.
xxix, 251 p. ; 28 cm.
(Documents on Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security, v. 7, 2016)
References.
Appendices.
ASTIS record 82784.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/dcass/82784.pdf

Introduction: ... The documents in this volume provide insights into the Canadian Army's previous attempts to secure a better knowledge of the characteristics of Northern operations from 1945-55. During this decade, the Army conducted an extensive series of Subarctic and Arctic training exercises designed to “improve army tactics, techniques, and procedures for living and fighting in the North.” Most of these exercises were small-scale, with short durations and limited aims, often “more in the nature of trials than tactical manoeuvres.” Nevertheless, they yielded valuable “lessons learned” that informed the planning, training, and equipping of the Army for Northern missions in the Cold War era. While specific Arctic equipment, anticipated combat roles (and those in support of other government departments and agencies), and surveillance and control functions have changed, the challenges encountered in Arctic operations, the questions raised, and the lessons observed remain remarkably consistent with those experienced during Northern deployments over the last decade. ... (Au)

R, E, A
Cold adaptation; Cold weather clothing; Cold weather performance; Equipment and supplies; Meteorology; Military operations; Military policy; Occupational training; Topography; World War II

G081
Canadian Arctic


Canada's northern strategy under the Harper government : key speeches and documents on sovereignty, security, and governance, 2005-15   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Dean, R.
[Calgary, Alta : Centre for Military and Strategic Studies], 2016.
xlix, 423 p. ; 28 cm.
(Documents on Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security, v. 6, 2016)
References.
Appendix.
ASTIS record 82783.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/dcass/82783.pdf

Introduction: ... The speeches and media releases collected in this volume help to reveal the narratives on Arctic sovereignty, security, circumpolar affairs, and governance that the Harper Government sought to construct during its near-decade in office. While the government touted its own achievements in regular updates on its Northern Strategy, other commentators have been more critical, suggesting that either the government's priorities were misplaced or it promised more than it delivered. The election of a Liberal Government under Justin Trudeau in October 2015 ended the Conservatives' ability to implement their Arctic vision. It will be up to scholars and other commentators to render their verdict on the relative successes and failures of the Conservatives' plan and implementation program which, in turn, may shape the path forward for the new government. Our decision to compile key speeches, news releases, and policy documents from the Conservatives' latest tenure in office followed national media reports noting the removal of Harper Government content from the Prime Minister's Office websites in spring 2016. Accordingly, this volume is intended to preserve these primary resources for researchers into the future to facilitate ongoing debate and discussion. ... (Au)

R, J, T, Q, D, E
Arctic Council; Climate change; Economic conditions; Economic development; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Government; Government regulations; Inuit; Mapping; Military operations; Military policy; Native land claims; Ocean floors; Offshore oil fields; Research; Research funding; Satellites; Ships; Sovereignty; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G081
Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters


Chinese mining interests and the Arctic   /   Lajeunesse, A.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
In: Governing the North American Arctic : sovereignty, security, and institutions / Edited by D.A. Berry, N. Bowles and H. Jones. - New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, Ch. 3, p. 74-99
References.
St Antony's Series.
ASTIS record 82524.
Languages: English

Since the mid-1980s, double-digit gross domestic product (GDP) growth has driven the Chinese economy from an agrarian peasant base to the manufacturing center of the world, its economy now second in size only to the United States. This industrial expansion has, naturally, been accompanied by an explosion in resource consumption. China accounts for about one-fifth of the world's population, yet consumes half of its cement, one-third of its steel, over a quarter of its aluminum, two-thirds of its iron ore, and more than 45 percent of its coal. In only the past 13 years, China has also swallowed up over four-fifths of the increase in the world's copper supply. For most of the country's fantastic growth, its own vast resources proved sufficient to support its industrial expansion. In the past decade, however, China has recognized the need to augment these supplies with foreign sources, and Chinese companies, normally state-owned enterprises (SOEs), have tapped into the vast reserves of the state and state-owned banks (SOBs) to secure access to mineral deposits abroad. ... In a 2013 survey of mining companies, undertaken by the Fraser Institute, over 90 percent responded that it had become more difficult to raise capital for new projects. Partially as a result, only 46 percent of companies surveyed planned to increase their exploration budgets in 2013 - down from 68 percent in 2012 and 82 percent in 2011. North America's junior exploration firms have been hit the hardest, since they have long relied on the multinationals to acquire them or on private investors to fund them. With capital being held back, many now face bankruptcy. In a response to the Fraser Institute survey, the manager of one exploration company observed that while there is money in the West to develop these projects, it simply isn't flowing to the companies that need it. 'Eastern countries', meanwhile, 'have a more optimistic outlook and hence dominate investment into the mining industry'. Chinese money is therefore not only coming to the West but it is moving in when many of the private sector mining firms are limiting their own expansion. ... (Au)

P, R, T, J
Economic conditions; Economic development; Employment; Environmental impacts; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Inuit; Izok Project; Labour costs; Labour mobility; Mineral industries; Minerals; Mining; Negotiation

G02, G0813, G10
Canadian Arctic; Greenland; Izok Lake region, Nunavut


Asian states and the Arctic : national perspectives on regional governance   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Manicom, J.
In: Handbook of the politics of the Arctic / Edited by L.C. Jensen and G. Hønneland. - Cheltenham, UK : Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, ch. 26, p. 517-532
References.
ASTIS record 83132.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.4337/9780857934741.00037

... The tremendous changes taking place in the Arctic have attracted worldwide attention, often to the discomfort of Arctic states and peoples. The growing interest of Asian states in Arctic regional issues is clear evidence of this trend. When China, India, Japan, Singapore and South Korea applied for permanent observer status on the Arctic Council in 2009, their interest met with concern in several quarters amidst worries about China’s belligerence in its own claimed maritime areas, and because of the misperception that China claims some portion of the Arctic Ocean (Chang 2010). In addition come wrinkles over the European Union’s bid for Arctic Council observer status, and the growing global attentiveness to Arctic issues more generally. For all these reasons, recent scholarship has focused on potential hidden agendas of non-Arctic states (particularly China) vis-a-vis the region’s resource potential (Jakobson 2010; Lasserre 2010; Wright 2011). This chapter surveys Asian states’ national interests and ambitions in the Arctic and how these relate to governance, with particular emphasis on the Arctic Council and the Nuuk criteria for observer status. The accreditation of China, South Korea, Japan, India and Singapore as Arctic Council observers in May 2013 signalled acceptance by the Arctic states and the Permanent Participants that Asian states have legitimate interests in and contributions to make to the dialogue ... (Au)

R
Arctic Council; Economic conditions; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government

G02
Arctic regions; India; Japan; Singapore; South Korea


The Advisory Committee on Northern Development : context and meeting minutes, 1948-66   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Heidt, D.
[Calgary, Alta : Centre for Military and Strategic Studies], 2015.
xxxvi, 829 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Documents on Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security, v. 4, 2015)
References.
ASTIS record 82192.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/dcass/82192.pdf

The Advisory Committee on Northern Development (ACND), a high-level interdepartmental committee, was responsible for coordinating federal Arctic policies and programs from 1948-1971. The minutes of its main meetings provide unparalleled insight into how high-ranking civil servants in Ottawa grappled with what they perceived to be the most pressing issues of the era, including Canadian-American relations, sovereignty, security, Aboriginal affairs, socio-economic development, scientific research, and governance. As this volume reveals, the ACND represented an early example of the “Whole of Government” approach to policy deliberations, revealing the myriad activities that constituted the “Arctic revolution” during this pivotal quarter-century. (Au)

R, V, T
Economic development; Foreign relations; Government; Government regulations; Inuit; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; Research; Social conditions; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; World War II

G081
Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters


Unfurling the Air Force ensign in the Canadian Arctic : the 1922 eastern Arctic and 1927-28 Hudson Strait expeditions   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Eyre, K.C.
[Calgary, Alta : Centre for Military and Strategic Studies], 2015.
xxv, 107 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Documents on Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security, v. 3, 2015)
References.
ASTIS record 82191.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/dcass/82191.pdf

This collection documents the role of Canadian Air Force and Royal Canadian Air Force in the opening of the Arctic during the interwar period, reproducing the landmark reports by Major Robert A. Logan (1922) and Flight Lieutenant Thomas A. Lawrence (1928). (Au)

V, R, E, G, L, M, T
Aerial photography; Airplanes; Buildings; Cold weather clothing; Design and construction; Food; Government; Health care; Inuit; Inuit languages; Meteorology; Military history; Military operations; Navigation; Rural conditions; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Ships; Strategic studies; Transportation; Vehicles

G081
Canadian Arctic


The dog in the manger - and letting sleeping dogs lie : the United States, Canada and the sector principle, 1924-1955   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Kikkert, P.
In: International law and politics of the Arctic Ocean : essays in honor of Donat Pharand / Edited by S. Lalonde and T.L. McDorman. - Leiden, The Netherlands ; Boston : Brill Nijhoff, 2015, ch. 12, p. 216-239
References.
ASTIS record 81331.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1163/9789004284593_013
Libraries: AEU

Donat Pharand has left a deep imprint on our historical and legal understanding of Canada's sovereignty position in the Arctic. His masterful analysis of Canada's evocation and uneven application of the so-called 'sector principle' through the twentieth century has shown its insufficiency as a basis for Canada to claim the waters of its Arctic archipelago as historic waters. Its instrumentality as a cartographic and political device to delineate lines of allocation of land, however, has proven remarkably successful in practice - even if its international legal basis remains dubious. While Pharand has noted the United States' rejection of the principle in Canadian and Antarctic contexts, the logic behind the U.S. legal position - and their political approach to managing their relationship with Canada on Arctic sovereignty - warrants more careful academic scrutiny to reveal the complex interplay between legal principles and political practice in circumpolar relations. ... (Au)

R, L, V
Boundaries; DEW Line; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Government; Government relations; History; International law; Marine navigation; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military operations; Pharand, Donat; Sovereignty; Treaties

G081, G08, G0815, G15, G01, G14
Antarctic regions; Arctic Ocean; Arctic regions; Canada; Canadian Arctic Islands; Canadian Arctic waters; Northwest Passage; Polar regions; Russian Federation; United States


Canadian Arctic defence policy : a synthesis of key documents, 1970-2013   /   Dean, R.   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Lajeunesse, A.
[Calgary, Alta : Centre for Military and Strategic Studies], 2014.
v, 80 p. ; 28 cm.
(Documents on Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security, v. 1, 2014)
ASTIS record 82112.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/dcass/82112.pdf

This volume is a synthesis and analysis of Canadian government documents on the subject of Arctic defence from 1970 to 2013. It focuses on policy papers, committee reports, public addresses, and other publicly available material. It is designed for researchers focusing on the evolution of Canadian defence policy and priorities in the Arctic. (Au)

V, R
Canadian Coast Guard; Foreign relations; Government; Government relations; International law; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; Sovereignty; Strategic studies

G081
Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters


A historical and legal study of sovereignty in the Canadian North : terrestrial sovereignty, 1870-1939   /   Smith, G.W.   Lackenbauer, P.W. [Editor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary Press : Arctic Institute of North America, 2014.
xx, 491 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Northern lights series (Calgary, Alta.), 17)
ISBN 978-1-55238-776-4
Indexed the ePub version of this book.
References.
ASTIS record 81376.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Volume 1 Terrestrial Sovereignty provides the most comprehensive documentation yet available on the post-Confederation history of Canadian sovereignty in the north. As Arctic sovereignty and security issues return to the forefront of public debate, this invaluable resource provides the foundation upon which we may expand our understanding of Canada's claims from the original transfers of the northern territories in 1870 and 1880 through to the late twentieth century. The book provides a wealth of detail, ranging from administrative formation and delineation of the northern territories through to other activities including government expeditions to northern waters, foreign whaling, the Alaska boundary dispute, northern exploration between 1870 and 1918, the background of Canada's sector claim, the question concerning Danish sovereignty over Greenland and its relation to Canadian interests, the Ellesmere Island affair, the activities of American explorers in the Canadian North, and the Eastern Arctic Patrol. The final chapter examines the Eastern Greenland case and its implications for Canada. (Au)

V, R, N
Boundaries; Eastern Arctic Patrol, 1922-1968; Economic development; Expeditions; Exploration; Government; History; Klondike Gold Rush, 1898; Royal Canadian Mounted Police; Sovereignty; Whaling; World War II

G08, G06, G081, G0815, G10, G14, G13
Alaska; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Denmark; Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Greenland; Northwest Passage; Norway; Sverdrup Islands, Nunavut; United States; Vrangelya, Ostrov, Russian Federation


Canadian security and safety in the Arctic : probable challenges, practical responsibilities   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(Canadian naval review, v. 10, no. 2, 2014, p. 10-15, ill., map)
References as endnotes.
ASTIS record 81369.
Languages: English

Climate change. Newly accessible resources. New maritime routes. Unresolved boundary disputes. Announcements of new investments in military capabilities to 'defend' sovereignty. No wonder the Arctic has emerged as a topic of tremendous hype (and deep-seated misperceptions) over the past decade, spawning persistent debates about whether the region's future is likely to follow a cooperative trend or spiral into unbridled competition and conflict. Commentators differ in their assessments of the probability and/or timing of developments, as well as general governance and geopolitical trends. Some (including myself) contend that the Arctic regime is solidly rooted in cooperation, and others (with Dr. Rob Huebert at the University of Calgary at the forefront) anticipate or discern heightened competition and conflict. These frameworks are significant in shaping expectations for the government of Canada and for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) more specifically. If one expects, as Huebert does, that the region is on the precipice of conflict, 'constabulary capabilities' are insufficient. ... It is important for commentators and analysts to contemplate worst-case scenarios to identify potential risks and vulnerabilities. However, an excessive fixation on remote potentialities and their misidentification as probabilities can lead to misallocated resources (intellectual and material), unwarranted suspicion and paranoia, and messaging that can lead to a security dilemma. ... (Au)

R
Boundaries; Continental shelves; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government regulations; International law; Marine transportation; Natural resource management; Safety; Sovereignty; Sustainable economic development

G081
Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Northwest Passage


Legal appraisals of Canada's Arctic sovereignty, key documents, 1905-56   /   Kikkert, P.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
[Calgary, Alberta : Centre for Military and Strategic Studies], 2014.
xliv, 339 p. ; 28 cm.
(Documents on Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security, v. 2, 2014)
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 81350.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/dcass/81350.pdf

This collection documents how Canadian, American and British legal experts attempted to untangle the complex sovereignty knot in the Arctic Archipelago from 1905-56. While Canadian legal appraisals form the foundation of this collection, British and American documents offer important insight into Canada's legal title and its general approach towards Arctic sovereignty. (Au)

V, R
Boundaries; Expeditions; Foreign relations; Government relations; History; Hudson's Bay Company; International law; Land titles; Law; Licences; Maps; Sovereignty; Treaties; Whaling

G081, G0813, G0814, G0815, G03
Arctic Ocean; Canada; Canadian Arctic Islands; Great Britain; Hudson Bay; Hudson Strait, Nunavut/Québec; Norway; United States


The war will be won when the last low-level flying happens here in our home : Innu opposition to low-level flying in Labrador   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
In: Blockades or breakthroughs? Aboriginal peoples confront the Canadian state / Edited by Y.D. Belanger and P.W. Lackenbauer. - Montreal : McGill-Queen's University Press, 2014, ch. 4, p. 119-165
References.
ASTIS record 81287.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

I have seen our children robbed of everything that makes us Innu in a school system which makes them look down on their own people and culture. Our people have been deeply wounded by what has happened in the past 25 years. The one thing that has stopped our total breakdown as a people has been the months we still live away from villages in our tents in the country. For the families who now have houses in Sheshatshit we find ourselves right alongside what Canada wants to make into a NATO base. Even without a base, each year military activities grow there and the number of low-level flights increases. There is now a bombing range. Most of these activities take place over or near lakes where the Innu go in the spring and fall. We have been shoved to the edge of a cliff in the last 5 years. Now they want to push us over it. Nitassinan is our land. We never gave it to them. How can they come in and take it and treat us as if we were not human beings, as if we were invisible? There is only one Nitassinan and one Innu people ... We are fighting for our land and our identity as a distinct hunting people. We are not going to jail, becoming separated from our children just to get rich land claims. Our fight is not about land claims which is only another thing being used against us to get us to surrender what we will never, ever give up - our ownership of Nitassinan and our identity is Innu. ... In the 40 years that the military's been in Goose Bay, the Innu's culture has collapsed. The use of our lands by others, without our being consulted, has caused stress in our family relationships and links to our family violence. The Innu did not welcome foreign domination. It happened against their will. Now we are starting to fight back because we realize that only we can and should decide our fate. ... [What follows is the background, justification for direct action, official responses, the decision to occupy, media coverage and political action, the post cold war world, and a conclusion that tries to make sense of the outcomes.] (Au)

T, R, L, N
Aboriginal rights; Acculturation; Aircraft disturbance; Airplanes; Caribou; Colonialism; Communication ; Crime; Culture (Anthropology); Economic conditions; Environmental impacts; Government relations; Hearing disorders; Hunting; Identity; Innu; Military operations; NATO; Noise; Political action; Public opinion; Relocation; Self-determination; Social conditions; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Subsistence; Women; World War II

G0827
Happy Valley-Goose Bay region, Labrador; Labrador; Mealy Mountains, Labrador; Sheshatsheits, Labrador


Canada and the Asian observers to the Arctic Council : anxiety and opportunity   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(Asia policy, no. 18, July 2014, p. 22-29)
References.
ASTIS record 81286.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1353/asp.2014.0035
Libraries: ACU

Canada is an Arctic nation, although deep-seated anxieties about sovereignty and control belie its self-proclaimed status as an Arctic superpower. More than 40% of the country’s landmass and 162,000 kilometers (approximately 101,000 miles) of its coastline lie “north of sixty,” spanning approximately one-quarter of the global Arctic. Popular imagery has long cast the Arctic as a resource-rich “frontier of destiny,” a homeland for indigenous peoples, a fragile environment in need of protection, and a source of national inspiration. Through these various lenses, Canadian commentators watch intently as Asian states’ interests grow in Arctic science, environmental issues, resource development, shipping opportunities, and regional governance. For a country with a history of limited investment in northern transportation and economic development, the entrance of new players resurrects old anxieties about national interests, sovereignty, and practical control. While Canada seeks Asian investment to help drive its economic growth, commentators worry about the long-term implications of the rise of Asia, China’s grand strategic interests more generally, and the growing footprint and influence of state-owned enterprises in a sparsely populated region. Accordingly, Canada’s ongoing challenge lies in balancing the emerging opportunities associated with the opening of the Arctic as a resource and transportation frontier with the security and stewardship issues associated with protecting part of the Canadian homeland. This essay begins with an overview of Canada’s Arctic strategy and how this frames its approach to circumpolar affairs and the Arctic Council, followed by a discussion of Canada’s concerns about the admission of new observers to the council. The next section notes emerging opportunities for enhanced Canada-Asia engagement, despite persistent anxiety about increasing Asian interest in Arctic science, governance, resources, and maritime routes. This essay concludes that by working through existing mechanisms and ensuring that Asian states’ participation does not erode Arctic state sovereignty, Canada and the other Arctic states can realize their national goals, maintain their leadership roles in regional governance, and accommodate growing international interest in the circumpolar north. (Au)

R, T, L
Arctic Council; Economic development; Economic policy; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Government relations; International law; Marine transportation; Native land claims; Social policy; Sovereignty

G02, G08, G081
Arctic regions; Asia; Canada; China; Northwest Passage


Archipelagic analogues? Indonesian baselines, Canadian Arctic sovereignty, and the framing of mental maps, 1957-62   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Kikkert, P.
(International journal of Canadian studies, v. 50, no. 1, 2014, p. 227-252, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 81280.
Languages: English
Web: http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/ijcs.2014.013
Web: doi:10.3138/ijcs.2014.013
Libraries: OTU ACU

In 1957, Indonesia shocked the maritime powers of the world when it drew straight baselines enclosing the archipelagic state. Canadian legal experts studied the case thoroughly, debated the prospects of its success, and anticipated the types of precedents it might set - particularly for the Canadian Arctic. Although Indonesia proved an imperfect archipelagic analogue, its actions encouraged officials to contemplate the extent of Canada’s Arctic domain. Balancing national interests, alliance politics, and competing interpretations of international law, Canadian decision makers devised a prudent, pragmatic approach that allowed others to push the boundaries of maritime law and establish a foundation so that Canada could secure sovereignty over its Arctic waters. (Au)

R, A, L
Boundaries; Foreign relations; Government; International law; Islands; Maps; Maritime law; Sovereignty

G081
Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Indonesia


The Chinese pole   /   Manicom, J.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(Policy options = Options politiques, v. 34, no. 4, Apr.-May 2013, p. 16-18, ill.)
English and French abstracts provided as a headnote.
ASTIS record 80062.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Some countries see China's interest in gaining observer status on the Arctic Council as a threat. But Arctic countries should be more concerned about China opting out. (Au)

E, L, R, P, Q
Arctic Council; Climate change; Energy resources; Foreign relations; Icebreakers; Marine transportation; Mining; Research; Research stations; Trade and barter; Weather forecasting

G141, G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; China; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Svalbard


The military as nation builder : the case of the Canadian North   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(Journal of military and strategic studies, v. 15, no. 1, 2013, 34 p.)
References as endnotes.
The Ross Ellis Lecture in Military and Strategic Studies.
ASTIS record 80060.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.jmss.org/jmss/index.php/jmss/article/view/522/509
Libraries: ACU

The Arctic has taken centre stage in not only Canadian political and security thinking in recent years, but internationally as well. Political scientist Rob Huebert, associate director of the Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, has been leading the sovereignty and security charge in Canada for more than a decade at this point. First he warned us to fend off the Americans over the Northwest Passage, followed by the Danes over Hans Island, then the Russians when they planted flags on the seabed at the North Pole or flew close to our airspace, and now the Chinese and the Indians who are clamouring to get into the Arctic Council, access Arctic resources, and use Arctic shipping routes. Huebert perceptively notes that our Arctic policies tend to be reactive rather than proactive. We have debated our respective positions - Huebert serving, in Franklyn Griffiths' memorable description, as the "primary purveyor of polar peril," and me as a prognosticator of polar peace and pragmatic preparedness. I have learned a lot from our exchanges. But this is neither the narrative nor the debate that I wish to engage here. This paper focuses closer to home, exploring tangible ways that the military has shaped Northern nation-building in Canada - and the peculiar ways that our Northern experience has begun to shape our military. ... (Au)

R, L, G, E, V, T, M
Aerial surveys; Air transportation; Airplanes; Boundaries; Canadian Rangers; Climate change; Communication; DEW Line; Economic development; Employment; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government relations; Icebreakers; Identity; International law; Mapping; Marine transportation; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; Native peoples; Sea ice; Ships; Social change; Sovereignty; Submarines; Temporal variations; Weather forecasting

G081, G14, G0815, G13, G08
Canada; Canadian Arctic; China; Denmark; India; Northwest Passage; Norway; Russian Federation; United States


India's Arctic engagement : emerging perspectives   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(The Arctic of regions vs. the globalized Arctic / Edited by L. Heininen. Arctic yearbook, 2013, p. 33-52, maps)
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References.
ASTIS record 80059.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arcticyearbook.com/index.php/2013-articles/52-india-s-arctic-engagement-emerging-perspectives
Web: http://arcticyearbook.com/ay2013/

This article critically examines the writings of five Indian commentators: Indian Council of World Affairs research director Vijay Sakhuja, former foreign secretary Shyam Saran, retired Army colonel P.K. Gautam and Navy commander Neil Gadihoke, and political scientist Sanjay Chaturvedi of Punjab University. It subsequently assesses India's perspective and potential strategic and policy directions in the Arctic region. Indian policy discourse has yet to produce a coherent or "dominant" opinion on the country's place in Arctic affairs. Nevertheless, several trends are evident, including an emphasis on a 'polar race' narrative; a view of Arctic as a "common heritage of mankind" in need of protection; and a geo-economic perspective that seeks strategic positioning for future resource exploitation and shipping accessibility. (Au)

R, E, N, Q, J, L
Arctic Council; Boundaries; Climate change; Economic development; Energy resources; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; International law; Marine transportation; Natural resources; Research; Sovereignty; Strategic studies

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; China; India


The Canadian Rangers : a living history   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
Vancouver, B.C. : UBC Press, 2013.
xv, 618 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
(Studies in Canadian military history)
ISBN 9780774824521
References.
Published in association with the Canadian War Museum.
ASTIS record 79250.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The Canadian Rangers stand sentinel in the farthest reaches of our country. For more than six decades, this dedicated group of citizen-soldiers has quietly served as Canada's eyes, ears, and voice in isolated coastal and northern communities. Drawing on official records, interviews, and participation in Ranger exercises, Lackenbauer argues that the organization offers an inexpensive way for Canada to "show the flag" from coast to coast to coast. The Rangers have also laid the foundation for a successful partnership between the modern state and Aboriginal peoples, a partnership rooted in local knowledge and crosscultural understanding. (Au)

V, R, T
Canadian Rangers; Culture (Anthropology); Emergency planning; History; Inuit; Military history; Military operations; Native peoples; Nordicity; Occupational training; Rural conditions; Search and rescue; Social surveys; Sovereignty; Survival

G081, G08, G0826
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Nunavik, Québec


Mirror images? Canada, Russia, and the circumpolar world   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(The fast-changing Arctic : rethinking Arctic security for a warmer world / Edited by B.S. Zellen. Northern lights series (Calgary, Alta.), 15, 2013, ch. 12, p. 257-279, ill.)
References as endnotes.
Indexed from an e-book.
ASTIS record 79213.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The Arctic is a topic of growing geostrategic importance. Climate change, resource issues, undefined continental shelf boundaries, potential maritime transportation routes, and security issues now factor significantly into the domestic and foreign policy agendas of the five Arctic littoral states. The region has also attracted the attention of non-Arctic states and organizations, some of which assert the need to protect the Arctic "global commons" from excessive national claims and allegedly covet Arctic resources. Whether these geopolitical dynamics constitute an inherently conflictual "Arctic race" or a mutually beneficial "polar saga" unfolding according to international law is hotly debated. Both Canada and Russia have extensive jurisdictions and sovereign rights in the Arctic and see the Arctic as their frontier of destiny. The region plays a central role in their national identities. Both countries intertwine sovereignty issues with strong rhetoric asserting their status as "Arctic powers" and have promised to invest in new military capabilities to defend their jurisdictions. Fortunately, for all the attention that hard-line rhetoric generates in the media and in academic debate, it is only one part of a more complex picture. ... This chapter reflects upon how Canada reads - and constructs - Russian actions and intentions in the Arctic. Do the countries see the strategic situation in fundamentally different ways? Are Canada and Russia on an Arctic collision course, or are we regional actors with shared interests and opportunities for expanded cooperation? As critical as Canadian politicians, journalists, and academic "purveyors of polar peril" (to borrow Franklyn Griffiths' phrase) are of Russia's rhetoric and behavior in the Arctic, Canada is actually mirroring it. Politicians in both countries use this dynamic to justify investments in national defense. If this "saber-rattling" is carefully staged and does not inhibit dialog and cooperation on issues of common interest, this theater may actually serve the short-term military interests of both countries. But the long-term goal of a stable and secure circumpolar world, where each Arctic littoral state enjoys its sovereign rights, must not be lost in hyperbolic rhetoric geared toward domestic audiences for political gain. ... (Au)

R, T, L, N
Arctic Council; Boundaries; Communication; Continental shelves; Economic development; Economic policy; Energy resources; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; History; Identity; International law; Mapping; Marine transportation; Military policy; Native peoples; Natural resources; Sovereignty; Strategic studies; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G08, G14, G0815, G141, G02
Arctic waters; Canada; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Northwest Passage; Russian Federation


Canada's northern strategy and east Asian interests in the Arctic   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Manicom, J.
Waterloo, Ont. : The Centre for International Governance Innovation, 2013.
22 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(East Asia-Arctic relations paper, no. 5)
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References.
Header title: East Asia-Arctic relations : boundary, security and international politics.
Alternate running title at header: Canada's northern strategy and east Asian interests in the Arctic.
Date: December 2013.
ASTIS record 79033.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cigionline.org/publications/2013/12/canada%E2%80%99s-northern-strategy-and-east-asian-interests-arctic

This paper examines Canadian perceptions of East Asia's Arctic interests. Whereas some commentaries conceptualize Asian states, particularly China, as potential threats to Canada's interests in the Arctic, the basis for this alarmist rhetoric (apart from more generalized discourses associated with the "rise of Asia") is speculative and imprecise. Using Canada's Northern Strategy and the Statement on Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy as filters, this paper suggests where Asia's Arctic interests may converge or diverge with those of Canada. It also recommends various messages that Canada may wish to emphasize in its interactions with Asian states to safeguard its national interests, promote sustainable development for the benefit of Northerners, and enhance cooperation and constructive dialogue in the circumpolar world. (Au)

R, L, Q, P, D, T, E, J
Aboriginal rights; Arctic Council; Boundaries; Climate change; Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf; Communication; Continental shelves; Economic development; Economic policy; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Identity; Inuit; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military operations; Military policy; Mining; Natural resources; Offshore oil fields; Public opinion; Research; Research funding; Self-determination; Sovereignty; Sustainable economic development; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G08, G081, G0815, G07, G14
Beaufort Sea; Canada; Canadian Arctic; China; Northwest Passage; Russian Federation; United States


If it ain't broke, don't break it : expanding and enhancing the Canadian Rangers   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
Toronto : Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program, 2013.
24 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Working papers on Arctic security, no. 6)
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Cover title.
References as footnotes.
ASTIS record 77660.
Languages: English
Web: http://gordonfoundation.ca/publication/647

If It Ain't Broke, Don't Break It is based largely on Dr. P. Whitney Lackenbauer's latest book, The Canadian Rangers: A Living History. It looks at the evolution of Canadian Rangers, who have played an important but unorthodox role in domestic defence for more than six decades. Often described as the military's "eyes and ears" in remote regions, the Rangers have come to represent an important success story for the Canadian Forces. They are a flexible, inexpensive, and culturally inclusive means of having "boots on the ground" to demonstrate sovereignty and to conduct or support domestic operations. As a bridge between cultures and between the civilian and military realms, the Rangers represent a successful integration of national security and sovereignty agendas with community-based activities and local stewardship. This practical partnership, rooted in traditional knowledge and skills, promotes cooperation, communal and individual empowerment, and cross-cultural understanding. (Au)

V, R, T, J, L
Canadian Rangers; Culture (Anthropology); Environmental protection; Epistemology; Equipment and supplies; Finance; Firearms; Government relations; Inuit; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; Native organizations; Occupational training; Satellite communications; Self-determination; Sovereignty; Survival; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife habitat

G081, G08
Canada; Canadian Arctic


East Asian states, the Arctic Council and international relations in the Arctic   /   Manicom, J.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(Policy brief in international governance, no. 26, April 2013, p. 1-10, ill.)
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References.
CIGI policy brief no. 26, April 2013.
ASTIS record 77653.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cigionline.org/sites/default/files/no26.pdf

Key Points: -East Asian states do not perceive Arctic issues through an "Arctic" lens; rather, they are deemed "maritime" or "polar" issues. This preference reflects a global, rather than a regional, perspective on the Arctic. East Asian Arctic interests can thus be pursued in a range of international fora; they do not need Arctic Council membership to pursue their Arctic interests. -The Arctic Council's member states should welcome East Asian states as observers to enmesh them into "Arctic" ways of thinking; otherwise, these states may pursue their Arctic interests via other means, which would undermine the Arctic Council's place as the primary authority on Arctic issues. -The most important element of this integration will be to foster dialogue between East Asian states and the Arctic Council's six permanent participants (PPs) that represent northern indigenous peoples. (Au)

R, T, L, E, D, I, J, Q, N
Anti-harvesting; Arctic Council; Climate change; Communication; Economic development; Energy resources; Environmental protection; Fish management; Foreign relations; Government relations; Marine LNG transportation; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Native land claims; Native peoples; Natural resources; Nordicity; Petroleum industry; Public opinion; Research; Self-determination; Sovereignty; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; Wildlife law

G02, G03, G141
Arctic Ocean; Arctic regions; China; Japan; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; South Korea


Sovereignty for hire : civilian contractors and the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line   /   Heidt, D.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(De-icing required : the historical dimension of the Canadian Air Force's experience in the Arctic / Edited by P.W. Lackenbauer and W.A. March. Sic itur ad astra : Canadian aerospace power studies, v. 4, 2012, ch. 7, p. 95-112)
Footnotes as references.
Indexed from the Web.
ASTIS record 79201.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.academia.edu/2638320
Libraries: ACU

The Distant Early Warning or DEW Line, built from 1954 to 1957 and operated for three decades, still intrigues Canadians. Designed to detect Soviet long-range bombers flying over the North Pole, the scale of the megaproject was staggering, "Stretching for 2500 miles across the Arctic, it required the biggest task force of ships since the invasion of Europe and the largest air operation since the Berlin airlift to take in the supplies ... . "More than 7000 men laboured through two short Arctic construction seasons to complete the work on schedule. Small wonder that many consider the project one of the most dramatic engineering achievements of our time and a milestone in the development of the Arctic". The industrial logistics associated with the DEW Line were unprecedented in the Arctic, and had significant impacts on Canadian commercial air and sea carriers. "Support and resupply vitally affect the continuous, reliable, and economical functioning of the line," a 1935 report documenting the basic philosophy of DEW Line operations noted, "because of the geographical location of the stations, all equipment, material, supplies, including POL [petroleum, oil and lubricants] and sustenance items must be either flown in, delivered during the very short period of the summer by sea, or hauled laterally to a site by cat train operating in the winter season" The DEW Line Agreement guaranteed that "Canadian commercial carriers will to the fullest extent practicable be afforded the opportunity to participate in the movements of project materials, equipment and personnel within Canada. This proved to be a herculean task in practice. By the fall of 1956, 352,300 short tons (319,600 metric tonnes [MT]) of material had been delivered to the DEW Line. Aircraft were responsible for 106,000 tons (96,162 MT), and 84 per cent of the 24,612 commercial flights (covering 16.5 million miles [26.5 million km]) were Canadian. It was the largest cargo airlift in the history of Canadian aviation, and the heavy volumes of air freight facilitated rapid expansion of Canadian aviation companies. Pacific Western Airlines (PWA, eventually Canadian Airlines ) and Maritime Central Airways (MCA), which became the root company for Eastern Provincial Airways) "moved from being small bush lines to large integrated national airline companies". Although the project was joint, the United States (US) dominated much of the program and a variety of past journalists and present scholars have argued that Canada was too parsimonious and inactive to protect its sovereignty. These critics focus on government/military personnel and equipment sent to DEW Line stations. Even today the Harper government emphasizes a requirement for a strong Canadian military presence in the Arctic to defend our legal sovereignty. This mentality overlooks alternatives, particularly opportunities for the Air Force to draw upon civilian assets to accomplish its Arctic mission. The vast commercial aspects of DEW Line operations are often forgotten, even though civilian aircraft played a pivotal role in transporting equipment and personnel to the remote radar installations. To do so, the limited preexisting Canadian northern airlift capacity had to be dramatically expanded and fierce competition ensued for these lucrative contracts. The Canadian government, conscious of nation building possibilities as noted above, secured guarantees from the US that Canadian carriers would be utilized to the fullest extent practicable. Canadian companies expanded to meet the new increased demand and fought to keep these contracts from American and Canadian rivals. Investments in new aircraft and the need for continued work ensured that Canadian companies jealously guarded and policed American airlift competition independently of Ottawa. In the end, American DEW Line contract dollars afforded Canadian commercial carriers the opportunIty to buttress Canadian Arctic sovereignty. ... (Au)

R, V, L
Air transportation; Costs; Design and construction; DEW Line; Economic development; Equipment and supplies; Finance; Foreign relations; Government regulations; History; Logistics; Negotiation; Radar; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Transportation

G081
Canada; Canadian Arctic; United States


When the skies rained boxes : the air force and the Qikiqtani Inuit, 1941-64   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Shackleton, R.
Toronto : Munk-Gordon Arctic Security Program, 2012.
29 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Working papers on Arctic security, no. 4)
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Cover title.
References.
ASTIS record 77657.
Languages: English
Web: http://gordonfoundation.ca/publication/596

When the Skies Rained Boxes looks at the relationship between Canada's northern indigenous population and the United States military at the end of the Second World War. The unfurling of polar projection maps at the end of war, when the wartime alliance between the Soviet and Western worlds began to unravel, focused unprecedented strategic attention on Canada's Arctic. The US clambered for access to bolster continental defences and Canadian decision-makers, cognizant of the need to work with their southern superpower neighbour or risk the prospect of the US acting on its own, proved accommodating allies. Despite framing the Arctic as a vast, empty strategic space, decision-makers still had to acknowledge that an indigenous population called the region home. (Au)

V, R, T, N, L
Airports; Construction equipment; Design and construction; DEW Line; Employment; Food; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government relations; History; Housing; Hunting; Inuit; Military history; Military operations; Motion pictures; NORAD; Occupational training; Outpost camps; Quality of life; Relocation; Self-determination; Ships; Social change; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Subsistence; Tobacco use; United States. Army Air Force; Villages; Weather stations; World War II

G08, G14, G0813
Canada; Iqaluit, Nunavut; Resolute, Nunavut; Russian Federation; United States


Canada's eyes and ears in northern communities : aboriginal peoples in the Canadian Rangers   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
In: Hidden in plain sight : contributions of aboriginal peoples to Canadian identity and culture, volume 2 / Edited by C.J. Voyageur, D.R. Newhouse and D. Beavon. - Toronto : University of Toronto, 2011, p. 306-328, ill., map
References.
ASTIS record 76858.
Languages: English
Libraries: OTU

... The Canadian Rangers remain one of the least known elements in the Canadian Forces, despite their unique contribution to Canadian defence. Officially established as a component of the military reserves in 1947, the Rangers continue to serve as the military's 'eyes and ears' in isolated, remote, and coastal regions of this vast country. Aboriginal peoples make up more than half of the force's strength, and their service is an important, visible contribution to Canadian sovereignty and security. This overview introduces the history of Aboriginal peoples' participation in the Rangers since the Second World War and provides a brief analysis of recent activities and contributions. The partnership that underlies the Canadian Rangers allows this force to fulfill operational requirements that are vital to the Canadian Forces, and contributes to capacity building in Northern communities. ... (Au)

T, R, V, N
Canadian Rangers; Capacity building; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Elders; Expeditions; Firearms; Hunting; Identity; Igloos; Military history; Military operations; Native peoples; Nordicity; Rural conditions; Search and rescue; Sovereignty; Survival; Traditional knowledge; Traditional native spirituality; World War II; Youth

G081, G0826, G0827, G0821, G0822, G0823, G0825
Alberta, Northern; British Columbia; Canadian Arctic; Labrador; Newfoundland; Nunavik, Québec; Ontario, Northern


Setting an Arctic course : Task Force 80 and Canadian control in the Arctic, 1948   /   Kikkert, P.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(The northern mariner : journal of the Canadian Nautical Research Society = Le marin du nord : revue de Société canadienne pour la recherche nautique, v. 21, no. 4, Oct. 2011, p. 327-358, ill., maps)
French abstract provided.
References as footnotes.
ASTIS record 76662.
Languages: English
Libraries: AEU

The article discusses the 1948 U.S. scientific expedition Task Force 80 consisting of three ships, the U.S. Navy icebreaker Edisto, the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Eastwind, and the U.S. Navy cargo ship Wyandot. The task force's goal was to restock the Arctic weather station on Ellesmere Island as well as to establish a new station on the northern point of the island. Other topics considered include U.S. and Canada foreign relations regarding sovereignty over the Arctic region, the Cold War, as well as the historiography of North American Arctic explorations and American-Canadian diplomacy. (Au)

V, L, E, R, G
Archaeology; Communication; Design and construction; Equipment and supplies; Exploration; Foreign relations; Government regulations; Ice navigation; Icebreakers; Icebreaking; Law; Licences; Mapping; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; Newspapers; Public opinion; Research; Scientists; Sea ice; Sovereignty; Strategic studies; Weather stations

G08, G0813, G0815
Canada; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Cornwallis Island, Nunavut; Ellef Ringnes Island, Nunavut; Ellesmere Island, Nunavut; Fury and Hecla Strait, Nunavut; Hudson Strait, Nunavut/Québec; Kane Basin, Greenland/Nunavut; Prince Patrick Island, N.W.T.; United States


Sovereignty, security, and stewardship : an update   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
In: Canada and the changing Arctic : sovereignty, security, and stewardship / F. Griffiths, R. Huebert, and P.W. Lackenbauer. - Waterloo, Ont. : Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2011, ch. 5, p. 227-253, ill.
References as end notes.
ASTIS record 75543.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The Arctic agenda has continued to gain momentum since the authors submitted their final reports to the CIC [Canadian International Council] in the spring of 2009. Climate change, resource issues, undefined continental shelf boundaries, potential maritime transportation routes, and security issues continue to factor into the domestic and foreign policy agendas of the Arctic states. The region has also attracted the attention of non-Arctic states and organizations, some of which assert the need to protect the Arctic "global commons" from excessive national claims and are alleged to covet Arctic resources. Commentators continue to debate the implications of these geopolitical dynamics and what they mean for Canadian foreign, defence, and Arctic policy. These conclusions summarize what has transpired over the past two years and highlight how developments relate to some of the major debates raised in the preceding chapters about Canada's strategic direction in the changing circumpolar world. These include the ones over Canada's Northern Strategy; the emerging security environment; Canada's relations with Russia, the United States, and Denmark; and international governance in the Arctic. (Au)

R, E, J, N, L
Boundaries; Climate change; Continental shelves; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Marine transportation; Military policy; Natural resources; Sovereignty

G08, G081, G14, G13, G02
Arctic waters; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Denmark; Russian Federation; United States


From polar race to polar saga : an integrated strategy for Canada and the circumpolar world   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
In: Canada and the changing Arctic : sovereignty, security, and stewardship / F. Griffiths, R. Huebert, and P.W. Lackenbauer. - Waterloo, Ont. : Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2011, ch. 3, p. 69-179, ill., maps
References as end notes.
ASTIS record 75541.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... My central contention is that a 3-D approach [one that integrates defence, diplomacy, and development] to circumpolar affairs may help the government produce an integrated Northern Strategy. The federal government's defence promises, if implemented fully, will ensure that Canada has more robust monitoring and enforcement capabilities in the event that international vessels begin to transit the Northwest Passage (NWP) in greater numbers. Through collaborative and sustained diplomatic engagement (something that has not been a priority in recent years), Canada can assume a leadership role and promote cooperation, coordination, and interaction in the circumpolar world. A policy framework that practically and directly engages Northerners in development and that invests in local capacity-building initiatives will ensure that cooperation and human security are central pillars of Canada's Arctic strategy. The central question is whether Canadians are prepared to seize the opportunities of the twenty-first century, with southerners working in close cooperation with Northerners, or whether outdated rhetoric and thinking will hijack the agenda. We will need better capabilities if we are to assert control over our lands and waters, but as a nation we need to decide what we want to actually do with our Arctic. Outside forces have typically driven the northern foreign policy agenda; twenty-first-century problems and possibilities require new, proactive thinking. ... (Au)

R, J, E, L, N, P, Q, T
Arctic Council; Boundaries; Canadian Coast Guard; Canadian Rangers; Capacity building; Climate change; Communication; Continental shelves; Economic development; Economic policy; Emergency planning; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Health; History; Icebreakers; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military operations; Military policy; Native peoples; Negotiation; Pollution; Public participation; Research; Self-determination; Sovereignty; Sustainable economic development; Treaties; Wharves

G08, G081, G14, G141, G10, G03, G07
Beaufort Sea; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Denmark; Greenland; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean; Nanisivik region, Nunavut; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Northwest Passage; Russian Federation; United States


Canada and the changing Arctic : sovereignty, security, and stewardship   /   Griffiths, F.   Huebert, R.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
Waterloo, Ont. : Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2011.
xxix, 310 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
ISBN 978-1-55458-338-6, 978-1-55458-413-0(PDF), 978-1-55458-414-7(EPUB)
References.
Appendix: Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Statement on Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy : Exercising sovereignty and promoting Canada's Northern Strategy abroad, August 2010.
ASTIS record 75539.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

It is rare that a territory seen by so few can be emotionally, spiritually, and personally so compellingly important to so many. Yet that is a modest and understated description of the relationship between Canadians and their Arctic region and territories. It is a passionate, possessive, patriotic, and nationalistic relationship second only to our embrace of hockey. It is not yet jingoistic, which is a good thing. But it is also prone, as is often the case with visions seen from a great distance, to substantive and dangerous distortion. To suggest that the relationship is simply geo-strategic, or narrowly territorial, or militaristic, or simply about the oil and gas, is to oversimplify. Because the relationship between Canadians and the Arctic is about all of the above and a highly romantic quality, understanding the dynamics of the romance, its sustainability and attendant risks, is not only constructive but actually vital to the kind of public, defence, and foreign policies essential to maintaining the relationship at its optimum clarity and balance. The political, environmental, and international law prospectus for the Arctic is complex, as are the instruments available for Canada and Canadians to secure our interests. Canada and the Changing Arctic is essentially a careful unpacking of the challenges that are most germane to Canada's Arctic purposes and of the instruments available to deal with them. It is very reflective of Canada's history and the postwar growth and aspirations, which strongly shaped who we are today through events and clarion calls in the 1950s and 1960s, .... This book helps all of us who care about realizing the full potential of our country, internationally, domestically, economically, and in a way that is environmentally responsible, better understand some of the choices relating to the Arctic that need to be better appreciated. One need not agree with all the analyses or conclusions to admire the integrity, thinking, balance, and insight that fuel this book. Every romance needs engagement and reflection. Our romance with the Arctic requires nothing less. ... (Au)

R, V, J, E, L, N, T, P, Q
Arctic Council; Boundaries; Canadian Rangers; Climate change; Economic development; Economic policy; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; History; Hydrography; Icebreakers; Identity; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military operations; Military policy; Native organizations; Native peoples; Natural resources; Research; Ships; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Sustainable economic development; Treaties

G08, G081, G02, G07, G03
Arctic regions; Beaufort Sea; Canada; Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean; Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters


Polar race or polar saga? Canada and the circumpolar world   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
In: Arctic security in an age of climate change / Edited by J. Kraska. - New York : Cambridge University Press, 2011, ch. 13, p. 218-243, ill.
References as footnotes.
ASTIS record 74602.
Languages: English
Libraries: AEU

... The time for Canadian action in the Arctic has indeed come, but it should not be justified by partisan political rhetoric rooted in alarmism or paranoia. A crisis mentality is more conducive to symbolic reactions and hollow commitments, designed to serve positive short-term optics rather than sustained investment in Canadian capabilities and northern development. Although outside forces have typically driven the northern foreign policy agenda, the twenty-first century demands new thinking that carefully integrates domestic and international priorities if Canada wants to seize opportunities and take a leadership role in a rapidly evolving circumpolar world. ... (Au)

R, V, L, J, E, T
Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, 1970; Climate change; DEW Line; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government relations; History; Icebreakers; International law; Manhattan (Ship); Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; Native peoples; Natural resources; Pollution control; Self-determination; Sovereignty; Strategic studies; Sustainable economic development; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; World War II

G081, G0815, G02
Arctic regions; Arctic waters; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Northwest Passage; United States


Sovereignty and security : Canadian diplomacy, the United States, and the Arctic, 1943-1968   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Kikkert, P.
In: In the national interest : Canadian foreign policy and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 1909-2009 / Edited by G. Donaghy, M.K. Carroll. - Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary Press, 2011, ch. 6, p. 101-120
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References as end notes.
This book is an open access E-book.
ASTIS record 74454.
Languages: English
Web: http://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/48549/14/UofCPress_NationalInterest_2011_Chapter06.pdf
Libraries: ACU

By the spring of 1946 the spectre of a Soviet threat to North America loomed large in the minds of American officials, who warily cast their eyes over polar projection maps and saw an undefended attic to the continent. Ambitious defence plans for the Arctic began to flow onto the desks of Canadian officials, evoking grave concerns in the Department of External Affairs about Canada's sovereignty in the region. Lester B. Pearson, then ambassador to the United States, believed that these defence projects offered Canada an opportunity "to secure from the United States Government public recognition of our sovereignty of the total area of our northern coasts, based on the sector principle." Canada's longstanding but officially unstated sector claim to all of the lands (and eventually waters) between 60° and 141° west longitude up to the North Pole offered the simplest solution to consolidating its opaque Arctic claims. Although Pearson was confident that he could attain from his American counterparts formal recognition on this basis, he was overly optimistic. ... (Au)

V, R, G, D, I, L
Boundaries; Design and construction; DEW Line; Foreign relations; Government; History; Icebreakers; International law; Manhattan (Ship); Maritime law; Military operations; Military policy; Negotiation; Royal Canadian Mounted Police; Sea ice; Sovereignty; Wildlife law; World War II

G081, G0815
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Northwest Passage; United States


Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security : historical perspectives   /   Lackenbauer, P.W. [Editor]
Calgary, Alta. : Centre for Military and Strategic Studies, 2011.
ii, 446 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
(Occasional paper - Calgary papers in military and strategic studies, no. 4, 2011)
ISBN 978-1-55238-560-9
References.
ASTIS record 74450.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Climate change is transforming the Arctic. Questions abound about what this will mean for the Canadian Forces, for Canada's sovereignty position, for northern peoples, and for stability and security in the circumpolar world. Fortunately, Canadians have encountered and debated similar issues in the past. This volume, featuring chapters by established and emerging scholars, offers essential historical analysis on Canadian Arctic security and sovereignty policies and practices since the Second World War. The "lessons learned" lay a solid foundation for future research and historiographical debate in this dynamic field, and should inform Canadian thinking on what is necessary to protect national interests in the twenty-first-century Arctic. (Au)

R, V, Q, L
Boundaries; Climate change; Costs; DEW Line; Environmental impacts; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; History; Icebreakers; Identity; Manhattan (Ship); Marine oil spills; Marine petroleum transportation; Military operations; Military policy; Polar Sea (Ship); Sovereignty

G081, G0815
Canadian Arctic; Northwest Passage


Conclusions : "use it or lose it," history, and the fourth surge   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security : historical perspectives / Edited by P.W. Lackenbauer. Occasional paper - Calgary papers in military and strategic studies, no. 4, 2011, p. 423-436, ill.)
References as end notes.
ASTIS record 74449.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

In July 2009 the Conservative government of Stephen Harper released its long awaited northern strategy. It reaffirms the broad array of military measures promised by the prime minister since he took office in January 2006 and assigns a robust role to the Canadian forces in the Arctic. "The Government of Canada is firmly asserting its presence in the North, ensuring we have the capability and capacity to protect and patrol the land, sea and sky in our sovereign Arctic territory," the strategy asserts. "We are putting more boots on the Arctic tundra, more ships in the icy water and a better eye-in-the-sky." - To justify this increase in Canada's military presence in the region politicians, journalists, and scholars have identified a multitude of issues as potential threats to the Arctic, including climate change, boundary disputes, commercial exploitation and even terrorism. As the chapters in this volume reveal, sovereignty and security threats to Canada's North have changed, evolved, and resurfaced over the last seventy years, forcing successive governments to respond. During the Second World War and the early years of the Cold War, the advances of the Axis forces and the more tangible danger posed by the Soviet Union and its massive arsenal, finally led strategists to portray the northern approaches not as a natural defensive barrier, but as an undefended roof of the continent. In the 1970s and 1980s Canada's defence planners still acknowledged the Soviet menace in the Arctic, but tended to emphasize new environmental and sovereignty threats after the Northwest Passage transits of the oil tanker S.S. Manhattan in 1969 and the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Polar Sea in 1985. The interrelationship between sovereignty and security continues to evolve as the Arctic and circumpolar geopolitics change, but the distinction between the two concepts - and the precise nature of their interaction - is seldom explained in a systematic way that is attentive to historical experience and decision-making. ... Is anxiety about "using or losing" our Arctic inheritance more revealing of the Canadian psyche (particularly our chronic lack of confidence) than of objective realities? Who are the alleged "enemies" to Canada's national interests, and what is the nature of their challenge? Does the discourse of "crisis" encourage a disproportionate emphasis on national defence at the expense of a broader suite of social, economic and diplomatic initiatives? ... (Au)

R, V, L, T
Boundaries; Canadian Rangers; Communication; Continental shelves; Emergency planning; Environmental protection; Geopolitics; Government; Harbours; History; Icebreakers; International law; Local government; Manhattan (Ship); Mapping; Marine oil spills; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; Occupational training; Public opinion; Self-determination; Social conditions; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Strategic studies; World War II

G081, G0815
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Denmark; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Northwest Passage


Building on "shifting sands" : the Canadian Armed Forces, sovereignty, and the Arctic, 1968-1972   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Kikkert, P.
(Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security : historical perspectives / Edited by P.W. Lackenbauer. Occasional paper - Calgary papers in military and strategic studies, no. 4, 2011, p. 283-308)
References as end notes.
ASTIS record 74448.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The role of the Canadian Forces (CF) in asserting sovereignty is often tied to the old maxim that presence is 9/10ths of the law. Surveillance and "boots on the ground" are commonly bound up with Canada's credibility in "defending" its sovereignty. By implication, a more robust CF presence is deemed essential to "using or losing" our Arctic. There has, however been little to no supporting justification given to substantiate this accepted wisdom. Recent legal opinions are obviously classified and cannot be analyzed, so history helps to illuminate the issue. Discussions from the early era on the role of the CF in protecting and maintaining sovereignty reveal that improved military capabilities do not inherently translate into stronger sovereignty claims. ... (Au)

R, V, Q, L
Government; International law; Manhattan (Ship); Marine petroleum transportation; Military history; Military policy; NATO; Sovereignty; Strategic studies

G081, G0815, G07, G0812
Canadian Arctic; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Northwest Passage


Introduction   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security : historical perspectives / Edited by P.W. Lackenbauer. Occasional paper - Calgary papers in military and strategic studies, no. 4, 2011, p. 1-22)
References as end notes.
ASTIS record 74444.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... The purpose of this volume is to provide an overview of leading historical research on Canadian Arctic security and soveriegnty since the Second World War. It is a "hybrid" collection in that it includes both previously published scholarship and cutting edge research by new scholars. We hope that it provides students, scholars, and policy makers with access to important scholarship that frames and shapes historiographical and policy debates about sovereignty and security in the Canadian Arctic. In so doing, we hope that it lays a foundation for future research in this important and dynamic field. Although there is some modest overlap in discussions of historical context across some chapters, this has been retained in anticipation that individual chapters may be consulted as stand-alone contributions on specific topics and themes. The basic organizing framework for this volume is chronological, with each chapter pursuing a distinct theme. Chapters 1-2 introduce military development and sovereignty concerns in the Canadian Northwest during the Second World War. The main emphasis of the volume is on the Cold War, during which strategist Ken Eyre identified three surges of military interest in the Canadian Arctic. He suggested that the first, which treated the Arctic as an "exposed flank" rather than a place of intrinsic value, ran from 1947-64. Chapters 3-10 chart military, diplomatic, and political developments through this phase, which most authors suggest actually began in 1946. The second surge, "Sovereignty and Symbolism," began in the wake of the Manhattan voyages (1969-70) and continued until 1980. Chapters 11-12 analyze political and military responses during the early years of the Trudeau government. Eyre suggested that a third surge, "The Land of Tomorrow," began with the 1987 White Paper on defence. The point of origin is better placed with the Polar Sea controversy and the Mulroney government's landmark September 1985 statement, which Rob Huebert describes in chapter 13. This final Cold War surge dissipated with the 1988 election, soon after Eyre published his article. The most recent surge of interest in the early twenty-first century does not have an obvious starting point, but the academic debates between Huebert and Franklyn Griffiths (chapters 15-16) began to frame the issues in 2002, and Arctic sovereignty and security issues attracted widespread public attention with the Hans Island debacle in 2004. The conclusion reflects upon how the historical cases analyzed in this volume relate to current debates about sovereignty and security issues. ... (Au)

R, V, T, L, J, E
Aboriginal rights; Boundaries; Climate change; DEW Line; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government relations; History; Icebreakers; Inuit; Manhattan (Ship); Marine transportation; Maritime law; Meteorology; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; Native land claims; Polar Sea (Ship); Pollution control; Sovereignty; Strategic studies; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; World War II

G081, G0815
Canadian Arctic; Northwest Passage; United States


Mirror images? Canada, Russia, and the circumpolar world   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(International journal (Toronto), v. 65, no. 4, Autumn 2010, p. 879-897)
References as footnotes.
A version of this paper was presented at the Canadian Security Intelligence Service conference "Matching ambitions and realities: What future for Russia?" held in Ottawa in May 2010.
ASTIS record 74580.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1177/002070201006500417
Libraries: ACU

... This article reflects upon how Canada reads - and constructs - Russian actions and intentions in the Arctic. Do the countries see the strategic situation in fundamentally different ways? Are Canada and Russia on an Arctic collision course, or are we regional actors with shared interests and opportunities for expanded cooperation? As critical as Canadian politicians, journalists, and academic "purveyors of polar peril" (to borrow Franklyn Griffiths' phrase) are of Russia's rhetoric and behaviour in the Arctic, Canada is actually mirroring it. Politicians in both countries use this dynamic to justify investments in national defence. If this theatrical "sabre-rattling" is carefully staged and does not inhibit dialogue and cooperation on issues of common interest, it may actually serve the short-term military interests of both countries. But the long-term goal of a stable and secure circumpolar world, in which each Arctic littoral state enjoys its sovereign rights, must not be lost in hyperbolic rhetoric geared toward domestic audiences for political gain. ... (Au)

R, L, D, A, P, Q
Boundaries; Continental shelves; Economic development; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; History; Identity; International law; Mapping; Marine transportation; Military operations; Mineral resources; Ocean floors; Offshore gas fields; Offshore oil fields; Sovereignty; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G03, G081, G08, G14, G141
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean; Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Northwest Passage; Russian Arctic; Russian Federation


The Canadian Forces and Arctic sovereignty : debating roles, interests, and requirements, 1968-1974   /   Lackenbauer, P.W. [Editor]   Kikkert, P. [Editor]
Waterloo, Ont. : LCMSDS Press, 2010.
xi, 386 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
References.
ASTIS record 72938.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The role of the Canadian Forces in asserting sovereignty is often tied to the old maxim that possession is 9/10th of the law. Surveillance capability and "boots on the ground" are often tightly bound to Canada's credibility in "defending its sovereignty." As talk of a polar race intensifies and new concerns arise over the continental shelf; boundaries, pollution, melting ice and that tiny piece of rock called Hans Island, a more robust Canadian Forces presence is perceived as essential to "using or losing" the Canadian Arctic. Where is the justification to validate this accepted wisdom? How does a military presence play into demonstrating effective occupation? A country must be able to control activities in its territory, but does a military presence really strengthen Canada's sovereignty in the Arctic? The Canadian Forces and Arctic Sovereignty: Debating Roles, Interests, and Requirements, 1968-1974 introduces the debate about the Canadian Forces' role, mission, and contributions to Arctic sovereignty during these pivotal years. Policy analysts grappled with many of the issues facing decision-makers today, and recently declassified documents (published here for the first time) yield insights into what Canadians should reasonably expect from their military as the country develops and implements an Arctic strategy in the twenty-first century. (Au)

R, V
Boundaries; Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development; DEW Line; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government relations; Logistics; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; NATO; Royal Canadian Mounted Police; Search and rescue; Sovereignty; Treaties

G081, G08, G0815
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Northwest Passage; United States


High modernism in the Arctic : planning Frobisher Bay and Inuvik   /   Farish, M.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
(Journal of historical geography, v. 35, no. 3, July 2009, p. 517-544, ill., map)
References as footnotes.
ASTIS record 68801.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.jhg.2009.02.002
Libraries: ACU

This paper considers Frobisher Bay and Inuvik, two Canadian Arctic towns, as examples of the high-modernist planning that swept the globe during the middle decades of the twentieth century, but also Cold War projects reflecting a sudden interest in the Arctic as a region of military significance. Building on the framework provided by James Scott in "Seeing like a State" (1998), the paper details the connections between modernization theory and Cold War militarism before turning to the strikingly parallel case studies. In each instance, federal officials proposed ambitious urban models designed to simultaneously overcome the hostility of a northern environment and catapult native northerners into conditions of modern living. While the limits and failings of such schemes varied by location, both sites were also laboratories for social scientists employed by the federal government to document and analyze the modernization of the Arctic. The work of these scholars represents a particularly rich and complex record of governmental interventions, tied variously to Cold War imperatives, in northern lives and landscapes at a time of great faith in the transformative power of modern engineering. (Au)

V, S, R, T, L, M
Airports; Community development ; Design and construction; DEW Line; Economic development; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government relations; Gwich'in Indians; History; Hospitals; Housing; Inuit; Land use; Military operations; Native urban residence; Planning; Roads; Schools; Towns; Utilidors; Utilities; Warfare

G0813, G0812
Aklavik, N.W.T.; Inuvik, N.W.T.; Iqaluit, Nunavut; United States


From polar race to polar saga : an integrated strategy for Canada and the circumpolar world   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.
Toronto : Canadian International Council, 2009.
93 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
(Foreign policy for Canada's tomorrow, no. 3)
Appendices.
References.
French résumé also provided.
Report date: July 2009.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 68193.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.opencanada.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/From-Polar-Race-to-Polar-Saga-Whitney-Lackenbauer1.pdf

To devise a more confident and constructive Arctic strategy, Canada needs to marry its defence and resource development agenda with stronger diplomatic and social dimensions. A 3-D (defence-diplomacy-development) approach that recognizes the possibility for international cooperation, fixates less on potential "sovereignty loss" and encourages sustainable socio-economic development will place Canada in a better position to seize opportunities and become a world leader in circumpolar affairs. The problems in the Arctic cannot be resolved by a return to Cold War rhetoric and reactive, crisis-based mentality, which will preclude Canada from seizing opportunities in collaboration with northern residents. Canadians must recognize with confidence that our sovereignty is not in serious jeopardy, thanks to quiet diplomacy that has historically balanced continental security priorities with national interests. The Canadian-American disagreement over the legal status of the Northwest Passage is a longstanding issue that has been successfully managed on an "agree to disagree" basis, and does not support the nationalist myth that the United States has deliberately and systematically sought to undermine Canadian sovereignty. What Canada can anticipate and should seek is not an "Arctic race" but an "Arctic Saga," predicated on a greater demand for resources and trade coupled with more stable governance. This Saga could be attained by focusing on sustainable development, constructive circumpolar engagement and environmental protection, without sacrificing either sovereignty or security. A "Canada First" strategy is politically sound: "Canada only" expectations are unrealistic. There is no conventional military threat to our Far North, nor will Canada solve its boundary disputes with the force of arms. Furthermore, continuous talk about the need for a stronger Canadian Forces (CF) presence could actually undermine Canada's sovereignty. Canadians need to invest in military capabilities so that the CF can operate in all parts of the country and play a supporting role to civil authorities, particularly the Coast Guard and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, through a whole-of-government, functional approach. ... Most importantly, Canadian foreign policy must be framed in concert with Northerners' priorities and after careful dialogue with northern representatives. Their emphasis on the foreign policy-making process conflicts with the prevailing tendency towards immediate, outcome-oriented, "crisis" decision making. ... Given the immense resource potential of the Arctic, the region has reignited the Canadian imagination as a treasure-laden frontier that could hold the key to national prosperity. With all the focus on the alleged threats to Canadian sovereignty and security, predicated on foreign eagerness to undermine our claims and steal our resources, the popular discourse has been directed away from the benefits that Canada will accrue if development is attracted to the region. Proposals to build human capacity straddle the line between domestic and international policy, but they are key to Canada's future. ... A Northern Vision has the potential to unite Canadians. To build strong national will for this Vision, the federal government needs to be more systematic and proactive in its Arctic strategy. Seizing our northern destiny, not out of fear but out of confidence and a sense of national purpose, will contribute to a stronger, more prosperous Canada, and a stable and constructive circumpolar world. (Au)

R, J, E, L, N, P, Q, T
Air transportation; Arctic Council; Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, 1970; Boundaries; Canadian Coast Guard; Canadian Rangers; Capacity building; Climate change; Continental shelves; Education; Emergency planning; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Fisheries; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government regulations; Icebreakers; Inuit; Marine pollution; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military operations; Native organizations; Native peoples; Natural resource management; Negotiation; Occupational training; Offshore gas fields; Offshore oil fields; Planning; Research; Research funding; Satellites; Search and rescue; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Specifications; Submarines; Sustainable economic development; Tourist trade; Treaties; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; Wharves

G08, G081, G0815, G0813, G07, G14 , G141, G10, G03
Beaufort Sea; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Denmark; Greenland; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean; Nanisivik region, Nunavut; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Northwest Passage; Resolute region, Nunavut; Russian Federation; United States


The Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line : a bibliography and documentary resource list   /   Lackenbauer, P.W.   Farish, M.J.   Arthur-Lackenbauer, J.
Calgary, Alta. : AINA, 2005.
123 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
ISBN 1-894788-01-X
Cover title.
References.
ASTIS record 58345.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/aina/DEWLineBib.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Preface: Of the numerous Cold War Arctic initiatives, none was more significant than the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line. A triumph of scientific design and logistical planning completed in the late 1950s, the DEW Line was a string of continental defence radars, ultimately stretching from Alaska to Greenland. Alongside the secondary Mid-Canada Line and the tertiary Pinetree Line, the DEW Line marked the edge of an electronic grid controlled by the new SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) computer system and was ultimately centred on the Colorado command hub of NORAD. The construction of the DEW Line was made possible by bilateral agreement between the Canadian and American governments (reproduced below), and an alliance between the U.S. Department of Defense and the Bell “system” of companies. The planning and implementation of the DEW Line attracted significant media attention in the fifties, but somehow has managed to evade systematic scholarly attention since that time. The need for an interdisciplinary survey of the Line, its long history, and wider Arctic contexts is long overdue. This research compendium provides a list of relevant sources on the DEW Line and Cold War continental defence. It focuses on primary sources available in Canada, and a systematic survey of published sources from Canada and the United States. We hope that this compilation provides a sound basis for a major research initiative on this very important subject. The basic contours of the DEW Line history are covered in the following text, taken from a Western Electric Corporation commemorative booklet issued in 1956. Like most contemporary documents, it sees the radar line as a great triumph of the Cold War era. Of course, the DEW line also generated less favourable legacies worthy of dedicated exploration and reflection. Profound socio-economic and cultural dislocations amongst Northern peoples and deleterious environmental impacts changed the human and physical geographies of the North. For northern aboriginal peoples and government officials, this Cold War project had sudden and far-reaching impacts. These remain to be studied in a comprehensive manner. ... (Au)

R, V, Y, L, T, N, E, J
Archaeology; Archives; Bibliographies; Costs; Design and construction; DEW Line; Economic development; Economic policy; Employment; Environmental impacts; Environmental policy; Equipment and supplies; Finance; Government; Health; History; Housing; Internet; Inuit; Law; Libraries; Location; Logistics; Mapping; Marine transportation; Meteorology; Military history; Military policy; Newspapers; NORAD; Occupational training; Photograph collections; Planning; Research; Research project descriptions; Sea ice; Social conditions; Social interaction; Social policy; Socio-economic effects; Sound recordings; Subsistence; Theses; Transportation; Utilities; Waste management; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G081, G06, G10
Alaska, Northern; Greenland; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; Labrador; N.W.T.; Nunavut; Yukon, Northern


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