The ASTIS database cites the following 50 publication(s) by Susan Kutz. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.
Linking co-monitoring to co-management : bringing together local, traditional, and scientific knowledge in a wildlife status assessment framework / Peacock, S.J. Mavrot, F. Tomaselli, M. Hanke, A. Fenton, H. Nathoo, R. Aleuy, O.A. Di Francesco, J. Aguilar, X.F. Jutha, N. Kafle, P. Mosbacher, J. Goose, A. Ekaluktutiak Hunters and Trappers Organization Kugluktuk Angoniatit Association Olokhaktomiut Hunters and Trappers Committee Kutz, S.J.
(Special issue: Knowledge mobilization on co-management, co-production of knowledge, and community-based monitoring to support effective wildlife resource decision making and Inuit self-determination. Arctic science, v. 6, no. 3, Sept. 2020, p. 247-266, ill.)
ASTIS record 85884.
Effective wildlife management requires accurate and timely information on conservation status and trends, and knowledge of the factors driving population change. Reliable monitoring of wildlife population health, including disease, body condition, and population trends and demographics, is central to achieving this, but conventional scientific monitoring alone is often not sufficient. Combining different approaches and knowledge types can provide a more holistic understanding than conventional science alone and can bridge gaps in scientific monitoring in remote and sparsely populated areas. Inclusion of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) is core to the wildlife co-management mandate of the Canadian territories and is usually included through consultation and engagement processes. We propose a status assessment framework that provides a systematic and transparent approach to including TEK, as well as local ecological knowledge (LEK), in the design, implementation, and interpretation of wildlife conservation status assessments. Drawing on a community-based monitoring program for muskoxen and caribou in northern Canada, we describe how scientific knowledge and TEK/LEK, documented through conventional monitoring, hunter-based sampling, or qualitative methods, can be brought together to inform indicators of wildlife health within our proposed assessment framework. (Au)
N, I, T
Animal health; Caribou; Co-management; Muskoxen; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management
Cambridge Bay, Nunavut; Kugluktuk, Nunavut; Ulukhaktok, N.W.T.
The biogeography of the caribou lungworm, Varestrongylus eleguneniensis (Nematoda : Protostrongylidae) across northern North America / Verocai, G.G. Hoberg, E.P. Simard, M. Beckmen, K.B. Musiani, M. Wasser, S. Cuyler, C. Manseau, M. Chaudhry, U.N. Kashivakura, C.K. Gilleard, J.S. Kutz, S.J.
(International journal for parasitology. Parasites and wildlife., v. 11, Apr. 2020, p. 93-102., ill., maps)
ASTIS record 85812.
Varestrongylus eleguneniensis (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae) is a recently described species of lungworm that infects caribou (Rangifer tarandus), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and moose (Alces americanus) across northern North America. Herein we explore the geographic distribution of V. eleguneniensis through geographically extensive sampling and discuss the biogeography of this multi-host parasite. We analyzed fecal samples of three caribou subspecies (n = 1485), two muskox subspecies (n = 159), and two moose subspecies (n = 264) from across northern North America. Protostrongylid dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) were found in 23.8%, 73.6%, and 4.2% of these ungulates, respectively. A portion of recovered DSL were identified by genetic analyses of the ITS-2 region of the nuclear rDNA or the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) region of the mtDNA. We found V. eleguneniensis widely distributed among caribou and muskox populations across most of their geographic prange in North America but it was rare in moose. Parelaphostrongylus andersoni was present in caribou and moose and we provide new geographic records for this species. This study provides a substantial expansion of the knowledge defining the current distribution and biogeography of protostrongylid nematodes in northern ungulates. Insights about the host and geographic range of V. eleguneniensis can serve as a geographically extensive baseline for monitoring current distribution and in anticipating future biogeographic scenarios under a regime of accelerating climate and anthropogenic perturbation. (Au)
I, H, E
Animal health; Caribou; Climate change; Muskoxen; Parasites; Spatial distribution
G0813, G0826, G06, G10, G0812, G08
Alaska; Canada; Greenland; N.W.T.; Nunavut; Québec
Novel insights into serodiagnosis and epidemiology of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, a newly recognized pathogen in muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) / Mavrot, F. Orsel, K. Hutchins, W. Adams, L.G. Beckmen, K. Checkley, S.L. Davison, T. Di Francesco, J. Elkin, B. Leclerc, L.-M. Schneider, A. Blake, J.E. Tomaselli, M. Kutz, S.J.
(PloS one, v. 15, no. 4, e0231724, Apr. 2020, 21 p., ill., maps)
ASTIS record 85285.
Muskoxen are a key species of Arctic ecosystems and are important for food security and socio-economic well-being of many Indigenous communities in the Arctic and Subarctic. Between 2009 and 2014, the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated for the first time in this species in association with multiple mortality events in Canada and Alaska, raising questions regarding the spatiotemporal occurrence of the pathogen and its potential impact on muskox populations. ... We adapted a commercial porcine E. rhusiopathiae enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test 958 blood samples that were collected from muskoxen from seven regions in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic between 1976 and 2017. The cut-off between negative and positive results was established using mixture-distribution analysis, a data-driven approach. Based on 818 samples for which a serological status could be determined and with complete information, we calculated trends in sample seroprevalences in population time-series and compared them with population trends in the investigated regions. ... Overall, 219/818 (27.8%, 95% Confidence Interval: 24.7–31.0) samples were classified as positive for exposure to E. rhusiopathiae. There were large variations between years and regions. Seropositive animals were found among the earliest serum samples tested; 1976 in Alaska and 1991 in Canada. In Alaskan muskoxen, sample seroprevalence increased after 2000 and, in two regions, peak seroprevalences occurred simultaneously with population declines. In one of these regions, concurrent unusual mortalities were observed and E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from muskox carcasses. In Canada, there was an increase in sample seroprevalence in two muskox populations following known mortality events that had been attributed to E. rhusiopathiae. ... Our results indicate widespread exposure of muskoxen to E. rhusiopathiae in western Canada and Alaska. Although not new to the Arctic, we documented an increased exposure to the pathogen in several regions concurrent with population declines. Understanding causes for the apparent increased occurrence of this pathogen and its association with large scale mortality events for muskoxen is critical to evaluate the implications for wildlife and wildlife-dependent human populations in the Arctic. (Au)
Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Bacteria; Muskoxen; Spatial distribution
G0813, G06, G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Kugluktuk region, Nunavut; Nunivak Island, Alaska; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut
Diversity of gastrointestinal helminths in Dall's sheep and the negative association of the abomasal nematode, Marshallagia marshalli, with fitness indicators / Aleuy, O.A. Ruckstuhl, K. Hoberg, E.P. Veitch, A. Simmons, N. Kutz, S.J.
(PloS one, v. 13, no. 3, e0192825, Mar. 2018, 21 p., ill.)
ASTIS record 84455.
Gastrointestinal helminths can have a detrimental effect on the fitness of wild ungulates. Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems are ideal for the study of host-parasite interactions due to the comparatively simple ecological interactions and limited confounding factors. We used a unique dataset assembled in the early seventies to study the diversity of gastrointestinal helminths and their effect on fitness indicators of Dall’s sheep, Ovis dalli dalli, in the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada. Parasite diversity included nine species, among which the abomasal nematode Marshallagia marshalli occurred with the highest prevalence and infection intensity. The intensity of M. marshalli increased with age and was negatively associated with body condition and pregnancy status in Dall’s sheep across all the analyses performed. The intensity of the intestinal whipworm, Trichuris schumakovitschi, decreased with age. No other parasites were significantly associated with age, body condition, or pregnancy. Our study suggests that M. marshalli might negatively influence fitness of adult female Dall’s sheep. (Au)
Age; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal reproduction; Gastrointestinal disorders; Gender differences; Parasites; Sheep
Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon
Iqaluktutiaq voices : local perspectives about the importance of muskoxen, contemporary and traditional use and practices / Tomaselli, M. Gerlach, S.C. Kutz, S.J. Checkley, S.L.
(Arctic, v. 71, no. 1, Mar. 2018, p. 1-14, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 83926.
Understanding human-wildlife relationships and interactions is crucial to implementing policies and practices related to wildlife and public health that are locally relevant and adapted to local communities and needs. With the goal of informing a community-based participatory muskox health surveillance system in the community of Iqaluktutiaq (Cambridge Bay) on Victoria Island, Nunavut, Canada, we explored the importance of muskoxen for community residents, their relevance for local food security, and the relationships and interactions between Iqaluktutiamiut and muskoxen. We investigated these themes through individual interviews of 30 community members identified as muskox experts by local organizations. Results were finalized and refined with 26 interviewees in feedback sessions. For Iqaluktutiaq residents, muskoxen have nutritional, economic, sociocultural, and environmental importance. The decline of muskoxen documented locally has a multidimensional impact on the community, with negative effects on all the domains explored, from food security to the integrity of the cultural system. Descriptions of subsistence and commercial harvesting and butchering practices are an asset for the successful implementation of participatory muskox health surveillance activities (e.g., hunter-based sampling), as well as for interpretation of derived data (e.g., local knowledge on muskox diseases). Knowledge of specific harvesting practices that might increase exposure to zoonotic agents is also relevant for designing targeted strategies to mitigate public health risks. This research underlines how careful examination of the human-wildlife context through local perspectives can benefit wildlife health surveillance, public health, and wildlife co-management outcomes. (Au)
R, I, T, K, N
Animal diseases; Animal health; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Food security; Health; Hunting; Inuit; Muskoxen; Participatory action research; Risk assessment; Social surveys; Subsistence; Traditional knowledge
Cambridge Bay (Settlement), Nunavut
Experimental life-cycle of Varestrongylus eleguneniensis (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in a captive Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus moschatus) / Kafle, P. Sullivan, J. Verocai, G.G. Kutz, S.J.
(The Journal of parasitology, v.103, no. 5, Oct. 2017, p. 584-587, ill.)
ASTIS record 85093.
The life-cycle of a recently described protostrongylid lungworm, Varestrongylus eleguneniensis, which infects caribou, muskoxen, and moose from Arctic and boreal regions of North America, was completed experimentally for the first time. A native North American slug species, Deroceras laeve, was infected with the first-stage larvae (L1) isolated from the feces of wild muskoxen to generate third-stage larvae (L3). These were administered to a captive reindeer calf (250 L3) and an adult captive muskox (380 L3). The prepatent periods for the reindeer and muskox were 56 and 72 days, respectively. Patency lasted for only 19 days in the reindeer, and fecal larval counts were very low (0.09-1.53 larvae per gram of feces). Patency in the muskox was at least 210 days, and likely over 653 days, and the fecal larval counts were higher (0.06-17.8 larvae per gram of feces). This work provides the first experimental completion of the life-cycle of V. eleguneniensis. (Au)
Animal health; Biological sampling; Muskoxen; Parasites; Reindeer; Temporal variations
Kugluktuk region, Nunavut; Kuujjuaq region, Québec
Bacterial genomics reveal the complex epidemiology of an emerging pathogen in Arctic and boreal ungulates / Forde, T.L. Orsel, K. Zadoks, R.N. Biek, R. Adams, L.G. Checkley, S.L. Davison, T. De Buck, J. Dumond, M. Elkin, B.T. Finnegan, L. Macbeth, B.J. Nelson, C. Niptanatiak, A. Sather, S. Schwantje, H.M. van der Meer, F. Kutz, S.J.
(Frontiers in microbiology, v. 7, article 1759, Nov. 7, 2016, 14 p., ill., maps)
Supplementary information available at http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01759/full#supplementary-material.
ASTIS record 83445.
Northern ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented ecological change, largely driven by a rapidly changing climate. Pathogen range expansion, and emergence and altered patterns of infectious disease, are increasingly reported in wildlife at high latitudes. Understanding the causes and consequences of shifting pathogen diversity and host-pathogen interactions in these ecosystems is important for wildlife conservation, and for indigenous populations that depend on wildlife. Among the key questions are whether disease events are associated with endemic or recently introduced pathogens, and whether emerging strains are spreading throughout the region. In this study, we used a phylogenomic approach to address these questions of pathogen endemicity and spread for Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, an opportunistic multi-host bacterial pathogen associated with recent mortalities in arctic and boreal ungulate populations in North America. We isolated E. rhusiopathiae from carcasses associated with large-scale die-offs of muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and from contemporaneous mortality events and/or population declines among muskoxen in northwestern Alaska and caribou and moose in western Canada. Bacterial genomic diversity differed markedly among these locations; minimal divergence was present among isolates from muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic, while in caribou and moose populations, strains from highly divergent clades were isolated from the same location, or even from within a single carcass. These results indicate that mortalities among northern ungulates are not associated with a single emerging strain of E. rhusiopathiae, and that alternate hypotheses need to be explored. Our study illustrates the value and limitations of bacterial genomic data for discriminating between ecological hypotheses of disease emergence, and highlights the importance of studying emerging pathogens within the broader context of environmental and host factors. (Au)
I, N, T, J
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal mortality; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Epidemics; Genetics; Moose; Muskoxen; Native peoples; Subsistence; Wildlife management
G081, G06, G0821
Banks Island, N.W.T.; British Columbia; Seward Peninsula, Alaska; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut
Arctic biodiversity assessment : status and trends in Arctic biodiversity : synthesis / Meltofte, H. [Executive Editor] Barry, T. Berteaux, D. Bültmann, H. Christiansen, J.S. Cook, J.A. Dahlberg, A. Daniëls, F.J.A. Ehrich, D. Fjeldså, J. Friðriksson, F. Ganter, B. Gaston, A.J. Gillespie, L.J. Grenoble, L. Hoberg, E.P. Hodkinson, I.D. Huntington, H.P. Ims, R.A. Josefson, A.B. Kutz, S.J. Kuzmin, S.L. Laidre, K.L. Lassuy, D.R. Lewis, P.N. Lovejoy, C. Michel, C. Mokievsky, V. Mustonen, T. Payer, D.C. Poulin, M. Reid, D.G. Reist, J.D. Tessler, D.F. Wrona, F.J.
Akureyri, Iceland : Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Arctic Council, 2013.
128 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Cover title: Arctic biodiversity assessment synthesis.
ASTIS record 80162.
The eyes of the world are turning northwards. In recent years, interest in the Arctic has increased dramatically within and outside of Arctic countries. This is reflected in the amount of attention given to Arctic biodiversity. While the landscapes and wildlife have been the subject of explorers, scientists, artists and photographers as well as the home of a variety of peoples for a long time, until recently Arctic biodiversity did not feature very prominently in national or international policy work. This, however, is changing, as the unique values of Arctic nature are increasingly discussed at high levels. At the same time, more and more attention has been paid to the interface between science and policy to ensure that policy is built on the best science available. We are therefore very happy and proud to present the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), which has been seven years in the making. It is the result of the contributions from 252 scientists together with holders of traditional knowledge. The chapters in the main document have been peer-reviewed by over 100 scientists from all over the Arctic and the rest of the world. We are very grateful for the efforts they have made to ensure the quality of this assessment. We would especially like to thank Chief Scientist Hans Meltofte and the lead authors of the chapters. In order to communicate the findings presented in this scientific work and to inform policy makers, the board of the Arctic Council's working group on the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) has prepared a summary of the key findings and developed policy recommendations. The key findings and recommendations have been provided in a separate document, which we trust will be useful for all those who make decisions that may affect Arctic biodiversity. (Au)
J, E, I, N, H, R, T, L, G, Q
Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animals; Atmospheric chemistry; Biology; Birds; Carbon dioxide; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Environmental policy; Environmental protection; Extirpation; Fish management; Fishes; Food chain; Fresh-water ecology; Government relations; Hunting; Inuit; Marine ecology; Marine transportation; Microbial ecology; Microorganisms; Native languages; Native peoples; Oceanography; Oil spills; Plant distribution; Plants (Biology); Pollution; Public education campaigns; Quotas; Research; Sea ice ecology; Social change; Subsistence; Sustainable economic development; Temporal variations; Traditional knowledge; Treaties; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management
G02, G081, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic
Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline / Post, E. Bhatt, U.S. Bitz, C.M. Brodie, J.F. Fulton, T.L. Hebblewhite, M. Kerby, J. Kutz, S.J. Stirling, I. Walker, D.A.
(Science, v.341, no.6145, 2 Aug. 2013, p. 519-524, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 79670.
After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes. (Au)
J, I, G, E, H, F
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal population; Animals; Atmospheric temperature; Biological productivity; Carbon dioxide; Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Effects of climate on plants; Environmental impacts; Food chain; Genetics; Ice cover; Marine ecology; Melting; Parasites; Passive microwave remote sensing; Phytoplankton; Plant cover; Primary production (Biology); Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Seasonal variations; Snow cover; Temporal variations; Thickness; Wildlife habitat
Arctic regions; Arctic waters
A nearctic parasite in a palearctic host : Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae) infecting semi-domesticated reindeer in Alaska / Verocai, G.G. Lejeune, M. Finstad, G.L. Kutz, S.J.
(International journal for parasitology : Parasites and wildlife, v. 2, Dec. 2013, p. 119-123, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 79641.
Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is a muscle-dwelling protostrongylid nematode that infects caribou and white-tailed deer across North America, and can cause significant muscular and pulmonary pathology in these species. We collected 44 fecal samples from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from the Kakarak herd of western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA. This herd has no record of historical contact and extremely limited possibility of contemporary contact with native Grant’s caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) of the Western Arctic herd. Fecal samples were processed using the Baermann technique, and 22.7% (n = 10) were positive for protostrongylid dorsal-spined larvae (DSL). Genomic DNA extracted from individual DSL from each of the ten positive reindeer (total of 48 DSL) was amplified by PCR targeting the ITS-2 region of ribosomal RNA. Forty of 48 DSL were successfully sequenced and confirmed as P. andersoni and one representative sequence for each of the ten positive samples was deposited in GenBank. No other protostrongylids, including Varestrongylus sp., presumed to be widespread across caribou range, and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, which could have been introduced with reindeer from Eurasia, were detected in these samples. P. andersoni is likely widespread among introduced reindeer in Alaska, potentially causing subtle but deleterious effects with negative economic impacts on commercial herding activities. (Au)
I, N, E, J, R
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Detection; Environmental impacts; Gastropoda; Nematoda; Parasites; Reindeer; Reindeer husbandry; Socio-economic effects; Temporal variations; Ungulates; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management
Seward Peninsula, Alaska; Sibir', Russian Federation; Teller, Alaska
Divergent parasite faunas in adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou : natural and anthropogenic influences on diversity / Steele, J. Orsel, K. Cuyler, C. Hoberg, E.P. Schmidt, N.M. Kutz, S.J.
(International journal for parasitology : Parasites and wildlife, v. 2, Dec. 2013, p. 197-202)
ASTIS record 79640.
Gastrointestinal parasite diversity was characterised for two adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) through examinations of abomasa and small intestines collected from adult and subadult females during late winter. Three trichostrongyline (Trichostrongylina: Nematoda) species were identified from the abomasa, although none were recovered from the small intestines, with faunal composition differing between the caribou populations. In caribou from Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut, Marshallagia marshalli and Teladorsagia boreoarcticus were highly prevalent at 100% and 94.1%, respectively. In contrast, Ostertagia gruehneri was found at 100% prevalence in Akia-Maniitsoq caribou, and was the only abomasal parasite species present in that population. We hypothesise that parasite faunal differences between the populations are a consequence of parasite loss during caribou colonisation of the region approximately 4000–7000 years ago, followed by a more recent spill-over of parasites from muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus wardi) and semi-domesticated Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) introduced to Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut and Akia-Maniitsoq regions, respectively, in the 20th century. (Au)
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Bioclimatology; Biological sampling; Caribou; Detection; Internal organs; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Reindeer; Temporal variations; Ungulates
Lapland, Norway; Vestgrønland
Invasion, establishment, and range expansion of two parasitic nematodes in the Canadian Arctic / Kutz, S.J. Checkley, S. Verocai, G.G. Dumond, M. Hoberg, E.P. Peacock, R. Wu, J.P. Orsel, K. Seegers, K. Warren, A.L. Abrams, A.
(Global change biology, v. 19, no. 11, Nov. 2013, p.3254-3262, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 79341.
Climate warming is occurring at an unprecedented rate in the Arctic and is having profound effects on host-parasite interactions, including range expansion. Recently, two species of protostrongylid nematodes have emerged for the first time in muskoxen and caribou on Victoria Island in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, the muskox lungworm, was detected for the first time in 2008 in muskoxen at a community hunt on the southwest corner of the island and by 2012, it was found several hundred kilometers east in commercially harvested muskoxen near the town of Ikaluktutiak. In 2010, Varestrongylus sp., a recently discovered lungworm of caribou and muskoxen was found in muskoxen near Ikaluktutiak and has been found annually in this area since then. Whereas invasion of the island by U. pallikuukensis appears to have been mediated by stochastic movement of muskoxen from the mainland to the southwest corner of the island, Varestrongylus has likely been introduced at several times and locations by the seasonal migration of caribou between the island and the mainland. A newly permissive climate, now suitable for completion of the parasite life cycles in a single summer, likely facilitated the initial establishment and now drives range expansion for both parasites. (Au)
I, E, J, N, T
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal waste products; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Food; Hunting; Internal organs; Inuit; Meat industry; Muskoxen; Necropsy; Nematoda; Parasites; Safety
Cambridge Bay (Settlement) region, Nunavut; Kugluktuk region, Nunavut; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut
The modification and evaluation of an ELISA test for the surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in wild ruminants / Pruvot, M. Forde, T.L. Steele, J. Kutz, S.J. De Buck, J. van der Meer, F. Orsel, K.
(BMC veterinary research, v. 9:5, 9 Jan. 2013,  p., ill.)
ASTIS record 77251.
Background: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is often used to test wildlife samples for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. However, commercially available kits are only validated for use with domestic ruminant species. A literature review was performed to document the current use of MAP serum ELISA in wild and semi-domestic ruminants. We then modified and evaluated a commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit) for use with species for which it was not originally developed: elk (Cervus elaphus), bison (Bison bison) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus). We tested the affinity of different conjugates for immunoglobulin G (IgG) isolated from these species, performed checkerboard tests to determine the optimal dilutions of samples and conjugates, and established cut-off values using two different methods: a Receiver Operational Curve on a panel of known samples for elk, and an alternate method involving a panel of unknown serum samples for the three species. Results: We found that the anti-bovine conjugate included in the IDEXX ELISA kit has limited affinity for elk, bison, and caribou IgG. Protein G showed good affinity for IgG of all three species, while anti-deer conjugate also bound elk and caribou IgG. Using Protein G with elk serum, a cut-off sample-to-positive (S/P) value of 0.22 was selected, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 90%, respectively, whereas, using an anti-deer conjugate with elk serum, an S/P cut-off value of 0.29 gave a sensitivity of 68%, with 100% specificity. Cut-off values for bison and caribou using the Protein G conjugate were 0.17 and 0.25 respectively. Conclusions: Due to incomplete reporting and a lack of test validation, it is difficult to critically appraise results of many sero-surveys that have previously been done for MAP in wildlife. Commercial ELISA kits may have limited or no capacity to detect antibodies from species other than for which they were developed. In order to generate reliable test results, it is essential to evaluate the test and perform modifications if deemed necessary. Despite the challenges inherent to wildlife diagnostics, we have shown that several methods can be used to improve confidence in test results. (Au)
Animal diseases; Animal husbandry; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Detection; Elk; Enzymes; Equipment and supplies; North American bison; Proteins; Quality assurance; Specifications; Testing
G0822, G0812, G0821, G0826, G10
Alberta; British Columbia; Montana; N.W.T.; Nunavik, Québec; Vestgrønland
Diet and habitat of mountain woodland caribou inferred from dung preserved in 5000-year-old alpine ice in the Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada / Galloway, J.M. Adamczewski, J. Schock, D.M. Andrews, T.D. MacKay, G. Bowyer, M.E. Meulendyk, T. Moorman, B.J. Kutz, S.J.
(The archaeology and paleoecology of alpine ice patches. Arctic, v. 65, suppl. 1, 2012, p. 59-79, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 76347.
Alpine ice patches are unique repositories of cryogenically preserved archaeological artefacts and biological specimens. Recent melting of ice in the Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada, has exposed layers of dung accumulated during seasonal use of ice patches by mountain woodland caribou of the ancestral Redstone population over the past ca. 5250 years. Although attempts to isolate the DNA of known caribou parasites were unsuccessful, the dung has yielded numerous well-preserved and diverse plant remains and palynomorphs. Plant remains preserved in dung suggest that the ancestral Redstone caribou population foraged on a variety of lichens (30%), bryophytes and lycopods (26.7%), shrubs (21.6%), grasses (10.5%), sedges (7.8%), and forbs (3.4%) during summer use of alpine ice. Dung palynomorph assemblages depict a mosaic of plant communities growing in the caribou's summer habitat, including downslope boreal components and upslope floristically diverse herbaceous communities. Pollen and spore content of dung is only broadly similar to late Holocene assemblages preserved in lake sediments and peat in the study region, and differences are likely due to the influence of local vegetation and animal forage behaviour. The 5000-year legacy of summer use of alpine ice patches by mountain woodland caribou suggests that these small, long-lived features may be important for the health of caribou populations in the Selwyn/Mackenzie Mountain range. (Au)
I, H, F, B, J, E, U
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal waste products; Artifacts; Bones; Caribou; Climate change; Cores; Ice patches; Indian archaeology; Measurement; North Slavey Indians; Palaeobotany; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeoecology; Palynology; Parasites; Plant taxonomy; Plants (Biology); Radiocarbon dating; Recent epoch; Snow; Snowdrifts; Stratigraphy; Temporal variations; Wildlife habitat
Selwyn Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon
Arctic parasitology : why should we care? / Davidson, R. Simard, M. Kutz, S.J. Kapel, C.M.O. Hamnes, I.S. Robertson, L.J.
(Trends in parasitology, v. 27, no. 6, June 2011, p. 231-284, ill.)
ASTIS record 75745.
The significant impact on human and animal health from parasitic infections in tropical regions is well known, but parasites of medical and veterinary importance are also found in the Arctic. Subsistence hunting and inadequate food inspection can expose people of the Arctic to foodborne parasites. Parasitic infections can influence the health of wildlife populations and thereby food security. The low ecological diversity that characterizes the Arctic imparts vulnerability. In addition, parasitic invasions and altered transmission of endemic parasites are evident and anticipated to continue under current climate changes, manifesting as pathogen range expansion, host switching, and/or disease emergence or reduction. However, Arctic ecosystems can provide useful models for understanding climate-induced shifts in host-parasite ecology in other regions. (Au)
I, T, E, K, N, J
Adaptation (Biology); Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Caribou; Climate change; Cougars; Diseases; Environmental impacts; Epidemics; Food; Food preparation; Food security; Giardia; Health; Lungworms; Lynx; Marine mammals; Moose; Muskoxen; Native peoples; Nematoda; Parasites; Safety; Subsistence; Tapeworms; Temporal variations; Testing; Toxoplasma gondii; Trichinella; Water supply
G02, G081, G0826, G0812
Arctic regions; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Canadian Arctic; Kuujjuarapik, Québec; Nunavik, Québec
Parasite zoonoses / Polley, L. Kutz, S.J. Hoberg, E.P.
In: Encyclopedia of environmental health / Edited by J.O. Nriagu. - Amsterdam ; London : Elsevier Science, 2011, p. 325-345, ill.
ASTIS record 73510.
... Infectious diseases of people, domestic animals, and wildlife are among many sensitive indicators of environmental change. The occurrence and severity of these diseases is determined by a triad of complex interactions linking people and animals with the infectious agents causing the diseases and with their shared environment. Changes in any of these components or the linkages between them can lead to altered patterns of disease, including emergence of new and resurgence of old diseases. Among infectious agents (parasites, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and prions) of people, more than half are zoonotic - they can be naturally transmitted to people from domestic animals or wildlife, and wildlife are arguably the most important source for emerging infectious diseases for people. This article explores some of the known and possible effects of environmental change on parasite zoonoses in people and in animals. In this context, the environment embraces geographical, historical, ecological, climatological, cultural, social, economic, and political factors that individually and in variable combinations can influence the occurrence of parasite zoonoses and the diseases they cause. The complexity means that it is often very difficult to identify and quantify the role of specific environmental factors in determining patterns of disease, and although there is observational, experimental, and model-based evidence for the impacts of environmental change on zoonotic host-parasite systems, to date much of the exploration of this issue is based at least on conjecture. ... Parasite zoonoses are those parasites that can be naturally transmitted from animals to people. ... The fourth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) listed the three most important directional changes in the climate now and in the foreseeable future as (1) warming, (2) altered patterns of precipitation, and (3) increased incidence and severity of extreme climatic events. Depending on the circumstances, the net effects of these changes can favor or inhibit the hosts, the parasites, or neither or both .... Parasite zoonoses present a long list of challenges for exploration, understanding, and adaptation. So much human infection and disease associated with these parasites is built into where and how people live, what they eat, and their level of general health, well-being, and education. Improving these aspects of everyday life, together with maximizing the availability of specific measures for prevention and treatment when required, will help to reduce the immense burden of these and many other infectious diseases for millions. (Au)
I, H, K, J, E, R, F, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal husbandry; Animals; Arthropoda; Atmospheric temperature; Bacteria; Bioclimatology; Biology; Blood; Climate change; Diseases; Environmental impacts; Fungi; Health; Hygiene; Internal migration; Land use; Nematoda; Parasites; Plant distribution; Protozoa; Tapeworms; Temporal variations; Trematoda; Viruses; Water resources
Arctic regions; Asia; Central America; Europe; North America; South America
Filter paper blood samples for ELISA detection of Brucella antibodies in caribou / Curry, P.S. Elkin, B.T. Campbell, M. Nielsen, K. Hutchins, W. Ribble, C. Kutz, S.J.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 47, no. 1, Jan. 2011, p. 12-20, ill.)
ASTIS record 73257.
We evaluated blood collected on Nobuto filter-paper (FP) strips for use in detecting Brucella spp. antibodies in caribou. Whole blood (for serum) and blood-saturated FP strips were obtained from 185 killed arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Sample pairs (serum and FP eluates) were simultaneously tested in duplicate using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and indirect ELISA (i-ELISA) for Brucella spp. Prior work based on isolation of Brucella spp. revealed sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of 100% and 99%, respectively, for both these serum assays in caribou. Infection status of the animals in the current study was unknown but recent sampling had revealed clinical brucellosis and >40% Brucella antibody prevalence in the herd. To assess the performance of FP relative to serum in these assays, serum was used as the putative gold standard. On both assays, the findings for duplicate runs (A and B) were similar. For c-ELISA run A, the FP Brucella prevalence (47%) was lower than serum prevalence (52%), with SE 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82-95%) and SP 99% (97-100%). For i-ELISA run A, serum and FP Brucella prevalence rates were identical (43%), and the SE and SP of FP testing were 100% and 99% (97-100%), respectively. The findings suggest better FP test performance with i-ELISA than with c-ELISA; however, i-ELISA does not distinguish cross-reacting antibodies induced by Brucella vaccination or exposure to certain other Gram-negative pathogens. Results for duplicate FP eluates (prepared using separate FP strips from each animal) were strongly correlated for both protocols (r=0.996 and 0.999 for c-ELISA and i-ELISA, respectively), indicating minimal variability among FPs from any individual caribou. Dried caribou FP blood samples stored for 2 mo at room temperature are comparable with serum for use in Brucella spp. c-ELISA and i-ELISA. Hunter-based FP sampling can facilitate detection of disease exposure in remote regions and under adverse conditions, and can expand wildlife disease surveillance across temporospatial scales. (Au)
Animal diseases; Animal physiology; Bioassays; Biological sampling; Blood; Brucellosis; Caribou; Detection; Enzymes; Equipment and supplies; Logistics; Testing; Wildlife management
Coral Harbour region, Nunavut; Southampton Island, Nunavut
The impact of climate change on disease emergence : lessons from the Arctic / Kutz, S.J. Hoar, B. Massolo, A.
In: Symposium : disease invasion : impacts on biodiversity and human health. - London : Zoological Society of London, 2010,  p.
Abstract of an oral presentation.
Held 18-19 November 2010 in London at the Zoological Society of London.
Organised in partnership with The Royal Society as part of its 350th anniversary celebrations in 2010.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75897.
Climate change at northern latitudes is resulting in dramatic perturbations in the biotic and abiotic environment, including changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. Host-parasite interactions are highly sensitive to climate change and general predictions include reduced generation times and increased diversity, abundance and severity of pathogens in northern wildlife. During the past decade several examples of climate-linked parasite and/or disease emergence have been reported for arctic ungulates. The response of these host-parasite systems to climate change is complex, not uniform across taxa, and not always intuitive. For example, consistent with general climate change predictions, the generation time has decreased and the geographic range has expanded for Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, the protostrongylid lungworm of muskoxen. Contrary to predictions, however, recent research on Ostertagia gruehneri the Trichostrongylid abomasal nematode of caribou, suggests that generation times will be unaffected by climate change and increased temperatures could actually reduce availability of infective larvae at certain times of the year. We use these and other case studies of endemic and invasive northern parasites to explore the impacts of climate change on host-parasite interactions at high latitudes and discuss insights relevant to a broader understanding of parasite ecology. (Au)
I, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Ungulates
Tools and collaborative approaches to bridging the communication gap between scientists and northern communities about caribou health and conservation / Brook, R.K. Kutz, S.J. Muelling, C. Flood, P. Anderson, J.
In: 24th International Congress for Conservation Biology : conservation for a changing planet, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 3-7 July 2010. - Washington, D.C. : Society for Conservation Biology, 2010, p. 30
Abstract of a poster presentation (P1.28).
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75893.
Barriers to communication among scientists and indigenous communities in northern Canada about caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) health and conservation include: language, world-view, motivations, and a lack of suitable communication tools to facilitate knowledge sharing. The need for improved communication and collaboration is particularly acute given recent dramatic caribou declines. Understanding changes to caribou requires a diverse set of knowledge, tools, and approaches. Despite a range of anatomical features that are unique to the species and active research on diverse aspects their biology, relatively little work has been done to describe the anatomy of the genus Rangifer. It is important to describe what is 'normal' structure and function so that we can begin to understand 'abnormal'. The purpose of the Rangifer Anatomy Project (RAP) is to describe the anatomy of Rangifer from both scientific and traditional perspectives. Data on caribou anatomy have been obtained from lab-based scientific dissections of preserved reindeer and field-based dissections of caribou while participating on community caribou hunts. Interviews with hunters and elders have elicited information on traditional uses of caribou parts as food, medicine, clothing, and equipment. We anticipate that the process of this project and the final products that describe caribou anatomy from multiple perspectives will ultimately facilitate greater discussion about caribou health and conservation. (Au)
I, T, N, R, L
Animal anatomy; Animal health; Caribou; Co-management; Communication; Effects monitoring; Elders; Epistemology; Hunting; Native peoples; Necropsy; Public participation; Reindeer; Science; Scientists; Social surveys; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management
Amphibian chytrid fungus and ranaviruses in the Northwest Territories, Canada / Schock, D.M. Ruthig, G.R. Collins, J.P. Kutz, S.J. Carrière, S. Gau, R.J. Veitch, A.M. Larter, N.C. Tate, D.P. Guthrie, G. Allaire, D.G. Popko, R.A.
(Chytridiomycosis : an emerging disease / Edited by A. Hyatt, C. Carey, A. Cunningham, and R. Speare. Diseases of aquatic organisms, v. 92, no. 2-3, Nov. 2010, p. 231-240, maps)
This paper was supplied by the authors as being funded by an IPY project on caribou.
ASTIS record 73509.
Pathogens can cause serious declines in host species, and knowing where pathogens associated with host declines occur facilitates understanding host-pathogen ecology. Suspected drivers of global amphibian declines include infectious diseases, with 2 pathogens in particular, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviruses, causing concern. We explored the host range and geographic distribution of Bd and ranaviruses in the Taiga Plains ecoregion of the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2007 and 2008. Both pathogens were detected, greatly extending their known geographic distributions. Ranaviruses were widespread geographically, but found only in wood frogs. In contrast, Bd was found at a single site, but was detected in all 3 species of amphibians in the survey area (wood frogs, boreal chorus frogs, western toads). The presence of Bd in the Northwest Territories is not congruent with predicted distributions based on niche models, even though findings from other studies at northern latitudes are consistent with those same models. Unexpectedly, we also found evidence that swabs routinely used to collect samples for Bd screening detected fewer infections than toe clips. Our use and handling of the swabs was consistent with other studies, and the cause of the apparent lack of integrity of swabs is unknown. The ranaviruses detected in our study were confirmed to be Frog Virus 3 by sequence analysis of a diagnostic 500 bp region of the major capsid protein gene. It is unknown whether Bd or ranaviruses are recent arrivals to the Canadian north. However, the genetic analyses required to answer that question can inform larger debates about the origin of Bd in North America as well as the potential effects of climate change and industrial development on the distributions of these important amphibian pathogens. (Au)
I, H, J
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal live-capture; Animal population; Biological sampling; Frogs; Fungi; Genetics; Proteins; Viruses
Blackstone River region, N.W.T.; Colville Lake region, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope region, N.W.T.; Fort Liard region, N.W.T.; Jean Marie River region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Nahanni National Park, N.W.T.; Norman Wells region, N.W.T.; Wrigley region, N.W.T.
Evaluation and delivery of domestic animal health services in remote communities in the Northwest Territories : a case study of status and needs / Brook, R.K. Kutz, S.J. Millins, C. Veitch, A.M. Elkin, B.T. Leighton, T.
(Canadian veterinary journal, v. 51, no. 10, Oct. 2010, p.1115-1122, ill.)
ASTIS record 73264.
Domestic animal health services are supplied to communities in Canada's Northwest Territories (NT) in diverse ways, including private veterinary practices in 2 of 33 communities, and by mail-order, fly-in, free clinics, and a government-coordinated lay vaccinator program in some of the other 31 communities. We evaluated delivery, needs, and potential uptake of domestic animal health services in the Sahtu Settlement Area, NT by offering free clinics for 225 dogs in 2008 and 2009; and administered questionnaires to 42 dog owners and 67 students in 2008. Owners indicated that 20% of dogs were neutered, 37% had had rabies vaccinations, and 29% had been dewormed. Physical examination of dogs demonstrated that 54% were "thin" and 4% were "emaciated." Owners and youth showed a range of attitudes toward dogs and supported improved domestic animal health services. Future services need to build on existing programs and collaborate with communities to ensure relevance, ownership, and sustainability. (Au)
I, T, R, K
Animal health; Animal waste products; Capacity building; Diseases; Dogs; Education; Giardia; Health; Immunization; North Slavey Indians; Parasites; Public opinion; Rabies; Social surveys; Tapeworms; Viruses; Youth
Colville Lake (Settlement), N.W.T.; Deline, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope, N.W.T.; Norman Wells, N.W.T.; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.; Tulita, N.W.T.
Tools and collaborative approaches to bridging the communication gap between northern communities and scientists about caribou anatomy and health / Brook, R.K. Kutz, S.J. Muelling, C. Flood, P. Anderson, J.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. PS2-B.86,  p.
Abstract of a poster presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71712.
Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations across the circumpolar north are facing dramatic impacts in response to climate change and human development. Despite a shared interest in Rangifer sustainability, sometimes misunderstandings have arisen among caribou users, researchers, and management agencies. These conflicts often reflect differences in world views, language barriers, and lapses in communication. With regard to understanding and communicating caribou health, there are relatively few resources available to help facilitate discussion and describe what is 'normal' structure and function so that we can begin to understand 'abnormal'. At the same time a diverse set of knowledge, tools, and approaches are needed that meaningfully address/bridge the differences that exist. Despite a range of anatomical features that are unique to the species, little work has been done to describe the anatomy of the genus Rangifer. Given the range of perceptions and knowledge regarding caribou and reindeer from scientific and community perspectives, it is essential to develop tools that integrate scientific approaches to caribou anatomy with the observations and knowledge of indigenous people in northern regions in that northern communities have expressed a desire to be involved in research and monitoring. The purpose of the Rangifer Anatomy Project (RAP) is to describe Rangifer in ways that are useful to indigenous hunters, educators, students, biologists, and veterinarians through posters, books, and electronic tools. Development of these resources involves detailed anatomical dissections and histological analysis in the laboratory, collaborative dissections that engage hunters, youth and elders during community caribou hunts in the North, and interviews that document knowledge of historical and contemporary uses of caribou for food, medicine, and tools. We anticipate that the process of this project and the final products that describe caribou anatomy from multiple perspectives will ultimately facilitate greater discussion about caribou health. Keywords: caribou, health, anatomy, traditional knowledge. (Au)
I, T, N, R, L
Animal anatomy; Animal health; Caribou; Co-management; Communication; Effects monitoring; Elders; Epistemology; Hunting; Native peoples; Necropsy; Occupational training; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Reindeer; Research; Research personnel; Science; Scientists; Social surveys; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management; Youth
Genetic diversity of the vector-borne pathogen Trypanosoma (Protozoa) in caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) herds in North America, Greenland and Finland / Schock, D.M. Kutz, S.J. Branigan, M. Bollinger, T.K. Cooley, D. Côté, S. Croft, B. Cuyler, C. Elkin, B. Fernando, C. Heikkinen, P. Laaksonen, S. Oksanen, A. Taillon, J.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, , p. 55
Abstract of a poster.
ASTIS record 69859.
Caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) are keystone species in northern ecosystems and integral to the cultural fabric of northern peoples. Our research is genetically characterizing the vector-borne blood parasite Trypanosoma (Protozoa) from several Rangifer herds in North America, Greenland and Finland to better understand host ranges and geographic distributions. In domestic cattle these parasites are common in animals under stress and are associated with abortions. Because Trypanosoma is a vector-borne pathogen, climate change is likely to alter distributions and intensify impacts on host health in northern areas. We examined a ~500 bp region of the 18S gene of Trypanosoma from several Rangifer herds and other North American ungulates. Phylogentic analyses indicate that there are at least two distinct genotypes of Trypanosoma in Rangifer, one of which that has not be previously documented in the scientific literature. Only a single genotype, the most common one, was detected in Rangifer from the Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut herd in Greenland, but multiple genotypes were detected in all other Rangifer herds. No genotypes were isolated strictly from Rangifer; they were also detected in mule deer from Saskatchewan, and bison from the Northwest Territories. We found evidence of individuals simultaneously infected by two genotypes of Trypanosoma. Our study indicates that Rangifer herds are susceptible to infection by multiple strains of Trypanosoma and that, in North American ungulates, Trypanosoma are likely multi-host pathogens. This has numerous implications for disease dynamics in all host species. (Au)
I, N, E
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal taxonomy; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Genetics; Parasites; Protozoa; Reindeer husbandry; Ungulates
G08, G10, G13, G0812, G0823
Canada; Greenland; Lapland, Finland; N.W.T.; Saskatchewan
The Rangifer Anatomy Project : developing tools for communicating community and scientific approaches to caribou structure and function / Brook, R. Kutz, S.J. Muelling, C. Flood, P. Anderson, J.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, , p. 52
Abstract of a poster.
ASTIS record 69854.
Caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are facing dramatic impacts across their broad range in response to climate change and human development. Understanding these impacts on health of the species requires a diverse set of knowledge, tools, and approaches. Despite a range of anatomical features that are unique to the species, little work has been done to describe the anatomy of the genus Rangifer. It is important to describe what is 'normal' structure and function so that we can begin to understand 'abnormal'. At the same time, given the range of perceptions and knowledge regarding caribou and reindeer from scientific and community perspectives, it is essential to develop tools that integrate scientific approaches to caribou anatomy with the observations and knowledge of indigenous people in northern regions in that northern communities have expressed a desire to be involved in research and monitoring. The purpose of the Rangifer Anatomy Project (RAP) is to describe Rangifer in ways that are useful to Dene, Inuit, Cree, and Métis hunters, educators, students, biologists, and veterinarians through posters, booklets, and electronic tools. Development of these resources involves detailed anatomical dissections and histological analysis in the laboratory, collaborative dissections that engage hunters, youth and elders during community caribou hunts in the North, and interviews that document knowledge of historical and contemporary uses of caribou for food, medicine, and tools. We anticipate that the process of this project and the final products that describe caribou anatomy from multiple perspectives will ultimately facilitate greater discussion about caribou health. (Au)
I, T, N
Animal anatomy; Animal food; Animal health; Caribou; Climate change ; Effects monitoring; Effects of climate on plants; Elders; Food; Grazing; Hunting; Native peoples; Participatory action research; Social surveys; Traditional knowledge
Distribution and diversity of the vector-borne pathogens Trypanosoma (Protozoa) and Setaria (Nematoda) in wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds in North America and Greenland / Schock, D.M. Kutz, S.J. Laaksonen, S. Heikkinen, P. Branigan, M. Cooley, D. Côté, S.D. Croft, B. Cuyler, C. Elkin, B. Oksanen, A. Taillon, J.
In: ArcticNet programme 2009 : annual scientific meeting, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. = ArcticNet programme 2009 : réunion scientifique annuelle, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2009, p. 64-65
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 73566.
Caribou/reindeer (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) is a keystone species in northern ecosystems and is integral to the cultural fabric of northern peoples who have relied on them for thousands of years. Distressingly, many herds are declining at rates not consistent with known population size fluctuations. The causes of these declines are not well understood but are likely multifaceted. Our research project is part of broader International Polar Year programs that are establishing methods for monitoring herd health and gathering baseline information for several pathogens. We are investigating geographic distributions and genetically characterizing two vectorborne pathogens, Trypanosoma (Protozoa) and Setaria (Nematoda), in North American and Greenland caribou herds. Trypanosoma in North American ungulates are a distinct phylogenetic clade and are not acutely pathogenic like their African counterparts; they are, however, associated with abortions and more common in animals under stress. Setaria is an economically significant pathogen in Fennoscandia reindeer herds and appears to be moving northward in Finland. Population-level impacts of these pathogens on wild herds are unknown but because they are vector-borne, climate change is likely to alter their distributions and may intensify their impacts on host health because of increased abundance. Our research is identifying previously undescribed strains, and possibly species, of these pathogens. By comparing strains of Trypanosoma and Setaria detected in the wild caribou herds to strains from other North American ungulates, we are learning about host ranges of these pathogens and to what extent the strains found in wild Rangifer herds are endemic. Our research is also contributing to a better overall understanding of biodiversity in northern ecosystems. (Au)
I, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Nematoda; Parasites; Protozoa
Greenland; North America
Where are the parasites? / Kutz, S.J. Dobson, A.P. Hoberg, E.P.
(Science, v.326, no.5957, 27 Nov. 2009, p.1187-1188, ill.)
ASTIS record 73524.
The Review by E. Post et al. (“Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change,” 11 September, p. 1355) paid little heed to parasites and other pathogens. The rapidly growing literature on parasites in arctic and subarctic ecosystems provides empirical and observational evidence that climate-linked changes have already occurred. The life cycle of the protostrongylid lungworm of muskoxen, Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, has changed, and the range of that organism and the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, has expanded. Extremes in temperature and the hydrological cycle, predicted in most climate scenarios, can result in epidemic disease outbreaks in arctic-adapted species such as reindeer and muskoxen, with substantial economic costs for northern aboriginal peoples. Similarly, increased frequency and magnitude of flooding might enhance transmission of waterborne pathogens such as zoonotic strains of Giardia, in and between terrestrial and marine systems. Parasites whose stages in the environment are buffered by gastropod or insect intermediate hosts/vectors have the potential to increase in abundance and distribution, whereas for those with life stages that develop freely in the environment, extreme variability in microhabitat temperatures and humidity might either increase or reduce their abundance. Given the low species diversity of arctic ecosystems, and the potentially reduced immunocompetence of arctic species, these host systems may be particularly sensitive to parasitic invasions. Invasions will occur primarily through range expansion of more southerly host species, through ongoing wildlife translocations, and increasing pressures for domestic animal agriculture. All will radically alter the existing parasite fauna and lead to parasite-mediated competition between current residents and newly arrived host species. This might in turn lead to the loss of parasite diversity as arctic-adapted hosts and their endemic parasite species become increasingly displaced by competitive interactions. Such changes will have profound consequences for ecosystem structure and function and directly impact the health, economy, food safety, food security, and cultural activities of northern peoples. (Au)
I, E, J, N, F
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Arthropoda; Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Epidemics; Floods; Food; Food security; Gastropoda; Giardia; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Protozoa; Reindeer husbandry; Safety; Ungulates; Wildlife management
Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic
Health at the interface of people, dogs, and wildlife : building sustainable domestic animal health care services in remote northern communities / Kutz, S.J. Brook, R.K. Veitch, A.M. Millins, C. Salb, A. Elkin, B. Black, S. Dubey, J.P. Thompson, A. Whiteside, D.
In: ArcticNet programme 2009 : annual scientific meeting, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. = ArcticNet programme 2009 : réunion scientifique annuelle, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2009, p. 52
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 73267.
The role of dogs in northern communities has changed considerably over the past century. Although today there remain some working or recreational dog teams most are considered guard dogs or pets. Recently, several cases of dog welfare and dog attacks have appeared in the northern press and these have highlighted the issue about availability and accessibility to animal health services and education. Using veterinary graduate courses and student community health rotations we investigated dog health and the current status and need for domestic animal health care services in small and isolated communities of the Northwest Territories. We found that, with the exception of a rabies lay-vaccinator program, there is little to no direct access to animal health education and standard preventative health care services for domestic animals. There are, however, numerous health related issues which include zoonotic diseases (e.g., rabies, Echinococcus, Giardia, Toxocara), transmission of pathogens among dogs and wildlife (distemper, rabies, parvo, parasites), dog bite injuries, and dog health and welfare. We found a wide range of attitudes towards domestic dogs, and a variety of barriers to acceptance and uptake of services even when they were available and free. For example, despite an ongoing rabies lay-vaccination program less than half the dogs in the communities had been vaccinated for rabies. Veterinary graduate and undergraduate students have been involved throughout this research and local youth have been engaged in animal health and welfare topics and activities during the outreach clinics. This has been met with considerable enthusiasm on the part of the veterinary students, the youth, and the teachers and appears to be having long lasting impacts on all participants. In addition, interactions with youth have provided us with unique insight into the challenges of dog health care in the communities. There is a clear need across much of the North for ongoing, culturally appropriate, accessible, and affordable animal health care services. Successful establishment will require community buy-in as well as ongoing commitment by health care providers, not only to service provision, but to outreach, education and understanding the socio-cultural context. (Au)
I, T, R, K
Animal health; Curricula; Dogs; Education; Health; Immunization; Native peoples; Rabies; Youth
The Rangifer Anatomy Project : linking community and scientific approaches to caribou structure and function / Brook, R. Kutz, S.J. Muelling, C. Flood, P. Anderson, J.
In: ArcticNet programme 2009 : annual scientific meeting, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. = ArcticNet programme 2009 : réunion scientifique annuelle, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2009, p. 28-29
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 73261.
Understanding changes to caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) across their broad range and the potential impacts of climate change and human development on the health of the species requires a diverse set of knowledge, tools, and approaches. Despite a range of anatomical features that are unique to the species and very active research on diverse aspects their biology, relatively little work has been done to describe the anatomy of the genus Rangifer. It is important to describe what is 'normal' structure and function so that we can begin to understand 'abnormal' and to have a solid standardized basis of anatomical knowledge for sampling and scientific description of research findings. At the same time, given the range of perceptions and knowledge regarding caribou and reindeer from scientific and community perspectives, it is essential to develop tools that integrate scientific approaches to caribou anatomy with the observations and knowledge of indigenous people in northern regions in that northern communities have expressed a desire to be involved in research and monitoring. The purpose of the Rangifer Anatomy Project (RAP) is to describe Rangifer in ways that are useful to Dene, Inuit, Cree, and Métis hunters, educators, students, biologists, and veterinarians through posters, booklets, and electronic tools. To facilitate standardized post mortem sampling by hunters and scientists, practical guides will be developed to describe the landmarks and techniques for collection of important tissue samples like lymph nodes and specific muscles. Development of these resources involves detailed anatomical dissections and histological analysis in the laboratory, collaborative dissections that engage hunters, youth and elders during community caribou hunts in the North, and interviews that document knowledge of historical and contemporary uses of caribou for food, medicine, and tools. We have also visited schools in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut to consult with teachers regarding the development and piloting of these products and engage students in learning about caribou anatomy. During community caribou hunts, youth have participated in dissections and conducted elder interviews to learn about traditional uses and names for different caribou parts. We hope that this work will encourage youth to consider careers in science, as well as help validate the importance of traditional knowledge. The overall approach is collaborative and integrates the two ways of knowing. We anticipate that the process of this project and the final products that describe caribou anatomy from multiple perspectives will ultimately facilitate greater discussion about caribou health (Au)
I, T, N, R
Animal anatomy; Animal health; Animal population; Biological sampling; Caribou; Cree Indians; Curricula; Dene Indians; Education; Elders; Food; Hunting; Inuit; Metis; Necropsy; Public participation; Reindeer; Scientists; Social surveys; Subsistence; Teachers; Traditional knowledge; Youth
The health and resilience of caribou populations : insights gained from an IPY parasite snapshot in time / Kutz, S.J. Brook, R.K. Schock, D.M. Ducrocq, J. Croft, B. Cuyler, C. Elkin, B.E. Cooley, D. Cote, S. Taillon, J.
In: ArcticNet programme 2009 : annual scientific meeting, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. = ArcticNet programme 2009 : réunion scientifique annuelle, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2009, p. 51
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Author B.E. Elkin should be B.T. Elkin.
ASTIS record 73259.
Caribou and reindeer, Rangifer tarandus ssp., are keystone species across much of the CircumArctic. They are essential components of healthy ecosystems and contribute substantially to the physical, spiritual, and economic health of northern communities. Recent dramatic population declines amidst an array of environmental and social changes highlight the need to better understand the factors that influence the health and resilience of this species. Health is a product of many different factors and can be defined differently depending on context and values. In this paper we discuss 'health' at the individual and population levels and explore proximate and ultimate factors that influence caribou health at multiple scales. In particular, we discuss the significant, and frequently overlooked, impacts that macro (worms and insects) and micro (viruses, bacteria, protozoa) parasites can have on individuals and populations. We present an IPY snapshot in time of parasite profiles for several herds and discuss how parasites may directly influence caribou health and how they may interact with other population drivers such as predation, habitat, and climate to influence health. An integrated approach will greatly enhance our understanding of the multiple factors driving the rise and fall of caribou populations. Such an approach is vital in order to effectively predict population trajectories and implement appropriate management actions. (Au)
I, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal population; Bacteria; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Insects; Nematoda; Parasites; Predation; Protozoa; Tapeworms; Trematoda; Viruses; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management
Parasite zoonoses and wildlife : emerging issues / Thompson, R.C.A. Kutz, S.J. Smith, A.
(International journal of environmental research and public health, v. 6, no. 2, Feb. 2009, p. 678-693, ill.)
ASTIS record 70406.
The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact. (Au)
I, K, N, T, J
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Animal physiology; Animal population; Animal waste products; Animals; Arthropoda; Caucasians; Diseases; Dogs; Epidemics; Evolution (Biology); Gastrointestinal disorders; Giardia; Health; Inuit; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Mammals; Parasites; Protozoa; Tapeworms; Toxoplasma gondii; Wildlife management
G08, G02, G0812, G13
Arctic regions; Australia; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Canada; Europe; North America; Scandinavia
Ecology of the gastrointestinal parasites of Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana : possible anthropozoonotic transmission / Teichroeb, J.A. Kutz, S.J. Parkar, U. Thompson, R.C.A. Sicotte, P.
(American journal of physical anthropology, v.140, no. 3, May 2009, p. 498-507, ill.)
ASTIS record 70404.
Parasite richness and prevalence in wild animals can be used as indicators of population and ecosystem health. In this study, the gastrointestinal parasites of ursine colobus monkeys (Colobus vellerosus) at the Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary (BFMS), Ghana, were investigated. BFMS is a sacred grove where monkeys and humans have long lived in relatively peaceful proximity. Fecal samples (n = 109) were collected opportunistically from >27 adult and subadult males in six bisexual groups and one all-male band from July 2004 to August 2005. Using fecal floatation, we detected three protozoans (two Entamoeba sp., Isospora sp.), five nematodes (Ascaris sp., Enterobius sp., Trichuris sp., two strongyle sp.), and one digenean trematode. Using fluorescein labeled antibodies, we detected an additional protozoan (Giardia sp.), and with PCR techniques, we characterized this as G. duodenalis Assemblage B and also identified a protistan (Blastocystis sp., subtype 2). The most prevalent parasite species were G. duodenalis and Trichuris sp. Parasites were more prevalent in the long wet season than the long dry. Parasite prevalence did not vary by age, and average parasite richness did not differ by rank for males whose status remained unchanged. However, males that changed rank tended to show higher average parasite richness when they were lower ranked. Individuals that spent more time near human settlements had a higher prevalence of Isospora sp. that morphologically resembled the human species I. belli. The presence of this parasite and G. duodenalis Assemblage B indicates possible anthropozoonotic and/or zoonotic transmission between humans and colobus monkeys at this site. (Au)
I, K, N
Age; Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Animal physiology; Animal population; Animal waste products; Anthropology; Caucasians; Diseases; Epidemics; Gastrointestinal disorders; Gender differences; Health; Monkeys; Parasites; Seasonal variations
Fostering community-based wildlife health monitoring and research in the Canadian North / Brook, R.K. Kutz, S.J. Veitch, A.M. Popko, R.A. Elkin, B.T. Guthrie, G.
(EcoHealth, v. 6, no. 2, June 2009, p. 266-278, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 70396.
Many northern Canadians have continued a subsistence lifestyle of wildlife harvesting and, therefore, value sustainable wildlife populations. At a regional wildlife workshop in the Sahtu Settlement Area, Northwest Territories in 2002, elders and community leaders raised concerns regarding wildlife health, food safety, and the effects of climate change on wildlife. They requested that efforts be put toward training youth in science and increasing involvement of hunters and youth in wildlife research. In response, we initiated a long-term, integrated approach to foster community-based wildlife health monitoring and research. Annual trips were made to all schools in the Sahtu from 2003 to 2009 to provide hands-on learning for 250-460 students on a range of wildlife topics. In addition, interviews were conducted with 31 hunters and elders to document their local ecological knowledge of wildlife health and local hunters were trained as monitors to collect tissue samples and measurements to assess body condition and monitor health of harvested caribou (n = 69) and moose (n = 19). In 2007 the program was extended to include participation in the annual caribou hunt held by one community. Each year since 2005, a graduate student and/or a postdoctoral trainee in the veterinary or biological sciences has participated in the program. The program has evolved during the last 6 years in response to community and school input, results of empirical research, hunter feedback, local knowledge, and logistical constraints. The continuity of the program is attributed to the energetic collaboration among diverse partners and a unified approach that responds to identified needs. (Au)
I, T, E, J, R, N, L
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal population; Animals; Biological sampling; Birds; Caribou; Climate change; Co-management; Costs; Curricula; Education; Effects monitoring; Elders; Employment; Fishing; Food; Furbearing animals; Hunting; Income; Moose; North Slavey Indians; Occupational training; Parasites; Participatory action research; Population; Public opinion; Public participation; Research; Science; Social surveys; Subsistence; Taiga ecology; Temporal variations; Trapping; Tundra ecology; Wildlife management; Winter roads
Colville Lake (Settlement), N.W.T.; Deline, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope, N.W.T.; Norman Wells, N.W.T.; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.; Tulita, N.W.T.
The Arctic as a model for anticipating, preventing, and mitigating climate change impacts on host-parasite interactions / Kutz, S.J. Jenkins, E.J. Veitch, A.M. Ducrocq, J. Polley, L. Elkin, B. Lair, S.
(One world, one health : parasites in a changing landscape - plenary lectures presented at the 22nd International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology / Edited by D.D. Colwel. Veterinary parasitology, v.163, no. 3, 7 Aug. 2009, p. 217-228, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 69147.
Climate change is influencing the structure and function of natural ecosystems around the world, including host-parasite interactions and disease emergence. Understanding the influence of climate change on infectious disease at temperate and tropical latitudes can be challenging because of numerous complicating biological, social, and political factors. Arctic and Subarctic regions may be particularly good models for unraveling the impacts of climate change on parasite ecology because they are relatively simple systems with low biological diversity and few other complicating anthropogenic factors. We examine some changing dynamics of host-parasite interactions at high latitudes and use these to illustrate a framework for approaching understanding, preventing, and mitigating climate change impacts on infectious disease, including zoonoses, in wildlife. (Au)
I, E, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal mortality; Arthropoda; Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Caribou; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Elk; Environmental impacts; Gastropoda; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Moose; Mountain sheep; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Protozoa; Ungulates; Warble flies; Wildlife management
G0811, G0812, G0813, G0826
N.W.T.; Nunavik, Québec; Nunavut; Yukon
Engaging indigenous and rural people in detecting emerging infectious diseases / Brook, R.K. Kutz, S.J.
In: 57th Annual International Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association : wildlife diseases, northern and western frontiers : official program and abstracts, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 3-8, 2008. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 2008, p. 19
Abstract of an oral presentation (8).
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75885.
Disease surveillance and detection of emerging diseases first requires that a baseline of existing pathogens is established. Contemporary disease monitoring programs are largely focused on areas with relatively high human population densities and in comparatively close proximity to university trained disease experts. These programs are generally effective in and around cities and towns, but are constrained in more rural and remote regions that are logistically challenging to monitor due to their overall size, difficulties in access, and relatively lower priority given the few people present. Despite these challenges, it is imperative that wildlife diseases be detected early as they can have important ecological and human health implications. Given the limited understanding of pathogens, combined with the poorly understood impacts of human development and climate change, surveillance approaches are needed to detect diseases that are predicted and those that are not. We discuss challenges and opportunities associated with developing a disease monitoring strategy that incorporates the local ecological knowledge of rural and indigenous people with conventional science-based diagnostics. Our approach emphasizes generating a common understanding of the needs of the communities and the researchers, using lay people as 'eyes on the land' through their frequent observation and consumption of wildlife. (Au)
I, N, K, T, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal health; Climate change; Detection; Diseases; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Food; Health; Native peoples; Subsistence; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management
Canada; Canadian Arctic
Pathogens of domestic and free-ranging ungulates : global climate change in temperate to boreal latitudes across North America / Hoberg, E.P. Polley, L. Jenkins, E.J. Kutz, S.J.
(Climate change: impact on the epidemiology and control of animal diseases / Edited by S. de la Rocque, S. Morand, and G. Hendrickx. Revue scientifique et technique - Office international des épizooties, v. 27, no. 2, 2008, p. 511-528, maps)
French and Spanish abstracts provided.
ASTIS record 73266.
In North America broad-based research networks explore the interaction of vertebrates, their characteristic arrays of pathogens and emergent disease. A diversity of programmes address the impact of environmental change on animal health, zoonoses, and human health, but as yet no comprehensive framework or strategy has emerged to develop and implement policy and planning. In a regime of climate change and ecological perturbation, the need to document and understand the health, agricultural, societal and economic impact of pathogens and emerging infectious disease is urgent. An integrated and proactive planning process linking national and international resources can lead to informed predictions about the impact of environmental change and can identify pathways for potential management and mitigation. An effective and comprehensive programme will have components for establishing priorities, developing primary data for faunal structure and biodiversity, a capacity for monitoring and surveillance (including scanning and targeted activities), and linkage to historical and contemporary baselines (against which to assess change) established through archival biological collections. Field and laboratory studies are also necessary to determine developmental thresholds, tolerances and tipping points for many pathogens to establish a context for recognising current constraints and future perturbation, and to explore factors that promote emergence for a variety of pathogens, vectors and pest species. Predictive modelling and risk assessment utilising a range of scenarios for climate change is a final step in this multidisciplinary process. (Au)
I, J, E, N, K
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal population; Arthropoda; Bacteria; Climate change; Diseases; Environmental impacts; Forecasting; Health; Nematoda; Parasites; Planning; Protozoa; Trematoda; Ungulates; Viruses; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management
Canada; Canadian Arctic; North America
Giardia assemblage A : human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic / Kutz, S.J. Thompson, R.C.A. Polley, L. Kandola, K. Nagy, J. Wielinga, C.M. Elkin, B.T.
(Parasites & vectors, v. 1, no. 32, Sept. 22, 2008, 4 p.)
ASTIS record 70407.
As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype. ... Discovery of G. duodenalis Assemblage A in muskoxen in this remote, frigid and sparsely populated region was unexpected. Published records of Assemblage A in free-ranging ungulates are limited to a white-tailed deer in Maryland, a roe deer from the Netherlands and moose and reindeer in Norway). Assemblage A in animals is typically associated with ongoing or historical contact with people (e.g., apes; beavers; dogs), and we suspect that Assemblage A in muskoxen also resulted from a host-switch from people. This could have occurred once or repeatedly any time since the first known human presence on Banks Island (Pre-Dorset culture - 1500BC-1000AD). Muskoxen were extremely rare on the island in the early 20th century, however, and the present infection may more likely result from recent, and perhaps ongoing, introduction(s) of Giardia associated with contemporary settlement and/or tourism. Previous studies elsewhere have demonstrated that people and their pets entering wilderness areas are often infected with Giardia. Notably, the parasite has been reported, but not typed, in people in the NWT (255 cases from 1989-2006) (Kandola, unpubl. data) and in the eastern Arctic (40% prevalence in ages 0-4 and 17% overall). The high prevalence and intensity of Giardia observed in muskoxen in this study are unprecedented among wild ungulates and suggest that muskoxen are important hosts on Banks Island. Several characteristics of muskoxen and Giardia may support parasite maintenance. Muskoxen are highly susceptible and competent hosts for pathogens from many species. They are relatively sedentary herd animals that congregate in river valleys for feeding, a behavioural trait contributing to large numbers of cysts in a moist environment and ongoing parasite exposure. Finally, Giardia cysts are cold tolerant, immediately infective, and few are needed to establish infection. Thus, muskoxen may now maintain Giardia Assemblage A in the absence of reservoir hosts or ongoing introductions and may serve as a source for infection for other species. Untyped Giardia sp. previously reported in Peary caribou on Banks Island (3% prevalence, Nagy, Larter, Olson unpubl. data), may represent spill-over from muskoxen. Behaviour of people and muskoxen also affords several opportunities for ongoing transmission between these hosts and between terrestrial and marine systems. In summer, spatial overlap between residents of Sachs Harbour, tourists, and muskoxen is common, as all tend to concentrate around major water bodies. High abundance of Giardia infection in the large muskox population results in significant contamination of water bodies and, because latrines are rare in this vast landscape, contamination of the land and water-bodies with human feces is likely. Residents and tourists often drink untreated water directly from these water bodies. Human sewage from Sach's Harbour, deposited untreated in a sewage pond accessible to wildlife, provides ongoing opportunities for parasite dispersal, as do the commercial muskox harvests that are held almost every winter near the community. People working at these harvests may be directly exposed to cysts in the offal. Additionally, for many years this offal was disposed of untreated on the land near the temporary abattoirs used for the harvests, and more recently has been deposited on the sea ice. These disposal practices may provide a source of infection for people and terrestrial and marine wildlife. Assemblage A has been detected in marine mammals in the western Arctic (Olson, unpubl. data), but the significance of offal disposal on sea ice is unknown. ... (Au)
I, K, M, T, J, R, N
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal waste products; Caribou; Caucasians; Diseases; Food; Genetics; Giardia; Health; Hunting; Inuit; Mammals; Muskoxen; Parasites; Protozoa; Sewage disposal; Sewage lagoons; Subsistence; Tourist trade; Tundra ecology; Water pollution; Wildlife habitat
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Sachs Harbour (Settlement), N.W.T.
Dogs as sources and sentinels of parasites in humans and wildlife, northern Canada / Salb, A.L. Barkema, H.W. Elkin, B.T. Thompson, R.C.A. Whiteside, D.P. Black, S.R. Dubey, J.P. Kutz, S.J.
(International Polar Year. Emerging infectious diseases, v. 14, no. 1, Jan. 2008, p. 60-63, ill.)
ASTIS record 64245.
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC
A minimum of 11 genera of parasites, including 7 known or suspected to cause zoonoses, were detected in dogs in 2 northern Canadian communities. Dogs in remote settlements receive minimal veterinary care and may serve as sources and sentinels for parasites in persons and wildlife, and as parasite bridges between wildlife and humans. (Au)
Animal diseases; Animal food; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Blood; Diseases; Dogs; Giardia; Parasites; Protozoa; Tapeworms; Toxoplasma gondii; Trematoda; Wolves
Fort Chipewyan, Alberta; Fort Resolution, N.W.T.
Integrated approaches and empirical methods for investigation of parasitic diseases in northern wildlife / Hoberg, E.P. Polley, L. Jenkins, E.J. Kutz, S.J. Veitch, A.M. Elkin, B.T.
(International Polar Year. Emerging infectious diseases, v. 14, no. 1, Jan. 2008, p. 10-17, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 64172.
The North is a frontier for exploration of emerging infectious diseases and the large-scale drivers influencing distribution, host associations, and evolution of pathogens among persons, domestic animals, and wildlife. Leading into the International Polar Year 2007-2008, we outline approaches, protocols, and empirical models derived from a decade of integrated research on northern host-parasite systems. Investigations of emerging infectious diseases associated with parasites in northern wildlife involved a network of multidisciplinary collaborators and incorporated geographic surveys, archival collections, historical foundations for diversity, and laboratory and field studies exploring the interface for hosts, parasites, and the environment. In this system, emergence of parasitic disease was linked to geographic expansion, host switching, resurgence due to climate change, and newly recognized parasite species. Such integrative approaches serve as cornerstones for detection, prediction, and potential mitigation of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and persons in the North and elsewhere under a changing global climate. (Au)
I, J, E, T, K
Animal collections; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Gastropoda; Health; Lungworms; Nematoda; Parasites; Platyhelminthes; Traditional knowledge; Ungulates; Wildlife habitat
Canada; Canadian Arctic
Parasitic & viral diseases of dogs in two northern Canadian communities & implications for wildlife & human health / Salb, A.L. Barkema, H.W. Elkin, B.T. Thompson, R.C.A. Whiteside, D.P. Black, S.R. Dubey, J.P. Ellis, J.A. Krakowka, S. Kutz, S.J.
In: 56th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference : program & abstracts. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 2007, p. 118
Abstract of a poster presentation (186).
Conference held August 12-17, 2007 in Estes Park, Colorado.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75880.
In northern Canadian communities there are close interactions between people, dogs, and wildlife. Residents of these communities frequently practice subsistence hunting and fishing and also feed game and fish to their dogs, which is sometimes the main component of their diet. Sled dogs also are used for transportation out on the land for subsistence and sport hunting and are typically housed outdoors. Consequently, dogs and people can be exposed to diseases from wildlife, and dogs may contribute to the spread of disease within wildlife ecosystems and human areas. Dogs living in these remote communities have limited access to veterinary care, which includes health checks, routine vaccinations and fecal examinations with targeted antiparasitic treatment protocols. In August 2006, fecal and serum samples were collected from 132 dogs presented at sponsored canine health clinics held in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta, and Fort Resolution, Northwest Territories. Detailed histories regarding diet, husbandry and previous veterinary care were also collected. Fecal parasites (Alaria, Diphyllobothrium, cestodes, Giardia, Isospora, Sarcocystis, Toxascaris, Toxocara, and Uncinaria) were identified using the Modified Wisconsin method and ELISA. Serology was used to identify dogs exposed to Neospora, Toxoplasma, Brucella, Bordetella, Canine Distemper Virus, Canine Parvovirus, and Canine Respiratory Coronavirus. This study found that through diet and husbandry, northern dogs may be exposed to a variety of diseases of importance to their health as well as to the health of wildlife and people. In this respect, dogs may serve as sentinels for disease present in wildlife and a potential "disease-bridge" between wildlife and people. (Au)
I, N, K
Animal diseases; Animal food; Animal health; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Blood; Diseases; Dogs; Food; Giardia; Health; Hunting; Parasites; Protozoa; Subsistence; Tapeworms; Toxoplasma gondii; Trematoda; Viruses
Fort Chipewyan, Alberta; Fort Resolution, N.W.T.
Protostrongylid parasites and pneumonia in captive and wild thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli) / Jenkins, E.J. Veitch, A.M. Kutz, S.J. Bollinger, T.K. Chirino-Trejo, J.M. Elkin, B.T. West, K.H. Hoberg, E.P. Polley, L.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 43, no. 2, Apr. 2007, p. 189-205, ill.)
ASTIS record 70411.
We describe health significance of protostrongylid parasites (Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and Protostrongylus stilesi) and other respiratory pathogens in more than 50 naturally infected Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) from the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories (1998-2002) as well as in three Stone’s sheep (O. d. stonei) experimentally infected with P. odocoilei (2000-2002). Histological lesions in the brain and distribution of P. odocoilei in the muscles of experimentally and naturally infected sheep were consistent with a previously hypothesized "central nervous system to muscle" pattern of migration for P. odocoilei. Dimensions of granulomas associated with eggs of P. odocoilei and density of protostrongylid eggs and larvae in the cranial lung correlated with intensity of larvae in feces, and all varied with season of collection. Prevalence of P. stilesi based on the presence of larvae in feces underestimated true prevalence (based on examination of lungs) in wild Dall’s sheep collected in summer and fall. Similarly, counts of both types of protostrongylid larvae in feces were unreliable indicators of parasitic infection in wild Dall’s sheep with concomitant bacterial pneumonia associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Pasteurella sp., and Mannheimia sp. Diffuse, interstitial pneumonia due to P. odocoilei led to fatal pulmonary hemorrhage and edema after exertion in one experimentally infected Stone’s sheep and one naturally infected Dall’s sheep. Bacterial and verminous pneumonia associated with pathogens endemic in wild Dall’s sheep in the Mackenzie Mountains caused sporadic mortalities. There was no evidence of respiratory viruses or bacterial strains associated with domestic ruminants, from which this population of wild sheep has been historically isolated. (Au)
Animal collections; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal waste products; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Detection; Gender differences; Hunting; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Mountain sheep; Necropsy; Nematoda; Parasites; Platyhelminthes; Respiratory disorders; Seasonal variations; Ungulates; Wildlife habitat
Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon
Serendipitous discovery of a novel protostrongylid (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in caribou, muskoxen, and moose from high latitudes of North America based on DNA sequence comparisons / Kutz, S.J. Asmundsson, I. Hoberg, E.P. Appleyard, G.D. Jenkins, E.J. Beckmen, K. Branigan, M. Butler, L. Chilton, N.B. Cooley, D. Elkin, B. Huby-Chilton, F. Johnson, D. Kuchboev, A. Nagy, J. Oakley, M. Polley, L. Popko, R. Scheer, A. Simard, M. Veitch, A.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 85, no. 10, Oct. 2007, p.1143-1156, ill., map)
ASTIS record 66177.
Fecal samples are often the only feasible means to assess diversity of parasites in wildlife; however, definitive identification of egg or larval stages in feces by morphology is rarely possible. We determined partial sequences from the second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA for first-stage, dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) in feces from caribou (Rangifer tarandus tarandus (L., 1758), Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin, 1788), Rangifer tarandus grantii (Allen, 1902)), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780), Ovibos moschatus wardi Lydekker, 1900), moose (Alces alces gigas Miller, 1899 and Alces alces andersoni Peterson, 1952), and from the tissue of one slug (Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774)) in Arctic-Subarctic North America. A previously uncharacterized, genetically distinct species was recognized based on sequences of 37 DSL from 19 ungulate hosts and the slug. Sequence similarity among individuals of this novel species was 91%-100%. For many individual DSL, paralogues of ITS-2 were detected. ITS-2 sequences from the novel species were 72%-77% similar to those of Varestrongylus alpenae (Dikmans, 1935) and 51%-61% similar to those of other protostrongylids known in North American and some Eurasian ungulates. Results indicate a discrete lineage of an undescribed protostrongylid infecting muskoxen, caribou, and moose from Alaska to Labrador. Sympatric infections with Parelaphostrongylus andersoni Prestwood, 1972 were found in three caribou herds. (Au)
Animal taxonomy; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Caribou; Gastropoda; Genetics; Invertebrate larvae; Moose; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Ungulates
G081, G06, G0811, G0827, G0826, G0824
Alaska; Canadian Arctic; Labrador; Manitoba; North American Arctic; North American Subarctic; Nunavik, Québec; Subarctic regions; Yukon
Geographic distribution of the muscle-dwelling nematode, Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei, in North America, using molecular identifcation of first-stage larvae / Jenkins, E.J. Appleyard, G.D. Hoberg, E.P. Rosenthal, B.M. Kutz, S.J. Veitcht, A.M. Schwantje, H.M. Elkin, B.T. Polley, L.
(The Journal of parasitology, v. 91, no. 3, June 2005, p. 574-584, map)
ASTIS record 77169.
Molecular identification of dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) from fecal samples indicates that the protostrongylid parasite, Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei, occupies a broader geographic range in western North America than has been previously reported. We analyzed 2,124 fecal samples at 29 locations from thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli dalli and O. d. stonei), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis and O. c. californiana), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), and black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus). The DSL were recovered from populations of thinhorn sheep south, but not north, of the Arctic Circle, and they were not recovered from any of the bighorn sheep populations that we examined. In total, DSL were recovered from 20 locations in the United States and Canada (Alaska, Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, and California). The DSL were identified as P. odocoilei by comparing sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of ribosomal RNA among 9 protostrongylid species validated by adult comparative morphology. The ITS2 sequences were markedly different between Parelaphostrongylus and other protostrongylid genera. Smaller fixed differences served as diagnostic markers for the 3 species of Parelaphostrongylus. The ITS2 sequences (n = 60) of P. odocoilei were strongly conserved across its broad geographic range from California to Alaska. Polymorphism at 5 nucleotide positions was consistent with multiple copies of the ITS2 within individual specimens of P. odocoilei. This work combines extensive fecal surveys, comparative morphology, and molecular diagnostic techniques to describe comprehensively the host associations and geographic distribution of a parasitic helminth. (Au)
Animal anatomy; Animal distribution; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Deer; Genetics; Identification; Invertebrate larvae; Mountain goats; Mountain sheep; Mountains; Nematoda; Parasites
G0811, G0812, G0822, G0821, G06
Anvil Range, Yukon; British Mountains, Alaska/Yukon; Chugach Mountains, Alaska; Jasper National Park, Alberta; Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon; Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Richardson Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Rocky Mountains, Alberta; Rocky Mountains, British Columbia; Sierra Nevada, California; St. Elias Mountains, Alaska/British Columbia/Yukon; Wrangell Mountains, Alaska
The potential impact of climate change on infectious diseases of Arctic fauna / Bradley, M.J. Kutz, S.J. Jenkins, E. O'Hara, T.M.
(International journal of circumpolar health, v. 64, no. 5, Dec. 2005, p. 468-477)
Special issue: Climate change and human health.
ASTIS record 60104.
Libraries: ACU MWM
Climate change is already affecting Arctic species including infectious disease agents and greater changes are expected. Some infectious diseases are already increasing but future changes are difficult to predict because of the complexity of host-agent-environment relationships. However mechanisms related to climate change that will influence disease patterns are understood. Warmer temperatures will benefit free living bacteria and parasites whose survival and development is limited by temperature. Warmer temperatures could promote survivability, shorter development rates and transmission. Insects such as mosquitoes and ticks that transmit disease agents may also benefit from climate change as well as the diseases they spread. Climate change will have significant impacts on biodiversity. Disease agents of species that benefit from warming will likely become more prevalent. Host species stressed by changing environmental conditions may be more vulnerable to disease agents. Warming could lead to increased agriculture and other economic opportunities in the Arctic bringing people, domestic food animals, pets and invasive species and their disease agents into Northern regions. Climate warming may also favor the release of persistent environmental pollutants some of which can affect the immune system and may favor increased rates of some diseases. (Au)
J, E, I, H, N, K
Acclimatization; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animals; Atmospheric temperature; Bacteria; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Fishes; Gastropoda; Insects; Invertebrate larvae; Nematoda; Ozone; Parasites; PCBs; Pollution; POPs; Precipitation (Meteorology); Seals (Animals); Ultraviolet radiation; Viruses; Waterfowl; Wildlife habitat
G02, G081, G0812
Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.
"Emerging" parasitic infections in Arctic ungulates / Kutz, S.J. Hoberg, E.P. Nagy, J. Polley, L. Elkin, B.
(Biology of the Canadian Arctic : a crucible for change in the 21st century. Integrative and comparative biology, v. 44, no. 2, Apr. 2004, p. 109-118, maps)
Papers from the symposium "Biology of the Canadian Arctic: a crucible for change in the 21st century" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, 4-8 January 2003 in Toronto.
ASTIS record 59753.
Important drivers for emergence of infectious disease in wildlife include changes in the environment, shrinking habitats or concentration of wildlife, and movement of people, animals, pathogens, or vectors. In this paper we present three case-studies of emerging parasitic infections and diseases in ungulates in the Canadian north. First we discuss climate warming as an important driver for the emergence of disease associated with Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a nematode lungworm of muskoxen. Then we examine how Protostrongylus stilesi, the sheep lungworm, emerged (or re-emerged) in muskoxen after re-introduction of this host into its historical range made it sympatric with Dall's sheep. Finally, we consider Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, a newly described and common abomasal nematode of muskoxen that is emerging as a disease-causing parasite and may be an important regulator for muskox populations on Banks Island, Northwest Territories. These and other arctic host-parasite systems are exquisitely tuned and constrained by a harsh and highly seasonal environment. The dynamics of these systems will be impacted by climate change and other ecological disruptions. Baseline knowledge of parasite biodiversity and parasite and host ecology, together with predictive models and long-term monitoring programs, are essential for anticipating and detecting altered patterns of host range, geographic distribution, and the emergence of parasitic infections and diseases. (Au)
I, J, E, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal population; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Forecasting; Lungworms; Mathematical models; Mountain sheep; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management
G0813, G0812, G0811, G06
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; N.W.T.; North Slope Borough, Alaska; Nunavut; Richardson Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Yukon, Northern
Protostrongylus stilesi (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) : ecological isolation and putative host-switching between Dall's sheep and muskoxen in a contact zone / Hoberg, E.P. Kutz, S.J. Nagy, J. Jenkins, E. Elkin, B. Branigan, M. Cooley, D.
(Comparative parasitology, v. 69, no. 1, Jan. 2002, p. 1-9, maps)
ASTIS record 77311.
The occurrence of Protostrongylus stilesi in a population of introduced muskoxen, Ovibos moschatus wardi, on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Yukon Territory (YT) and Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, is consistent with a contemporary colonization event from Dall's sheep, Ovis dalli dalli, which indicates that host specificity may be ecologically based and contextual for this parasite. Colonization of muskoxen by P. stilesi may be a predictable event in zones of sympatry with Dall's sheep; exposure to infection may coincide with occupation of winter ranges of Dall's sheep by muskoxen during the summer season. Disruption of contemporary ecological isolating barriers can result from anthropogenically or climatologically driven habitat perturbation, and result from management practices that influence the distribution of ungulate hosts. Thus, if zones of contact become more extensive or the temporal limits on allopatry are relaxed, we may observe increasing instances of host switching by parasites or pathogens at the interface of newly emerging ecotones. Impacts to northern systems linked to climatologically and anthropogenically driven global change and the effects of management must be tracked within the context of biodiversity survey and inventory and archival collections, as foundations for monitoring ecosystem-level perturbations. A developing interface for muskoxen, wild sheep, and parasites along the Mackenzie River ecotone represents a natural model or field laboratory to examine these processes. Additonally, lungworms, Protostrongylus spp., had not been reported in muskoxen, and a new geographic record for this nematode was established in Dall's sheep from the northern Richardson Mountains, NT. (Au)
I, E, J, N
Animal anatomy; Animal collections; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Gender differences; Genetics; Hunting; Internal organs; Lungworms; Mountain sheep; Muskoxen; Necropsy; Parasites; Seasonal variations; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management; Winter ecology
Aklavik region, N.W.T.; Alaska, Northern; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Richardson Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Yukon
Development of the muskox lungworm, Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis (Protostrongylidae), in gastropods in the Arctic / Kutz, S.J. Hoberg, E.P. Nishi, J. Polley, L.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 80, no. 11, Nov. 2002, p.1977-1985, ill.)
ASTIS record 51847.
Development of the muskox protostrongylid lungworm, Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, in its slug intermediate host, Deroceras laeve, was investigated under field conditions in the Arctic. Every 2 weeks, from 19 June to 28 August 1997, groups of 10 experimentally infected slugs were placed in tundra enclosures in a mesic sedge meadow near Kugluktuk, Nunavut, Canada. First-stage larvae (L1) infecting slugs on or before 17 July developed to third-stage larvae (L3) in 4-6 weeks. Intensity of L3 in slugs peaked at 6-8 weeks post infection (PI) and then progressively declined by 10, 12, and 48-50 weeks PI. Abundance of L3 in slugs was greatest during mid to late August. L1 infecting slugs on 31 July or later did not develop to L3 before the end of September but overwintered in slugs on the tundra as L1 or as second-stage larvae, completing development to L3 the following summer. The years 1997 and 1998 were exceptionally warm and, in cooler years, rates of larval development may be slower and patterns of availability may differ. The amount of heating (degree-days) accumulated during each trial was calculated using the 8.5°C threshold determined in the laboratory, a 21°C maximum, and either surface, soil, or air temperature. Only degree-days accumulated at the surface were sufficient to correspond to the observed rates of larval development. This enclosure-based system and associated degree-day calculations may be used for predicting the effects of climate and climate change on patterns of parasite development and transmission in the Arctic. (Au)
I, E, J
Animal growth; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Parasites; Temperature
Kugluktuk region, Nunavut
A new lungworm in muskoxen : an exploration in Arctic parasitology / Kutz, S.J. Hoberg, E.P. Polley, L.
(Trends in parasitology, v. 17, no. 6, June 2001, p. 276-280, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 80804.
Ruminants are vital elements of the Holarctic ecosystem. Little is known, however, of the structure or biology of their parasite fauna, particularly in North America. Global warming, coupled with increasing human activity in the Arctic, requires enhanced international interdisciplinary efforts to better understand the many factors, including parasites, that influence the population health of caribou, reindeer, muskoxen and wild sheep. The discovery of an unusual new genus of protostrongylid lung nematode in muskoxen from the central Canadian Arctic is described, and the intricacies of the parasite's relationship with its muskoxen definitive hosts, its gastropod intermediate hosts and the arctic environment are discussed. (Au)
I, E, J
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Food; Gastropoda; Hunting; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Tourist trade; Tundra ecology
Canadian Arctic; Kugluktuk region, Nunavut
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from the Canadian Arctic / Kutz, S.J. Elkin, B.T. Panayl, D. Dubey, J.P.
(The Journal of parasitology, v. 87, no. 2, Apr. 2001, p. 439-442, maps)
ASTIS record 79780.
Libraries: XQKNRC ACU
Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 147 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from 5 herds in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, northern Canada, by the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the mainland herds (Bluenose, Bathurst, and Beverly), antibodies were found in 43 (37%) of 117 caribou, and MAT titers were 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 24, and 1:500 in 9. In the island herds, only 1 (4.3%) of 23 animals sampled from the North Baffin Island herd was positive (titer = 1:25) and no antibodies were detected in 7 caribou from the Dolphin and Union herd. The high prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mainland caribou herds indicates that caribou meat may contain viable T. gondii. [The Bathurst herd was sampled near Napaktulik Lake (66 22 N, 113 00 W); the Bluenose herd was sampled at Sitidgi Lake (66 33 N, 132 42 W); the Beverly herd was sampled near Doran Lake (61 13 N, 108 06 W); the North Baffin Island herd was sampled near Pond Inlet (72 34 N, 78 23 W); the Dolphin and Union herd was sampled on the Kent Peninsula (68 30 N, 107 00 W).] (Au)
Animal diseases; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Toxoplasma gondii; Ungulates
Kent Peninsula, Nunavut; Napaktulik Lake region, Nunavut; Pond Inlet region, Nunavut; Sitidgi Lake region, N.W.T.
The biology of Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a lung nematode of muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic : field and laboratory studies / Kutz, S.J. Polley, L.R. [Supervisor]
Saskatoon, Sask. : University of Saskatchewan, 1999.
xvii, 190 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. NQ63893)
Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask., 1999.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 55049.
A new genus and species of protostrongylid lungworm Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis was described in muskoxen (Oviobos moschatus) from the west-central Canadian Arctic mainland in 1995. ... A series of integrated experiments were designed to investigate important aspects of the biology of this parasite in the definitive and intermediate hosts and in the arctic environment. It was confirmed that the U. pallikuukensis requires gastropod intermediate hosts to develop from first-stage larvae (Ll) to third-stage larvae (L3). The life cycle of U. pallikuukensis was completed in 3 captive muskoxen; 2 were infected with L3 which were digested from slugs (Deroceras reticulatum), the third with L3 that emerged from slugs (D. reticulatum and D. laeve). In 2 animals the prepatent period was 91 and 95 days, larval production peaked at 13-14 mo post-infection (PI), and the patent periods extended to the time of euthanasia, 14 and 26 mo PI. The third muskox was euthanized at patency. No clinical signs of respiratory compromise were apparent in any of the 3 experimentally infected muskoxen. At post mortem on day 97 PI, parasitic cysts were difficult to find and some parasites were not enclosed in cysts, but by months 14 and 26 PI all parasites were within clearly defined cysts. Cyst size was positively correlated with the number of adult parasites contained. Lung pathology appeared to be localized to the cysts, which had a thick fibrous capsule surrounding adult nematodes, larvae and eggs. ... Medical imaging techniques were used to describe the lesions caused by U. pallikuukensis. Parasite-associated lesions were detected with standard radiography by 178 and 191 days PI in 2 muskoxen. ... Post mortem radiography was useful for locating cysts in a lightly infected animal and post mortem computed tomography was useful for locating, quantifying and characterizing cysts. ... Third-stage larvae of U. pallikuukensis emerged from live specimens of D. laeve, D. reciculatum, and Cacinella sp. in the laboratory, and from live or dead D. laeve in field experiments on the tundra. In the laboratory, emergence occurred over a wide range of infection intensities and patterns of emergence were independent of infection intensity. In field experiments, L3 were found on vegetation by 10 wk PI, and were recovered from the vegetation of some experiments after over-wintering. ... The morphologic and morphometric aspects of larval development of U. pallikuukensis in D. laeve at 23.4 C were investigated and compared to other protostrongylids. The majority of the larval growth of U. pallikuukensis occurs immediately following the second molt. The features most useful for defining larval stages are the separation of the cuticular sheaths, tail structure and viability following digestion. The rates of larval development for U. pallikuukensis in D. laeve and D. reciculacum at various temperatures in the laboratory were investigated. In D. laeve the temperature threshold was 8.5 C, in D. reticulacum it was 9.5 C and the degree-days required to develop to L3 in both gastropod species was 167. ... Over a period of 2 years a series of experiments was established in the tundra of the central Arctic mainland near Kugluktuk, Nunavut, Canada. The locally abundant slug, D. laeve, was experimentally infected with Ll of U. pallikuukensis and the slugs were placed in enclosures in the tundra .... Microhabitat temperatures were measured both inside and outside enclosures. Rates of larval development were determined by weekly or bi-weekly examination of the slugs and larvae from a subset of enclosures. Some slugs were left in enclosures over the winter. ... Rates of larval development in the Arctic corresponded with those predicted using surface microhabitat temperatures and laboratory derived threshold temperatures (8.5 C) and thermal constants (167 degree-days). ... The distribution of U. pallikuukensis is potentially linked to the distribution of suitable intermediate hosts. The terrestrial and freshwater gastropod faunas were surveyed on the Arctic mainland near Kugluktuk and on Victoria Island. ... On the mainland 6 terrestrial and 4 freshwater species were found. On Victoria Island, 1 terrestrial (D. laeve) and 3 freshwater species were found. The terrestrial species: D. laeve, Carinella sp. C. alricola, and Euconlilus fulvus, and the freshwater species: A. hypnorum and possibly Physa jennessi jennessi, supported development of U. pallikuukensis from LI to L3. Deroceras laeve, because of its high mobility, widespread distribution, and the high proportion of larvae which establish and develop to L3 in a short time, may be the most important intermediate host. It is possible that U. pallikuukensis could establish on Victoria Island if introduced. In addition, it is likely that suitable intermediate hosts are present on mainland east of Kugluktuk, and that the climatic conditions in this region (central and eastern mainland) would support larval development. It is apparent that U. pallikuukensis may utilize several strategies to successfully maintain itself in the muskox population, including: localized pulmonary pathology; high levels of L1 production; extended patency; use of a variety of terrestrial and freshwater intermediate hosts; rapid development in the arctic environment; overwinter survival; and larval emergence. ... (Au)
I, J, E, H, L
Animal anatomy; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal growth; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Animal respiration; Animal taxonomy; Animal waste products; Atmospheric temperature; Biological sampling; Blood; Climate change; Detection; Domestic sheep; Fresh-water ecology; Gastropoda; Internal organs; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Logistics; Lungworms; Meadows; Microclimatology; Muskoxen; Necropsy; Rivers; Seasonal variations; Sedges; Size; Temperature; Theses; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat; Winter ecology; X-rays
G0813, G0812, G0823
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Basil Bay region, Nunavut; Cambridge Bay (Settlement) region, Nunavut; Coppermine River region, N.W.T./Nunavut; Kugluktuk region, Nunavut; N.W.T.; Norman Wells region, N.W.T.; Nunavut; Paulatuk region, N.W.T.; Rae River region, Nunavut; Richardson River region, Nunavut; Sachs Harbour region, N.W.T.; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Ulukhaktok region, N.W.T.; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut
Development of the muskox lungworm, Umingmakstronglyus pallikuukensis, in the slug, Deroceras laeve, under arctic field conditions with comments on the impact of climate change / Kutz, S.J. Hoberg, E.P. Nishi, J.S. Polley, L.
In: 47th Annual Wildlife Disease Conference '98. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 1998, p. 27
Abstract of an oral presentation.
Conference held August 10-13, 1998 in Madison, Wisconsin.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 45324.
Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis is a protostrongylid lungworm first recognized in 1988 in the muskox population west of Kugluktuk, NT (67°54'N, 116°38'W). The prevalence approaches 100% in adult muskoxen in this region yet the parasite appears to be absent from the arctic islands. First stage larvae (L1) shed in the feces can develop to infective third stage larvae (L3) in at least 4 terrestrial and 1 freshwater gastropod species found near Kugluktuk. Development rates of L1 to L3 are highly dependent on temperature. Field studies to determine whether larval development can occur within a single season in D. laeve were carried out during summer 1997. Slugs infected on June 19, July 3 and July 17 contained L3 by 4 to 6 weeks post infection while those infected July 31 or later did not produce L3 before winter. Recovery in September of live L3 from the vegetation in plots of June 19 and July 3 experiments confirmed laboratory findings of larval emergence from slugs although we could not determine if emergence was from live or dead slugs. Research has indicated that U. pallikuukensis in muskoxen is a temperature dependent system in which larval development and potential patterns of parasite transmission and distribution may be influenced by alteration in global temperatures. Predicted global warming is anticipated to have impacts on arctic ecosystems. Perhaps significantly, historical temperature records indicate a warming trend in the Mackenzie District of 1.29 °C over the last 50 years. U. pallikuukensis in muskoxen offers a possible theoretical and applied model system to elucidate the complex linkage of global climate change to wildlife health, emerging helminthic disease, and the potential to impact populations of arctic ruminants. (Au)
I, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal food ; Animal growth; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Gastropoda; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Parasites; Tundra ecology
Kugluktuk region, Nunavut
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