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The ASTIS database cites the following 96 publication(s) by Susan Kutz. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Muskox Health Ecology Symposium 2016 : gathering to share knowledge on Umingmak in a time of rapid change   /   Kutz, S.   Rowell, J.   Adamczewski, J.   Gunn, A.   Cuyler, C.   Aleuy, O.A.   Austin, M.   Berger, J.   Blake, J.   Bondo, K.   Dalton, C.   Dobson, A.   Di Francesco, J.   Gerlach, C.   Kafle, P.   Mavrot, F.   Mosbacher, J.   Murray, M.   Nascou, A.   Orsel, K.   Rossouw, F.   Schmidt, N.-M.   Suitor, M.   Tomaselli, M.   Ytrehus, B.
(Arctic, v. 70, no. 2, June 2017, p. 225-236, map)
References.
ASTIS record 83354.
Languages: English
Web: http://hdl.handle.net/10515/sy5h41k46
Libraries: ACU

The muskoxen, Ovibos moschatus, also known as Umingmak 'the Bearded One,' is a taxonomically unique, cold-adapted, ice-age survivor. Originally native to Canada and Greenland, it has established a circum-Arctic distribution via introduced populations. As a key resident herbivore in northern ecosystems, the muskox has importance that should not be underestimated. Muskoxen play an important role in the cultural identity of Arctic Indigenous peoples and provide a healthy source of country food. More recently, recognition of the economic potential of the species through tourism, sport hunting, and the traditional sale of handicrafts has generated renewed interest in muskoxen and their ecology. Recent documentation of diseases, including several zoonoses, regional mortality events, and population declines have highlighted knowledge gaps in both our understanding of the drivers of muskox population fluctuations and the potential sensitivity of this species to a rapidly changing climate .... The overall goal was to share knowledge on muskox health, ecology, and sustainability, with a view to conserving muskoxen and the “services” they provide, now and into the future. “Health” was defined in the broadest and most holistic sense, recognizing that many determinants influence the vulnerability and resilience of populations over time (Hanisch et al., 2012; Stephen, 2014). For muskoxen, some key determinants of health include weather and climate, pathogens, predators, genetics, nutrition, habitat, anthropogenic influences, and other disturbances. ... The meeting was organized as a series of thematic sessions that included invited talks, contributed talks, and breakout groups. Themes were (1) identifying the value of muskoxen; (2) population status and trends; (3) case studies on declining populations; (4) advances in muskox knowledge, vulnerabilities, and resilience; and (5) tools for muskox monitoring and research. (Au)

I, J, E, T, R, N
Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Food; Handicrafts; Hunting; Native peoples; Parasites; Subsistence; Tourist trade; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G02, G081, G10, G06
Arctic regions; North American Arctic


Variation in the intensity and prevalence of macroparasites in migratory caribou : a quasi-circumpolar study   /   Simard, A.-A.   Kutz, S.   Ducrocq, J.   Beckmen, K.   Brodeur, V.   Campbell, M.   Croft, B.   Cuyler, C.   Davison, T.   Elkin, B.   Giroux, T.   Kelly, A.   Russell, D.   Taillon, J.   Veitch, A.M.   Côté, S.D.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 94, no. 9, 2016, p. 607-617, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 81676 describes the thesis of which this article is a chapter.
ASTIS record 82168.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1139/cjz-2015-0190
Libraries: ACU

Comparative studies across time and geographical regions are useful to improve our understanding of the health of wildlife populations. Our goal was to study parasitism in migratory caribou (Rangifer tarandus L., 1758) of North America and Greenland. A total of 1507 caribou were sampled across twelve herds to assess seven of their main helminth and arthropod macroparasites between 1978 and 2010. We sought to determine which factors such as sex, age class, herd size, and season best explained the prevalence and intensity of those parasites. Intensity of Hypoderma tarandi (L., 1758) increased with age for males while the opposite was observed in females. Prevalence of Fascioloides magna (Bassi, 1875), Taenia hydatigena (Pallas, 1766), and Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer, 1786) was higher in adults than in calves. Prevalence of F. magna and T. hydatigena were higher at high herd size than at lower herd size. Greenland herds had the lowest prevalence of T. hydatigena and Taenia krabbei (Moniez, 1879), a higher intensity of H. tarandi and a higher prevalence of C. trompe than the other herds. Of the herds from Québec and Labrador, the Rivière-George herd had a higher prevalence of F. magna than the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd. Our research provides the first comparative survey of these parasites of caribou across a broad spatial-temporal range. (Au)

I, J
Age; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal population; Arthropoda; Biological sampling; Caribou; Effects monitoring; Gender differences; Oestridae; Parasites; Seasonal variations; Temporal variations

G081, G10, G06
Alaska; Canadian Arctic; Greenland


Contagious ecthyma, rangiferine brucellosis, and lungworm infection in a muskox (Ovibos moschatus) from the Canadian Arctic, 2014   /   Tomaselli, M.   Dalton, C.   Duignan, P.J.   Kutz, S.   van der Meer, F.   Kafle, P.   Surujballi, O.   Turcotte, C.   Checkley, S.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 52, no. 3, 2016, p. 719-724, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 82167.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.7589/2015-12-327
Libraries: ACU

An adult male muskox (Ovibos moschatus), harvested on 26 August 2014 on Victoria Island, Nunavut, in the Canadian Arctic, had proliferative dermatitis on the muzzle and fetlocks suggestive of contagious ecthyma or orf (Parapoxvirus). Histopathologic features of the lesions were consistent with this diagnosis. Orf virus DNA, phylogenetically similar to an isolate from a captive muskox of the Minnesota Zoo, US, was detected in the lesions by PCR using Parapoxvirus primers. Additionally, there was a metaphyseal abscess with a cortical fistula in the right metacarpus from which Brucella suis biovar 4 was isolated and identification supported by PCR. Brucella spp. antibodies were detected in serum. Finally, 212 nodules were dissected from the lungs. Fecal analysis and lung examination demonstrated co-infection with the lungworms Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis and Varestrongylus eleguneniensis. The zoonotic potential of orf and rangiferine brucellosis adds an important public health dimension to this case, particularly given that muskoxen are a valuable source of food for Arctic residents. Careful examination of these pathogens at a population level is needed as they may contribute to muskox population decline and potentially constitute a driver of food insecurity for local communities. This case underscores the importance of wildlife health surveillance as a management tool to conserve wildlife populations and maintain food security in subsistence-oriented communities. (Au)

I, N, K
Animal diseases; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Effects monitoring; Food security; Genetics; Health; Muskoxen; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Wildlife management

G0813
Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Contrasting results of culture-dependent and molecular analyses of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from wood bison   /   Forde, T.   De Buck, J.   Elkin, B.   Kutz, S.   van der Meer, F.   Orsel, K.
(Applied and environmental microbiology, v. 79, no. 14, July 2013, p.4448-4454, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 82115.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1128/AEM.00995-13
Libraries: ACU

Reduced to near extinction in the late 1800s, a number of wood bison populations (Bison bison athabascae) have been re-established through reintroduction initiatives. Although an invaluable tool for conservation, translocation of animals can spread infectious agents to new areas or expose animals to pathogens in their new environment. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, a bacterium that causes chronic enteritis in ruminants, is among the pathogens of potential concern for wood bison management and conservation. In order to inform translocation decisions, our objectives were to determine the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection status of wood bison herds in Canada and to culture and genetically characterize the infective strain(s). We tested fecal samples from bison (n = 267) in nine herds using direct PCR for three M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific genetic targets with different copy numbers within the M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome. Restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and sequencing of IS1311 were performed on seven samples from five different herds. We also evaluated a panel of different culture conditions for their ability to support M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis growth from feces and tissues of direct-PCR-positive animals. Eighty-one fecal samples (30%) tested positive using direct IS900 PCR, with positive samples from all nine herds; of these, 75% and 21% were also positive using ISMAP02 and F57, respectively. None of the culture conditions supported the growth of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from PCR-positive samples. IS1311 REA and sequencing indicate that at least two different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain types exist in Canadian wood bison. The presence of different M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains among wood bison herds should be considered in the planning of translocations. (Au)

I, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal waste products; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Detection; Enzymes; Genetics; North American bison; Quality assurance; Temporal variations; Wildlife management

G0811, G0812, G0822, G0821
Aishihik region, Yukon; Elk Island National Park, Alberta; Grand Detour region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Nahanni Butte region, N.W.T.; Nordquist Lake region, British Columbia; Wood Buffalo National Park, Alberta/N.W.T.; Zama Lake region, Alberta


Arctic biodiversity assessment : status and trends in Arctic biodiversity : synthesis   /   Meltofte, H. [Executive Editor]   Barry, T.   Berteaux, D.   Bültmann, H.   Christiansen, J.S.   Cook, J.A.   Dahlberg, A.   Daniëls, F.J.A.   Ehrich, D.   Fjeldså, J.   Friðriksson, F.   Ganter, B.   Gaston, A.J.   Gillespie, L.J.   Grenoble, L.   Hoberg, E.P.   Hodkinson, I.D.   Huntington, H.P.   Ims, R.A.   Josefson, A.B.   Kutz, S.J.   Kuzmin, S.L.   Laidre, K.L.   Lassuy, D.R.   Lewis, P.N.   Lovejoy, C.   Michel, C.   Mokievsky, V.   Mustonen, T.   Payer, D.C.   Poulin, M.   Reid, D.G.   Reist, J.D.   Tessler, D.F.   Wrona, F.J.
Akureyri, Iceland : Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Arctic Council, 2013.
128 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Cover title: Arctic biodiversity assessment synthesis.
References.
ASTIS record 80162.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.caff.is/publications/doc_download/232-arctic-biodiversity-assessment-2013-synthesis

The eyes of the world are turning northwards. In recent years, interest in the Arctic has increased dramatically within and outside of Arctic countries. This is reflected in the amount of attention given to Arctic biodiversity. While the landscapes and wildlife have been the subject of explorers, scientists, artists and photographers as well as the home of a variety of peoples for a long time, until recently Arctic biodiversity did not feature very prominently in national or international policy work. This, however, is changing, as the unique values of Arctic nature are increasingly discussed at high levels. At the same time, more and more attention has been paid to the interface between science and policy to ensure that policy is built on the best science available. We are therefore very happy and proud to present the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), which has been seven years in the making. It is the result of the contributions from 252 scientists together with holders of traditional knowledge. The chapters in the main document have been peer-reviewed by over 100 scientists from all over the Arctic and the rest of the world. We are very grateful for the efforts they have made to ensure the quality of this assessment. We would especially like to thank Chief Scientist Hans Meltofte and the lead authors of the chapters. In order to communicate the findings presented in this scientific work and to inform policy makers, the board of the Arctic Council's working group on the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) has prepared a summary of the key findings and developed policy recommendations. The key findings and recommendations have been provided in a separate document, which we trust will be useful for all those who make decisions that may affect Arctic biodiversity. (Au)

J, E, I, N, H, R, T, L, G, Q
Animal distribution; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animals; Atmospheric chemistry; Biology; Birds; Carbon dioxide; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Environmental policy; Environmental protection; Extirpation; Fish management; Fishes; Food chain; Fresh-water ecology; Government relations; Hunting; Inuit; Marine ecology; Marine transportation; Microbial ecology; Microorganisms; Native languages; Native peoples; Oceanography; Oil spills; Plant distribution; Plants (Biology); Pollution; Public education campaigns; Quotas; Research; Sea ice ecology; Social change; Subsistence; Sustainable economic development; Temporal variations; Traditional knowledge; Treaties; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G02, G081, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic


Climate change and infectious diseases : from evidence to a predictive framework   /   Altizer, S.   Ostfeld, R.S.   Johnson, P.T.J.   Kutz, S.   Harvell, C.D.
(Science, v.341, no.6145, 2 Aug. 2013, p. 514-519, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 79684.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.1239401
Libraries: ACU

Scientists have long predicted large-scale responses of infectious diseases to climate change, giving rise to a polarizing debate, especially concerning human pathogens for which socioeconomic drivers and control measures can limit the detection of climate-mediated changes. Climate change has already increased the occurrence of diseases in some natural and agricultural systems, but in many cases, outcomes depend on the form of climate change and details of the host-pathogen system. In this review, we highlight research progress and gaps that have emerged during the past decade and develop a predictive framework that integrates knowledge from ecophysiology and community ecology with modeling approaches. Future work must continue to anticipate and monitor pathogen biodiversity and disease trends in natural ecosystems and identify opportunities to mitigate the impacts of climate-driven disease emergence. (Au)

E, H, I, J, K
Animal diseases; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Forecasting; Health; Mathematical models; Parasites; Plant diseases; Spatial distribution

G16


Ecological consequences of sea-ice decline   /   Post, E.   Bhatt, U.S.   Bitz, C.M.   Brodie, J.F.   Fulton, T.L.   Hebblewhite, M.   Kerby, J.   Kutz, S.J.   Stirling, I.   Walker, D.A.
(Science, v.341, no.6145, 2 Aug. 2013, p. 519-524, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 79670.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.1235225
Libraries: ACU

After a decade with nine of the lowest arctic sea-ice minima on record, including the historically low minimum in 2012, we synthesize recent developments in the study of ecological responses to sea-ice decline. Sea-ice loss emerges as an important driver of marine and terrestrial ecological dynamics, influencing productivity, species interactions, population mixing, gene flow, and pathogen and disease transmission. Major challenges in the near future include assigning clearer attribution to sea ice as a primary driver of such dynamics, especially in terrestrial systems, and addressing pressures arising from human use of arctic coastal and near-shore areas as sea ice diminishes. (Au)

J, I, G, E, H, F
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal population; Animals; Atmospheric temperature; Biological productivity; Carbon dioxide; Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Effects of climate on plants; Environmental impacts; Food chain; Genetics; Ice cover; Marine ecology; Melting; Parasites; Passive microwave remote sensing; Phytoplankton; Plant cover; Primary production (Biology); Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Seasonal variations; Snow cover; Temporal variations; Thickness; Wildlife habitat

G02
Arctic regions; Arctic waters


A nearctic parasite in a palearctic host : Parelaphostrongylus andersoni (Nematoda; Protostrongylidae) infecting semi-domesticated reindeer in Alaska   /   Verocai, G.G.   Lejeune, M.   Finstad, G.L.   Kutz, S.J.
(International journal of parasitology, v. 2, Dec. 2013, p. 119-123, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 79641.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.03.002
Libraries: ACU

Parelaphostrongylus andersoni is a muscle-dwelling protostrongylid nematode that infects caribou and white-tailed deer across North America, and can cause significant muscular and pulmonary pathology in these species. We collected 44 fecal samples from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from the Kakarak herd of western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, USA. This herd has no record of historical contact and extremely limited possibility of contemporary contact with native Grant’s caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) of the Western Arctic herd. Fecal samples were processed using the Baermann technique, and 22.7% (n = 10) were positive for protostrongylid dorsal-spined larvae (DSL). Genomic DNA extracted from individual DSL from each of the ten positive reindeer (total of 48 DSL) was amplified by PCR targeting the ITS-2 region of ribosomal RNA. Forty of 48 DSL were successfully sequenced and confirmed as P. andersoni and one representative sequence for each of the ten positive samples was deposited in GenBank. No other protostrongylids, including Varestrongylus sp., presumed to be widespread across caribou range, and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi, which could have been introduced with reindeer from Eurasia, were detected in these samples. P. andersoni is likely widespread among introduced reindeer in Alaska, potentially causing subtle but deleterious effects with negative economic impacts on commercial herding activities. (Au)

I, N, E, J, R
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Detection; Environmental impacts; Gastropoda; Nematoda; Parasites; Reindeer; Reindeer husbandry; Socio-economic effects; Temporal variations; Ungulates; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G06, G14
Seward Peninsula, Alaska; Sibir', Russian Federation; Teller, Alaska


Divergent parasite faunas in adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou : natural and anthropogenic influences on diversity   /   Steele, J.   Orsel, K.   Cuyler, C.   Hoberg, E.P.   Schmidt, N.M.   Kutz, S.J.
(International journal of parasitology, v. 2, Dec. 2013, p. 197-202)
References.
ASTIS record 79640.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.05.002
Libraries: ACU

Gastrointestinal parasite diversity was characterised for two adjacent populations of west Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) through examinations of abomasa and small intestines collected from adult and subadult females during late winter. Three trichostrongyline (Trichostrongylina: Nematoda) species were identified from the abomasa, although none were recovered from the small intestines, with faunal composition differing between the caribou populations. In caribou from Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut, Marshallagia marshalli and Teladorsagia boreoarcticus were highly prevalent at 100% and 94.1%, respectively. In contrast, Ostertagia gruehneri was found at 100% prevalence in Akia-Maniitsoq caribou, and was the only abomasal parasite species present in that population. We hypothesise that parasite faunal differences between the populations are a consequence of parasite loss during caribou colonisation of the region approximately 4000–7000 years ago, followed by a more recent spill-over of parasites from muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus wardi) and semi-domesticated Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) introduced to Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut and Akia-Maniitsoq regions, respectively, in the 20th century. (Au)

I, E
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Bioclimatology; Biological sampling; Caribou; Detection; Internal organs; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Reindeer; Temporal variations; Ungulates

G10, G13
Lapland, Norway; Vestgrønland


Invasion, establishment, and range expansion of two parasitic nematodes in the Canadian Arctic   /   Kutz, S.J.   Checkley, S.   Verocai, G.G.   Dumond, M.   Hoberg, E.P.   Peacock, R.   Wu, J.P.   Orsel, K.   Seegers, K.   Warren, A.L.   Abrams, A.
(Global change biology, v. 19, no. 11, Nov. 2013, p.3254-3262, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 79341.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1111/gcb.12315
Libraries: ACU

Climate warming is occurring at an unprecedented rate in the Arctic and is having profound effects on host-parasite interactions, including range expansion. Recently, two species of protostrongylid nematodes have emerged for the first time in muskoxen and caribou on Victoria Island in the western Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, the muskox lungworm, was detected for the first time in 2008 in muskoxen at a community hunt on the southwest corner of the island and by 2012, it was found several hundred kilometers east in commercially harvested muskoxen near the town of Ikaluktutiak. In 2010, Varestrongylus sp., a recently discovered lungworm of caribou and muskoxen was found in muskoxen near Ikaluktutiak and has been found annually in this area since then. Whereas invasion of the island by U. pallikuukensis appears to have been mediated by stochastic movement of muskoxen from the mainland to the southwest corner of the island, Varestrongylus has likely been introduced at several times and locations by the seasonal migration of caribou between the island and the mainland. A newly permissive climate, now suitable for completion of the parasite life cycles in a single summer, likely facilitated the initial establishment and now drives range expansion for both parasites. (Au)

I, E, J, N, T
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal waste products; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Food; Hunting; Internal organs; Inuit; Meat industry; Muskoxen; Necropsy; Nematoda; Parasites; Safety

G0813
Cambridge Bay (Settlement) region, Nunavut; Kugluktuk region, Nunavut; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Standardized monitoring of Rangifer health during International Polar Year   /   Kutz, S.   Ducrocq, J.   Cuyler, C.   Elkin, B.   Gunn, A.   Kolpashikov, L.   Russell, D.   White, R.G.
(Proceedings of the 13th Arctic Ungulate Conference, 22-26 August 2011, Yellowknife, Canada / Edited by B. Ahman, E. Wiklund and T. Hegel. Rangifer, v. 33, special issue no. 21, 2013, p. 91-114, ill., map)
Open access journal.
References.
ASTIS record 79222.
Languages: English
Web: http://septentrio.uit.no/index.php/rangifer/article/view/2532/2379
Web: doi:10.7557/2.33.2.2532
Libraries: ACU

Monitoring of individual animal health indices in wildlife populations can be a powerful tool for evaluation of population health, detecting changes, and informing management decisions. Standardized monitoring allows robust comparisons within and across populations, and over time and vast geographic regions. As an International Polar Year Initiative, the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network established field protocols for standardized monitoring of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) health, which included body condition, contaminants, and pathogen exposure and abundance. To facilitate use of the protocols, training sessions were held, additional resources were developed, and language was translated where needed. From March 2007 to September 2010, at least 1206 animals from 16 circumpolar herds were sampled in the field using the protocols. Four main levels of sampling were done and ranged from basic to comprehensive sampling. Possible sources of sampling error were noted by network members early in the process and protocols were modified or supplemented with additional visual resources to improve clarity when needed. This is the first time that such broad and comprehensive circumpolar sampling of migratory caribou and wild reindeer, using standardized protocols covering both body condition and disease status, has been done. (Au)

I, T, N
Age; Animal anatomy; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Fats; Hunting; Internal organs; Metals; Native peoples; Necropsy; Numeric databases; Occupational training; Parasites; Pollution; Reindeer; Research personnel; Specifications; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Wildlife management

G081, G10, G14
Canadian Arctic; Kangerlussuaq Fjord (66 30 N, 52 07 W) region, Greenland; Maniitsoq, Greenland; Russian Arctic; Sisimiut region, Greenland; Yukon


Variables associated with Besnoitia tarandi prevalence and cyst density in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations   /   Ducrocq, J.   Beauchamp, G.   Kutz, S.   Simard, M.   Taillon, J.   Côté, S.D.   Brodeur, V.   Lair, S.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 49, no. 1, Jan. 2013, p. 29-38)
References.
ASTIS record 79172.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.7589/2012-05-125
Libraries: ACU

Besnoitia tarandi has been documented in free-ranging reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp.) since 1922 throughout their arctic and subarctic ranges; however, very little is known about its epidemiology. We evaluated variables associated with B. tarandi prevalence and cyst density with the use of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) from two migratory herds in northern Quebec: the Rivière-aux-Feuilles and the Rivière-George herds. Diagnosis of infection was made upon the microscopic observation of characteristic cysts in a formalin-fixed section of skin from the anterior aspect of the metatarsus. The density of cysts (number of B. tarandi cysts/mm²) was calculated in a section of the dermis extending from the epidermis of the skin to the base of the hair follicles and adnexal structures. Statistically significant associations between B. tarandi prevalence and cyst density, sex, age, and time of harvest were observed. Male caribou had a slightly higher prevalence compared to females, whereas cyst densities were similar between sexes. We found a nonlinear increase in the odds of infection by B. tarandi by age combined with the opposite trend for intensity of infection. Higher B. tarandi prevalence was observed in caribou sampled in the fall compared to June of the same year, suggesting that transmission is increased during the summer. Higher densities of cysts observed during the fall compared to June of the following year may be the result of the elimination of B. tarandi cysts from the dermis during the winter, or lower winter survival of heavily infected caribou. Comparisons of B. tarandi prevalence and density across herds should take into account these different variables. (Au)

I
Age; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal integumentary systems; Animal population; Arthropoda; Biological sampling; Caribou; Detection; Effects monitoring; Gender differences; Hunting; Insects; Internal organs; Microscopes; Native peoples; Necropsy; Parasites; Protozoa; Seasonal variations

G0826, G0827
Feuilles, Rivière aux, region, Québec; George, Rivière, region, Québec; Labrador; Nunavik, Québec


The modification and evaluation of an ELISA test for the surveillance of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in wild ruminants   /   Pruvot, M.   Forde, T.L.   Steele, J.   Kutz, S.J.   De Buck, J.   van der Meer, F.   Orsel, K.
(BMC veterinary research, v. 9:5, 9 Jan. 2013, [16] p., ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 77251.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1746-6148/9/5
Web: doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-5
Libraries: ACU

Background: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is often used to test wildlife samples for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. However, commercially available kits are only validated for use with domestic ruminant species. A literature review was performed to document the current use of MAP serum ELISA in wild and semi-domestic ruminants. We then modified and evaluated a commercial ELISA kit (IDEXX Mycobacterium paratuberculosis Antibody Test Kit) for use with species for which it was not originally developed: elk (Cervus elaphus), bison (Bison bison) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus). We tested the affinity of different conjugates for immunoglobulin G (IgG) isolated from these species, performed checkerboard tests to determine the optimal dilutions of samples and conjugates, and established cut-off values using two different methods: a Receiver Operational Curve on a panel of known samples for elk, and an alternate method involving a panel of unknown serum samples for the three species. Results: We found that the anti-bovine conjugate included in the IDEXX ELISA kit has limited affinity for elk, bison, and caribou IgG. Protein G showed good affinity for IgG of all three species, while anti-deer conjugate also bound elk and caribou IgG. Using Protein G with elk serum, a cut-off sample-to-positive (S/P) value of 0.22 was selected, resulting in a sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 90%, respectively, whereas, using an anti-deer conjugate with elk serum, an S/P cut-off value of 0.29 gave a sensitivity of 68%, with 100% specificity. Cut-off values for bison and caribou using the Protein G conjugate were 0.17 and 0.25 respectively. Conclusions: Due to incomplete reporting and a lack of test validation, it is difficult to critically appraise results of many sero-surveys that have previously been done for MAP in wildlife. Commercial ELISA kits may have limited or no capacity to detect antibodies from species other than for which they were developed. In order to generate reliable test results, it is essential to evaluate the test and perform modifications if deemed necessary. Despite the challenges inherent to wildlife diagnostics, we have shown that several methods can be used to improve confidence in test results. (Au)

I
Animal diseases; Animal husbandry; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Detection; Elk; Enzymes; Equipment and supplies; North American bison; Proteins; Quality assurance; Specifications; Testing

G0822, G0812, G0821, G0826, G10
Alberta; British Columbia; Montana; N.W.T.; Nunavik, Québec; Vestgrønland


Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in several herds of Arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.)   /   Forde, T.   Orsel, K.   De Buck, J.   Côté, S.D.   Cuyler, C.   Davison, T.   Elkin, B.   Kelly, A.   Kienzler, M.   Popko, R.   Taillon, J.   Veitch, A.   Kutz, S.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 48, no. 4, Oct. 2012, p. 918-924, map)
References.
ASTIS record 79185.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.7589/2011-09-261
Libraries: ACU

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a common pathogen in domestic ruminants that causes granulomatous inflammation of the small intestine leading to emaciation and wasting. Clinical disease (Johne's disease) is also reported for several wild ruminant species. Between 2007 and 2009 we collected 561 fecal samples from caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) representing 10 herds of migratory caribou, two herds of caribou from Greenland, and three populations of boreal woodland caribou. Feces were tested for MAP by bacterial culture and PCR targeting the IS900 insertion sequence. In total, 31 samples from eight different populations representing all three ecotypes were found positive for MAP by PCR, with one sample from the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd also being culture positive for the type II (cattle) strain. The proportion of positive animals was particularly high in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd in Greenland, and Rivière-aux-Feuilles and Rivière-George herds in northeastern Canada (23.4, 11.5, and 10.0%, respectively). Our results indicate that MAP is present in several caribou herds of different ecotypes in northern Canada and Greenland and that MAP circulates within wildlife populations that do not have ongoing contact with domestic livestock. The epidemiology, pathogenicity, and effects on the health of caribou in northern ecosystems remain unknown. (Au)

I
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal husbandry; Animal waste products; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Caribou; Detection; Gender differences; Proteins; Quality assurance; Reindeer; Specifications

G0812, G0813, G0826, G10
Hudson Bay region, Nunavut; Inuvialuit Settlement Region mainland, N.W.T.; Nunavik, Québec; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.; Vestgrønland


Comparison of gross visual and microscopic assessment of four anatomic sites to monitor Besnoitia tarandi in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus)   /   Ducrocq, J.   Beauchamp, G.   Kutz, S.   Simard, M.   Elkin, B.   Croft, B.   Taillon, J.   Côté, S.D.   Brodeur, V.   Campbell, M.   Cooley, D.   Cuyler, C.   Lair, S.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 48, no. 3, July 2012, p. 732-738)
References.
ASTIS record 76898.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.7589/0090-3558-48.3.732
Libraries: ACU

The objective of this study was to establish a standardized protocol to monitor Besnoitia tarandi prevalence and intensity in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds by: 1) calculating the relative sensitivity and specificity of the gross visual assessment of four anatomical sites compared with microscopic evaluation, and 2) determining which of four anatomical sampling sites was the most sensitive for detecting B. tarandi cysts by microscopy. Sampled tissues consisted of the conjunctiva of the left eye and skin sections from the rostrum, metatarsus, and thigh from 312 harvested caribou. Diagnosis of infection with B. tarandi was based on observation of at least one cyst by microscopic examination. For each tissue, the maximal density of cysts (number of B. tarandi cysts/mm² in the section examined) was calculated for a measured area consisting of the dermis extending from the epidermis of the skin to the base of the hair follicles and adnexal structures. For the conjunctiva, the entire submucosa was evaluated. Gross visual evaluation markedly underestimated B. tarandi prevalence in caribou with a relative sensitivity ranging from 0.29 in the conjunctiva to 0.13 in the skin section from the thigh, whereas relative specificities ranged from 0.98 to 1.00. The metatarsus and rostrum skin sections had the highest probabilities of cyst detection of all four anatomical sampling sites. The metatarsus harbored significantly higher densities of B. tarandi cysts than the rostrum, thigh, or conjunctiva. In conclusion, microscopic evaluation of a skin section from the anterior aspect of the mid-third portion of the metatarsal region could be used as a standardized comparative indicator of density of B. tarandi infection in Rangifer. (Au)

I
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal integumentary systems; Animal population; Arthropoda; Biochemistry; Biological sampling; Birds; Caribou; Detection; Effects monitoring; Gender differences; Hunting; Internal organs; Microscopes; Native peoples; Necropsy; Occupational training; Parasites; Protozoa; Risk assessment; Seasonal variations

G081, G0826
Canadian Arctic; Feuilles, Rivière aux, region, Québec; George, Rivière, region, Québec; Southampton Island, Nunavut


Diet and habitat of mountain woodland caribou inferred from dung preserved in 5000-year-old alpine ice in the Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Galloway, J.M.   Adamczewski, J.   Schock, D.M.   Andrews, T.D.   MacKay, G.   Bowyer, M.E.   Meulendyk, T.   Moorman, B.J.   Kutz, S.J.
(The archaeology and paleoecology of alpine ice patches. Arctic, v. 65, suppl. 1, 2012, p. 59-79, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 76347.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic65-S-59.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic4185
Libraries: ACU

Alpine ice patches are unique repositories of cryogenically preserved archaeological artefacts and biological specimens. Recent melting of ice in the Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada, has exposed layers of dung accumulated during seasonal use of ice patches by mountain woodland caribou of the ancestral Redstone population over the past ca. 5250 years. Although attempts to isolate the DNA of known caribou parasites were unsuccessful, the dung has yielded numerous well-preserved and diverse plant remains and palynomorphs. Plant remains preserved in dung suggest that the ancestral Redstone caribou population foraged on a variety of lichens (30%), bryophytes and lycopods (26.7%), shrubs (21.6%), grasses (10.5%), sedges (7.8%), and forbs (3.4%) during summer use of alpine ice. Dung palynomorph assemblages depict a mosaic of plant communities growing in the caribou's summer habitat, including downslope boreal components and upslope floristically diverse herbaceous communities. Pollen and spore content of dung is only broadly similar to late Holocene assemblages preserved in lake sediments and peat in the study region, and differences are likely due to the influence of local vegetation and animal forage behaviour. The 5000-year legacy of summer use of alpine ice patches by mountain woodland caribou suggests that these small, long-lived features may be important for the health of caribou populations in the Selwyn/Mackenzie Mountain range. (Au)

I, H, F, B, J, E, U
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal waste products; Artifacts; Bones; Caribou; Climate change; Cores; Ice patches; Indian archaeology; Measurement; North Slavey Indians; Palaeobotany; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeoecology; Palynology; Parasites; Plant taxonomy; Plants (Biology); Radiocarbon dating; Recent epoch; Snow; Snowdrifts; Stratigraphy; Temporal variations; Wildlife habitat

G0812
Selwyn Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon


Development and survival of Ostertagia gruehneri under natural and artificially warmed conditions on the Canadian tundra   /   Hoar, B.M.   Kutz, S.
(Proceedings of the 12th North American Caribou Workshop, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 2008 / Edited by R.E. Haugerud, R. Otto, S. Ellsworth. Rangifer, special issue no. 19, 2011, p. 154)
Abstract only.
ASTIS record 75881.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.ub.uit.no/baser/septentrio/index.php/rangifer/article/viewFile/2005/1866

Climate change in the Arctic is occurring at an unprecedented rate and is anticipated to alter the ecology of northern ecosystems, including the patterns, diversity, and transmission of infectious diseases. Ostertagia gruehneri is the most common gastrointestinal nematode in caribou and can cause decreased food intake, weight loss, and reduced pregnancy rates in Rangifer species. Because O. gruehneri has a direct life-cycle that includes a free-living stage, the development and survival rates of this parasite are influenced by climate and climate change. To investigate the response of the free-living stages of O. gruehneri to climate change field experiments were done from May to September 2007-08 at the Tundra Ecosystem Research Station (TERS), Daring Lake, Northwest Territories. Fecal plots containing 0. gruehneri were established on the tundra under natural and artificially warmed conditions. Plots were sampled throughout the summer to determine development and survival rates of O. gruehneri and to compare between the two climate regimes (natural vs. warmed). Effects of both temperature and relative humidity on development and survival were investigated. Results from these field seasons will be used, together with laboratory experiments, to develop and validate a predictive model for the impacts of climate change on the epidemiology of O. gruehneri. (Au)

I, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal waste products; Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Mathematical models; Nematoda; Parasites; Temporal variations; Testing; Tundra ecology

G0812
Daring Lake region, N.W.T.


Application of a molecular tool to describe the diversity and distribution of gastro-intestinal parasites in northern caribou   /   DeBruyn, N.P.   Hoberg, E.P.   Chilton, N.   Ruckstuhl, K.   Brook, R.   Kutz, S.
(Proceedings of the 12th North American Caribou Workshop, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 2008 / Edited by R.E. Haugerud, R. Otto, S. Ellsworth. Rangifer, special issue no. 19, 2011, p. 149)
Abstract only.
ASTIS record 75877.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.ub.uit.no/baser/septentrio/index.php/rangifer/article/viewFile/2000/1861
Libraries: ACU

Climate change is driving a northward shift in the distribution of North American wildlife, including ungulates. Temperate ungulates are host to a diversity of gastrointestinal nematode species, many of which are not found in woodland and barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Some of the most pathogenic of these parasites are those of the family Trichostrongylidae which are known to induce considerable morbidity and mortality in livestock globally. Although invasion of new trichostrongylid species to high latitudes may have significant impact on the health of naive (unexposed) caribou populations, the northern diversity and distribution of most species is unknown. In fact, our recent trichostrongylid survey of 20 wild ungulates in central Alberta and Saskatchewan revealed four new host and seven new geographic records. A challenge to determining parasite diversity is that many trichostrongyid eggs are morphologically indistinguishable and post-mortem recovery and examination of adult nematodes is necessary to establish species identification. To better describe the diversity of parasite fauna that may infect northern caribou, we have developed a rapid, non-invasive tool, Single Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), for broad-scale screening of cervid fecal pellets for trichostrongylid parasites. SSCP is a simple PCR-based technique that allows for species-specific electrophoretic discrimination using ITS-2 rDNA from parasite eggs. Trichostrongylid eggs in fecal pellets from three ecotypes of caribou, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (O. hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus) are being screened using SSCP to determine parasite diversity and range along two north-south transects in western Canada. Results outlining trichostrongylid diversity and distribution and implications for threatened woodland and barren-ground caribou populations will be reported. Baseline data on parasite biodiversity and distribution will provide a platform from which managers and veterinarians can monitor parasite range expansion in a warming climate and identify key parasite related risks. (Au)

I, E
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal taxonomy; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Detection; Effects monitoring; Genetics; Invertebrate eggs; Nematoda; Parasites; Risk assessment; Ungulates

G081, G0822, G0823
Alberta; Canadian Arctic; Saskatchewan


Besnoitiosis in caribou : what we know and what we don't know   /   Ducrocq, J.   Kutz, S.   Simard, M.   Croft, B.   Elkin, B.   Lair, S.
(Proceedings of the 12th North American Caribou Workshop, Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 2008 / Edited by R.E. Haugerud, R. Otto, S. Ellsworth. Rangifer, special issue no. 19, 2011, p. 150)
Abstract only.
ASTIS record 75876.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.ub.uit.no/baser/septentrio/index.php/rangifer/article/viewFile/2001/1862
Libraries: ACU

Besnoitia spp. are protozoan parasites known to occur in many species worldwide. Besnoitia tarandi has been described in caribou and reindeer in which it is often associated with hair loss, skin thickening and ulcerations. In Rangifer species, cysts of Besnoitia often induce inflammation and are observed mainly in the sclera and subcutaneous tissues, and to a lesser extent in other organs such as lungs and testes. Very little is known about the significance of this parasite on caribou health. However, it has been hypothesized that massive infections could impede the animal's tolerance to exercise and movement and therefore contribute to mortalities. In addition, extensive infections implicating the testicular appendages might impact the fertility of caribou as reported in other species. It is believed that B. tarandi has a two-host life cycle with caribou as intermediate hosts. Carnivores and biting arthropods have been respectively suggested as potential definitive hosts and vectors of B. tarandi. Presently, the gaps in understanding the life cycle of B. tarandi prevent any attempts to assess the potential effects of the changing arctic environment on the balance between this parasite and its hosts. In order to better characterize the ecology of this parasite in Canadian migratory caribou herds, our research team wishes to present data on the distribution of B. tarandi in association with body condition, gender and age and the potential association between intensity of infection with fertility and tolerance to exercise. (Au)

I
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal integumentary systems; Animal reproduction; Biological sampling; Caribou; Detection; Effects monitoring; Parasites; Protozoa

G081, G0826
Canadian Arctic; Nunavik, Québec


Arctic parasitology : why should we care?   /   Davidson, R.   Simard, M.   Kutz, S.J.   Kapel, C.M.O.   Hamnes, I.S.   Robertson, L.J.
(Trends in parasitology, v. 27, no. 6, June 2011, p. 231-284, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 75745.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.pt.2011.02.001
Libraries: ACU

The significant impact on human and animal health from parasitic infections in tropical regions is well known, but parasites of medical and veterinary importance are also found in the Arctic. Subsistence hunting and inadequate food inspection can expose people of the Arctic to foodborne parasites. Parasitic infections can influence the health of wildlife populations and thereby food security. The low ecological diversity that characterizes the Arctic imparts vulnerability. In addition, parasitic invasions and altered transmission of endemic parasites are evident and anticipated to continue under current climate changes, manifesting as pathogen range expansion, host switching, and/or disease emergence or reduction. However, Arctic ecosystems can provide useful models for understanding climate-induced shifts in host-parasite ecology in other regions. (Au)

I, T, E, K, N, J
Adaptation (Biology); Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Caribou; Climate change; Cougars; Diseases; Environmental impacts; Epidemics; Food; Food preparation; Food security; Giardia; Health; Lungworms; Lynx; Marine mammals; Moose; Muskoxen; Native peoples; Nematoda; Parasites; Safety; Subsistence; Tapeworms; Temporal variations; Testing; Toxoplasma gondii; Trichinella; Water supply

G02, G081, G0826, G0812
Arctic regions; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Canadian Arctic; Kuujjuarapik, Québec; Nunavik, Québec


Parasite zoonoses   /   Polley, L.   Kutz, S.J.   Hoberg, E.P.
In: Encyclopedia of environmental health / Edited by J.O. Nriagu. - Amsterdam ; London : Elsevier Science, 2011, p. 325-345, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 73510.
Languages: English

... Infectious diseases of people, domestic animals, and wildlife are among many sensitive indicators of environmental change. The occurrence and severity of these diseases is determined by a triad of complex interactions linking people and animals with the infectious agents causing the diseases and with their shared environment. Changes in any of these components or the linkages between them can lead to altered patterns of disease, including emergence of new and resurgence of old diseases. Among infectious agents (parasites, fungi, bacteria, viruses, and prions) of people, more than half are zoonotic - they can be naturally transmitted to people from domestic animals or wildlife, and wildlife are arguably the most important source for emerging infectious diseases for people. This article explores some of the known and possible effects of environmental change on parasite zoonoses in people and in animals. In this context, the environment embraces geographical, historical, ecological, climatological, cultural, social, economic, and political factors that individually and in variable combinations can influence the occurrence of parasite zoonoses and the diseases they cause. The complexity means that it is often very difficult to identify and quantify the role of specific environmental factors in determining patterns of disease, and although there is observational, experimental, and model-based evidence for the impacts of environmental change on zoonotic host-parasite systems, to date much of the exploration of this issue is based at least on conjecture. ... Parasite zoonoses are those parasites that can be naturally transmitted from animals to people. ... The fourth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) listed the three most important directional changes in the climate now and in the foreseeable future as (1) warming, (2) altered patterns of precipitation, and (3) increased incidence and severity of extreme climatic events. Depending on the circumstances, the net effects of these changes can favor or inhibit the hosts, the parasites, or neither or both .... Parasite zoonoses present a long list of challenges for exploration, understanding, and adaptation. So much human infection and disease associated with these parasites is built into where and how people live, what they eat, and their level of general health, well-being, and education. Improving these aspects of everyday life, together with maximizing the availability of specific measures for prevention and treatment when required, will help to reduce the immense burden of these and many other infectious diseases for millions. (Au)

I, H, K, J, E, R, F, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal husbandry; Animals; Arthropoda; Atmospheric temperature; Bacteria; Bioclimatology; Biology; Blood; Climate change; Diseases; Environmental impacts; Fungi; Health; Hygiene; Internal migration; Land use; Nematoda; Parasites; Plant distribution; Protozoa; Tapeworms; Temporal variations; Trematoda; Viruses; Water resources

G02
Arctic regions; Asia; Central America; Europe; North America; South America


Filter paper blood samples for ELISA detection of Brucella antibodies in caribou   /   Curry, P.S.   Elkin, B.T.   Campbell, M.   Nielsen, K.   Hutchins, W.   Ribble, C.   Kutz, S.J.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 47, no. 1, Jan. 2011, p. 12-20, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 73257.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.7589/0090-3558-47.1.12
Libraries: ACU

We evaluated blood collected on Nobuto filter-paper (FP) strips for use in detecting Brucella spp. antibodies in caribou. Whole blood (for serum) and blood-saturated FP strips were obtained from 185 killed arctic caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus). Sample pairs (serum and FP eluates) were simultaneously tested in duplicate using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and indirect ELISA (i-ELISA) for Brucella spp. Prior work based on isolation of Brucella spp. revealed sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of 100% and 99%, respectively, for both these serum assays in caribou. Infection status of the animals in the current study was unknown but recent sampling had revealed clinical brucellosis and >40% Brucella antibody prevalence in the herd. To assess the performance of FP relative to serum in these assays, serum was used as the putative gold standard. On both assays, the findings for duplicate runs (A and B) were similar. For c-ELISA run A, the FP Brucella prevalence (47%) was lower than serum prevalence (52%), with SE 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 82-95%) and SP 99% (97-100%). For i-ELISA run A, serum and FP Brucella prevalence rates were identical (43%), and the SE and SP of FP testing were 100% and 99% (97-100%), respectively. The findings suggest better FP test performance with i-ELISA than with c-ELISA; however, i-ELISA does not distinguish cross-reacting antibodies induced by Brucella vaccination or exposure to certain other Gram-negative pathogens. Results for duplicate FP eluates (prepared using separate FP strips from each animal) were strongly correlated for both protocols (r=0.996 and 0.999 for c-ELISA and i-ELISA, respectively), indicating minimal variability among FPs from any individual caribou. Dried caribou FP blood samples stored for 2 mo at room temperature are comparable with serum for use in Brucella spp. c-ELISA and i-ELISA. Hunter-based FP sampling can facilitate detection of disease exposure in remote regions and under adverse conditions, and can expand wildlife disease surveillance across temporospatial scales. (Au)

I, N
Animal diseases; Animal physiology; Bioassays; Biological sampling; Blood; Brucellosis; Caribou; Detection; Enzymes; Equipment and supplies; Logistics; Testing; Wildlife management

G0813
Coral Harbour region, Nunavut; Southampton Island, Nunavut


Écologie de la besnoitiose chez les populations de caribous (Rangifer tarandus) des régions subarctiques   /   Ducrocq, J.   Lair, S. [Supervisor]   Kutz, S. [Supervisor]
Montréal : Université de Montréal, 2010.
xi, 82, xi-xxii p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Thesis (M.Sc.) - Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, 2010.
Introduction and Discussion générale are in French, chapters 2 and 3 are in English.
ASTIS records 76898 and 79172 describe thesis chapters separately published in the Journal of wildlife diseases.
Appendices.
ASTIS record 80692.
Languages: English or French
Web: http://hdl.handle.net/1866/5320
Libraries: OONL

Although Besnoitia tarandi has been described in Rangifer sp. for over 80 years, understanding of its ecology and distribution is still relatively limited. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the anatomical sampling site that enhances detection of Besnoitia tarandi infections in caribou populations; (ii) to evaluate the relative sensitivity and specificity of the in situ macroscopic assessment for diagnosis of besnoitiosis compared to the microscopic evaluation; and (iii) to identify potential risk factors associated with the prevalence and intensity of B. tarandi cysts and compare these across different populations. Our results suggest that calculating the number of cysts present in the superficial dermis of a skin section of the anterior mid-third of the metatarsus region by microscopic examination should be favored in order to monitor the presence and intensity of B. tarandi infections. Macroscopic assessment of B. tarandi cysts was not a sensitive method compared to that of a microscopic analysis. Besnoitia tarandi seems to be absent from Greenland but has been encountered in approximately one third of North-American caribou. A seasonal effect was noticed in the prevalence and intensity of B. tarandi infections; the parasite being more abundant in caribou sampled during the fall/winter period compared to the spring/summer period. This effect could reflect the increased abundance of B. tarandi following the end of the insect season (i.e. summer), supporting the role of arthropods as vectors of transmission. Reduction of the parasite burden by the immune system and/or a lower winter survival rate of severely infected caribou could explain the seasonal difference. The slightly higher prevalence in males suggests lower mortality rate, higher exposure and/or higher susceptibility to the parasite in infected males when compared to infected females. The apparent higher density of infection by B. tarandi in the Rivière-aux-Feuilles herd (Nunavik, Québec) suggests either higher exposure to the parasite or reduced resistance of caribou from this herd. The findings of this study suggest that infection by B. tarandi might reduce survival of individual animals; hence, the dynamic between this parasite and its hosts is worth further investigation, especially in these days of changing Arctic environment. (Au)

I, T, N
Age; Animal anatomy; Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal integumentary systems; Animal population; Arthropoda; Biochemistry; Biological sampling; Birds; Caribou; Density; Detection; Effects monitoring; Gender differences; Hunting; Internal organs; Microscopes; Native peoples; Necropsy; Occupational training; Parasites; Protozoa; Risk assessment; Seasonal variations; Theses

G081, G0826
Canadian Arctic; Feuilles, Rivière aux, region, Québec; George, Rivière, region, Québec; Southampton Island, Nunavut


2010 muskox health survey : Victoria Island : a report prepared for Kitikmeot Food Ltd.   /   University of Calgary. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine   Wu, J.   Checkley, S.   Kutz, S.   Nunavut. Dept. of Environment   Dumond, M.   Kitikmeot Foods Ltd. [Sponsor]
Nunavut : Dept. of Environment, Government of Nunavut, 2010.
14 p. ; 28 cm.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Cover title.
References.
ASTIS record 79367.
Languages: English
Web: http://env.gov.nu.ca/sites/default/files/muskox_health_survey_final__report_may_16_2011.pdf

Muskoxen are important animals in northern Canada, both as a key wildlife species but also for cultural and economic importance as animals hunted for meat, leather, qiviut and sport. Therefore, careful health monitoring of these animals is important for sustainable populations, and also for the health and safety of the people who use the products. Currently only a limited amount of data are available on the health of the muskoxen on Victoria Island, Nunavut. To determine the general health status of these muskoxen, we evaluated 216 free-ranging hunter killed muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) for selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens. They were harvested between December 2009 to March 2010 from three regions of Victoria Island. Researchers and hunters collected samples of feces, blood, skin, lymph nodes, and other organs. Pathogen selection for testing was based on previous reports of infection in muskoxen and pathogens known to cause problems in the production of domestic livestock. As no test methods have been validated for muskoxen, selection of test method was based on using the best available option (gold standard) for ruminants and the method most likely to detect exposure to the pathogen. General post-mortem examination of 67 muskoxen revealed only minor pathological changes in 16 animals. The most significant finding was the difference in distribution of lungworm Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis cysts, present in all lungs examined in animals from the southwest of the island (n=26), but not detected in commercial harvested animals near Ikaluktutiak that (n=62). This lung parasite is well established in muskoxen on the mainland. We also found the newly described Varestrongylus spp. lungworm larvae in 3.8% (6/151) of the commercially harvested muskoxen. This is the first time it has been detected on Victoria island. Neospora caninum, a protozoan parasite that causes abortion and serious illness in livestock was found in serum samples from 3/49 (6.1%) commercially harvested muskoxen with titres of 1:25, 1:100, and 1:3200. This is a marked contrast to previous findings of only one positive (titre 1:40) of 224 muskoxen from Alaska in 2005. The significance of this finding is currently unknown. The detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in 2.0% (1/49) serum samples is comparable to previous reports of animals around Ikaluktutiak. Enteric parasites detected in fecal samples included Marshallagia spp., Nematodirus spp., trichostrongylids, Monezia spp. and Eimeria spp. (n= 182) similar to other reports of parasites in muskoxen. Samples were all negative for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (n=67), Chlamydophila spp. (n=49), Yersinia spp. (n=67), Giardia spp. (n=202), Crytposporidium spp. (n=202), and Besnoitia spp. (n=199). Overall, a low prevalence of pathogens significant to animals and humans was found in these animals and no gross signs of major clinical diseases were evident. A key limitation was the lack of sera available from animals harvested in the southwest portion of the island. Monitoring the health of these muskoxen is significant for surveillance of changing pathogen distribution, which has previously been demonstrated based on differences in U. pallikuukensis and T. gondii in muskoxen on the mainland compared to Victoria Island. While this provides key baseline data, ongoing sampling and testing is required to better understand the implications for human health, sustainable harvesting, and disease ecology in the Arctic in the muskoxen of Victoria Island. (Au)

I, N, T
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal integumentary systems; Animal mortality; Animal reproduction; Animal waste products; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Detection; Effects monitoring; Food; Internal organs; Inuit; Meat industry; Muskoxen; Parasites; Safety; Subsistence; Testing; Viruses; Wildlife management

G0813, G0812, G06
Alaska; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


The impact of climate change on disease emergence : lessons from the Arctic   /   Kutz, S.J.   Hoar, B.   Massolo, A.
In: Symposium : disease invasion : impacts on biodiversity and human health. - London : Zoological Society of London, 2010, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation.
Held 18-19 November 2010 in London at the Zoological Society of London.
Organised in partnership with The Royal Society as part of its 350th anniversary celebrations in 2010.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75897.
Languages: English
Web: http://static.zsl.org/files/disease-invasion-symposium-abstracts-1305.pdf

Climate change at northern latitudes is resulting in dramatic perturbations in the biotic and abiotic environment, including changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. Host-parasite interactions are highly sensitive to climate change and general predictions include reduced generation times and increased diversity, abundance and severity of pathogens in northern wildlife. During the past decade several examples of climate-linked parasite and/or disease emergence have been reported for arctic ungulates. The response of these host-parasite systems to climate change is complex, not uniform across taxa, and not always intuitive. For example, consistent with general climate change predictions, the generation time has decreased and the geographic range has expanded for Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, the protostrongylid lungworm of muskoxen. Contrary to predictions, however, recent research on Ostertagia gruehneri the Trichostrongylid abomasal nematode of caribou, suggests that generation times will be unaffected by climate change and increased temperatures could actually reduce availability of infective larvae at certain times of the year. We use these and other case studies of endemic and invasive northern parasites to explore the impacts of climate change on host-parasite interactions at high latitudes and discuss insights relevant to a broader understanding of parasite ecology. (Au)

I, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Ungulates

G081
Canadian Arctic


Impacts of climate change on the life cycle, distribution, and host range of the winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) in the Arctic and Subarctic   /   Kashivakura, C.K.   Kutz, S.   Veitch, A.M.   Colwell, D.   Lysyk, T.   Elkin, B.   Ward, R.   Massolo, A.
In: 24th International Congress for Conservation Biology : conservation for a changing planet, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 3-7 July 2010. - Washington, D.C. : Society for Conservation Biology, 2010, p. 121
Abstract of a poster presentation (P1.204).
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75895.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.conbio.org/Activities/Meetings/2010/images/Abstracts.pdf

Fluctuations in climate can directly affect the ecology and phenology of animals and plants, including ticks. Dermacentor albipictus, the 'winter tick' (WT) is an important parasite of deer, elk, woodland caribou, and moose. During the 1980s its northern distribution was limited to southern Yukon (62°25'49"N; 140°19'32"W); however, in recent years, it has been detected further north. This expansion may be associated with climate change driven shifts in WT life cycle and host distribution, and may pose threats to the barrenground caribou (BGC) population in the Canadian north that are facing a significant decline. The objectives of this research are: (1) to develop a serological assay to detect eventual exposure to WT in BGC; (2) to determine current WT host range and geographic distribution, and (3) and evaluate climate factors linked to WT distribution. 19 engorged females ticks are being raised in laboratory conditions to lay eggs until become larvae. Captive reindeer will be experimentally infested and used as model species to validate the test. The serological technique will be developed extracting a protein from WT saliva using Western blot; and the protein will be used as antigen in ELISA test to detect WT exposure on BGC serum. Chemical digestion of hides from hunted moose and BGC together with serology will be used to delineate current WT distribution in Northwest Territories and Yukon, as well as to define its host range and the climate constraints to its potential expansion. (Au)

I, E, J
Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal integumentary systems; Animal population; Arachnida; Bioassays; Bioclimatology; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Climate change; Deer; Detection; Environmental impacts; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Moose; Parasites; Reindeer; Testing

G081, G0811
Canadian Arctic; Yukon


Tools and collaborative approaches to bridging the communication gap between scientists and northern communities about caribou health and conservation   /   Brook, R.K.   Kutz, S.J.   Muelling, C.   Flood, P.   Anderson, J.
In: 24th International Congress for Conservation Biology : conservation for a changing planet, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 3-7 July 2010. - Washington, D.C. : Society for Conservation Biology, 2010, p. 30
Abstract of a poster presentation (P1.28).
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75893.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.conbio.org/Activities/Meetings/2010/images/Abstracts.pdf

Barriers to communication among scientists and indigenous communities in northern Canada about caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) health and conservation include: language, world-view, motivations, and a lack of suitable communication tools to facilitate knowledge sharing. The need for improved communication and collaboration is particularly acute given recent dramatic caribou declines. Understanding changes to caribou requires a diverse set of knowledge, tools, and approaches. Despite a range of anatomical features that are unique to the species and active research on diverse aspects their biology, relatively little work has been done to describe the anatomy of the genus Rangifer. It is important to describe what is 'normal' structure and function so that we can begin to understand 'abnormal'. The purpose of the Rangifer Anatomy Project (RAP) is to describe the anatomy of Rangifer from both scientific and traditional perspectives. Data on caribou anatomy have been obtained from lab-based scientific dissections of preserved reindeer and field-based dissections of caribou while participating on community caribou hunts. Interviews with hunters and elders have elicited information on traditional uses of caribou parts as food, medicine, clothing, and equipment. We anticipate that the process of this project and the final products that describe caribou anatomy from multiple perspectives will ultimately facilitate greater discussion about caribou health and conservation. (Au)

I, T, N, R, L
Animal anatomy; Animal health; Caribou; Co-management; Communication; Effects monitoring; Elders; Epistemology; Hunting; Native peoples; Necropsy; Public participation; Reindeer; Science; Scientists; Social surveys; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management

G081
Canadian Arctic


Climate change, parasites and shifting boundaries   /   Polley, L.   Hoberg, E.   Kutz, S.
(Parasite infections of domestic animals in the Nordic countries - emerging threats and challenges. Proceedings of the 22nd Symposium of the Nordic Committee for Veterinary Scientific Cooperation (NKVet), Helsinki, Finland, 7-9 September 2008. Acta veterinaria Scandinavica. Supplementum, v. 52, suppl. 1, S1, Oct. 2010, 5 p.)
References.
ASTIS record 73519.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1186/1751-0147-52-S1-S1
Libraries: ACU

Around the world the three major components of climate change already evident and escalating in magnitude and significance are; 1) warming; 2) altered patterns of precipitation; and 3) an increased incidence of extreme climatic events. For the structure and function of ecosystems, impacts of climate change vary with place and with time, and among the key outcomes are shifting boundaries for many components and processes within the systems. Among these components are pathogens and infectious diseases, including those caused by helminth, arthropod and protozoan parasites in people, domestic animals, and wildlife. For host-parasite assemblages, boundaries potentially vulnerable to climate change include those for spatial and temporal distributions of hosts and parasites, for parasite survival and development in hosts and in the environment, for risks of transmission to hosts at critical points in parasite webs, and for health effects on hosts, including the emergence or resurgence of disease. The often complex and obscure linkages and inter-relationships among components of an ecosystem, coupled with the uncertain and variable trajectories for climate change, make it difficult to identify all these vulnerabilities, particularly in the medium to long term. Also, faced with non-overwhelming “stress” most ecosystems display a degree of resilience that may mitigate some of the consequences of climate change, and in some circumstances the significance of parasites remains essentially unchanged. Finally, some recent shifts in disease occurrence that intuition might suggest are associated with climate change have proved likely to be wholly or partly the result of other factors. The primary aim of this paper is to provide a framework for thinking about the critical potential connections between climate change, parasites, people, and wildlife in the circumpolar North, and between these host groups, climate change, parasites and domestic animals in other areas of the world. (Au)

I, J, E, N, K
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Animals; Arthropoda; Bacteria; Climate change; Diseases; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Food; Forecasting; Health; Human ecology; Nematoda; Occupational training; Parasites; Planning; Protozoa; Public participation; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Trematoda; Ungulates; Viruses; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G02, G081
Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic


Amphibian chytrid fungus and ranaviruses in the Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Schock, D.M.   Ruthig, G.R.   Collins, J.P.   Kutz, S.J.   Carrière, S.   Gau, R.J.   Veitch, A.M.   Larter, N.C.   Tate, D.P.   Guthrie, G.   Allaire, D.G.   Popko, R.A.
(Chytridiomycosis : an emerging disease / Edited by A. Hyatt, C. Carey, A. Cunningham, and R. Speare. Diseases of aquatic organisms, v. 92, no. 2-3, Nov. 2010, p. 231-240, maps)
References.
This paper was supplied by the authors as being funded by an IPY project on caribou.
ASTIS record 73509.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3354/dao02134

Pathogens can cause serious declines in host species, and knowing where pathogens associated with host declines occur facilitates understanding host-pathogen ecology. Suspected drivers of global amphibian declines include infectious diseases, with 2 pathogens in particular, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and ranaviruses, causing concern. We explored the host range and geographic distribution of Bd and ranaviruses in the Taiga Plains ecoregion of the Northwest Territories, Canada, in 2007 and 2008. Both pathogens were detected, greatly extending their known geographic distributions. Ranaviruses were widespread geographically, but found only in wood frogs. In contrast, Bd was found at a single site, but was detected in all 3 species of amphibians in the survey area (wood frogs, boreal chorus frogs, western toads). The presence of Bd in the Northwest Territories is not congruent with predicted distributions based on niche models, even though findings from other studies at northern latitudes are consistent with those same models. Unexpectedly, we also found evidence that swabs routinely used to collect samples for Bd screening detected fewer infections than toe clips. Our use and handling of the swabs was consistent with other studies, and the cause of the apparent lack of integrity of swabs is unknown. The ranaviruses detected in our study were confirmed to be Frog Virus 3 by sequence analysis of a diagnostic 500 bp region of the major capsid protein gene. It is unknown whether Bd or ranaviruses are recent arrivals to the Canadian north. However, the genetic analyses required to answer that question can inform larger debates about the origin of Bd in North America as well as the potential effects of climate change and industrial development on the distributions of these important amphibian pathogens. (Au)

I, H, J
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal live-capture; Animal population; Biological sampling; Frogs; Fungi; Genetics; Proteins; Viruses

G0812
Blackstone River region, N.W.T.; Colville Lake region, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope region, N.W.T.; Fort Liard region, N.W.T.; Jean Marie River region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Nahanni National Park, N.W.T.; Norman Wells region, N.W.T.; Wrigley region, N.W.T.


Evaluation and delivery of domestic animal health services in remote communities in the Northwest Territories : a case study of status and needs   /   Brook, R.K.   Kutz, S.J.   Millins, C.   Veitch, A.M.   Elkin, B.T.   Leighton, T.
(Canadian veterinary journal, v. 51, no. 10, Oct. 2010, p.1115-1122, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 73264.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Domestic animal health services are supplied to communities in Canada's Northwest Territories (NT) in diverse ways, including private veterinary practices in 2 of 33 communities, and by mail-order, fly-in, free clinics, and a government-coordinated lay vaccinator program in some of the other 31 communities. We evaluated delivery, needs, and potential uptake of domestic animal health services in the Sahtu Settlement Area, NT by offering free clinics for 225 dogs in 2008 and 2009; and administered questionnaires to 42 dog owners and 67 students in 2008. Owners indicated that 20% of dogs were neutered, 37% had had rabies vaccinations, and 29% had been dewormed. Physical examination of dogs demonstrated that 54% were "thin" and 4% were "emaciated." Owners and youth showed a range of attitudes toward dogs and supported improved domestic animal health services. Future services need to build on existing programs and collaborate with communities to ensure relevance, ownership, and sustainability. (Au)

I, T, R, K
Animal health; Animal waste products; Capacity building; Diseases; Dogs; Education; Giardia; Health; Immunization; North Slavey Indians; Parasites; Public opinion; Rabies; Social surveys; Tapeworms; Viruses; Youth

G0812
Colville Lake (Settlement), N.W.T.; Deline, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope, N.W.T.; Norman Wells, N.W.T.; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.; Tulita, N.W.T.


Tools and collaborative approaches to bridging the communication gap between northern communities and scientists about caribou anatomy and health   /   Brook, R.K.   Kutz, S.J.   Muelling, C.   Flood, P.   Anderson, J.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. PS2-B.86, [1] p.
Abstract of a poster presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71712.
Languages: English

Reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations across the circumpolar north are facing dramatic impacts in response to climate change and human development. Despite a shared interest in Rangifer sustainability, sometimes misunderstandings have arisen among caribou users, researchers, and management agencies. These conflicts often reflect differences in world views, language barriers, and lapses in communication. With regard to understanding and communicating caribou health, there are relatively few resources available to help facilitate discussion and describe what is 'normal' structure and function so that we can begin to understand 'abnormal'. At the same time a diverse set of knowledge, tools, and approaches are needed that meaningfully address/bridge the differences that exist. Despite a range of anatomical features that are unique to the species, little work has been done to describe the anatomy of the genus Rangifer. Given the range of perceptions and knowledge regarding caribou and reindeer from scientific and community perspectives, it is essential to develop tools that integrate scientific approaches to caribou anatomy with the observations and knowledge of indigenous people in northern regions in that northern communities have expressed a desire to be involved in research and monitoring. The purpose of the Rangifer Anatomy Project (RAP) is to describe Rangifer in ways that are useful to indigenous hunters, educators, students, biologists, and veterinarians through posters, books, and electronic tools. Development of these resources involves detailed anatomical dissections and histological analysis in the laboratory, collaborative dissections that engage hunters, youth and elders during community caribou hunts in the North, and interviews that document knowledge of historical and contemporary uses of caribou for food, medicine, and tools. We anticipate that the process of this project and the final products that describe caribou anatomy from multiple perspectives will ultimately facilitate greater discussion about caribou health. Keywords: caribou, health, anatomy, traditional knowledge. (Au)

I, T, N, R, L
Animal anatomy; Animal health; Caribou; Co-management; Communication; Effects monitoring; Elders; Epistemology; Hunting; Native peoples; Necropsy; Occupational training; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Reindeer; Research; Research personnel; Science; Scientists; Social surveys; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management; Youth

G081
Canadian Arctic


A tale of two parasites : modelling dynamics of parasitic diseases in caribou and reindeer   /   Dobson, A.   Kutz, S.   Hoar, B.   Gunn, A.   Russell, D.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. EA8.3-6.4, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71710.
Languages: English

In this talk we describe some models for two different macroparasites of caribou and reindeer. We've selected parasites with very different life histories, warbles and abomasal nematodes, to explore how impacts on hosts may differ and how climate may variably influence these systems. The models are parameterized from data collected as part of the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment International Polar Year activities and from historical, ongoing and continuing field studies. The models suggest that both abomasal nematodes and warbles can have significant impacts on caribou abundance and that these impacts are closely linked to environmental conditions. Nevertheless, there are subtle but important differences between the dynamics and impacts of these parasites. If time permits we will describe the potential dynamic consequences of coinfection with both nematodes and botflies. Throughout, the models will be used to interpret observed patterns in field data and long-term census data for migratory caribou. Keywords: caribou, parasites, modelling, climate change. (Au)

I, E
Animal migration; Animal population; Caribou; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Mathematical models; Nematoda; Parasites; Reindeer; Warble flies

G02
Arctic regions


Integrated scientific and community-based tools and strategies for understanding infectious disease in Arctic wildlife   /   Kutz, S.   Curry, P.   Jackson, A.   Brook, R.   deBruyn, N.   Elkin, B.   Veitch, A.   Russell, D.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. PS3-A.73, [1] p.
Abstract of a poster presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71709.
Languages: English

Recent dramatic declines of migratory caribou populations highlight the need to better understand factors that influence the health and resilience of this species. There are many logistical and financial challenges to investigating the health of caribou in the harsh and remote regions of the Arctic. International Polar Year provided a unique opportunity for scientists and wildlife managers to work with community members to explore more efficient and effective methods for monitoring caribou health. We built on principles from the existing Community-based Monitoring of Wildlife Health in the Sahtu (Northwest Territories) and developed training materials and scientific techniques to facilitate community-based monitoring of caribou. Training materials include health monitoring protocols, a hunter caribou sampling and disease training video, and various caribou anatomy resources that integrate scientific and traditional knowledge. Scientific techniques include validation of the use of filter paper for blood collection and molecular methods for non-invasive sampling of gastrointestinal parasites. We also worked closely with hunters to train them in caribou health sampling and to document their opinions on and uptake of a community-based caribou health monitoring. Our integrated approach brings scientists, hunters, youth and elders together to gain a more holistic understanding of caribou health. Keywords: community-based monitoring, caribou, anatomy, infectious disease. (Au)

I, T, N, R
Animal anatomy; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal population; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Elders; Equipment and supplies; Hunting; Native peoples; Occupational training; Parasites; Research personnel; Science; Traditional knowledge; Video tapes; Wildlife management; Youth

G0812
Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.


Caribou health and climate change : a snapshot in time for infectious diseases   /   Kutz, S.   duCrocq, J.   Cuyler, C.   Schock, D.   Hoar, B.   Elkin, B.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. PS3-A.20, [1] p.
Abstract of a poster presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71708.
Languages: English

Widespread population declines of migratory caribou highlight the need to better understand the role of infectious diseases in this species. Hindering our understanding of the role of disease in caribou population dynamics is the fact that comprehensive datasets on caribou diseases are rare and diversity of pathogens remains incompletely defined. International Polar Year provided a unique opportunity to build a collaborative network of researchers, wildlife managers, and community members to explore caribou health. During IPY we developed standardized protocols to investigate infectious diseases of caribou across much of the Arctic. Through scientific and community-based caribou sampling efforts we have produced an unprecedented snapshot in time of caribou health with pathogen profiles for several herds. Ongoing investigations are exploring how these pathogens may directly or indirectly influence caribou health now and under changing climatic regimes. Our integrated approach will greatly enhance understanding of the multiple factors driving the rise and fall of caribou populations and will improve our ability to predict population trajectories and implement appropriate management actions. Keywords: caribou, disease, climate change, monitoring. (Au)

I, T, E, N
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal population; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Co-management; Databases; Effects monitoring; Native peoples; Research personnel; Wildlife management

G02
Arctic regions


Involvement of the CARMA (CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment) Network in analysis, synthesis and management of Arctic caribou and reindeer populations   /   White, R.G.   Russell, D.E.   Gunn, A.   Griffith, B.   Kofinas, G.P.   Kutz, S.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. LM8.3-6.4, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71541.
Languages: English

INTRODUCTION: With few exceptions Arctic caribou and wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) populations oscillate and currently 16 of 22 monitored populations are in decline. Although aboriginal communities have been experiencing and coping with caribou abundance and scarcity for millennium, western science has only been accumulating (more or less) systematic data over the last 40 years: a period that started with caribou lows. As their herds decline, the management agencies and co-management groups responsible have been asking tough questions about the causes and how to halt declines, how to facilitate recovery and during this current decline, what is the role of increased development, human activity, climate change and more efficient hunting methods. METHODS: Our approach to addressing these concerns has been the formation of a CircumArctic Monitoring and Assessment (CARMA) Network where Network members contribute data on local and traditional knowledge, population parameters, ecology, body composition, health/disease and management systems to a central data base. Using this knowledge CARMA is 1) sharing data among members, 2) producing a "Synthesis" volume to bring into one place our collective knowledge of wild Rangifer ecology, and 3) developing analysis and decision making models to directly address management concerns. RESULTS: Currently CARMA is tracking the status of all large migratory wild reindeer and caribou herds through direct participation of membership in circumpolar countries. We are currently writing a Synthesis volume addressing wild Rangifer ecology focussing on 1) linkages between habitat change, individual condition and health and population response, 2) managing abundance, and 3) impacts of global change. Our assessment approach utilizes models of protein and energy, body frame size, impacts of harvesting, and mechanisms of population cycles. DISCUSSION: It is only through cooperative data and experience sharing forums such as CARMA that we can collectively face the uncertain future of our wild Rangifer herds. Keywords: CARMA, Rangifer, populations, modeling. (Au)

I, N, T, E, J
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Caribou; Climate change; Co-management; Databases; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Hunting; Mathematical models; Native peoples; Reindeer husbandry; Size; Temporal variations; Traditional knowledge; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G02
Arctic regions


Effect of climate change on the transmission of Ostertagia gruehneri in barrenground [i.e. barren-ground] caribou   /   Hoar, B.M.   Ruckstuhl, K.   Kutz, S.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. LM8.3-6.3, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71480.
Languages: English

Climate change in the Arctic is occurring at an unprecedented rate and is anticipated to alter the patterns, diversity, and transmission of wildlife parasites in northern ecosystems. Ostertagia gruehneri is the most common gastrointestinal nematode in caribou and can cause decreased food intake, weight loss, and reduced pregnancy rates in Rangifer species. Because O. gruehneri has a direct life-cycle that includes a free-living stage, the development, survival, and transmission of this parasite are influenced by climate. A combination of field and laboratory experiments will be used to develop conceptual and mathematical models of transmission for O. gruehneri in barren-ground caribou. Field experiments investigating the development, survival, and overwintering potential of O. gruehneri on the tundra were completed in the summers of 2008 and 2009 in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Laboratory experiments determining the development and survival of O. gruehneri under controlled conditions were initiated in 2009 and will continue through 2010. Results from the field seasons determined that larvae of O. gruehneri developed at different rates throughout the summer. Development was restricted in both the coolest (June) and warmest (July) periods of the season. Larval survival was consistently low throughout the field season. Overwinter survival of second- and third-stage larvae was nearly 100% and subsequent spring survival was higher under warmed conditions than under natural conditions. Results from the 2009 laboratory experiments support the effect of temperature on development of O. gruehneri larvae - development was constrained at 5 and 30°C. Survival rates decreased with increasing temperature. This research project will define critical thresholds for development and survival of the free-living stages of O. gruehneri, as well as outline transmission dynamics with a migratory host. Integration of different research approaches will provide the basis for conceptualand mathematical models of transmission that can then be applied to different climate change scenarios. Keywords: Ostertagia gruehneri, barren-ground caribou, transmission, climate change. (Au)

I, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal health; Bioclimatology; Caribou; Climate change; Mathematical models; Nematoda; Parasites; Seasonal variations; Temporal variations; Tundra ecology; Winter ecology

G0812
N.W.T.


Prevalence and intensity of Besnoitia tarandi in caribou (Rangifer tarandus) : associated risk factors and comparisons between herds   /   Ducrocq, J.   Lair, S.   Beauchamp, G.   Kutz, S.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, [2010], p. 58
Abstract of a student poster.
ASTIS record 69865.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The objective of this study was to document the occurrence of infections by the protozoa Besnoitia tarandi in different populations of barren-ground caribou. Skin samples from the metatarsus of 1036 caribou from eight different herds were examined by microscopy for the presence of infection with B. tarandi. Density of cysts was determined for each animal and used as an indicator of the intensity of infection. Infections by B. tarandi were not detected in Greenlandic herds, but were commonly encountered with various prevalence and intensities in North American caribou. The highest level of infections was observed in caribou from the Leaf River herd, suggesting that this herd is either more exposed to B. tarandi, or less resistant to this parasite. The measured prevalence was higher following the summer months supporting the suspected role of arthropods in the transmission of this disease. Males presented a higher risk of infection than females. Stress and energy expenses associated with male breeding, as well as behaviour, land use and immunomodulating effects of testosterone, might account for the apparent increase of susceptibility of males. The impact of this parasite on the dynamics of the caribou population is unclear. However, post-mortem examinations of caribou from the Leaf herd suggest that infection by this parasite can significantly impact the health of caribou and therefore modulate the survival of some individuals. These findings show that the relationship between this parasite, its host and the ever changing Arctic environment is worth further investigation. (Au)

I
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal integumentary systems; Animal population; Arthropoda; Biochemistry; Biological sampling; Caribou; Gender differences; Parasites; Protozoa; Risk assessment; Seasonal variations

G081, G10, G0826
Canadian Arctic; Feuilles, Rivière aux, region, Québec; Greenland


Monitoring Besnoitia tarandi in barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus) : recommended tissue for sampling and diagnostic technique   /   Ducrocq, J.   Lair, S.   Beauchamp, G.   Kutz, S.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, [2010], p. 58
Abstract of a student poster.
ASTIS record 69864.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The main objectives of this study were to (i) determine which of four anatomical sampling sites yielded the highest probability of detecting the protozoan parasite, Besnoitia tarandi, in caribou and (ii) to evaluate the relative sensitivity and the specificity of in-situ macroscopic assessment of these areas compared to microscopic evaluation. The conjunctiva and skin sections from the rostrum, metatarsus and thigh were sampled from 311 caribou. These were fixed in buffered 10% formalin, and analyzed microscopically. In-situ macroscopic evaluation for all four sites was performed on 244 of these caribou. RESULTS: The likelihood of detecting B. tarandi infection by microscopic examination of skin from the metatarsus and rostrum were statistically similar, however, the intensity of cysts was significantly higher in the metatarsus. Macroscopic assessment for B. tarandi cysts was not a sensitive method compared to microscopy. The quantitative microscopic estimation method was relatively easy to perform and the choice of the metatarsus skin section provided a representative index of cumulative density. Comparison between animals and herds should be made using the same anatomical sampling site. The metatarsus is collected in many established caribou monitoring programs and we recommend sampling the anterior aspect of the mid-third of the metatarsus as a standardized site for B. tarandi detection. (Au)

I
Animal anatomy; Animal integumentary systems; Biological sampling; Caribou; Detection; Effects monitoring; Microscopes; Parasites; Protozoa; Testing

G081
Canadian Arctic


Hunters and scientists on the land : full-circle caribou research   /   Curry, P.   Veitch, A.   Elkin, B.   Jenkins, D.   Ducrocq, J.   Kutz, S.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, [2010], p. 57
Abstract of a student poster.
ASTIS record 69862.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

As an International Polar Year (IPY) initiative we explored the strategy of community-based caribou health monitoring. In this strategy, scientists join with hunters to exchange skills and knowledge, collect scientific data and samples from caribou, and return analyses to northern communities as quickly as possible. Our goal is to have hunters and scientists working together to assess caribou health and enhance capacity for community-based caribou population monitoring. This poster describes this process. (Au)

I, N, T
Animal health; Animal population; Biological sampling; Capacity building; Caribou; Effects monitoring; Hunting; Inuit; Participatory action research

G081
Canadian Arctic


Infectious disease in caribou : the blood-on-filter-paper screening tool   /   Curry, P.   Kutz, S.   Ribble, C.   Hutchins, W.   Elkin, B.   Campbell, M.   Godson, D.   Robinson, J.   Nielsen, K.   Lindsay, R.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, [2010], p. 56-57
Abstract of a student poster.
ASTIS record 69861.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Patterns of infectious disease are expected to shift with climate change. Currently, several herds of barrenground caribou are in severe (>80%) decline for reasons that are unclear. Infectious agents may be involved but scientific knowledge gaps are large and wildlife disease surveillance in the Arctic is extremely challenging. Filter-paper (FP) blood sampling is a powerful tool that is firmly established in human medicine, well-suited for harsh field conditions, and can be performed by laypeople, such as hunters and biologists. However, validation of FP in wildlife is lacking. This poster summarizes the first step in a project to Assess (validate) and Implement caribou FP blood sampling as a hunter-based tool in the Canadian North. Paired FP and serum samples were collected from three groups of caribou/reindeer with known antibodies for one or more of eight pathogens relevant in the context of climate change. Serological test data were analyzed to compare 1) FP versus serum (the "gold standard") and 2) multiple FP strips from individual animals. The poster presents results for three agents: Brucella spp., West Nile virus, and Neospora caninum. Findings to date indicate that FP testing is an excellent tool (comparable to serum) for screening of pathogen exposure in caribou. (Au)

I, K, E
Animal diseases; Animal population; Biological sampling; Blood; Brucellosis; Caribou; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Equipment and supplies; Testing; Viruses

G081
Canadian Arctic


Genetic diversity of the vector-borne pathogen Trypanosoma (Protozoa) in caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) herds in North America, Greenland and Finland   /   Schock, D.M.   Kutz, S.J.   Branigan, M.   Bollinger, T.K.   Cooley, D.   Côté, S.   Croft, B.   Cuyler, C.   Elkin, B.   Fernando, C.   Heikkinen, P.   Laaksonen, S.   Oksanen, A.   Taillon, J.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, [2010], p. 55
Abstract of a poster.
ASTIS record 69859.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) are keystone species in northern ecosystems and integral to the cultural fabric of northern peoples. Our research is genetically characterizing the vector-borne blood parasite Trypanosoma (Protozoa) from several Rangifer herds in North America, Greenland and Finland to better understand host ranges and geographic distributions. In domestic cattle these parasites are common in animals under stress and are associated with abortions. Because Trypanosoma is a vector-borne pathogen, climate change is likely to alter distributions and intensify impacts on host health in northern areas. We examined a ~500 bp region of the 18S gene of Trypanosoma from several Rangifer herds and other North American ungulates. Phylogentic analyses indicate that there are at least two distinct genotypes of Trypanosoma in Rangifer, one of which that has not be previously documented in the scientific literature. Only a single genotype, the most common one, was detected in Rangifer from the Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut herd in Greenland, but multiple genotypes were detected in all other Rangifer herds. No genotypes were isolated strictly from Rangifer; they were also detected in mule deer from Saskatchewan, and bison from the Northwest Territories. We found evidence of individuals simultaneously infected by two genotypes of Trypanosoma. Our study indicates that Rangifer herds are susceptible to infection by multiple strains of Trypanosoma and that, in North American ungulates, Trypanosoma are likely multi-host pathogens. This has numerous implications for disease dynamics in all host species. (Au)

I, N, E
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal taxonomy; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Genetics; Parasites; Protozoa; Reindeer husbandry; Ungulates

G08, G10, G13, G0812, G0823
Canada; Greenland; Lapland, Finland; N.W.T.; Saskatchewan


The Rangifer Anatomy Project : developing tools for communicating community and scientific approaches to caribou structure and function   /   Brook, R.   Kutz, S.J.   Muelling, C.   Flood, P.   Anderson, J.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, [2010], p. 52
Abstract of a poster.
ASTIS record 69854.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are facing dramatic impacts across their broad range in response to climate change and human development. Understanding these impacts on health of the species requires a diverse set of knowledge, tools, and approaches. Despite a range of anatomical features that are unique to the species, little work has been done to describe the anatomy of the genus Rangifer. It is important to describe what is 'normal' structure and function so that we can begin to understand 'abnormal'. At the same time, given the range of perceptions and knowledge regarding caribou and reindeer from scientific and community perspectives, it is essential to develop tools that integrate scientific approaches to caribou anatomy with the observations and knowledge of indigenous people in northern regions in that northern communities have expressed a desire to be involved in research and monitoring. The purpose of the Rangifer Anatomy Project (RAP) is to describe Rangifer in ways that are useful to Dene, Inuit, Cree, and Métis hunters, educators, students, biologists, and veterinarians through posters, booklets, and electronic tools. Development of these resources involves detailed anatomical dissections and histological analysis in the laboratory, collaborative dissections that engage hunters, youth and elders during community caribou hunts in the North, and interviews that document knowledge of historical and contemporary uses of caribou for food, medicine, and tools. We anticipate that the process of this project and the final products that describe caribou anatomy from multiple perspectives will ultimately facilitate greater discussion about caribou health. (Au)

I, T, N
Animal anatomy; Animal food; Animal health; Caribou; Climate change ; Effects monitoring; Effects of climate on plants; Elders; Food; Grazing; Hunting; Native peoples; Participatory action research; Social surveys; Traditional knowledge

G081
Canadian Arctic


Integrated scientific and community-based strategies for monitoring, detecting and understanding endemic and emerging infectious diseases in caribou and reindeer   /   Kutz, S.   Hoar, B.   Curry, P.   deBruyn, N.   Brook, R.   Ducrocq, J.   Schock, D.   Lair, S.   Gunn, A.   Russell, D.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, [2010], p. 13-14
Abstract of an oral presentation.
ASTIS record 69792.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Caribou and reindeer, Rangifer tarandus ssp., are keystone species across much of the Arctic and contribute substantially to the physical, spiritual, and economic health of northern communities. Recent dramatic population declines highlight the need to better understand factors that influence the health and resilience of this species. International Polar Year funding provided a unique opportunity to build a collaborative network of researchers, wildlife managers, and community members to explore Rangifer health. During IPY we combined scientific and local knowledge and expertise to investigate infectious diseases of Rangifer species across much of the Arctic. We developed various training materials and scientific techniques that aim to facilitate community-based and scientific monitoring of Rangifer. Training materials include health monitoring protocols, a hunter caribou sampling and disease training video, various Rangifer anatomy resources. Scientific techniques include validation of the use of filter paper for blood collection and molecular methods for non-invasive sampling of gastrointestinal parasites. We also worked closely with hunters to train them in caribou health sampling as well as to document their opinions on community-based caribou health monitoring. We have produced an unprecedented snapshot in time of Rangifer health with pathogen profiles for several herds. Ongoing investigations are exploring how these pathogens may directly or indirectly influence caribou health now and under changing climatic regimes. Our integrated approach will greatly enhance our understanding of the multiple factors driving the rise and fall of caribou populations. Such an approach is vital in order to effectively predict population trajectories and implement appropriate management actions. (Au)

I, T, N, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal population; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Climate change; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Hunting; Inuit; Native peoples; Occupational training; Parasites; Reindeer; Subsistence; Traditional knowledge; Video tapes; Wildlife management

G02
Arctic regions


Caribou health and anatomy : educational resources for monitoring caribou health   /   Kutz, S.
Calgary, Alta. : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, 2009.
1 DVD.
Title taken from the DVD cover.
Alternate title on DVD: Caribou anatomy and health monitoring.
Partial contents: Weighing the right muscles / Flood, P.
ASTIS record 80268.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Healthy caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus spp.) are vital to communities and indigenous cultures throughout the Arctic. Many northerners continue to depend on caribou and reindeer for food and as a focus for cultural and economic activities. Wild caribou and reindeer are also keystone species in the circumpolar north and are critical for the maintenance of healthy northern ecosystems. The Rangifer Anatomy Project (RAP) grew out of a need for better resources to enhance Rangifer health monitoring, to promote responsible hunting, and to facilitate knowledge exchange across generations among Rangifer users including northern community members, wildlife managers, scientists, and educators. RAP was initiated at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary in December 2007 and has since grown into a much larger collaboration in the Rangifer world. The images and information that are provided here are a result of hundreds of hours of work of many dedicated individuals - from hunters and elders to scientists and IT specialists. The actual webpage development is the product of the hard work and dedication of a few people, but could never have happened without the acceptance, patience and cooperation of a great many. In particular we would like to thank the communities of Fort Good Hope and Lutsel'ke who welcomed us on their community hunts and tolerated our many unusual requests. (Au)

I, J, T, N
Animal anatomy; Animal health; Artifacts; Biological sampling; Caribou; Culture (Anthropology); Customs; DVDs; Effects monitoring; Elders; Handicrafts; Hunting; Moose; Native languages; Native peoples; Public education campaigns; Reindeer; Subsistence; Traditional clothing; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management; World Wide Web

G0812, G0813
Cambridge Bay (Settlement), Nunavut; Coronation Gulf region, Nunavut; Fort Good Hope, N.W.T.; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; Lutselk'e, N.W.T.; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.


Climate change and parasitism in Arctic and Subarctic terrestrial mammals   /   Kutz, S.   Curry, P.   deBruyn, N.   Ducrocq, J.   Dumond, M.   Elkin, B.   Hoberg, E.   Lair, S.   Orsel, K.   Polley, L.   Seegers, K.   Spans, R.   Torretti, L.   Veitch, A.
In: Annual Meeting of the Alaska Chapter and Northwest Section of the Wildlife Society, Wood Campus Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 7-8 April 2009. - [Alaska : The Society, 2009], p. 15
Abstract of an oral presentation.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75901.
Languages: English
Web: http://joomla.wildlife.org/alaska/images/documents/tws_09_prelim_program%20.pdf

The diversity and abundance of pathogens, as well as patterns of disease they cause, are particularly sensitive to climatic conditions. In the Canadian North we are already observing changes in endemic host-parasite interactions. Models based on empirical data demonstrate that, in the core of its distribution, the muskox lungworm (Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis) can now develop to the infective stage in a single summer whereas in the past it required two summers. Range expansion is also likely. Similarly, based on traditional knowledge and anecdotal observations, the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, has expanded its range northwards in the Northwest Territories and Besnoitia tarandi has recently emerged as a disease causing agent in caribou eastern Canada. Of considerable concern under the current warming conditions is the invasion of new hosts and parasites that previously could not establish. Accurate inventory of the parasite fauna, together with knowledge of the host and geographic ranges and parasite lifecycles, is essential to better inform us about one of the important drivers of wildlife population dynamics. Models based on empirical data will allow us to develop scenarios on how host-parasite interactions may respond to environmental perturbations and changes in community structure (ie. translocations/invasions). Ongoing monitoring efforts will allow early detection of changes and refinement of questions. Armed with such information we can better evaluate and implement mitigation measures. In the absence of this information our efficacy at managing wildlife populations is challenged. (Au)

I, E, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal population; Arachnida; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Lungworms; Mammals; Mathematical models; Muskoxen; Parasites; Wildlife management

G081, G0812
Canadian Arctic; N.W.T.


Community engagement in disease detection at the wildlife-livestock-human interface   /   Cork, S.C.   Kutz, S.   Massolo, A.   Ouellet, J.   Veitch, A.
In: International Symposia on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE) proceedings, ISVEE 12 : proceedings of the 12th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Durban, South Africa, Theme 9 - Wildlife diseases and the wildlife/livestock/human interface : poster session, wildlife epidemiology, public health. - [S.l. : International Symposia on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, 2009], T9-P.1, p. 715
Abstract of a poster presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 75890.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.sciquest.org.nz/elibrary/download/68240/T9-P1_-_Community_engagement_in_disease_detection_at_the_wildlife-livestock-human_interface?

This poster outlines a number of collaborative studies underway at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, designed to engage community groups to ensure early detection of emerging diseases in human, domestic animal and wildlife populations. The work depends on strengthening links between the veterinary faculty, community animal control services, parks and wildlife officers, community health science staff, biologists and social scientists in order to ensure early detection of disease and the recognition of risk factors that have an impact on human, wildlife and domestic animal health. The focus of these studies is on the interface between humans, wildlife and domestic animals in urban Alberta and in hunting communities in Northern Canada. Specific examples include the use of interviews to gather indigenous knowledge about changes in the health of caribou and other wildlife in northern Canada, developing networks to engage hunters in sharing observations and gathering samples and data for wildlife disease surveillance and collaborative approaches to understanding the ecology of human-coyote interactions, including disease risks, in a large urban centre (Calgary). Engagement of the local stakeholders is a common component of each of these projects and facilitates early detection of abnormal events or syndromes. These and similar multidisciplinary studies designed to examine wildlife-domestic animal-human disease transmission at the community level have demonstrated that an understanding of disease ecology, and associated risk factors, requires recognition and early detection of factors that impact on ecosystem health as well as those directly relevant to the host-pathogen interaction. These factors include changes in the distribution and health of people and wildlife, disruption to normal behaviour and social structures in people and animals, unusual activity in disease vectors and climatic or geopolitical impacts on food and water supplies. Data from long term studies such as those designed to assess the health of isolated communities, and their environment, has been used effectively to improve health interventions for wildlife species and has the potential to be used equally effectively to identify and mitigate emerging risks for livestock and public health. (Au)

I, N, K, T, R
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Animals; Caribou; Coyotes; Detection; Diseases; Food; Health; Human ecology; Hunting; Psychology; Public participation; Risk assessment; Social surveys; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management

G0822, G081
Alberta; Calgary, Alberta; Canadian Arctic


The Rangifer Anatomy Project : linking community and scientific approaches to caribou and reindeer structure and function   /   Brook, R.   Kutz, S.   Flood, P.   Muelling, C.   Anderson, J.
In: Annual Meeting of the Alaska Chapter and Northwest Section of the Wildlife Society, Wood Campus Center, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 7-8 April 2009. - [Alaska : The Society, 2009], p. 32
Abstract only.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75888.
Languages: English
Web: http://joomla.wildlife.org/alaska/images/documents/tws_09_prelim_program%20.pdf

Understanding the biology of caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and the potential impacts of climate change and other environmental perturbations on their health requires a diverse set of knowledge, tools, and approaches. Despite the importance of Rangifer sp. across the North relatively little has been done to describe the anatomy of this genus. It is important to describe and record what is 'normal' structure and function in order to understand 'abnormal'. At the same time, it is important to integrate scientific approaches to caribou anatomy with the observations and knowledge of indigenous people who have depended on these animals for generations. This project aims to bring together hunters and scientists to produce posters, booklets, and internet based resources that describe the anatomy of Rangifer in ways that are useful to hunters, educators, students, biologists, and veterinarians. As a first step, two captive reindeer were embalmed and dissected and resultant visual products were presented to communities for further input. Future research includes working with hunters on the land and through interviews to describe caribou anatomy and function from their perspective to document their knowledge and integrate the two ways of knowing. (Au)

I, T, N, R
Animal anatomy; Animal food; Animal health; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change ; Education; Effects monitoring; Effects of climate on plants; Elders; Epistemology; Food; Grazing; Hunting; Native peoples; Participatory action research; Social surveys; Traditional knowledge

G081
Canadian Arctic


Distribution and diversity of the vector-borne pathogens Trypanosoma (Protozoa) and Setaria (Nematoda) in wild caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds in North America and Greenland   /   Schock, D.M.   Kutz, S.J.   Laaksonen, S.   Heikkinen, P.   Branigan, M.   Cooley, D.   Côté, S.D.   Croft, B.   Cuyler, C.   Elkin, B.   Oksanen, A.   Taillon, J.
In: ArcticNet programme 2009 : annual scientific meeting, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. = ArcticNet programme 2009 : réunion scientifique annuelle, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2009, p. 64-65
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 73566.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arcticnetmeetings.ca/docs/asm2009_programme_long.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Caribou/reindeer (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) is a keystone species in northern ecosystems and is integral to the cultural fabric of northern peoples who have relied on them for thousands of years. Distressingly, many herds are declining at rates not consistent with known population size fluctuations. The causes of these declines are not well understood but are likely multifaceted. Our research project is part of broader International Polar Year programs that are establishing methods for monitoring herd health and gathering baseline information for several pathogens. We are investigating geographic distributions and genetically characterizing two vectorborne pathogens, Trypanosoma (Protozoa) and Setaria (Nematoda), in North American and Greenland caribou herds. Trypanosoma in North American ungulates are a distinct phylogenetic clade and are not acutely pathogenic like their African counterparts; they are, however, associated with abortions and more common in animals under stress. Setaria is an economically significant pathogen in Fennoscandia reindeer herds and appears to be moving northward in Finland. Population-level impacts of these pathogens on wild herds are unknown but because they are vector-borne, climate change is likely to alter their distributions and may intensify their impacts on host health because of increased abundance. Our research is identifying previously undescribed strains, and possibly species, of these pathogens. By comparing strains of Trypanosoma and Setaria detected in the wild caribou herds to strains from other North American ungulates, we are learning about host ranges of these pathogens and to what extent the strains found in wild Rangifer herds are endemic. Our research is also contributing to a better overall understanding of biodiversity in northern ecosystems. (Au)

I, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Nematoda; Parasites; Protozoa

G08, G10
Greenland; North America


Where are the parasites?   /   Kutz, S.J.   Dobson, A.P.   Hoberg, E.P.
(Science, v.326, no.5957, 27 Nov. 2009, p.1187-1188, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 73524.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.326.5957.1187-b
Libraries: ACU

The Review by E. Post et al. (“Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change,” 11 September, p. 1355) paid little heed to parasites and other pathogens. The rapidly growing literature on parasites in arctic and subarctic ecosystems provides empirical and observational evidence that climate-linked changes have already occurred. The life cycle of the protostrongylid lungworm of muskoxen, Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, has changed, and the range of that organism and the winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus, has expanded. Extremes in temperature and the hydrological cycle, predicted in most climate scenarios, can result in epidemic disease outbreaks in arctic-adapted species such as reindeer and muskoxen, with substantial economic costs for northern aboriginal peoples. Similarly, increased frequency and magnitude of flooding might enhance transmission of waterborne pathogens such as zoonotic strains of Giardia, in and between terrestrial and marine systems. Parasites whose stages in the environment are buffered by gastropod or insect intermediate hosts/vectors have the potential to increase in abundance and distribution, whereas for those with life stages that develop freely in the environment, extreme variability in microhabitat temperatures and humidity might either increase or reduce their abundance. Given the low species diversity of arctic ecosystems, and the potentially reduced immunocompetence of arctic species, these host systems may be particularly sensitive to parasitic invasions. Invasions will occur primarily through range expansion of more southerly host species, through ongoing wildlife translocations, and increasing pressures for domestic animal agriculture. All will radically alter the existing parasite fauna and lead to parasite-mediated competition between current residents and newly arrived host species. This might in turn lead to the loss of parasite diversity as arctic-adapted hosts and their endemic parasite species become increasingly displaced by competitive interactions. Such changes will have profound consequences for ecosystem structure and function and directly impact the health, economy, food safety, food security, and cultural activities of northern peoples. (Au)

I, E, J, N, F
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Arthropoda; Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Epidemics; Floods; Food; Food security; Gastropoda; Giardia; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Protozoa; Reindeer husbandry; Safety; Ungulates; Wildlife management

G081, G02
Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic


Preliminary serological evaluation of filter paper-collected blood and serum from cats and mice experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii   /   Benjamin, J.   Forbes, L.B.   Kutz, S.   Gajadhar, A.A.
In: World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, 2009 abstract volume, WAAVP 2009 Calgary, Canada. - [S.l. : s.n., 2009], abstract PO3.13, p. 184-185
Abstract only.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Presented at: One world, one health : parasites in a changing landscape : the 22nd International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), Calgary, Canada, 8-13 August 2009.
ASTIS record 73374.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.meet-ics.com/waavp2009/pdf/WAAVPProceeding_web.pdf

The collection and storage of whole blood or serum on a commercially available filter paper (Advantec) for subsequent detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in animals was evaluated using a modified agglutination test (MAT). Sera and whole blood samples were collected at pre-and post-inoculation from mice and sera from cats experimentally infected with T. gondii oocysts. Aliquots of whole blood and sera were applied to filter paper strips, dried, and stored at room temperature for up to 2 weeks. Paired sera from the same animals were stored at -20C. Samples were eluted from the filter paper and tested by a commercial MAT (Biomerieux ). Antibodies were detected in both serum and filter paper-eluted serum samples from four of five infected cats. One feline filter paper serum sample was positive at a 1/160 dilution, but negative at a 1/16,000 dilution. Fresh and filter paper-eluted serum and blood samples from three T. gondii-infected mice were also tested. All samples from two mice were positive at all dilutions, and one mouse was positive at 1/160 dilution for filter paper serum and blood samples, but negative for both at the higher dilution of 1/16000. The data set was small, but showed matching antibody positives at low dilutions, regardless of whether samples were whole blood or serum, or whether or not they were previously blotted to filter paper. Filter strips may provide a convenient, simple and stable collection and storage option for whole blood or serum samples under adverse conditions or in remote areas. (Au)

I
Animal diseases; Biological sampling; Blood; Detection; Equipment and supplies; Laboratory animals; Mice; Parasites; Quality assurance; Testing; Toxoplasma gondii

G16


Parasitic zoonoses in the Arctic   /   Jones, A.   Polly, L.   Thompson, R.C.A.   Simard, M.   Jenkins, E.J.   Kutz, S.
In: World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, 2009 abstract volume, WAAVP 2009 Calgary, Canada. - [S.l. : s.n., 2009], abstract CS53.1, p. 104
Abstract only.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Presented at: One world, one health : parasites in a changing landscape : the 22nd International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), Calgary, Canada, 8-13 August 2009.
ASTIS record 73365.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.meet-ics.com/waavp2009/pdf/WAAVPProceeding_web.pdf

Zoonoses, or diseases passed between vertebrate animals and humans, can pose risk to human health and are varied in nature. The epidemiology of zoonoses is in large part determined by the relationships between animals and humans within their shared environment. As climates change throughout the world, they are expected to impact the epidemiology of parasitic diseases via changes in the biotic and abiotic elements of ecosystems. Arctic ecosystems are likely to be particularly vulnerable to these impacts of climate change, and may also serve as sentinels for other parts of the world. Now more than ever, quality research in Arctic parasitology is essential to gain vital baseline data, understand and investigate changes in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, and to control negative impacts on human and animal health. In this session, we bring together researchers representing a wide array of disciplines to showcase several research programs in arctic parasitology and to discuss avenues to improve future research endeavours. This session will provide the opportunity to demonstrate the importance of an ecosystem approach to investigating disease in Arctic populations, how to avoid common biases in Arctic wildlife research, and how molecular epidemiological tools may be used to improve our understanding of Arctic parasitology. (Au)

I, T, E, K, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal ecology; Animal health; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Diseases; Food; Health; Inuit; Nordicity; Parasites; Research; Safety; Wildlife management

G0826
Nunavik, Québec


Health at the interface of people, dogs, and wildlife : building sustainable domestic animal health care services in remote northern communities   /   Kutz, S.J.   Brook, R.K.   Veitch, A.M.   Millins, C.   Salb, A.   Elkin, B.   Black, S.   Dubey, J.P.   Thompson, A.   Whiteside, D.
In: ArcticNet programme 2009 : annual scientific meeting, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. = ArcticNet programme 2009 : réunion scientifique annuelle, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2009, p. 52
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 73267.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arcticnetmeetings.ca/docs/asm2009_programme_long.pdf
Libraries: ACU

The role of dogs in northern communities has changed considerably over the past century. Although today there remain some working or recreational dog teams most are considered guard dogs or pets. Recently, several cases of dog welfare and dog attacks have appeared in the northern press and these have highlighted the issue about availability and accessibility to animal health services and education. Using veterinary graduate courses and student community health rotations we investigated dog health and the current status and need for domestic animal health care services in small and isolated communities of the Northwest Territories. We found that, with the exception of a rabies lay-vaccinator program, there is little to no direct access to animal health education and standard preventative health care services for domestic animals. There are, however, numerous health related issues which include zoonotic diseases (e.g., rabies, Echinococcus, Giardia, Toxocara), transmission of pathogens among dogs and wildlife (distemper, rabies, parvo, parasites), dog bite injuries, and dog health and welfare. We found a wide range of attitudes towards domestic dogs, and a variety of barriers to acceptance and uptake of services even when they were available and free. For example, despite an ongoing rabies lay-vaccination program less than half the dogs in the communities had been vaccinated for rabies. Veterinary graduate and undergraduate students have been involved throughout this research and local youth have been engaged in animal health and welfare topics and activities during the outreach clinics. This has been met with considerable enthusiasm on the part of the veterinary students, the youth, and the teachers and appears to be having long lasting impacts on all participants. In addition, interactions with youth have provided us with unique insight into the challenges of dog health care in the communities. There is a clear need across much of the North for ongoing, culturally appropriate, accessible, and affordable animal health care services. Successful establishment will require community buy-in as well as ongoing commitment by health care providers, not only to service provision, but to outreach, education and understanding the socio-cultural context. (Au)

I, T, R, K
Animal health; Curricula; Dogs; Education; Health; Immunization; Native peoples; Rabies; Youth

G0812
N.W.T.


The Rangifer Anatomy Project : linking community and scientific approaches to caribou structure and function   /   Brook, R.   Kutz, S.J.   Muelling, C.   Flood, P.   Anderson, J.
In: ArcticNet programme 2009 : annual scientific meeting, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. = ArcticNet programme 2009 : réunion scientifique annuelle, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2009, p. 28-29
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 73261.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arcticnetmeetings.ca/docs/asm2009_programme_long.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Understanding changes to caribou and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) across their broad range and the potential impacts of climate change and human development on the health of the species requires a diverse set of knowledge, tools, and approaches. Despite a range of anatomical features that are unique to the species and very active research on diverse aspects their biology, relatively little work has been done to describe the anatomy of the genus Rangifer. It is important to describe what is 'normal' structure and function so that we can begin to understand 'abnormal' and to have a solid standardized basis of anatomical knowledge for sampling and scientific description of research findings. At the same time, given the range of perceptions and knowledge regarding caribou and reindeer from scientific and community perspectives, it is essential to develop tools that integrate scientific approaches to caribou anatomy with the observations and knowledge of indigenous people in northern regions in that northern communities have expressed a desire to be involved in research and monitoring. The purpose of the Rangifer Anatomy Project (RAP) is to describe Rangifer in ways that are useful to Dene, Inuit, Cree, and Métis hunters, educators, students, biologists, and veterinarians through posters, booklets, and electronic tools. To facilitate standardized post mortem sampling by hunters and scientists, practical guides will be developed to describe the landmarks and techniques for collection of important tissue samples like lymph nodes and specific muscles. Development of these resources involves detailed anatomical dissections and histological analysis in the laboratory, collaborative dissections that engage hunters, youth and elders during community caribou hunts in the North, and interviews that document knowledge of historical and contemporary uses of caribou for food, medicine, and tools. We have also visited schools in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut to consult with teachers regarding the development and piloting of these products and engage students in learning about caribou anatomy. During community caribou hunts, youth have participated in dissections and conducted elder interviews to learn about traditional uses and names for different caribou parts. We hope that this work will encourage youth to consider careers in science, as well as help validate the importance of traditional knowledge. The overall approach is collaborative and integrates the two ways of knowing. We anticipate that the process of this project and the final products that describe caribou anatomy from multiple perspectives will ultimately facilitate greater discussion about caribou health (Au)

I, T, N, R
Animal anatomy; Animal health; Animal population; Biological sampling; Caribou; Cree Indians; Curricula; Dene Indians; Education; Elders; Food; Hunting; Inuit; Metis; Necropsy; Public participation; Reindeer; Scientists; Social surveys; Subsistence; Teachers; Traditional knowledge; Youth

G081
Canadian Arctic


The health and resilience of caribou populations : insights gained from an IPY parasite snapshot in time   /   Kutz, S.J.   Brook, R.K.   Schock, D.M.   Ducrocq, J.   Croft, B.   Cuyler, C.   Elkin, B.E.   Cooley, D.   Cote, S.   Taillon, J.
In: ArcticNet programme 2009 : annual scientific meeting, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. = ArcticNet programme 2009 : réunion scientifique annuelle, 8-11/12/2009, Victoria, B.C. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2009, p. 51
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Author B.E. Elkin should be B.T. Elkin.
ASTIS record 73259.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arcticnetmeetings.ca/docs/asm2009_programme_long.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Caribou and reindeer, Rangifer tarandus ssp., are keystone species across much of the CircumArctic. They are essential components of healthy ecosystems and contribute substantially to the physical, spiritual, and economic health of northern communities. Recent dramatic population declines amidst an array of environmental and social changes highlight the need to better understand the factors that influence the health and resilience of this species. Health is a product of many different factors and can be defined differently depending on context and values. In this paper we discuss 'health' at the individual and population levels and explore proximate and ultimate factors that influence caribou health at multiple scales. In particular, we discuss the significant, and frequently overlooked, impacts that macro (worms and insects) and micro (viruses, bacteria, protozoa) parasites can have on individuals and populations. We present an IPY snapshot in time of parasite profiles for several herds and discuss how parasites may directly influence caribou health and how they may interact with other population drivers such as predation, habitat, and climate to influence health. An integrated approach will greatly enhance our understanding of the multiple factors driving the rise and fall of caribou populations. Such an approach is vital in order to effectively predict population trajectories and implement appropriate management actions. (Au)

I, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal population; Bacteria; Caribou; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Insects; Nematoda; Parasites; Predation; Protozoa; Tapeworms; Trematoda; Viruses; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G081
Canadian Arctic


Presence of Mycobacterium amium subspecies paratuberculosis in free-ranging caribou   /   Orsel, K.   Kutz, S.   De Buck, J.   Branigan, M.   Croft, B.   Cuyler, C.   Davison, T.   Veitch, A.   Rivard, S.   Brodeur, V.   Taillon, J.   Elkin, B.   Barkema, H.W.
In: International Symposia on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE) proceedings, ISVEE 12 : proceedings of the 12th Symposium of the International Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Durban, South Africa, Theme 9 - Wildlife diseases and the wildlife/livestock/human interface : wildlife, wildlife epidemiology, public health. - [S.l. : International Symposia on Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, 2009], T9-4.5.1, p. 424-[426], map
References.
Abstract of an oral presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 72042.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.sciquest.org.nz/elibrary/download/67898/T9-4.5.1_-_Presence_of_Mycobacterium_avium_subspecies_paratuberculosis_in_free-ranging_caribou

Fecal samples were collected from hunted caribou in northern Canada and Greenland under the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network (CARMA) research program to determine the prevalence of shedding of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). One-time sampling results are currently available of 121 caribou in 6 herds. The average prevalence of fecal shedding with MAP was 14%. Greenland, with a prevalence of 32%, was the region with the highest prevalence. IS1311 PCR-REA subtyping was done on one isolate from the Greenland herd and was found to be of the bovine subtype. At this point in time the significance of these findings is not fully understood. Further investigations on the implications are needed. (Au)

I, T, E
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Animal waste products; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Food; Health; Intestines; Inuit; Reindeer husbandry; Subsistence; Ungulates; Wildlife habitat

G0812, G0826, G10
Bathurst, Cape, N.W.T.; Canadian Arctic; Feuilles, Rivière aux, region, Québec; George, Rivière, region, Québec; Greenland; Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, N.W.T.


Ecosystem health and disease surveillance   /   Cork, S.C.   Kutz, S.   Buntain, B.
In: Abstracts : International Meeting on Emerging Diseases and Surveillance, Vienna, Austria, Feb. 13-16, 2009. - Vienna : International Society for Infectious Diseases, 2009, p. 82, abstract 10.038
Abstract only.
Session 10 (Poster Presentation I). Antibiotic resistance: the future is now.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 70412.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.episouth.org/doc/r_documents/IMED2009_AbstrAuth.pdf

Recent studies designed to examine wildlife-livestock-human disease transmission at the community level have demonstrated that early detection of factors that impact on ecosystem health, including changes in the distribution and health of people and wildlife, unusual activity in disease vectors, or disruption to normal behaviour and social structures in humans and wildlife species is important if we are to enhance our ability to develop and apply early interventions to prevent the spread of emerging and reemerging diseases such as West Nile Virus, Tuberculosis and Avian Influenza. From these studies it is apparent that, to be effective in the early detection of emerging diseases in wildlife, surveillance systems need to be designed to capture data from a range of sources such as climate studies, wildlife health monitoring projects, social and ecological impact assessments and community health programmes. Data from long term studies designed to assess the health of isolated communities, and their environment, has been used effectively to improve health interventions for wildlife species and has the potential to be used equally effectively to identify and mitigate emerging risks for livestock and public health. The value of data from these studies is that researchers and policy makers work in close collaboration with the communities that depend on wildlife and the immediate environment for their food and water supply. This poster outlines a number of collaborative studies underway at the University of Calgary designed to ensure early detection of emerging diseases in human and wildlife populations. The work depends on strengthening links between the veterinary faculty, community health sciences, faculty of medicine, social sciences and centre for policy and health studies in order to better predict risk factors for human and animal health and to better understand disease ecology. (Au)

K, I, J, R, N
Animal diseases; Animal husbandry; Diseases; Effects monitoring; Epidemics; Health; Research; Risk assessment; Tuberculosis; Universities; Viruses; Wildlife management

G0822
Calgary, Alberta


Parasite zoonoses and wildlife : emerging issues   /   Thompson, R.C.A.   Kutz, S.J.   Smith, A.
(International journal of environmental research and public health, v. 6, no. 2, Feb. 2009, p. 678-693, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 70406.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3390/ijerph6020678
Libraries: ACU

The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact. (Au)

I, K, N, T, J
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Animal physiology; Animal population; Animal waste products; Animals; Arthropoda; Caucasians; Diseases; Dogs; Epidemics; Evolution (Biology); Gastrointestinal disorders; Giardia; Health; Inuit; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Mammals; Parasites; Protozoa; Tapeworms; Toxoplasma gondii; Wildlife management

G08, G02, G0812, G13
Arctic regions; Australia; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Canada; Europe; North America; Scandinavia


Biodiversity and springtime patterns of egg production and development for parasites of the Chisana caribou herd, Yukon Territory, Canada   /   Hoar, B.   Oakley, M.   Farnell, R.   Kutz, S.
(Rangifer, v. 29, no. 1, 2009, p. 25-37, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 70405.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.ub.uit.no/baser/septentrio/index.php/rangifer/article/viewFile/204/187
Web: doi:10.7557/2.29.1.204
Libraries: ACU

We investigated the biodiversity and springtime patterns of parasite egg/oocyst and larval production from feces and parasite development in the environment for the Chisana caribou herd in the southwest Yukon Territory, Canada from 29 March to 14 June 2006. Fecal samples from 50 adult cows that were housed in a temporary enclosure within the herd’s natural range at Boundary Lake, Yukon Territory were collected and analyzed during 5 sampling periods. A minimum of 6 parasite genera were recovered: eggs of Trichostrongylidae species (most likely Ostertagia gruehneri and Teladorsagia boreoarcticus), Marshallagia sp., Anoplocephalidae cestodes, and Skrjabinema sp.; oocysts of Eimeria spp.; and dorsal-spined first-stage protostrongylid larvae, including Parelaphostrongylus andersoni. Prevalence of Trichostrongylidae spp. eggs in fresh fecals was at or near 100% throughout the sampling period, however, the median intensity increased significantly from 8 to 34 eggs per gram (epg) at the peak of calving and then decreased to 12 epg 2 weeks post-calving (P = 2.83e-07). Three plots of feces collected from these animals were established outside of the enclosure on 4 May 2006 and monitored every 10 days to investigate patterns of parasite development under natural conditions. The total number of Trichostrongylidae spp. (eggs + larvae) in fecal plots did not change over time, but as the number of larvae increased, egg counts decreased. The presence of other parasite species in the fecal plots remained constant over time. This study is the first to document the parasite diversity for the Chisana caribou herd and to examine the development and survival of eggs and larvae in feces throughout the spring and early summer. (Au)

I, J, E
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal growth; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal physiology; Animal population; Animal taxonomy; Animal waste products; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Caribou; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Genetics; Grazing; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Parasites; Predation; Seasonal variations; Survival; Temporal variations; Wildlife management; Winter ecology

G0811, G0812
Fort Smith region, N.W.T.; Haines Junction, Yukon; Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon; Lennie River region, N.W.T.


Ecology of the gastrointestinal parasites of Colobus vellerosus at Boabeng-Fiema, Ghana : possible anthropozoonotic transmission   /   Teichroeb, J.A.   Kutz, S.J.   Parkar, U.   Thompson, R.C.A.   Sicotte, P.
(American journal of physical anthropology, v.140, no. 3, May 2009, p. 498-507, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 70404.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/ajpa.21098
Libraries: ACU

Parasite richness and prevalence in wild animals can be used as indicators of population and ecosystem health. In this study, the gastrointestinal parasites of ursine colobus monkeys (Colobus vellerosus) at the Boabeng-Fiema Monkey Sanctuary (BFMS), Ghana, were investigated. BFMS is a sacred grove where monkeys and humans have long lived in relatively peaceful proximity. Fecal samples (n = 109) were collected opportunistically from >27 adult and subadult males in six bisexual groups and one all-male band from July 2004 to August 2005. Using fecal floatation, we detected three protozoans (two Entamoeba sp., Isospora sp.), five nematodes (Ascaris sp., Enterobius sp., Trichuris sp., two strongyle sp.), and one digenean trematode. Using fluorescein labeled antibodies, we detected an additional protozoan (Giardia sp.), and with PCR techniques, we characterized this as G. duodenalis Assemblage B and also identified a protistan (Blastocystis sp., subtype 2). The most prevalent parasite species were G. duodenalis and Trichuris sp. Parasites were more prevalent in the long wet season than the long dry. Parasite prevalence did not vary by age, and average parasite richness did not differ by rank for males whose status remained unchanged. However, males that changed rank tended to show higher average parasite richness when they were lower ranked. Individuals that spent more time near human settlements had a higher prevalence of Isospora sp. that morphologically resembled the human species I. belli. The presence of this parasite and G. duodenalis Assemblage B indicates possible anthropozoonotic and/or zoonotic transmission between humans and colobus monkeys at this site. (Au)

I, K, N
Age; Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Animal physiology; Animal population; Animal waste products; Anthropology; Caucasians; Diseases; Epidemics; Gastrointestinal disorders; Gender differences; Health; Monkeys; Parasites; Seasonal variations

G16
Ghana


Fostering community-based wildlife health monitoring and research in the Canadian North   /   Brook, R.K.   Kutz, S.J.   Veitch, A.M.   Popko, R.A.   Elkin, B.T.   Guthrie, G.
(EcoHealth, v. 6, no. 2, June 2009, p. 266-278, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 70396.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s10393-009-0256-7
Libraries: ACU

Many northern Canadians have continued a subsistence lifestyle of wildlife harvesting and, therefore, value sustainable wildlife populations. At a regional wildlife workshop in the Sahtu Settlement Area, Northwest Territories in 2002, elders and community leaders raised concerns regarding wildlife health, food safety, and the effects of climate change on wildlife. They requested that efforts be put toward training youth in science and increasing involvement of hunters and youth in wildlife research. In response, we initiated a long-term, integrated approach to foster community-based wildlife health monitoring and research. Annual trips were made to all schools in the Sahtu from 2003 to 2009 to provide hands-on learning for 250-460 students on a range of wildlife topics. In addition, interviews were conducted with 31 hunters and elders to document their local ecological knowledge of wildlife health and local hunters were trained as monitors to collect tissue samples and measurements to assess body condition and monitor health of harvested caribou (n = 69) and moose (n = 19). In 2007 the program was extended to include participation in the annual caribou hunt held by one community. Each year since 2005, a graduate student and/or a postdoctoral trainee in the veterinary or biological sciences has participated in the program. The program has evolved during the last 6 years in response to community and school input, results of empirical research, hunter feedback, local knowledge, and logistical constraints. The continuity of the program is attributed to the energetic collaboration among diverse partners and a unified approach that responds to identified needs. (Au)

I, T, E, J, R, N, L
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal population; Animals; Biological sampling; Birds; Caribou; Climate change; Co-management; Costs; Curricula; Education; Effects monitoring; Elders; Employment; Fishing; Food; Furbearing animals; Hunting; Income; Moose; North Slavey Indians; Occupational training; Parasites; Participatory action research; Population; Public opinion; Public participation; Research; Science; Social surveys; Subsistence; Taiga ecology; Temporal variations; Trapping; Tundra ecology; Wildlife management; Winter roads

G0812
Colville Lake (Settlement), N.W.T.; Deline, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope, N.W.T.; Norman Wells, N.W.T.; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.; Tulita, N.W.T.


The Arctic as a model for anticipating, preventing, and mitigating climate change impacts on host-parasite interactions   /   Kutz, S.J.   Jenkins, E.J.   Veitch, A.M.   Ducrocq, J.   Polley, L.   Elkin, B.   Lair, S.
(One world, one health : parasites in a changing landscape - plenary lectures presented at the 22nd International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology / Edited by D.D. Colwel. Veterinary parasitology, v.163, no. 3, 7 Aug. 2009, p. 217-228, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 69147.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.06.008
Libraries: ACU

Climate change is influencing the structure and function of natural ecosystems around the world, including host-parasite interactions and disease emergence. Understanding the influence of climate change on infectious disease at temperate and tropical latitudes can be challenging because of numerous complicating biological, social, and political factors. Arctic and Subarctic regions may be particularly good models for unraveling the impacts of climate change on parasite ecology because they are relatively simple systems with low biological diversity and few other complicating anthropogenic factors. We examine some changing dynamics of host-parasite interactions at high latitudes and use these to illustrate a framework for approaching understanding, preventing, and mitigating climate change impacts on infectious disease, including zoonoses, in wildlife. (Au)

I, E, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal mortality; Arthropoda; Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Caribou; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Elk; Environmental impacts; Gastropoda; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Moose; Mountain sheep; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Protozoa; Ungulates; Warble flies; Wildlife management

G0811, G0812, G0813, G0826
N.W.T.; Nunavik, Québec; Nunavut; Yukon


Impending ills : impacts of climate change on infectious diseases in wildlife   /   Kutz, S.   Schock, D.   Brook, R.   Hoberg, E.
(The wildlife professional, v. 2, no. 3, Fall 2008, p. 42-46, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 75942.
Languages: English

The reality of climate change is already apparent in many biological systems and is reflected by species range shifts toward higher latitudes and elevations ... and by changes in phenology in temperate and arctic regions .... The geographic distribution of pathogens, their patterns of transmission, and the diseases they cause are also affected by climate change ... but in wildlife these impacts are not always well tracked or understood. ... Climate change can influence all aspects of complex host-pathogen systems and further complicate wildlife conservation and management. It is thus becoming increasingly important for wildlife professionals to recognize, anticipate, and manage impacts of climate change on transmission of pathogens at the wildlife-domestic animal interface .... Here we highlight some of the ways in which climate change may affect infectious diseases in wildlife, and also underscore some key deficits in our understanding that seriously limit our ability to anticipate and mitigate undesirable impacts of climate change on wildlife. ... Many pathogens have life stages that develop freely in the environment, invertebrate vectors, or intermediate hosts. Changes in temperature and humidity will influence the development and survival rates of these life stages and the abundance and activity of their arthropod and mollusc vectors. General predictions, and some empirical observations, for many arctic and temperate parasites include an expanded season for development and transmission, increased infection levels in host populations, and increased outbreaks of disease .... Climate change can release hosts, pathogens, and/or their vectors from various ecological constraints including temperature and humidity, enabling latitudinal and altitudinal range shifts. Climate-driven range expansions of hosts can allow pathogens to move into new ranges, leading to infection of new hosts and to increases in host population density that subsequently may enhance transmission for generalist pathogens. At the same time, some pathogens may die out if the environmental requirements for their life cycles are not long available .... As climate changes, researchers predict that extreme temperatures, severe weather events, and anomalies will increase in frequency and intensity .... Wildlife is often in a delicate energetic balance, and such stochastic events can increase susceptibility to disease. ... Finally, perhaps one of the most significant global changes in response to climate change will be the widespread expansion of agriculture, predicted to replace 10**9 hectares of native ecosystems over the next 50 years .... A broadening of the wildlife-agriculture interface and dispersal of livestock pathogens will be associated with this expansion .... More than 75 percent of mammalian livestock pathogens are generalists, and many can be effectively transmitted to wildlife .... At the same time, climate change-driven agricultural expansion will move people into new areas, increasing their interface with wildlife and exposing them to novel wildlife pathogens. ... In addition to targeted research and management, we need to develop robust surveillance systems to detect changes, especially unanticipated one. ... in remote and rural landscapes, it is also important to engage indigenous people, hunters, trappers, and farmers - local experts who can provide a broad network of specialized knowledge and precise observations that can help in accurately monitoring changes in host and pathogen ranges. ... (Au)

I, J, E, N, T, R
Agriculture; Amphibians; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal mortality; Arthropoda; Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric temperature; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Birds; Climate change; Communication; Deer; Effects monitoring; Elk; Environmental impacts; Fungi; Hunting; Invertebrates; Lungworms; Mollusks; Mosquitoes; Muskoxen; Native peoples; Nematoda; Parasites; Protozoa; Public participation; Risk assessment; Storms; Temporal variations; Tuberculosis; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G08, G081, G0812, G06
Arctic regions; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Hawaii; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.; United States


Wildlife health in a changing North : a model for global change   /   Elkin, B.   Kutz, S.
In: 57th Annual International Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association : wildlife diseases, northern and western frontiers : official program and abstracts, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 3-8, 2008. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 2008, p. 18
Abstract of an oral presentation (5).
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75887.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.wildlifedisease.org/document/proceeding/Edmonton_2008.pdf

The north has unique attributes that make it an ideal model system for the study of wildlife disease ecology. Northern fauna - including hosts, pathogens and vectors - exist in a relatively simple system, providing a unique opportunity to study and tease out theoretical intricacies of disease ecology. While the north still remains relatively pristine and undisturbed, rapid change is starting to occur. This provides a unique opportunity to understand the effects of these changes, and serve as a model for what these same changes may look like in more complex systems around the world. (Au)

I, J
Animal diseases; Animal ecology; Animal health; Climate change; Environmental impacts

G081
Canadian Arctic


Engaging indigenous and rural people in detecting emerging infectious diseases   /   Brook, R.K.   Kutz, S.J.
In: 57th Annual International Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association : wildlife diseases, northern and western frontiers : official program and abstracts, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 3-8, 2008. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 2008, p. 19
Abstract of an oral presentation (8).
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75885.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.wildlifedisease.org/document/proceeding/Edmonton_2008.pdf

Disease surveillance and detection of emerging diseases first requires that a baseline of existing pathogens is established. Contemporary disease monitoring programs are largely focused on areas with relatively high human population densities and in comparatively close proximity to university trained disease experts. These programs are generally effective in and around cities and towns, but are constrained in more rural and remote regions that are logistically challenging to monitor due to their overall size, difficulties in access, and relatively lower priority given the few people present. Despite these challenges, it is imperative that wildlife diseases be detected early as they can have important ecological and human health implications. Given the limited understanding of pathogens, combined with the poorly understood impacts of human development and climate change, surveillance approaches are needed to detect diseases that are predicted and those that are not. We discuss challenges and opportunities associated with developing a disease monitoring strategy that incorporates the local ecological knowledge of rural and indigenous people with conventional science-based diagnostics. Our approach emphasizes generating a common understanding of the needs of the communities and the researchers, using lay people as 'eyes on the land' through their frequent observation and consumption of wildlife. (Au)

I, N, K, T, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal health; Climate change; Detection; Diseases; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Food; Health; Native peoples; Subsistence; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management

G08, G081
Canada; Canadian Arctic


Application of a molecular tool to describe the diversity and distribution of gastro-intestinal parasites in northern cervids   /   DeBruyn, N.P.   Hoberg, E.P.   Chilton, N.   Ruckstuhl, K.   Kutz, S.
In: 57th Annual International Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association : wildlife diseases, northern and western frontiers : official program and abstracts, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, August 3-8, 2008. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 2008, p. 27
Abstract of an oral presentation (24).
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75884.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.wildlifedisease.org/document/proceeding/Edmonton_2008.pdf

Climate change is driving a northward shift in the distribution of wildlife, including cervids. Temperate white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (O. hemionus) are host to a diversity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematode species (Trichostrongylidea), many of which can induce considerable morbidity and population-level impacts. Expansion of Odocoileus species northwards may lead to parasite spill-over into naïve caribou (Rangifer tarandus) hosts. Paramount to detecting and managing for parasite expansion and emerging disease is the establishment of baselines for species diversity and distribution. Currently, little is known of trichostrongyles in Canadian cervids. In fact, our recent trichostrongyle survey of 20 wild cervids in central Alberta and Saskatchewan revealed four new host and five new geographic records. A challenge to determining diversity is that many trichostrongylid eggs are morphologically indistinguishable and post-mortem recovery and examination of adult nematodes is necessary to establish species identification. To better describe the diversity of parasite fauna in northern cervids, we have developed a rapid, non-invasive molecular tool, Single Stranded Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), for broad-scale screening of cervid fecal pellets for trichostrongyles. SSCP is a simple PCR-based technique that allows for species-specific electrophoretic discrimination using ITS-2 rDNA from parasite eggs. Trichostrongyle eggs in fecal pellets from caribou, white-tailed deer, and mule deer are being screened using SSCP to determine parasite diversity and range in northwestern Canada. Results outlining trichostrongyle diversity and distribution and implications for threatened caribou populations will be reported. (Au)

I, N, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal waste products; Bioassays; Biological sampling; Caribou; Cervidae; Climate change; Deer; Detection; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Genetics; Identification; Invertebrate eggs; Nematoda; Parasites; Risk assessment; Wildlife management

G081, G0822, G0823
Alberta; Canadian Arctic; Saskatchewan


Pathogens of domestic and free-ranging ungulates : global climate change in temperate to boreal latitudes across North America   /   Hoberg, E.P.   Polley, L.   Jenkins, E.J.   Kutz, S.J.
(Climate change: impact on the epidemiology and control of animal diseases / Edited by S. de la Rocque, S. Morand, and G. Hendrickx. Revue scientifique et technique - Office international des épizooties, v. 27, no. 2, 2008, p. 511-528, maps)
References.
French and Spanish abstracts provided.
ASTIS record 73266.
Languages: English
Web: http://web.oie.int/boutique/extrait/19hoberg511528.pdf
Web: doi:10.20506/rst.27.2.1818

In North America broad-based research networks explore the interaction of vertebrates, their characteristic arrays of pathogens and emergent disease. A diversity of programmes address the impact of environmental change on animal health, zoonoses, and human health, but as yet no comprehensive framework or strategy has emerged to develop and implement policy and planning. In a regime of climate change and ecological perturbation, the need to document and understand the health, agricultural, societal and economic impact of pathogens and emerging infectious disease is urgent. An integrated and proactive planning process linking national and international resources can lead to informed predictions about the impact of environmental change and can identify pathways for potential management and mitigation. An effective and comprehensive programme will have components for establishing priorities, developing primary data for faunal structure and biodiversity, a capacity for monitoring and surveillance (including scanning and targeted activities), and linkage to historical and contemporary baselines (against which to assess change) established through archival biological collections. Field and laboratory studies are also necessary to determine developmental thresholds, tolerances and tipping points for many pathogens to establish a context for recognising current constraints and future perturbation, and to explore factors that promote emergence for a variety of pathogens, vectors and pest species. Predictive modelling and risk assessment utilising a range of scenarios for climate change is a final step in this multidisciplinary process. (Au)

I, J, E, N, K
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal population; Arthropoda; Bacteria; Climate change; Diseases; Environmental impacts; Forecasting; Health; Nematoda; Parasites; Planning; Protozoa; Trematoda; Ungulates; Viruses; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G081, G08
Canada; Canadian Arctic; North America


Giardia assemblage A : human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic   /   Kutz, S.J.   Thompson, R.C.A.   Polley, L.   Kandola, K.   Nagy, J.   Wielinga, C.M.   Elkin, B.T.
(Parasites & vectors, v. 1, no. 32, Sept. 22, 2008, 4 p.)
References.
ASTIS record 70407.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/1/1/32
Web: doi:10.1186/1756-3305-1-32
Libraries: ACU

As part of an ongoing program assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 fecal samples from muskoxen on Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. were not detected, but 21% of the samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of four isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, a zoonotic genotype. ... Discovery of G. duodenalis Assemblage A in muskoxen in this remote, frigid and sparsely populated region was unexpected. Published records of Assemblage A in free-ranging ungulates are limited to a white-tailed deer in Maryland, a roe deer from the Netherlands and moose and reindeer in Norway). Assemblage A in animals is typically associated with ongoing or historical contact with people (e.g., apes; beavers; dogs), and we suspect that Assemblage A in muskoxen also resulted from a host-switch from people. This could have occurred once or repeatedly any time since the first known human presence on Banks Island (Pre-Dorset culture - 1500BC-1000AD). Muskoxen were extremely rare on the island in the early 20th century, however, and the present infection may more likely result from recent, and perhaps ongoing, introduction(s) of Giardia associated with contemporary settlement and/or tourism. Previous studies elsewhere have demonstrated that people and their pets entering wilderness areas are often infected with Giardia. Notably, the parasite has been reported, but not typed, in people in the NWT (255 cases from 1989-2006) (Kandola, unpubl. data) and in the eastern Arctic (40% prevalence in ages 0-4 and 17% overall). The high prevalence and intensity of Giardia observed in muskoxen in this study are unprecedented among wild ungulates and suggest that muskoxen are important hosts on Banks Island. Several characteristics of muskoxen and Giardia may support parasite maintenance. Muskoxen are highly susceptible and competent hosts for pathogens from many species. They are relatively sedentary herd animals that congregate in river valleys for feeding, a behavioural trait contributing to large numbers of cysts in a moist environment and ongoing parasite exposure. Finally, Giardia cysts are cold tolerant, immediately infective, and few are needed to establish infection. Thus, muskoxen may now maintain Giardia Assemblage A in the absence of reservoir hosts or ongoing introductions and may serve as a source for infection for other species. Untyped Giardia sp. previously reported in Peary caribou on Banks Island (3% prevalence, Nagy, Larter, Olson unpubl. data), may represent spill-over from muskoxen. Behaviour of people and muskoxen also affords several opportunities for ongoing transmission between these hosts and between terrestrial and marine systems. In summer, spatial overlap between residents of Sachs Harbour, tourists, and muskoxen is common, as all tend to concentrate around major water bodies. High abundance of Giardia infection in the large muskox population results in significant contamination of water bodies and, because latrines are rare in this vast landscape, contamination of the land and water-bodies with human feces is likely. Residents and tourists often drink untreated water directly from these water bodies. Human sewage from Sach's Harbour, deposited untreated in a sewage pond accessible to wildlife, provides ongoing opportunities for parasite dispersal, as do the commercial muskox harvests that are held almost every winter near the community. People working at these harvests may be directly exposed to cysts in the offal. Additionally, for many years this offal was disposed of untreated on the land near the temporary abattoirs used for the harvests, and more recently has been deposited on the sea ice. These disposal practices may provide a source of infection for people and terrestrial and marine wildlife. Assemblage A has been detected in marine mammals in the western Arctic (Olson, unpubl. data), but the significance of offal disposal on sea ice is unknown. ... (Au)

I, K, M, T, J, R, N
Animal behaviour; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal waste products; Caribou; Caucasians; Diseases; Food; Genetics; Giardia; Health; Hunting; Inuit; Mammals; Muskoxen; Parasites; Protozoa; Sewage disposal; Sewage lagoons; Subsistence; Tourist trade; Tundra ecology; Water pollution; Wildlife habitat

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Sachs Harbour (Settlement), N.W.T.


Parasite biodiversity, climate change, and Arctic ecosystems : why should we care?   /   Kutz, S.   Hoberg, E.   Elkin, B.
In: Arctic change 2008 : conference programme and abstracts, Québec (Qc), 9-12 December, 2008 = Arctic change 2008 : programme et résumés de la conference, Québec (Qc), 9-12 décembre 2008. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2008, p. 104
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References.
ASTIS record 66920.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arctic-change2008.com/pdf/ac-programme.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Parasites, both macro- (worms, arthropods, protozoa) and micro- (viruses, bacteria, prions) are important components of the biodiversity of all ecosystems (Hudson et al., 2006). They are integrated within the food webs and are powerful evolutionary drivers. At an individual host level they can alter physiology, behaviour, and productivity and at a population level they can force population cycles and drive host populations to extinction. They can cause subtle ongoing, disease with low mortality rates or they can result in explosive disease outbreaks and mass mortality events. They influence intra and inter-specific interactions and can lead to parasite-mediated competition among species. As is apparent from the increased rate of emergence of infectious disease globally, many parasites are powerful invaders, opportunists, and generalists (e.g., West Nile Virus). Under suitable ecological settings host-switching is common, often with catastrophic results to people, domestic animals, and wildlife (Brooks and Hoberg 2006, 2007). In the Arctic, parasites have evolved to persist under harsh environmental conditions and in many cases in areas of low host density. Current empirical research and predictions suggest that climate warming will release many of these parasites from environmental constraints and result in invasion of new host and parasite species from more southern latitudes (Kutz et al., 2005; Hoberg et al., 2008a, 2008b). Anecdotal reports indicate that northward range expansion is already happening with the moose winter tick in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Thus, under the current climate change scenarios we anticipate profound effects on parasite biodiversity and abundance, host-parasite interactions, emergence of disease, and the sustainability of wildlife populations. Despite the clear and broadly accepted importance of parasites in the resilience and dynamics of ecosystems, and the immediate threat of climate change on arctic host-parasite systems, our knowledge of parasite biodiversity in northern wildlife is far from complete. This is reflected in our ongoing discoveries of new species of helminth parasites, new geographic locations and new host records in arctic ungulates over the last 15 years (Kutz et al., 2004, 2007). In this paper we present lessons learned from past and ongoing research on parasites in Arctic ungulate populations. In particular we discuss i) the impacts of climate change on parasite biodiversity and abundance and the effects on host-parasite interactions and the sustainability of arctic wildlife populations, ii) the IPY funded parasite research program of the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment network, iii) the critical need for enhanced biodiversity monitoring and archival repositories, and iv) future research and management directions. (Au)

I, E, K, J, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal population; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Epidemics; Evolution (Biology); Food chain; Health; Parasites; Research; Ungulates; Wildlife management

G02, G0812
Arctic regions; N.W.T.


Putting our heads and skills together : hunters and scientists and caribou health monitoring   /   Curry, P.   Kutz, S.   Hutchins, W.   Elkin, B.   Ribble, C.   Jenkins, D.   Veitch, A.   Campbell, M.
In: Arctic change 2008 : conference programme and abstracts, Québec (Qc), 9-12 December, 2008 = Arctic change 2008 : programme et résumés de la conference, Québec (Qc), 9-12 décembre 2008. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2008, p. 66-67
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 66849.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arctic-change2008.com/pdf/ac-programme.pdf
Libraries: ACU

The rapid climate and industrial changes currently unfolding in the Arctic are expected to have profound impacts on animal and human health. One predicted outcome is shifts in patterns of wildlife disease involving emerging or existing pathogens. Barrenground caribou (Rangifer tarandus ssp.) are central to culture, food supply, and economy in most northern communities. Hunters are already noting abnormalities in caribou and unusual herd movements, and recent aerial population survey data show severe declines in several herds across Canada. Resilience of caribou populations and the safety of country foods with respect to diseases transmissible to humans ("zoonoses" such as brucellosis) are key concerns, and even more so in the context of the "new" Arctic. Environmental conditions and distances pose tremendous challenges for scientific surveillance of disease in northern wildlife. Indigenous knowledge of caribou is profound and has great historical and current value; however, formal disease surveillance systems are outside this realm and rapid climate warming is introducing many unknowns for scientists and Northerners alike. There is need for communities and scientists to work together on caribou health issues and ensure that acquired knowledge benefits or safeguards public and animal health. One innovative step in this direction is hunter-based caribou health monitoring, wherein harvesters and scientists blend their wildlife expertise to monitor and manage caribou populations. Participating hunters collect a small set of samples and data from caribou they kill for subsistence, and also report abnormal observations to scientists. The scientists then analyze the samples and data, and return information to communities as quickly as possible. One particularly interesting component of this community-based sampling is blood collection on filter paper. Whereas traditional blood collection requires glass tubes and expertise and equipment to process and store serum, the field-friendly filter paper method can be performed in minutes by a lay person. Paper blood strips are conveniently transported, dried and stored for multiple possible analyses at a later date, thus, the caribou hunter collects a quick and easy sample that can potentially detect caribou exposure to a variety of pathogens. Hunters in wildlife health monitoring programs in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are now collecting filter paper samples, and progress with validation of this method (part of an IPY project) will be presented as an illustration of the potential value of hunter-scientist caribou health monitoring. Methods undertaken and lessons learned in implementing filter-paper caribou blood collection in northern communities will be discussed (a simple technique is not necessarily simple to implement!). (Au)

I, N, T
Aerial surveys; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal population; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Food; Hunting; Native peoples; Public participation; Scientists; Subsistence; Traditional knowledge

G0812, G0813
N.W.T.; Nunavut


Linking scientists and communities in wildlife health monitoring and education : an overview and assessment of the Sahtu Wildlife Health Outreach And Monitoring   /   Brook, R.   Kutz, S.   Veitch, A.   Elkin, B.
In: Arctic change 2008 : conference programme and abstracts, Québec (Qc), 9-12 December, 2008 = Arctic change 2008 : programme et résumés de la conference, Québec (Qc), 9-12 décembre 2008. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2008, p. 58
Abstract of a Topical Session presentation.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 66830.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arctic-change2008.com/pdf/ac-programme.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Many residents of the five communities within the Sahtu Settlement Area of the Northwest Territories continue a subsistence lifestyle of resource harvesting. At a workshop in 2002, elders and community leaders raised concerns regarding wildlife health, food safety, climate change, and the sustainability of healthy wildlife populations. They requested that efforts by scientists be put toward developing training for youth in science and for increasing involvement of hunters and youth in wildlife monitoring and research. In response, we initiated a long-term, integrated approach to foster community-based wildlife monitoring and education. This approach includes youth education, hunter training and knowledge sharing among researchers, biologists, elders, hunters, and youth. Annual trips have been made to all schools in the Sahtu from 2003-2008 to provide hands-on learning about wildlife biology and health for 250-460 students each year. Themes changed annually and reflect key issues raised by the communities and have included slide presentations, demonstrations, hands-on wildlife dissections, handling of furs, bones, and preserved parasites. Students were encouraged to ask questions and have discussions with wildlife veterinarians and biologists. Local hunters were trained as wildlife health monitors to collect samples and measurements from moose and caribou that they harvested for consumption. These data are used to assess body condition and monitor parasites and disease and to date 69 caribou and 19 moose have been sampled. In 2007 and 2008 we were invited to participate in community caribou hunts, which provided another 51 caribou for health monitoring. The value of these data for providing baseline and monitoring information on the body condition, parasite load, and presence of pathogens will be discussed. The program continues to be challenged by several issues, particularly the recent decline in caribou, which has resulted in hunters fewer caribou, particularly fewer females. Interviews were conducted with 31 experienced hunters and elders to document their local ecological knowledge of wildlife health and to develop baselines of past and current presence, absence and spatial distribution of pathogens that were readily identifiable by harvesters in caribou, muskoxen, Dall's sheep, and moose. These interviews established that, based on observations of 5870 moose since 1970, 'ghost moose' that had been impacted by winter ticks were not present in the area. In the last three years, there have been four ghost moose observed in the region, suggesting that winter ticks 'emerged' in the region around 2004. In conjunction with, and as an outcome of, the community-focused aspects of our Sahtu program, we also developed targeted scientific studies that included: evaluating blood filters strips to characterize wildlife health, dental enamel development and lesions in caribou, caribou bone density, gastrointestinal parasite ecology, caribou anatomy, parasite diversity and distribution, and a needs assessment for veterinary services. The Sahtu Wildlife Health Outreach and Monitoring Program has generated considerable capacity building and has formed trust-based relationships with local people but the scientific value of the data obtained from the community monitors requires rigorous analysis and we will discuss ways that these data are being assessed and shared with the communities. (Au)

I, T, N, E, R
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal population; Biological sampling; Caribou; Climate change; Curricula; Dene Indians; Education; Effects monitoring; Elders; Food; Fur trade; Health; Hunting; Measurement; Occupational training; Parasites; Public participation; Safety; Science; Social surveys; Subsistence; Traditional knowledge; Ungulates; Youth

G0812
Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.


Arctic caribou and moose contaminant monitoring program   /   Gamberg, M. [Project Leader]   Skinner, L. [Project Leader]   Campbell, M. [Project Leader]   Johnson, D.   Elkin, B.   Guthrie, G.   Kutz, S.   Larter, N.   Dumond, M.   Hope, G.
In: Synopsis of research conducted under the 2007-2008 Northern Contaminants Program / Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. - Ottawa : DIAND, 2008, p. 108-113, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 64998.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU OORD

Moose and caribou provide an important food resource for Northerners across the Arctic, and have been designated in the NCP blueprint as key species for monitoring contaminants in the terrestrial Arctic ecosystem. Two barren-ground caribou herds, one from the eastern Arctic and one from the western Arctic, have been designated for annual sampling, and five additional caribou herds and two moose populations have been designated for sampling every five years. In 2007/8 tissue samples were collected from the Beverly, George River, Porcupine and Qamanirjuaq caribou. Samples were also collected from the Bathurst and West Greenland caribou as adjuncts to the program. Analysis of samples collected in 2006/7 showed that concentrations of renal cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc were higher in spring-collected animals than those taken in the fall, likely due to seasonal differences in diet. Female Qamanirjuaq caribou had significantly higher concentrations of renal arsenic than males, while female Porcupine caribou had higher concentrations of cadmium, lead and selenium than males. There was no difference in mercury concentrations between 1993 and 2006 in the Dolphin and Union caribou herd, while renal mercury levels in Qamanirjuaq caribou collected in late spring, 1992 were markedly higher than the concentrations found in animals from the same herd collected in early fall of 2006. It is unclear whether there has been a decline in mercury concentrations in this herd or whether this is normal seasonal variation. Renal mercury increased in female Porcupine caribou over time, but not in a consistent manner. Actual monitoring of the Qamanirjuaq and Porcupine caribou herds should give us a better idea of the role of global vs local drivers of these variations in mercury in caribou. None of the elements measured were present at levels that would be expected to have toxic effects in caribou. (Au)

I, J, T
Age; Animal food; Animal health; Arsenic; Biological sampling; Cadmium; Caribou; Copper; Dentition; Effects monitoring; Food; Gender differences; Internal organs; Lead; Mercury; Native peoples; Pollution; Seasonal variations; Selenium; Temporal variations; Toxicity; Zinc

G0811, G0812, G0813, G0827, G10
N.W.T.; Nunavik, Québec; Nunavut; Vestgrønland; Yukon


Dogs as sources and sentinels of parasites in humans and wildlife, northern Canada   /   Salb, A.L.   Barkema, H.W.   Elkin, B.T.   Thompson, R.C.A.   Whiteside, D.P.   Black, S.R.   Dubey, J.P.   Kutz, S.J.
(International Polar Year. Emerging infectious diseases, v. 14, no. 1, Jan. 2008, p. 60-63, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 64245.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/1/pdfs/60.pdf
Web: doi:10.3201/eid1401.071113
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

A minimum of 11 genera of parasites, including 7 known or suspected to cause zoonoses, were detected in dogs in 2 northern Canadian communities. Dogs in remote settlements receive minimal veterinary care and may serve as sources and sentinels for parasites in persons and wildlife, and as parasite bridges between wildlife and humans. (Au)

I, K
Animal diseases; Animal food; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Blood; Diseases; Dogs; Giardia; Parasites; Protozoa; Tapeworms; Toxoplasma gondii; Trematoda; Wolves

G0812, G0822
Fort Chipewyan, Alberta; Fort Resolution, N.W.T.


Integrated approaches and empirical methods for investigation of parasitic diseases in northern wildlife   /   Hoberg, E.P.   Polley, L.   Jenkins, E.J.   Kutz, S.J.   Veitch, A.M.   Elkin, B.T.
(International Polar Year. Emerging infectious diseases, v. 14, no. 1, Jan. 2008, p. 10-17, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 64172.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/1/pdfs/10.pdf
Web: doi:10.3201/eid1401.071119
Libraries: ACU

The North is a frontier for exploration of emerging infectious diseases and the large-scale drivers influencing distribution, host associations, and evolution of pathogens among persons, domestic animals, and wildlife. Leading into the International Polar Year 2007-2008, we outline approaches, protocols, and empirical models derived from a decade of integrated research on northern host-parasite systems. Investigations of emerging infectious diseases associated with parasites in northern wildlife involved a network of multidisciplinary collaborators and incorporated geographic surveys, archival collections, historical foundations for diversity, and laboratory and field studies exploring the interface for hosts, parasites, and the environment. In this system, emergence of parasitic disease was linked to geographic expansion, host switching, resurgence due to climate change, and newly recognized parasite species. Such integrative approaches serve as cornerstones for detection, prediction, and potential mitigation of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and persons in the North and elsewhere under a changing global climate. (Au)

I, J, E, T, K
Animal collections; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Gastropoda; Health; Lungworms; Nematoda; Parasites; Platyhelminthes; Traditional knowledge; Ungulates; Wildlife habitat

G081, G08
Canada; Canadian Arctic


Parasitic & viral diseases of dogs in two northern Canadian communities & implications for wildlife & human health   /   Salb, A.L.   Barkema, H.W.   Elkin, B.T.   Thompson, R.C.A.   Whiteside, D.P.   Black, S.R.   Dubey, J.P.   Ellis, J.A.   Krakowka, S.   Kutz, S.J.
In: 56th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference : program & abstracts. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 2007, p. 118
Abstract of a poster presentation (186).
Conference held August 12-17, 2007 in Estes Park, Colorado.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75880.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.wildlifedisease.org/document/proceeding/Colorado_2007.pdf

In northern Canadian communities there are close interactions between people, dogs, and wildlife. Residents of these communities frequently practice subsistence hunting and fishing and also feed game and fish to their dogs, which is sometimes the main component of their diet. Sled dogs also are used for transportation out on the land for subsistence and sport hunting and are typically housed outdoors. Consequently, dogs and people can be exposed to diseases from wildlife, and dogs may contribute to the spread of disease within wildlife ecosystems and human areas. Dogs living in these remote communities have limited access to veterinary care, which includes health checks, routine vaccinations and fecal examinations with targeted antiparasitic treatment protocols. In August 2006, fecal and serum samples were collected from 132 dogs presented at sponsored canine health clinics held in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta, and Fort Resolution, Northwest Territories. Detailed histories regarding diet, husbandry and previous veterinary care were also collected. Fecal parasites (Alaria, Diphyllobothrium, cestodes, Giardia, Isospora, Sarcocystis, Toxascaris, Toxocara, and Uncinaria) were identified using the Modified Wisconsin method and ELISA. Serology was used to identify dogs exposed to Neospora, Toxoplasma, Brucella, Bordetella, Canine Distemper Virus, Canine Parvovirus, and Canine Respiratory Coronavirus. This study found that through diet and husbandry, northern dogs may be exposed to a variety of diseases of importance to their health as well as to the health of wildlife and people. In this respect, dogs may serve as sentinels for disease present in wildlife and a potential "disease-bridge" between wildlife and people. (Au)

I, N, K
Animal diseases; Animal food; Animal health; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Blood; Diseases; Dogs; Food; Giardia; Health; Hunting; Parasites; Protozoa; Subsistence; Tapeworms; Toxoplasma gondii; Trematoda; Viruses

G0812, G0822
Fort Chipewyan, Alberta; Fort Resolution, N.W.T.


Giardia assemblage A : human genotype in muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic   /   Kutz, S.   Thompson, A.   Kandola, K.   Nagy, J.   Wielinga, C.   Polley, L.   Elkin, B.
In: 56th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference : program & abstracts. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 2007, p. 51
Abstract of an oral presentation (71).
Conference held August 12-17, 2007 in Estes Park, Colorado.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75879.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.wildlifedisease.org/document/proceeding/Colorado_2007.pdf

As part of an ongoing program for assessing the biodiversity and impacts of parasites in Arctic ungulates we examined 72 muskox fecal samples from Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada for Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium spp. was not detected, but 15 of 72 samples were positive for Giardia. Genetic sequencing of five isolates of Giardia demonstrated G. duodenalis, Assemblage A, the zoonotic genotype. The evidence suggests that this is an example of 'spill-over' of Giardia from people to wildlife in a remote arctic region. The epidemiology of this parasite in muskoxen, the health implications, and the parasite flow among various wildlife species and people are discussed. (Au)

I, K, T
Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Genetics; Giardia; Health; Inuit; Muskoxen; Parasites; Protozoa

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


The suitability of dried blood on filter paper for the detection of Trypanosoma sp. in northern caribou & reindeer   /   Martin, B.   Appleyard, G.   Barboza, P.   Oakely, M.   Beckmen, K.   Veitch, A.   Kutz, S.
In: 56th Annual Wildlife Disease Association Conference : program & abstracts. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 2007, p. 121
Abstract of a poster presentation (193).
Conference held August 12-17, 2007 in Estes Park, Colorado.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75878.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.wildlifedisease.org/document/proceeding/Colorado_2007.pdf

The health and sustainability of wildlife populations is important for residents of northern Canada who rely on wildlife, including caribou, for subsistence and income. Since 2003, residents in the Sahtu Settlement region of the NWT have participated in a community-based wildlife health monitoring project to acquire baseline information and monitor trends in caribou health. Select hunters collect a variety of samples, including blood on Nobuto filter paper strips, from caribou harvested for subsistence. Collecting blood using filter paper strips is easy, quick, and transportable in a field situation, however, the suitability of this technique for detecting blood-borne parasites in caribou has not previously been determined. We compared detection of DNA from Trypanosoma sp. on filter paper to detection in whole blood. Blood was collected from 2 caribou and 16 reindeer. Nobuto filter paper strips were immediately saturated with blood, dried overnight and then stored at room temperature until they were frozen one month later. Whole blood also was collected in EDTA tubes, aliquoted to 1.8 ml cryovials, refrigerated overnight and then stored frozen until analysis. Samples were tested 13 months after collection. DNA was extracted, and nested PCR, using primers specific for Trypanosoma sp., was completed on paired whole blood and filter paper samples from all animals. We detected Trypanosoma sp. in 11 filter paper samples but only 5 whole blood samples (2 being only weak positives). Our results indicate that Trypanosoma sp. can be detected by PCR from dried blood collected on filter paper strips, and that this may be superior to PCR analysis of frozen whole blood. (Au)

I, N, T
Animal diseases; Animal health; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Detection; Genetics; Hunting; North Slavey Indians; Parasites; Protozoa; Public participation; Reindeer; Subsistence; Testing; Wildlife management

G0812
Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.


Protostrongylid parasites and pneumonia in captive and wild thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli)   /   Jenkins, E.J.   Veitch, A.M.   Kutz, S.J.   Bollinger, T.K.   Chirino-Trejo, J.M.   Elkin, B.T.   West, K.H.   Hoberg, E.P.   Polley, L.
(Journal of wildlife diseases, v. 43, no. 2, Apr. 2007, p. 189-205, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 70411.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.7589/0090-3558-43.2.189
Libraries: ACU

We describe health significance of protostrongylid parasites (Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei and Protostrongylus stilesi) and other respiratory pathogens in more than 50 naturally infected Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) from the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories (1998-2002) as well as in three Stone’s sheep (O. d. stonei) experimentally infected with P. odocoilei (2000-2002). Histological lesions in the brain and distribution of P. odocoilei in the muscles of experimentally and naturally infected sheep were consistent with a previously hypothesized "central nervous system to muscle" pattern of migration for P. odocoilei. Dimensions of granulomas associated with eggs of P. odocoilei and density of protostrongylid eggs and larvae in the cranial lung correlated with intensity of larvae in feces, and all varied with season of collection. Prevalence of P. stilesi based on the presence of larvae in feces underestimated true prevalence (based on examination of lungs) in wild Dall’s sheep collected in summer and fall. Similarly, counts of both types of protostrongylid larvae in feces were unreliable indicators of parasitic infection in wild Dall’s sheep with concomitant bacterial pneumonia associated with Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Pasteurella sp., and Mannheimia sp. Diffuse, interstitial pneumonia due to P. odocoilei led to fatal pulmonary hemorrhage and edema after exertion in one experimentally infected Stone’s sheep and one naturally infected Dall’s sheep. Bacterial and verminous pneumonia associated with pathogens endemic in wild Dall’s sheep in the Mackenzie Mountains caused sporadic mortalities. There was no evidence of respiratory viruses or bacterial strains associated with domestic ruminants, from which this population of wild sheep has been historically isolated. (Au)

I, N
Animal collections; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal waste products; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Detection; Gender differences; Hunting; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Mountain sheep; Necropsy; Nematoda; Parasites; Platyhelminthes; Respiratory disorders; Seasonal variations; Ungulates; Wildlife habitat

G0812
Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon


International Polar Year 2007/2008 - what's in it for wildlife health   /   Skorodenski, L.   Kutz, S.
(Wildlife Health Centre newsletter, v. 13, no. 1, Fall/Winter 2007, p. 1-4)
Also available in French.
ASTIS record 69149.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.ccwhc.ca/newsletters/newsletter13-1.pdf

.... Several IPY projects investigate the dynamics of natural sciences and the influence of climate change. Polar bears, seals, beluga whales, caribou and birds are a few of the key species investigated with a view to compose an accurate picture of the health of the polar ecosystems, as well as the effects of climate change on these systems and the animals within them. The following funded IPY projects directly address wildlife health issues and have Canadian participation. The CCWHC [Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre] is a partner in these studies, and serves as a resource of expertise in wildlife health as well as providing access to its national wildlife disease database. [The six IPY-funded projects wildlife health projects follow.] Project Title: Engaging Northern Communities in the Monitoring of Country Food Safety (IPY 186). Activity Leader: Manon Simard, Makivik Corporation, Kuujjuaq, Quebec. ... Project Title: Starting the clock for the CARMA (CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment) Network: Impacts on Human-Rangifer Systems in the Circumarctic (IPY 162). Activity Leader: Don Russell, Environment Canada, Canada. ... Project Title: Validation and Application of Dried Blood on Filter Paper Techniques for Surveillance of Infectious Diseases in wild Caribou and Reindeer (affiliated with IPY 162). Activity Leader: Susan Kutz, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary and CCWHC. ... Project Title: Polar Ecosystems in Transition: An Interdisciplinary Investigation into the Impacts of Climate Change on Polar Bears (affiliated with IPY 134). Project Leader: Elizabeth Peacock, Government of Nunavut. ... Project Title: Effects of Global Warming on Polar Bears, Seals & Whales (Affiliated with IPY 26 and 155). Activity Leader: Steven Ferguson, Fisheries and Oceans Canada. ... Project Title: Health of Arctic and Antarctic Bird Populations (IPY 172). Activity Leader: Maarten Loonen, Arctic Centre, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. ... The previously-mentioned studies will contribute significantly to a comprehensive picture of the current state of wildlife and human health in the Arctic. Together with other IPY studies on the physical, biological, and social states of the polar regions, this research campaign will leave a legacy of knowledge, networks, and infrastructure on which future generations can build. ... (Au)

I, E, G, J, T, K, N, Y, R
Animal diseases; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal growth; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal mortality; Animal physiology; Animal reproduction; Bacteria; Beluga whales; Biological sampling; Birds; Blood; Caribou; Climate change; Education; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Food; Genetics; Health; Melting; Native peoples; Nematoda; Parasites; Polar bears; Pollution; Public participation; Radio tracking of animals; Reindeer; Safety; Satellite communications; Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Seals (Animals); Subsistence; Telemetry; Toxicity; Toxoplasma gondii; Traditional knowledge; Trichinella; Whales; Wildlife management

G081, G02
Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic


Serendipitous discovery of a novel protostrongylid (Nematoda: Metastrongyloidea) in caribou, muskoxen, and moose from high latitudes of North America based on DNA sequence comparisons   /   Kutz, S.J.   Asmundsson, I.   Hoberg, E.P.   Appleyard, G.D.   Jenkins, E.J.   Beckmen, K.   Branigan, M.   Butler, L.   Chilton, N.B.   Cooley, D.   Elkin, B.   Huby-Chilton, F.   Johnson, D.   Kuchboev, A.   Nagy, J.   Oakley, M.   Polley, L.   Popko, R.   Scheer, A.   Simard, M.   Veitch, A.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 85, no. 10, Oct. 2007, p.1143-1156, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 66177.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1139/Z07-091
Libraries: ACU

Fecal samples are often the only feasible means to assess diversity of parasites in wildlife; however, definitive identification of egg or larval stages in feces by morphology is rarely possible. We determined partial sequences from the second internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA for first-stage, dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) in feces from caribou (Rangifer tarandus tarandus (L., 1758), Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin, 1788), Rangifer tarandus grantii (Allen, 1902)), muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus moschatus (Zimmermann, 1780), Ovibos moschatus wardi Lydekker, 1900), moose (Alces alces gigas Miller, 1899 and Alces alces andersoni Peterson, 1952), and from the tissue of one slug (Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774)) in Arctic-Subarctic North America. A previously uncharacterized, genetically distinct species was recognized based on sequences of 37 DSL from 19 ungulate hosts and the slug. Sequence similarity among individuals of this novel species was 91%-100%. For many individual DSL, paralogues of ITS-2 were detected. ITS-2 sequences from the novel species were 72%-77% similar to those of Varestrongylus alpenae (Dikmans, 1935) and 51%-61% similar to those of other protostrongylids known in North American and some Eurasian ungulates. Results indicate a discrete lineage of an undescribed protostrongylid infecting muskoxen, caribou, and moose from Alaska to Labrador. Sympatric infections with Parelaphostrongylus andersoni Prestwood, 1972 were found in three caribou herds. (Au)

I
Animal taxonomy; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Caribou; Gastropoda; Genetics; Invertebrate larvae; Moose; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Ungulates

G081, G06, G0811, G0827, G0826, G0824
Alaska; Canadian Arctic; Labrador; Manitoba; North American Arctic; North American Subarctic; Nunavik, Québec; Subarctic regions; Yukon


Arctic caribou and moose contaminant monitoring program   /   Gamberg, M. [Project Leader]   Skinner, L. [Project Leader]   Campbell, M. [Project Leader]   Johnson, D.   Elkin, B.   Armstrong, T.   Veitch, A.   Guthrie, G.   Kutz, S.   Larter, N.   Dumond, M.   Hope, G.
In: Synopsis of research conducted under the 2006-2007 Northern Contaminants Program / Edited by S. Smith and J. Stow. - Ottawa : Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 2007, p. 127-130
ASTIS record 62722.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU OORD

Moose and caribou provide an important food resource for Northerners across the Arctic, and have been designated in the NCP blueprint as key species for monitoring contaminants in the terrestrial Arctic ecosystem. Two barren-ground caribou herds, one the eastern Arctic and one from the western Arctic, have been designated for annual sampling, five additional caribou herds and two moose populations have been designated for sampling every five years. In 2005/6 tissue samples were collected from the Bluenose, Dolphin and Union, Porcupine and Qamanirjuaq caribou herds and from the Deh Cho moose. Samples were also collected from the Bathurst caribou as an adjunct to the program. Whole kidneys from all animals and livers from moose are being analyzed for a suite of 32 elements, and teeth are being used to determine the age of each animal. Data will be analyzed for temporal and geographical trends, utilizing historical data for comparisons where possible. (Au)

I, J, N, T
Age; Animal collections; Biological sampling; Caribou; Dentition; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Food; Hunting; Internal organs; Mass spectrometry; Measurement; Moose; Native peoples; Pollution; Risk assessment; Spatial distribution; Spectroscopy; Temporal variations; Wildlife management

G0811, G0812, G0813
N.W.T.; Nunavut; Yukon


Community-based monitoring of wildlife populations and health in the Sahtu : report to the NWT Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program : 2005-2006   /   Veitch, A.   Kutz, S.   Northwest Territories Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program [Sponsor]
[N.W.T.] : Northwest Territories Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program, 2006.
15 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Report date: 31 March 2006.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 61211.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.nwtcimp.ca/documents/cimpProjects/GNWT_Veitch_WildlifePop_Report_05_06.pdf

The health and sustainability of wildlife populations is important for subsistence harvesters as well as the overall economy of the NWT. Global warming, renewable and non-renewable resource development, and a greater human footprint can alter the patterns of disease occurrence in wildlife and have a direct impact on both wildlife and human health. In January 2005, we traveled to all 5 communities in the Sahtu settlement region to increase awareness of wildlife health issues and foster long term community-based monitoring and management of wildlife health. We did this through: 1. Wildlife Health Monitor Program - We worked with 6 returning and 2 new Wildlife Health Monitors. 2. Youth education - In the schools we delivered powerpoint presentations on wildlife biology, management, and health to ... youth from kindergarten to grade 12 and with the senior students (total 110) we held hands-on dissection labs of snowshoe hares. 3. graduate student education - Again this year, a veterinary graduate student participated in the development and delivery of this program. As in previous years we received extremely positive feedback from students, teachers, and harvesters. Elders and harvesters were very pleased with the information exchange sessions, and graduate students indicated that participation in the program was an extremely valuable experience. NWT CIMP provided $22,650 in support of this program in 2005/06. Additional funding was provided by NSERC PromoScience, the Sahtu Renewable Resources Board, Enbridge Inc (NT). (Au)

I, J, N, R, T
Age; Animal diseases; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal population; Animals; Biological sampling; Career aspirations; Caribou; Co-management; Dene Indians; Dentition; Education; Effects monitoring; Elders; Employment; Hares; Logistics; Metis; Moose; Native organizations; Necropsy; Occupational training; Parasites; Research funding; Scientists; Subsistence; Wildlife management

G0812
Colville Lake (Settlement), N.W.T.; Deline, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope, N.W.T.; Norman Wells, N.W.T.; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.; Tulita, N.W.T.


Geographic distribution of the muscle-dwelling nematode, Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei, in North America, using molecular identifcation of first-stage larvae   /   Jenkins, E.J.   Appleyard, G.D.   Hoberg, E.P.   Rosenthal, B.M.   Kutz, S.J.   Veitcht, A.M.   Schwantje, H.M.   Elkin, B.T.   Polley, L.
(The Journal of parasitology, v. 91, no. 3, June 2005, p. 574-584, map)
References.
ASTIS record 77169.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1645/GE-413R
Libraries: ACU

Molecular identification of dorsal-spined larvae (DSL) from fecal samples indicates that the protostrongylid parasite, Parelaphostrongylus odocoilei, occupies a broader geographic range in western North America than has been previously reported. We analyzed 2,124 fecal samples at 29 locations from thinhorn sheep (Ovis dalli dalli and O. d. stonei), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis and O. c. californiana), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), and black-tailed deer (O. h. columbianus). The DSL were recovered from populations of thinhorn sheep south, but not north, of the Arctic Circle, and they were not recovered from any of the bighorn sheep populations that we examined. In total, DSL were recovered from 20 locations in the United States and Canada (Alaska, Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, and California). The DSL were identified as P. odocoilei by comparing sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of ribosomal RNA among 9 protostrongylid species validated by adult comparative morphology. The ITS2 sequences were markedly different between Parelaphostrongylus and other protostrongylid genera. Smaller fixed differences served as diagnostic markers for the 3 species of Parelaphostrongylus. The ITS2 sequences (n = 60) of P. odocoilei were strongly conserved across its broad geographic range from California to Alaska. Polymorphism at 5 nucleotide positions was consistent with multiple copies of the ITS2 within individual specimens of P. odocoilei. This work combines extensive fecal surveys, comparative morphology, and molecular diagnostic techniques to describe comprehensively the host associations and geographic distribution of a parasitic helminth. (Au)

I
Animal anatomy; Animal distribution; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Deer; Genetics; Identification; Invertebrate larvae; Mountain goats; Mountain sheep; Mountains; Nematoda; Parasites

G0811, G0812, G0822, G0821, G06
Anvil Range, Yukon; British Mountains, Alaska/Yukon; Chugach Mountains, Alaska; Jasper National Park, Alberta; Kluane National Park and Reserve, Yukon; Mackenzie Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Richardson Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Rocky Mountains, Alberta; Rocky Mountains, British Columbia; Sierra Nevada, California; St. Elias Mountains, Alaska/British Columbia/Yukon; Wrangell Mountains, Alaska


Using hunter observations and ecological knowledge together with science to understand past and current occurrence of wildlife diseases in the North : project report, March 31, 2005   /   Kutz, S.   Veitch, A.   Branigan, M.   Lambert, C.   Wright, W.   Elkin, B.   Bayha, J.   Guthrie, G.   Northwest Territories Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program [Sponsor]
[N.W.T.] : Northwest Territories Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program, 2005.
8 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 61228.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.nwtcimp.ca/documents/cimpProjects/HunterObservations/Hunter_Obs_Report_31March05.pdf

We held a series of focus-group interviews on wildlife disease occurrence in 10 communities in the Sahtu, Gwich'in, and Inuvialuit settlement regions, Northwest Territories from January-March 2005. The purpose of the project was to record experienced harvesters' observations of wildlife disease in the past and present, and to determine if harvesters had noticed any changes in disease occurrence - i.e., types or frequency of diseases, or locations. We worked with the local Renewable Resource Councils and Hunters and Trappers Committees to identify suitable harvesters to interview. A community assistant was hired to contact participants and assist with the interviews. A total of 63 experienced harvesters, both men and women, age 34-88 participated in the project. Focus-group sessions were tape-recorded and notes were also taken. Transcripts are currently being analyzed. This work represents a unique approach to understanding and monitoring changes in disease occurrence in a rapidly changing arctic environment. It is a component of a larger project to evaluate the effects of climate change on wildlife health in the western Canadian Arctic and Subarctic. (Au)

I, N, T, R, E
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Caribou; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Hunting; Moose; Mountain sheep; Muskoxen; Native organizations; Native peoples; Social surveys; Subsistence; Traditional knowledge; Wildlife management

G0812
Aklavik, N.W.T.; Colville Lake (Settlement), N.W.T.; Deline, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope, N.W.T.; Inuvik, N.W.T.; Norman Wells, N.W.T.; Paulatuk, N.W.T.; Sachs Harbour (Settlement), N.W.T.; Tsiigehtchic, N.W.T.; Tulita, N.W.T.


Community-based monitoring of wildlife populations and health in the Sahtu : report to the NWT Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program : 2004-2005   /   Veitch, A.   Kutz, S.   Elkin, B.   Popko, R.   Neimanis, A.   Jenkins, E.   Guthrie, G.   Northwest Territories Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program [Sponsor]
[N.W.T.] : Northwest Territories Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program, 2005.
24 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Report date: 31 March 2005.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 61207.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.nwtcimp.ca/documents/cimpProjects/Sahtu_Wildlife/Sahtu_Wildlife_CIMP_Report2005.pdf
Libraries: XQKNRC

The health and sustainability of wildlife populations is important for subsistence harvesters as well as the overall economy of the NWT. Global warming, renewable and non-renewable resource development, and a greater human footprint can alter the patterns of disease occurrence in wildlife and have a direct impact on both wildlife and human health. In January 2005, we traveled to all 5 communities in the Sahtu settlement region to increase awareness of wildlife health issues and foster long term community-based monitoring and management of wildlife health. We did this through: 1. Wildlife Health Monitor Program - We trained 4 more wildlife health monitors in 2 additional communities and met with the two previously trained monitors to assess the overall program. 2. Youth education - In the schools we delivered powerpoint presentations on wildlife biology and health to (457) youth from kindergarten to grade 12 and with the senior students (total 69) we held hands-on dissection labs of marten 3. Focus-group Interviews on the Historical Occurrence of Wildlife Disease: New to the program this year was knowledge exchange focus-group interviews on past and present occurrence of wildlife disease that were held in all five communities with 33 elders and experienced harvesters. 4. Graduate student education - Two veterinary graduate students participated in the development and delivery of this program. As in previous years we received extremely positive feedback from students, teachers, and harvesters. Elders and harvesters were very pleased with the information exchange sessions, and graduate students indicated that participation in the program was an extremely valuable experience. NWT CIMP provided $20,000 in support of this program in 2005. Additional funding for the youth and monitor components of the program was provided by NSERC PromoScience, the Sahtu Renewable Resources Board, Enbridge Inc (NT). Funding for the knowledge-exchange sessions was provided by NWT Western Biophysical Study, Climate Change Action Fund, and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. (Au)

I, J, N, R, T
Animal diseases; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal population; Animals; Biological sampling; Career aspirations; Caribou; Costs; Dene Indians; Education; Effects monitoring; Elders; Employment; Logistics; Martens; Metis; Moose; Native organizations; Necropsy; Occupational training; Parasites; Research funding; Scientists; Social surveys; Subsistence; Wildlife management

G0812
Colville Lake (Settlement), N.W.T.; Deline, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope, N.W.T.; Norman Wells, N.W.T.; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.; Tulita, N.W.T.


The potential impact of climate change on infectious diseases of Arctic fauna   /   Bradley, M.J.   Kutz, S.J.   Jenkins, E.   O'Hara, T.M.
(International journal of circumpolar health, v. 64, no. 5, Dec. 2005, p. 468-477)
References.
Special issue: Climate change and human health.
ASTIS record 60104.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3402/ijch.v64i5.18028
Libraries: ACU MWM

Climate change is already affecting Arctic species including infectious disease agents and greater changes are expected. Some infectious diseases are already increasing but future changes are difficult to predict because of the complexity of host-agent-environment relationships. However mechanisms related to climate change that will influence disease patterns are understood. Warmer temperatures will benefit free living bacteria and parasites whose survival and development is limited by temperature. Warmer temperatures could promote survivability, shorter development rates and transmission. Insects such as mosquitoes and ticks that transmit disease agents may also benefit from climate change as well as the diseases they spread. Climate change will have significant impacts on biodiversity. Disease agents of species that benefit from warming will likely become more prevalent. Host species stressed by changing environmental conditions may be more vulnerable to disease agents. Warming could lead to increased agriculture and other economic opportunities in the Arctic bringing people, domestic food animals, pets and invasive species and their disease agents into Northern regions. Climate warming may also favor the release of persistent environmental pollutants some of which can affect the immune system and may favor increased rates of some diseases. (Au)

J, E, I, H, N, K
Acclimatization; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal husbandry; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animals; Atmospheric temperature; Bacteria; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Fishes; Gastropoda; Insects; Invertebrate larvae; Nematoda; Ozone; Parasites; PCBs; Pollution; POPs; Precipitation (Meteorology); Seals (Animals); Ultraviolet radiation; Viruses; Waterfowl; Wildlife habitat

G02, G081, G0812
Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.


Monitoring wildlife populations and health in the Sahtu : developing community expertise : report to the NWT Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program, March 2004   /   Veitch, A.   Guthrie, G.   Kutz, S.   Northwest Territories Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program [Sponsor]
[N.W.T.] : Northwest Territories Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program, 2004.
23 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Appendices.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 61223.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.nwtcimp.ca/documents/cimpProjects/SRRB/SRRB_WildlifeHealth&Pop.pdf

... This report describes our ongoing activities to increase awareness about wildlife species and to foster community-based expertise in wildlife health and population monitoring across the Sahtu Settlement Area. From 15-30 March 2004 we delivered a series of educational seminars about wildlife research, health and monitoring (with particular emphasis on caribou) to Renewable Resources Councils (RRCs), schools, and the public in four of the five Sahtu communities (Tulita, Déline, Norman Wells, and Fort Good Hope). ... We received $25,000 for this project from NWT CIMP for 2003-04. ... We had two main objectives for this project in March 2004: 1) To increase general awareness in communities (RRCs, public, and students) about wildlife population and health monitoring, and to provide wildlife harvesters with information about what to do when abnormalities are found. Given the importance of barren-ground, boreal woodland, and mountain woodland caribou to people in the Sahtu, we wished to provide a comprehensive overview of past, current, and future research and monitoring on caribou in the region. We also sought to have each community identify specific long-term population monitoring projects in which they would like to participate as part of ongoing efforts to monitor cumulative effects across the Sahtu. 2) To initiate a pilot programme in community-based monitoring of wildlife health in Déline by training regular harvesters, chosen by the RRC, to be "Wildlife Health Monitors." These harvesters would be trained in sample collection standards, handling, data recording, and submission. This sampling programme allows: 1) baselines to be established for current health status of wildlife; 2) detection of pathogens/diseases where there are no grossly visible abnormalities; 3) early detection of disease; 4) ongoing, long-term surveillance; and 5) building of an archive of samples/tissues for future analyses. The specific objectives of the community visits were to: 1) Inform local harvesters and students about ongoing wildlife population research and monitoring in the Sahtu, with particular emphasis on barren-ground, mountain woodland, and boreal woodland caribou. 2) Determine which long-term wildlife population monitoring programs are of interest to RRCs and schools in each Sahtu community (i.e., community-based monitoring). 3) Inform harvesters and students about wildlife disease in general, including impacts of disease on wildlife and people. 4) Provide an interactive forum for discussing wildlife research and disease issues in the Sahtu. 5) Train interested harvesters and students how to detect and safely collect samples of abnormalities in wildlife and to record important details. 6) Train RRC-selected harvesters in Déline to be Wildlife Health Monitors as part of a long-term community-based project. ... (Au)

I, J, N, R, T
Age; Animal anatomy; Animal diseases; Animal health; Animal population; Animals; Biological sampling; Career aspirations; Caribou; Costs; Dene Indians; Education; Employment; Fats; Hunting; Insects; Logistics; Lynx; Measurement; Metis; Native organizations; Necropsy; Occupational training; Parasites; Public education campaigns; Research; Safety; Size; Subsistence; Wildlife management

G0812
Deline, N.W.T.; Fort Good Hope, N.W.T.; Norman Wells, N.W.T.; Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.; Tulita, N.W.T.


"Emerging" parasitic infections in Arctic ungulates   /   Kutz, S.J.   Hoberg, E.P.   Nagy, J.   Polley, L.   Elkin, B.
(Biology of the Canadian Arctic : a crucible for change in the 21st century. Integrative and comparative biology, v. 44, no. 2, Apr. 2004, p. 109-118, maps)
References.
Papers from the symposium "Biology of the Canadian Arctic: a crucible for change in the 21st century" presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, 4-8 January 2003 in Toronto.
ASTIS record 59753.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1093/icb/44.2.109
Libraries: ACU

Important drivers for emergence of infectious disease in wildlife include changes in the environment, shrinking habitats or concentration of wildlife, and movement of people, animals, pathogens, or vectors. In this paper we present three case-studies of emerging parasitic infections and diseases in ungulates in the Canadian north. First we discuss climate warming as an important driver for the emergence of disease associated with Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a nematode lungworm of muskoxen. Then we examine how Protostrongylus stilesi, the sheep lungworm, emerged (or re-emerged) in muskoxen after re-introduction of this host into its historical range made it sympatric with Dall's sheep. Finally, we consider Teladorsagia boreoarcticus, a newly described and common abomasal nematode of muskoxen that is emerging as a disease-causing parasite and may be an important regulator for muskox populations on Banks Island, Northwest Territories. These and other arctic host-parasite systems are exquisitely tuned and constrained by a harsh and highly seasonal environment. The dynamics of these systems will be impacted by climate change and other ecological disruptions. Baseline knowledge of parasite biodiversity and parasite and host ecology, together with predictive models and long-term monitoring programs, are essential for anticipating and detecting altered patterns of host range, geographic distribution, and the emergence of parasitic infections and diseases. (Au)

I, J, E, N
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal migration; Animal population; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Forecasting; Lungworms; Mathematical models; Mountain sheep; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management

G0813, G0812, G0811, G06
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; N.W.T.; North Slope Borough, Alaska; Nunavut; Richardson Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Yukon, Northern


A multidisciplinary, community-driven approach to wildlife parasite research in the North : the Research Group for Arctic Parasitology = Une approche multidisciplinaire dirigée par la communauté à la recherche sur les parasites de la faune dans le Nord : le Research Group for Arctic Parasitology   /   Jenkins, E.   Veitch, A.   Hoberg, E.   Kutz, S.   Elkin, B.   Polley, L.
(Breaking the ice : proceedings of the 7th ACUNS (Inter)National Student Conference on Northern Studies = Briser la glace : démarches de la 7ième Conférence (inter)nationale de l'AUCEN des étudiants en études nordiques. Occasional publications series - Canadian Circumpolar Institute, no. 55, 2004, p. 234-235)
Abstract: Oral Presentation.
ASTIS record 56461.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

The Research Group for Arctic Parasitology (RGAP), under the umbrella of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, is a collaborative organization composed of parasitologists, wildlife biologists, veterinarians, and wildlife user groups interested in parasite diversity of northern mammals and birds. RGAP is currently involved in a variety of projects designed to describe and understand the role of parasitism and disease in northern ecosystems, including effects on country foods and human health, and the responses of host-parasite systems to changes in the environment resulting from climate change and human activity. For example: 1) In response to concerns expressed by wildlife managers and resource users, we are investigating the effects of a muscle-dwelling parasite recently discovered in Dall's sheep in the Northwest Territories (NT), and the possibility of infection of these sheep by a lung-dwelling parasite of muskoxen as a result of ongoing natural range expansion of muskoxen in the NT. 2) In the face of concerns about the unprecedented rate of climate change in the Canadian North, we have initiated monitoring and have generated models to predict the effects of warming and ecological disturbance on development and transmission of parasites, which may have significant impacts in wildlife species on which many northern communities depend. 3) Through a series of workshops to be held in the Sahtu region of the NT beginning in March 2003, we will increase awareness and build community capacity to recognize changes in wildlife health using both traditional and empirical monitoring. We will also address concerns about the safety and sustainability of wild food sources in relation to parasites and disease. Through this process, RGAP generates a two-way flow of information and expertise between southern-based researchers and northern wildlife harvesters and managers. Our multi-disciplinary approach to wildlife health draws on the diverse backgrounds of our collaborators, who come from a variety of academic institutions and government agencies across North America, representing researchers, undergraduate, and graduate students in biology, ecology, epidemiology, parasitology, veterinary medicine, and environmental studies. We share our work at meetings of interested stakeholders, wildlife co-management boards set up under Land Claim Agreements, community organizations, professional wildlife associations (e.g., the Northern Wild Sheep and Goat Council), and the International Workshops on Arctic Parasitology, sponsored by RGAP in 2000 and by the Finnish Forest Research Institute in 2003. Thus, we establish our research in the context of the greater picture for the circumpolar North, which is increasingly challenged by climate change, development of non-renewable resources, and the changing interface between wildlife and humanity. (Au)

I, E, J, R, K
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Climate change; Dene Indians; Effects monitoring; Food; Gender differences; Grazing; Health; Human ecology; Internal organs; Invertebrate eggs; Mathematical models; Mountain sheep; Muskoxen; Parasites; Public education campaigns; Research; Research organizations; Seasonal variations; Subsistence; Tundra ecology; Wildlife management; Zoology

G0812
Sahtu Settlement Area, N.W.T.


Protostrongylus stilesi (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) : ecological isolation and putative host-switching between Dall's sheep and muskoxen in a contact zone   /   Hoberg, E.P.   Kutz, S.J.   Nagy, J.   Jenkins, E.   Elkin, B.   Branigan, M.   Cooley, D.
(Comparative parasitology, v. 69, no. 1, Jan. 2002, p. 1-9, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 77311.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1654/1525-2647(2002)069[0001:PSNPEI]2.0.CO;2
Libraries: ACU

The occurrence of Protostrongylus stilesi in a population of introduced muskoxen, Ovibos moschatus wardi, on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Yukon Territory (YT) and Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, is consistent with a contemporary colonization event from Dall's sheep, Ovis dalli dalli, which indicates that host specificity may be ecologically based and contextual for this parasite. Colonization of muskoxen by P. stilesi may be a predictable event in zones of sympatry with Dall's sheep; exposure to infection may coincide with occupation of winter ranges of Dall's sheep by muskoxen during the summer season. Disruption of contemporary ecological isolating barriers can result from anthropogenically or climatologically driven habitat perturbation, and result from management practices that influence the distribution of ungulate hosts. Thus, if zones of contact become more extensive or the temporal limits on allopatry are relaxed, we may observe increasing instances of host switching by parasites or pathogens at the interface of newly emerging ecotones. Impacts to northern systems linked to climatologically and anthropogenically driven global change and the effects of management must be tracked within the context of biodiversity survey and inventory and archival collections, as foundations for monitoring ecosystem-level perturbations. A developing interface for muskoxen, wild sheep, and parasites along the Mackenzie River ecotone represents a natural model or field laboratory to examine these processes. Additonally, lungworms, Protostrongylus spp., had not been reported in muskoxen, and a new geographic record for this nematode was established in Dall's sheep from the northern Richardson Mountains, NT. (Au)

I, E, J, N
Animal anatomy; Animal collections; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal waste products; Biological sampling; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Gender differences; Genetics; Hunting; Internal organs; Lungworms; Mountain sheep; Muskoxen; Necropsy; Parasites; Seasonal variations; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife management; Winter ecology

G0811, G0812
Aklavik region, N.W.T.; Alaska, Northern; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Richardson Mountains, N.W.T./Yukon; Yukon


Development of the muskox lungworm, Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis (Protostrongylidae), in gastropods in the Arctic   /   Kutz, S.J.   Hoberg, E.P.   Nishi, J.   Polley, L.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 80, no. 11, Nov. 2002, p.1977-1985, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 51847.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1139/z02-197
Libraries: ACU

Development of the muskox protostrongylid lungworm, Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, in its slug intermediate host, Deroceras laeve, was investigated under field conditions in the Arctic. Every 2 weeks, from 19 June to 28 August 1997, groups of 10 experimentally infected slugs were placed in tundra enclosures in a mesic sedge meadow near Kugluktuk, Nunavut, Canada. First-stage larvae (L1) infecting slugs on or before 17 July developed to third-stage larvae (L3) in 4-6 weeks. Intensity of L3 in slugs peaked at 6-8 weeks post infection (PI) and then progressively declined by 10, 12, and 48-50 weeks PI. Abundance of L3 in slugs was greatest during mid to late August. L1 infecting slugs on 31 July or later did not develop to L3 before the end of September but overwintered in slugs on the tundra as L1 or as second-stage larvae, completing development to L3 the following summer. The years 1997 and 1998 were exceptionally warm and, in cooler years, rates of larval development may be slower and patterns of availability may differ. The amount of heating (degree-days) accumulated during each trial was calculated using the 8.5°C threshold determined in the laboratory, a 21°C maximum, and either surface, soil, or air temperature. Only degree-days accumulated at the surface were sufficient to correspond to the observed rates of larval development. This enclosure-based system and associated degree-day calculations may be used for predicting the effects of climate and climate change on patterns of parasite development and transmission in the Arctic. (Au)

I, E, J
Animal growth; Bioclimatology; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Parasites; Temperature

G0813
Kugluktuk region, Nunavut


A new lungworm in muskoxen : an exploration in Arctic parasitology   /   Kutz, S.J.   Hoberg, E.P.   Polley, L.
(Trends in parasitology, v. 17, no. 6, June 2001, p. 276-280, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 80804.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/S1471-4922(01)01882-7
Libraries: ACU

Ruminants are vital elements of the Holarctic ecosystem. Little is known, however, of the structure or biology of their parasite fauna, particularly in North America. Global warming, coupled with increasing human activity in the Arctic, requires enhanced international interdisciplinary efforts to better understand the many factors, including parasites, that influence the population health of caribou, reindeer, muskoxen and wild sheep. The discovery of an unusual new genus of protostrongylid lung nematode in muskoxen from the central Canadian Arctic is described, and the intricacies of the parasite's relationship with its muskoxen definitive hosts, its gastropod intermediate hosts and the arctic environment are discussed. (Au)

I, E, J
Animal distribution; Animal health; Animal population; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Food; Gastropoda; Hunting; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Nematoda; Parasites; Subsistence; Temporal variations; Tourist trade; Tundra ecology

G0813, G081
Canadian Arctic; Kugluktuk region, Nunavut


Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from the Canadian Arctic   /   Kutz, S.J.   Elkin, B.T.   Panayl, D.   Dubey, J.P.
(The Journal of parasitology, v. 87, no. 2, Apr. 2001, p. 439-442, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 79780.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1645/0022-3395(2001)087[0439:POTGAI]2.0.CO;2
Libraries: XQKNRC ACU

Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 147 barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) from 5 herds in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, northern Canada, by the modified agglutination test (MAT). In the mainland herds (Bluenose, Bathurst, and Beverly), antibodies were found in 43 (37%) of 117 caribou, and MAT titers were 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 24, and 1:500 in 9. In the island herds, only 1 (4.3%) of 23 animals sampled from the North Baffin Island herd was positive (titer = 1:25) and no antibodies were detected in 7 caribou from the Dolphin and Union herd. The high prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii in the mainland caribou herds indicates that caribou meat may contain viable T. gondii. [The Bathurst herd was sampled near Napaktulik Lake (66 22 N, 113 00 W); the Bluenose herd was sampled at Sitidgi Lake (66 33 N, 132 42 W); the Beverly herd was sampled near Doran Lake (61 13 N, 108 06 W); the North Baffin Island herd was sampled near Pond Inlet (72 34 N, 78 23 W); the Dolphin and Union herd was sampled on the Kent Peninsula (68 30 N, 107 00 W).] (Au)

I
Animal diseases; Biological sampling; Blood; Caribou; Toxoplasma gondii; Ungulates

G0812, G0813
Kent Peninsula, Nunavut; Napaktulik Lake region, Nunavut; Pond Inlet region, Nunavut; Sitidgi Lake region, N.W.T.


The biology of Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, a lung nematode of muskoxen in the Canadian Arctic : field and laboratory studies   /   Kutz, S.J.   Polley, L.R. [Supervisor]
Saskatoon, Sask. : University of Saskatchewan, 1999.
xvii, 190 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. NQ63893)
ISBN 0-612-63893-6
References.
Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask., 1999.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 55049.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONL

A new genus and species of protostrongylid lungworm Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis was described in muskoxen (Oviobos moschatus) from the west-central Canadian Arctic mainland in 1995. ... A series of integrated experiments were designed to investigate important aspects of the biology of this parasite in the definitive and intermediate hosts and in the arctic environment. It was confirmed that the U. pallikuukensis requires gastropod intermediate hosts to develop from first-stage larvae (Ll) to third-stage larvae (L3). The life cycle of U. pallikuukensis was completed in 3 captive muskoxen; 2 were infected with L3 which were digested from slugs (Deroceras reticulatum), the third with L3 that emerged from slugs (D. reticulatum and D. laeve). In 2 animals the prepatent period was 91 and 95 days, larval production peaked at 13-14 mo post-infection (PI), and the patent periods extended to the time of euthanasia, 14 and 26 mo PI. The third muskox was euthanized at patency. No clinical signs of respiratory compromise were apparent in any of the 3 experimentally infected muskoxen. At post mortem on day 97 PI, parasitic cysts were difficult to find and some parasites were not enclosed in cysts, but by months 14 and 26 PI all parasites were within clearly defined cysts. Cyst size was positively correlated with the number of adult parasites contained. Lung pathology appeared to be localized to the cysts, which had a thick fibrous capsule surrounding adult nematodes, larvae and eggs. ... Medical imaging techniques were used to describe the lesions caused by U. pallikuukensis. Parasite-associated lesions were detected with standard radiography by 178 and 191 days PI in 2 muskoxen. ... Post mortem radiography was useful for locating cysts in a lightly infected animal and post mortem computed tomography was useful for locating, quantifying and characterizing cysts. ... Third-stage larvae of U. pallikuukensis emerged from live specimens of D. laeve, D. reciculatum, and Cacinella sp. in the laboratory, and from live or dead D. laeve in field experiments on the tundra. In the laboratory, emergence occurred over a wide range of infection intensities and patterns of emergence were independent of infection intensity. In field experiments, L3 were found on vegetation by 10 wk PI, and were recovered from the vegetation of some experiments after over-wintering. ... The morphologic and morphometric aspects of larval development of U. pallikuukensis in D. laeve at 23.4 C were investigated and compared to other protostrongylids. The majority of the larval growth of U. pallikuukensis occurs immediately following the second molt. The features most useful for defining larval stages are the separation of the cuticular sheaths, tail structure and viability following digestion. The rates of larval development for U. pallikuukensis in D. laeve and D. reciculacum at various temperatures in the laboratory were investigated. In D. laeve the temperature threshold was 8.5 C, in D. reticulacum it was 9.5 C and the degree-days required to develop to L3 in both gastropod species was 167. ... Over a period of 2 years a series of experiments was established in the tundra of the central Arctic mainland near Kugluktuk, Nunavut, Canada. The locally abundant slug, D. laeve, was experimentally infected with Ll of U. pallikuukensis and the slugs were placed in enclosures in the tundra .... Microhabitat temperatures were measured both inside and outside enclosures. Rates of larval development were determined by weekly or bi-weekly examination of the slugs and larvae from a subset of enclosures. Some slugs were left in enclosures over the winter. ... Rates of larval development in the Arctic corresponded with those predicted using surface microhabitat temperatures and laboratory derived threshold temperatures (8.5 C) and thermal constants (167 degree-days). ... The distribution of U. pallikuukensis is potentially linked to the distribution of suitable intermediate hosts. The terrestrial and freshwater gastropod faunas were surveyed on the Arctic mainland near Kugluktuk and on Victoria Island. ... On the mainland 6 terrestrial and 4 freshwater species were found. On Victoria Island, 1 terrestrial (D. laeve) and 3 freshwater species were found. The terrestrial species: D. laeve, Carinella sp. C. alricola, and Euconlilus fulvus, and the freshwater species: A. hypnorum and possibly Physa jennessi jennessi, supported development of U. pallikuukensis from LI to L3. Deroceras laeve, because of its high mobility, widespread distribution, and the high proportion of larvae which establish and develop to L3 in a short time, may be the most important intermediate host. It is possible that U. pallikuukensis could establish on Victoria Island if introduced. In addition, it is likely that suitable intermediate hosts are present on mainland east of Kugluktuk, and that the climatic conditions in this region (central and eastern mainland) would support larval development. It is apparent that U. pallikuukensis may utilize several strategies to successfully maintain itself in the muskox population, including: localized pulmonary pathology; high levels of L1 production; extended patency; use of a variety of terrestrial and freshwater intermediate hosts; rapid development in the arctic environment; overwinter survival; and larval emergence. ... (Au)

I, J, E, H, L
Animal anatomy; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal growth; Animal health; Animal mortality; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Animal respiration; Animal taxonomy; Animal waste products; Atmospheric temperature; Biological sampling; Blood; Climate change; Detection; Domestic sheep; Fresh-water ecology; Gastropoda; Internal organs; Invertebrate eggs; Invertebrate larvae; Logistics; Lungworms; Meadows; Microclimatology; Muskoxen; Necropsy; Rivers; Seasonal variations; Sedges; Size; Temperature; Theses; Tundra ecology; Wildlife habitat; Winter ecology; X-rays

G0813, G0812, G0823
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Basil Bay region, Nunavut; Cambridge Bay (Settlement) region, Nunavut; Coppermine River region, N.W.T./Nunavut; Kugluktuk region, Nunavut; N.W.T.; Norman Wells region, N.W.T.; Nunavut; Paulatuk region, N.W.T.; Rae River region, Nunavut; Richardson River region, Nunavut; Sachs Harbour region, N.W.T.; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Ulukhaktok region, N.W.T.; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


Development of the muskox lungworm, Umingmakstronglyus pallikuukensis, in the slug, Deroceras laeve, under arctic field conditions with comments on the impact of climate change   /   Kutz, S.J.   Hoberg, E.P.   Nishi, J.S.   Polley, L.
In: 47th Annual Wildlife Disease Conference '98. - [Laurence, Kan.] : Wildlife Disease Association, 1998, p. 27
Abstract of an oral presentation.
Conference held August 10-13, 1998 in Madison, Wisconsin.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 45324.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.wildlifedisease.org/document/proceeding/Wisconsin_98.pdf

Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis is a protostrongylid lungworm first recognized in 1988 in the muskox population west of Kugluktuk, NT (67°54'N, 116°38'W). The prevalence approaches 100% in adult muskoxen in this region yet the parasite appears to be absent from the arctic islands. First stage larvae (L1) shed in the feces can develop to infective third stage larvae (L3) in at least 4 terrestrial and 1 freshwater gastropod species found near Kugluktuk. Development rates of L1 to L3 are highly dependent on temperature. Field studies to determine whether larval development can occur within a single season in D. laeve were carried out during summer 1997. Slugs infected on June 19, July 3 and July 17 contained L3 by 4 to 6 weeks post infection while those infected July 31 or later did not produce L3 before winter. Recovery in September of live L3 from the vegetation in plots of June 19 and July 3 experiments confirmed laboratory findings of larval emergence from slugs although we could not determine if emergence was from live or dead slugs. Research has indicated that U. pallikuukensis in muskoxen is a temperature dependent system in which larval development and potential patterns of parasite transmission and distribution may be influenced by alteration in global temperatures. Predicted global warming is anticipated to have impacts on arctic ecosystems. Perhaps significantly, historical temperature records indicate a warming trend in the Mackenzie District of 1.29 °C over the last 50 years. U. pallikuukensis in muskoxen offers a possible theoretical and applied model system to elucidate the complex linkage of global climate change to wildlife health, emerging helminthic disease, and the potential to impact populations of arctic ruminants. (Au)

I, E, J
Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal food ; Animal growth; Animal health; Animal population; Animal waste products; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Gastropoda; Invertebrate larvae; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Parasites; Tundra ecology

G0813
Kugluktuk region, Nunavut


A new genus of protostrongylid lungworm in muskoxen, Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis : experimental infections and aspects of larval ecology   /   Kutz, S.   Hoberg, E.   Polley, L.
In: WDAlaska '96 : 45th Annual Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association : program and abstracts of papers presented July 21-25, 1996, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska. - [S.l. : Wildlife Disease Association], 1996, p. 21
Abstract of an oral presentation (23).
ASTIS record 43214.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.wildlifedisease.org/document/proceeding/Alaska_96_Small.pdf

A new genus and species of protostrongylid lungworm in muskoxen of the Kugluktuk region, Northwest Territories, Canada, has recently been described and named by Hoberg et al. This parasite, Umingmakstrongylus pallikuukensis, has a high prevalence, 92.5%, and may be partly responsible for the 50% decline in the muskox population from 1988 to 1994. Studies describing the epidemiology of the parasite are currently underway. The lifecycle of U. pallikuukensis has been experimentally completed in captive muskoxen. The gastropod intermediate host Deroceras reticulatum was infected with first stage larvae from the feces of naturally infected muskoxen and the third stage larvae recovered from these gastropods were administered orally to 2 captive muskoxen. Prepatent periods observed in the 2 animals were 91 and 95 days. Larval shedding has been continuous for at least 11 months and output of first stage larvae has ranged up to 6000 larvae per gram wet feces. No clinical signs or hematological changes have been observed in the experimentally infected animals, but numerous parasite induced nodules are apparent on radiographic examination. The unusual phenomenon of third stage larval emergence from the experimental gastropod intermediate host, D. reticulatum, has been consistently observed in the lab. Emergence begins on day 19 PI, and by 56 PI up to 95% of the total larval burden in the gastropod has emerged. These free living third stage larvae survive at least 6 months in tap water at 4C. Emerged third stage larvae have recently been administered orally to a third captive muskox to assess their infectivity for the definitive host. If this emergence and subsequent larval survival and infectivity occurs in the wild it may profoundly affect the parasite's epidemiology. Studies are underway to identify the potential gastropod intermediate hosts in the Arctic and to determine the significance of emergence of third state larvae from gastropods. This information is critical in elucidating the mechanisms which determine the parasite's high prevalence in muskoxen and its potential to spread to other geographic regions and muskox populations. (Au)

I
Animal diseases; Animal mortality; Animal population; Bioassays; Gastropoda; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Parasites

G0813
Kugluktuk region, Nunavut


A protosrongylid lungworm in muskoxen : preliminary sudies on larval bionomics and experimental infections   /   Kutz, S.   Wagner, B.   Polley, L.
In: 2nd Inernational Arctic Ungulate Conference, 13-17 August 1995, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska : abstracts. - [S.l.: s.n.], 1995, p. 24
Abstract only.
Not seen by ASTIS.
ASTIS record 43215.
Languages: English

Gunn et al. reported a new muskox lungworm in 1991. Preliminary research on this parasite has demonstrated that first stage larvae in feces are highly resistant to temperature extremes and desiccation. Protostrongylids typically require gastropod intermediate hosts for first to third stage larval development. First stage larvae infected the gastropod Lehmannia marginata but did not develop within this host. First stage larvae developed to third stage larvae within four weeks in the experimental intermediate host Deroceras reticulatus, with spontaneous emigration of some third stage larvae four weeks after inoculation. If infective third stage larvae leave the intermediate hosts in the field and survive climatic extremes on the vegetation, then transmission to muskoxen may occur year round. Conversely, if muskox infection depends on ingestion of intermediate hosts, the transmission period may be shorter, limited by the life history of the gastropods. Initial attempts to reproduce the infection in an immature goat and sheep were unsuccessful. Experimental infection of a captive muskox is underway. Future research is aimed at identifying arctic gastropod intermediate hosts, determining the effect of temperature on larval development within these hosts, and assessing viability and infectivity of free-living first and third stage larvae under various environmental conditions. (Au)

I
Animal diseases; Animal population; Gastropoda; Lungworms; Muskoxen; Parasites

G02
Arctic regions


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