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The ASTIS database cites the following 36 publication(s) by Rob Huebert. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


The case for a more combat-capable Arctic offshore patrol ship   /   Huebert, R.
(Canadian naval review, v. 10, no. 3, 2015, p. 4-9, ill.)
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References.
ASTIS record 81384.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.navalreview.ca/volume10-issue3/

The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) is poised to embark upon a new chapter in its history. It is about to be equipped with a new capability that will allow it to defend Canada as a three ocean state. It is hoped that construction of the long-awaited Arctic Offshore Patrol Ships (AOPS) will begin in the fall of 2015. If this happens, it will mean that the Canadian Navy will be able to operate in the Arctic. The last time it had the ability to do this was in the 1950s when HMCS Labrador was commissioned as a navy icebreaker. However in 1957 it was transferred to the Coast Guard returning the navy to being a two ocean force. This new class of warship will mean a transformation for the Canadian Navy. This will require new skills and training and will ultimately affect the overall composition of the fleet well into the future. The addition of these new ships is necessary - Canada is a three ocean country and its limited ability to act in its Arctic backyard has always been problematic. ... (Au)

R, L, G
Canadian Coast Guard; Design and construction; Foreign relations; Icebreakers; Military operations; Military policy; Royal Canadian Navy; Safety; Ships; Sovereignty

G081, G08, G02, G14, G13
Arctic regions; Canada; Canadian Arctic waters; Canadian waters; Norway; Russian Federation; United States


War and economics : the real threat to the Canadian Navy : editorial   /   Huebert, R.
(Canadian naval review, v. 10, no. 1, 2014, p. 1-3, ill.)
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 81383.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.navalreview.ca/volume10-issue1

Fire on board any ship is a terrifying experience. On a naval vessel that is carrying a very combustible cargo it is especially the case. Fortunately the fire on board HMCS Protecteur in February 2014 did not cause fatalities and the ship did not sink, but the event will still be disastrous for the Canadian Navy's efforts to maintain a robust and independent capability for the foreseeable future. The navy is now reduced to one operational replenishment vessel until the two long-awaited replacement vessels are completed (hopefully before 2020). The fact that Protecteur was saved is testament to both the bravery and excellent training of the men and women of the Canadian Navy. Unfortunately it seems unlikely that the vessel will return to service. There has already been significant commentary on the dire straits that the navy faces with this loss. It will face tremendous difficulties in maintaining its ability to operate independently in both the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. It will now require the direct assistance of friends and allies, particularly the United States, to maintain its engagements in the Pacific Ocean. This is coming at a time when the importance of this region is growing. The forces that are now placing the navy in such a difficult position are the very forces the navy is needed to battle to ensure that Canadians remain secure; i,e., fighting war and protecting trade. For the last decade, the Canadian Forces have been at war in Afghanistan. At roughly the same time, Canada's major trading partners have been experiencing economic difficulties that have brought on a worldwide recession. The navy is designed to fight wars to defend Canada. It is also designed to ensure that Canada's maritime trade is protected to provide for the economic security of the country. Therefore, to have a truly secure Canada, there is a need to protect both national security and economic security. Without one you cannot have the other. And paradoxically fighting to ensure national security can ultimately have a negative impact on economic security. This in turn can then seriously diminish the ability of the state to afford new equipment to face future threats to national security. (Au)

R, L
Costs; Economic development; Emergency planning; Foreign trade; Government; Marine transportation; Military operations; Royal Canadian Navy; Ships

G081, G08
Afghanistan; Canada; Canadian Arctic waters; Canadian waters


Canada, the Arctic Council, Greenpeace, and Arctic oil drilling: complicating an already complicated picture   /   Huebert, R.   Canadian Defence and Foreign Affairs Institute [Sponsor]
Calgary, Alta. : Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, 2014.
8 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
ISBN 978-1-927573-16-7
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References.
ASTIS record 81382.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cgai.ca/canada_the_arctic_council_greenpeace

Canada and the Arctic Council finds itself facing one of its greatest challenges - supporting economic development for people of the north while protecting the fragile environment of the Arctic. 2014 will bring the possibility of exploratory drilling for oil off the northern coasts of Russia, the United States, Canada and Greenland. Development of suspected oil wealth in the region could redraw the very face of the entire region. Opposition to oil development is strongest in non-northern locations, and is increasingly represented by environmental NGOs such as Greenpeace. This issue, to develop or not to develop, is poised to become the most divisive issue facing the Arctic states in the coming years. Canada will need to negotiate a very delicate balance as it proceeds as chair of the Arctic Council. It will need to promote the efforts of the Arctic Council to protect the environment, while responding to increasingly vocal opposition against the large scale development of any oil resources in the region. Canada must be prepared to act against the inevitable protests that will occur against any exploratory drilling in Canadian waters. In order to protect development in the region, Canada must have the capability to ensure order in the region once permission has been granted to companies to proceed with exploration. (Au)

R, Q, J
Arctic Council; Economic development; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Offshore oil well drilling; Oil well drilling; Public opinion

G02, G08
Arctic regions; Canada


The transformation of Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security : from myth to reality?   /   Huebert, R.
In: Modern Canada : 1945 to present / Edited by C. Briggs. - Don Mills, Ont. : Oxford University Press, 2014, ch. 9.2, p. 257-271, ill.
References as endnotes.
ASTIS record 81289.
Languages: English

... The real challenges facing Canada, given growing international interest in the Arctic, will come from the need to respond to increased activity beyond Canadian jurisdiction. Such activity will not be an attempt to challenge Canadian sovereign control, but it will occur in and near Canadian Arctic territory. Canada will need to adapt to increased international shipping, including growing international cruise traffic. It is also possible that as the ice continues to melt, there will be increased fishing in waters open to international fishing fleets--which include the waters over the Canadian extended continental shelf, since Canada's international control is restricted to the soil and subsoil and not to the water column. These activities will not challenge Canadian Arctic sovereignty, but they will have a major impact on the Canadian north and will require further Canadian actions. ... (Au)

V, R, Q, J, L
Boundaries; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; History; Icebreakers; International law; Marine transportation; Oil well drilling; Sovereignty; Strategic studies

G08
Canada; Canadian Arctic


The quest for a Canadian naval strategy 1991-2014 : why it matters   /   Huebert, R.
(The northern mariner : journal of the Canadian Nautical Research Society = Le marin du nord : revue de Société canadienne pour la recherche nautique, v. 24, no. 3/4, July & Oct. 2014, p. 324-335)
French abstract provided.
References as footnotes.
No English abstract provided.
ASTIS record 81285.
Languages: English
Libraries: AEU

La fin de la guerre froide avec l'effondrement de l'Union soviétique était un évènement heureux pour la sécurité mondiale, mais elle à créer un nouvel ensemble de défis pour la marine canadienne. Les planificateurs de la marine canadienne ont du développer une nouvelle stratégie navale sans le socle jusqu'alors fourni par l'OTAN. Ce document examine les trois questions principales qui ont dominé l'effort de développer la nouvelle stratégie : premièrement, quelles sont les missions et les actions fondamentales de la marine canadienne après la fin de la guerre froide? Deuxièmement, quelles sont les capacités ou les instruments nécessaires pour répondre à ces besoins? Et finalement, comment engager les élites politiques canadiennes et la population à soutenir cette stratégie? (Au)

V, L, R
Costs; Foreign relations; Military history; Military policy; Royal Canadian Navy; Ships; Technology

G08
Canada


Premier partners : Canada, the United States and Arctic security   /   Lackenbauer, W.   Huebert, R.
(The Canada-US defence relationship / Edited by K. Holland. Canadian foreign policy, v. 20, no. 3, 2014, p. 320-333, maps)
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web prior to publication.
ASTIS record 80543.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1080/11926422.2014.977313
Libraries: ACU

... Both Canada and United States have developed extensive policy frameworks that affirm the rising geopolitical profile of the region, reveal their assumptions and priorities, and indicate an evolution in how regional security is understood. We analyze strategic documents produced by both countries since 2006 to discern where and how their respective frameworks and objectives converge and diverge. The Canada First Defence Strategy (DND 2008), Northern Strategy (Canada 2009) and Arctic Foreign Policy (Canada 2010) provide the core frameworks for Canada as it pursues its Arctic security objectives. The United States' strategic guidance on the Arctic is articulated in National Security Presidential Directive/NSPD-66 - Homeland Security Presidential Directive/HSPD-25 and Arctic Region Policy (White House 2009), as well as the Obama Administration's National Strategy for the Arctic Region (White House 2013). Other official policies and/or strategies, including the US Navy Arctic Roadmap (2009 and 2014), 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review, National Security Strategy (White House 2010) and Department of Defense Arctic Strategy (Dod 2013) also yield insights into the growing emphasis on comprehensive security and international collaboration. Careful consideration of the core themes suggests that the Americans are developing an understanding of Arctic security that echoes much of Canada's thinking. ... (Au)

R, V, E
Boundaries; Climate change; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; History; Military policy; Sovereignty; Strategic studies

G02, G08, G06, G0815
Alaska; Arctic regions; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Northwest Passage; United States


Rising temperatures, rising tensions : power politics and regime building in the Arctic   /   Huebert, R.
(Polar oceans governance in an era of environmental change / Edited by T. Stephens and D.L. VanderZwaag. New horizons in environmental and energy law series, 2014, ch. 4, p. 65-85)
References as endnotes.
Indexed an ebook.
ASTIS record 80516.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The Arctic ice disappears; international interest increases, and thus the Arctic is transformed from an international backwater of little concern to a region of global interest. In almost every conceivable manner, the Arctic is changing. 1. The impacts of climate change and the resulting dramatic decrease of permanent multi-year ice receive the greatest attention, but the region has been changing in many other ways. 2. The combination of climate change and globalization is fundamentally altering and possibly destroying the traditional lifestyle of the northern Indigenous peoples. 3. Economic activity in the region is poised for dramatic expansion. 4. As these changes occur, the international governance system is in a state of flux, The Arctic Council, the region's most important international body, has evolved from a minor regional organization into a highly prominent organization within the international system. These transformations are substantial, and as a result of them the Arctic has emerged as one of the most interesting and dynamic regions in the international system. (Au)

R, D, J, L, N
Arctic Council; Boundaries; Climate change; Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Environmental law; Environmental protection; Fish management; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government regulations; International law; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military operations; Military policy; NATO; Natural resources; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Strategic studies; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G02, G0815, G03
Arctic Ocean; Arctic regions; Canada; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Finland; Northwest Passage; Norway; Russian Federation; Sweden; United States


Cooperation or conflict in the new Arctic? Too simple of a dichotomy!   /   Huebert, R.
(Environmental security in the Arctic Ocean / Edited by P.A. Berkman and A.N. Vylengzhanin. NATO science for peace and security series. C, environmental security, 2013, ch. 19, p. 195-203)
References.
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean (2010 : Cambridge, England).
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 13-15 October 2010.
ASTIS record 80036.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/978-94-007-4713-5_19
Libraries: ACU

Throughout the 1990s the Arctic had transformed into a region of peace and cooperation from being a zone of conflict and competition throughout the Cold War. However, the early 2000s new developments have begun to complicate the relationships between the Arctic states. Scientists and Northern Peoples began to discover that the Arctic was warming and the ice was melting. Arctic maritime boundaries were redrawn as the result of an international treaty. In addition; a growing number of resources were discovered in the region. As a result of these changes, debate emerged about the possibility of conflict in the Arctic. New security realities suggest that the Arctic could become a zone of security and military activity, rather than remaining a region of peace and cooperation. Ultimately, the Arctic Ocean is increasingly becoming an ocean like any other ocean. It will increasingly be used like all other oceans. Thus, it will increasingly see an increase of activities that may involve both cooperation and conflict. This paper will examine this increasingly complex Arctic security environment. While leaders of the arctic nations, (as well as a number of non-arctic) have issued statements promising peace and cooperation in the region, it is telling that many of the Arctic states are allocating substantial funds to improve their Arctic combat capabilities. Although currently there are no obvious flashpoints in the region, the willingness of these states to spend suggests that they are beginning to worry that the region will not remain an era of cooperation forever. But the question remains as to what will be the future nature of the region. (Au)

R, E, N, L, D, V
Boundaries; Climate change; Economic development; Foreign relations; Marine transportation; Military history; Military operations; Sea ice; Strategic studies; Submarines; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G02, G03
Arctic Ocean; Arctic regions; Arctic waters


U.S. Arctic policy : the reluctant Arctic power   /   Huebert, R.
(The fast-changing Arctic : rethinking Arctic security for a warmer world / Edited by B.S. Zellen. Northern lights series (Calgary, Alta.), 15, 2013, ch. 10, p. 189-225)
References as endnotes.
Indexed from an e-book.
ASTIS record 79212.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

By virtue of both its standing as a superpower and its purchase of Alaska in 1867, the United States is an Arctic nation. But throughout much of its history, it seldom recognized this fact. At an individual level, it has produced outstanding polar explorers such as Robert Peary and Richard Byrd, as well as modern-day Arctic scientists such as Robert Corell and Waldo Lyon. Furthermore, the Arctic was central to the United States' nuclear deterrent posture during the Cold War. But the Arctic has seldom figured prominently in U.S. policy discussions. Thus the United States may be characterized as the "reluctant" Arctic power. Indeed, U.S. Arctic policy could be traditionally characterized as reactive, piecemeal, and rigid. While the Arctic is important to the United States, that fact seldom reached the attention of U.S. policy-makers and the U.S. public. But this has started to change. The Arctic is changing fundamentally due to climate change, resource development (in particular, energy), globalization, and geopolitical factors. Given the developing situation in the Arctic, even if the United States wanted to continue avoiding Arctic issues, it cannot. Furthermore, the selection of Alaskan governor Sarah Palin as the Republican vice-presidential nominee in 2008 reminded Americans of their most northern state - if only for the duration of that election. This chapter begins with a review of the existing U.S. Arctic policy. To the surprise of many observers, in its last days in power, the George W. Bush administration released a new U.S. Arctic policy on January 9, 2009. The U.S. government had previously set out an Arctic policy in 1994. Senior U.S. officials began the process to develop a new policy in 2007, and observers expected it would be released before the 2008 election. When this did not occur, many simply assumed that the crafting of the new policy would be left to the new Obama administration. Thus, its unveiling in 2009 caught most observers off guard. An Arctic only Region Policy is a departure from previous U.S. Traditionally, U.S. policy has dealt with the Arctic and Antarctic simultaneously. This time, the decision was made to develop an Arctic-only policy. The policy is both frank and direct, and it has significant ramifications for all Arctic nations - Canada included. The Obama administration has accepted the policy and taken a more proactive position on some Arctic issues. Thus the 2009 policy offers a clear picture of what the United States considers to be its core Arctic policy objectives and provides a guide on how to achieve them. The task of developing this policy has been challenged by the reality of a changing Arctic. The United States has to deal, not only with the low priority traditionally given the Arctic, but also with the fact that the Arctic is changing in ways that are not yet understood. An additional problem facing the Americans is the larger political issues surrounding the political deadlock that has developed between President Obama and Congress. The unwillingness to seek compromise has limited the American ability to respond to the economic crisis that developed in 2008. Issue areas such as the Arctic which lack substantial political support, have tended to be ignored in this very toxic political environment. Thus understanding American Arctic policy is very confounding. This chapter will provide an introduction of the existing policy framework and then examine and assess the core Arctic issues facing the United States. It will focus on the issues of energy development and international relations in the region. (Au)

R, G, E, D, T, J, L, Q, I, N
Arctic Council; Boundaries; Bowhead whales; Caribou; Climate change; Economic development; Effects monitoring; Energy resources; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government relations; History; Icebreakers; Military policy; Native peoples; Offshore oil well drilling; Petroleum transportation; Public participation; Search and rescue; Sustainable economic development; Tourist trade; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; Wildlife management

G02, G08, G06, G07, G141, G0815, G04
Alaska; Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska; Arctic waters; Beaufort Sea; Chukchi Sea; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Northwest Passage


Emergent Arctic, divergent approaches : the impact of federal organizations on Canada's pursuit of sovereignty over its Arctic waters   /   Adair, G.   Huebert, R. [Supervisor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, 2012.
v, 129 p. : 28 cm.
ISBN 9780494926444
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Thesis (M.A.).
ASTIS record 81613.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/002/MR92644.pdf
Web: http://hdl.handle.net/11023/207
Web: http://theses.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/11023/207/2/Ucalgary_2012_Adair_Geoffrey.pdf
Libraries: OONL ACU

Climate change has reduced the width and breadth of sea ice in the waters of the Canadian Arctic, rendering the region more accessible to southern interests, particularly shipping, than at any time in its history. The realities of an emergent Arctic have rekindled old fears regarding the nature and extent of Canadian sovereignty over the waters of its Arctic Archipelago. These fears are related to the historically and legally contested nature of Canadian claims. While the Canadian government is asserting its sovereignty in the Arctic region, the federal organizations that are the instruments of sovereignty assertion are both impacting the manner in which Canada's Arctic foreign policy is conducted and affecting Canada's sovereignty claims. This paper investigates said organizational effects through interviews conducted with high ranking members, current and retired, of the Royal Canadian Navy, The Canadian Coast Guard, Transport Canada and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. (Au)

R, D, L, G
Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, 1970; Canadian Coast Guard; Foreign relations; Government; Ice floes; International law; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Regulatory agencies; Royal Canadian Navy; Social surveys; Sovereignty; Theses; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G081
Canadian Arctic waters


Arctic 2030 : what are the consequences of climate change? The Canadian response   /   Huebert, R.
(Bulletin of the atomic scientists, v. 68, no. 4, July 2012, p. 17-21)
References.
ASTIS record 79203.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1177/0096340212451573
Libraries: ACU

Although scientists disagree about the rate at which Arctic ice is melting, climate change will greatly alter the northern latitudes in coming decades if greenhouse gas emissions are not greatly curtailed. Many of the expected changes will be negative; already, permafrost is melting in Siberia, and apartments and factories are sinking into quagmires. The melting of Arctic ice, however, will also open sea-lanes to shipping and allow access to enormous oil and gas reserves beneath the Arctic Ocean. The prospect of increased Arctic commerce brings with it competition among countries and companies for control of the area's riches, and international competition always carries the possibility of conflict. Three authors, all experts in national security and the Arctic, explore the military, diplomatic, environmental, and economic outlook for the Arctic in 2030: from Russia, Yury Morozov (2012); from Canada, Rob Huebert; and from the United States, George Backus (2012). (Au)

E, Q, J, R, G, P
Canadian Rangers; Climate change; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Geopolitics; History; Melting; Mining; Offshore oil well drilling; Sea ice; Sovereignty; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G08, G14, G03, G081
Arctic Ocean; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Russian Federation; United States


Canada and China in the Arctic : a work in progress = Le Canada et la Chine dans l'Arctique : une situation en gestation   /   Huebert, R.
(Meridian = Méridien, Fall/Winter 2011-Spring/Summer 2012, p. 1-6, ill., map)
References as footnotes.
Text in English and French on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English or French PDF files.
ASTIS record 77539.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20FW2011-SS2012.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridien%20AH2011-PE2012.pdf
Libraries: ACU

As recently as five years ago, the suggestion that China was well on its way to becoming a major player in arctic affairs would have been treated with a combination of surprise and disbelief in Canada. Yet it has become abundantly clear in the last few years that China not only is interested in arctic issues but is also actively developing the means to play an increasingly powerful position in the region. This has caught Canada off guard. Given the growing economic wealth and power of the new China, Canada needs to take into account Chinese interests in the Arctic. The Chinese government is now spending considerable resources on ensuring a sustainable and long-term arctic capability. What then, are the Chinese interests there, and how do they impact Canada? Only since 2009 have western academics and media begun to take serious notice of China's arctic ambitions. Much earlier, however, there were signs that should have alerted Canadians. In 1999 the Chinese arctic research vessel Xue Long (Snow Dragon) arrived at Tuktoyaktuk, NWT, at the mouth of the Mackenzie River. This marked the first arctic voyage for this vessel, which had already seen extensive operations in Antarctic waters. Its arrival caught local Canadian officials off guard. While China had notified Canada of its intention to do research in the adjacent waters of this region, the information was not passed on to officials in the North. This was only the beginning of Chinese arctic research efforts. ... The Chinese have at least four major areas of interest in the Arctic: science, maritime navigation, resources, and geopolitics. ... (Au)

R, N, L, E, J, Q, P
Arctic Council; Climate change; Economic development; Economic policy; Environmental impacts; European Union; Fisheries; Foreign relations; Foreign trade; Geopolitics; Government; Icebreakers; Marine navigation; Marine transportation; Mineral industries; Natural resources; Petroleum industry; Research; Research organizations; Research stations; Science; Ships; Sovereignty

G08, G081, G07, G02, G13
Arctic regions; Canada; Canadian Arctic; China; Norway; Svalbard; Tuktoyaktuk Harbour, N.W.T.; United States


Climate change & international security : the Arctic as a bellwether   /   Huebert, R.   Exner-Pirot, H.   Lajeunesse, A.   Gulledge, J.
Arlington, Va. : Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, 2012.
iv, 50 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Appendix.
References.
Report date: May 2012.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 76411.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.c2es.org/publications/climate-change-international-arctic-security

In its most recent assessment of global climate change, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences concluded, "A strong body of scientific evidence shows that climate change is occurring, is caused largely by human activities, and poses significant risks for a broad range of human and natural systems." Impacts and rates of change are greatest in the Arctic, where temperatures have been increasing at about twice the global rate over the past four decades. The rapid decline in summer sea ice cover in the past decade has outpaced scientific projections and is drawing international attention to emerging commercial development and transport opportunities previously blocked by the frozen sea. The Arctic is therefore a bellwether for how climate change may reshape geopolitics in the post-Cold War era. The trend toward seasonally open waters is driving increased interest and investment in oil and gas exploration, shipping, and fishing in the Arctic. The recent economic recession has not affected these developments significantly, as they were always intended to be middle- to long-term developments following the progression of sea ice retreat. Indeed, high oil prices and advances in technology continue to support the drive toward offshore drilling in Arctic waters. The global economy, which has begun to show signs of recovery, is likely to rebound long before oil and gas exploration and shipping could be scaled up in the Arctic. China, India and the rest of the developing world’s growing middle classes will need oil and gas and other resources, and the world’s shipping routes are already so congested that the development of northern shipping routes is not a question of if, but when. In response to these changes, many of the Arctic states have begun to re-examine their military capabilities to operate in the Arctic region. Some have started to rebuild their military forces, while most of the other states are drawing up plans to begin the rebuilding process. Multilateral organizations and non-Arctic states are also looking for new roles in the Arctic. All of these actors are attempting to come to terms with the meaning of Arctic security, a concept that was relatively simple during the icy decades of the Cold War. Recent national policy developments arising from the effects of climate change on the Arctic commons demonstrate that climate change is indeed a national and international security interest in the traditional strategic sense. As the emerging Arctic security environment is in a very early stage of development, whether it will ultimately be predominantly cooperative or predominantly competitive remains an open question. Although the Arctic states invariably emphasize their desire to maintain a cooperative environment, several have stated that they will defend their national interests in the region if necessary. To gauge the geopolitical winds in the Arctic, this study catalogs and analyzes dozens of major policy statements and actions by the Arctic states, other states with Arctic interests, and multilateral organizations between 2008 and 2012. As a framework for interpreting the totality of these statements and actions, we compare geopolitical developments to date with three future security scenarios posited by the Arctic Council in its Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report. We adopt these scenarios as testable hypotheses for the purposes of this study: Hypothesis 1: There is no emerging security environment and the circumpolar states have no new interests that would increase competition or conflict in the region. If this hypothesis is correct, a close examination of the actions of the circumpolar world should reveal no significant new foreign and defense policies and defense procurement decisions in relation to the Arctic. Hypothesis 2: While showing renewed interest in the Arctic, the interested states are committed to developing and strengthening multilateral instruments of cooperation. New military capabilities are direc ted towards building local constabulary capacity and largely eschew escalation of war-fighting capability. Hypothesis 3: Increasing accessibility to Arctic resources because of climate change, along with a growing and increasingly modern military presence of strategic rivals in the region, becomes a recipe for competition and potential conflict. Under this hypothesis, the circumpolar states should be actively examining their core interests in the region, expressing concern over what other states are planning or doing in the region, and developing more assertive northern defense postures, including rebuilding their northern war-fighting capabilities. It is also expected that the various actors would be commencing the process of developing new defensive relationships and either strengthening old alliances or building new ones. We assess which of these hypotheses most closely resembles the behavior of the key actors as revealed in their statements and actions. On the basis of the prevailing scenario(s), we consider the potential for instability and conflict in the Arctic and offer recommendations on how the states should proceed to ensure the region develops in a cooperative and peaceful manner. ... (Au)

R, L, V, J, E, P, Q, N
Arctic Council; Atmospheric temperature; Boundaries; Canadian Rangers; Climate change; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; History; Ice cover; Icebreakers; International law; Marine transportation; Melting; Military operations; Military policy; NATO; Natural resources; Negotiation; NORAD; Planning; Satellites; Sea ice; Sovereignty; Temporal variations; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G02, G08, G14, G10, G13, G06
Alaska; Arctic regions; Arctic waters; Asia; Canada; Denmark; Europe; Greenland; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Iceland; Russian Federation; Scandinavia; United States


Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security in a transforming circumpolar world   /   Huebert, R.
In: Readings in Canadian foreign policy : classic debates and new ideas / Edited by D. Bratt and C.J. Kukucha. - Don Mills, Ont. : Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., 2011, ch. 20, p. 348-373, map
References as end notes.
ASTIS record 76817.
Languages: English

Introduction: Canadian Arctic policy is faced with some of the most intriguing, yet complex, challenges in its history. Perhaps the greatest current challenge for Canada is the worldwide realization that the Arctic is melting, and so it is more accessible than ever before. Consequently, Canada must prepare for the outside world's entry into the Arctic. With international challenges to Canadian control of the region now emerging, Canada can no longer afford to ignore its Arctic. The objective of this chapter is to achieve an understanding of Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security in the context of a fundamentally changing Arctic. First, it examines sovereignty and security. The chapter then examines the forces that are transforming the very fabric of the Arctic, specifically climate change, resource development, and geopolitical forces. (Au)

R, J, T, M, E, L, N, P, Q
Boundaries; Climate change; Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf; Continental shelves; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government relations; Icebreakers; International law; Marine transportation; Military policy; Native peoples; Natural resources; Pollution; Self-determination; Sovereignty; Submarines; Traditional land use and occupancy; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G08, G0815, G14, G13, G14, g03
Arctic Ocean; Canada; Denmark; Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean; Northwest Passage; Norway; Russian Federation; Spitsbergen, Svalbard; United States


Canada and the newly emerging international Arctic security regime   /   Huebert, R.
In: Arctic security in an age of climate change / Edited by J. Kraska. - New York : Cambridge University Press, 2011, ch. 12, p. 193-217
References as footnotes.
ASTIS record 76814.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Introduction: Canada is in the midst of a massive transformation of the Arctic. Never before in recorded history have so many elements come together to literally redraw the face of the Arctic. The impact of climate change on the Arctic is perhaps the best known. Increasing global temperatures are causing the ice cover to melt. The resulting accessibility of the previously inaccessible Arctic Ocean has captured the worlds attention. The Arctic is believed to contain vast amounts of untapped natural resources; in particular, some estimates suggest that the Arctic may have 30 percent of the world's undiscovered gas resources and 13 percent of its oil. Canada has already become the world's third largest diamond producer on the basis of three mines in the Northwest Territories. A third major factor is a rapidly changing geopolitical environment. As the ice melts, and as expectations rise regarding the new mineral potential, both the circumpolar states and other members of the international community are increasingly looking to the Arctic as a new zone of opportunity. Whereas the previously inhospitable Arctic prevented operations in the region, this will soon be changing. The most important question is what the new international Arctic regime will look like. What will be the impact of the new geopolitical realities on the Arctic and on Canada? Will the Arctic become a region of cooperation, or will it become a region of increasing competition and confict? Furthermore, what policies and actions will the circumpolar states implement to protect and promote their interests? For countries such as Canada, which has historically posited itself as an Arctic state, the entry of new states and other bodies into the Arctic region with interests that do not align with Canadian interests will be unsettling. Until now Canada has been able to protect its interests simply given the inaccessible nature of the region. Now that this is changing, what is Canada prepared to do to secure its Arctic? (Au)

R, L, J, E, P, Q, N, T
Airplanes; Arctic Council; Boundaries; Canadian Rangers; Climate change; Continental shelves; Costs; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Gas hydrates; Geopolitics; Government; Icebreakers; International law; Melting; Military operations; Military policy; Mining; Native peoples; NATO; Natural resources; Negotiation; Oil well drilling; Permafrost; SAR; Sea ice; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Submarines; Thawing; Tourist trade; Treaties; Ultraviolet radiation; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G02, G08, G14, G13, G06, G03, G0815, G07
Arctic Ocean; Arctic regions; Arctic waters; Beaufort Sea; Canadian Arctic; Denmark; Finland; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Iceland; Northwest Passage; Norway; Russian Federation; Sweden; United States


The future of Canadian airpower and the F-35   /   Huebert, R.
(Special issue : Canada and the F-35 : what's at stake?. Canadian foreign policy, v. 17, no. 3, Sept. 2011, p. 228-238)
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 76634.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1080/11926422.2011.638196
Libraries: ACU

The Harper Government's announcement in July 2010 that it would be purchasing sixty-five F-35 aircraft unleashed a storm of controversy. Much of it focused on the anticipated cost of purchasing the aircraft. As the aircraft is still in development the final cost is uncertain. However the focus on costs misses the real debate about the need for the aircraft. What needs to be considered is whether in the future Canada needs the airpower that is provided by the F-35s. As a medium power, does Canada need the capability provided by fighter aircraft as it moves into the twenty-first century? Will Canada require the ability to engage in future hostile aerospace environments? Will Canada need to have airpower to defend its borders and to defend future foreign deployments? These are the real questions that need to be asked. Once these questions have been addressed, then the issue of costs may be examined. (Au)

M, L, R, V
Age; Airplanes; Costs; Emergency planning; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Maintenance; Military history; Military operations; Military policy; Risk assessment; Safety; Sovereignty; Strategic studies

G08
Canada


Submarines, oil tankers, and icebreakers : trying to understand Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security   /   Huebert, R.
(The Arctic is hot, part II / Edited by J.E. Fossum and S. Roussel. International journal (Toronto), v. 66, no. 4, Autumn 2011, p. 809-824)
References as footnotes.
ASTIS record 76085.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1177/002070201106600410
Libraries: ACU

...Both the academic discourse and the existing policy framework are based on the twin assumptions that the main international issue facing Canada is with regard to challenges to its sovereignty and that these are generally from the US. But what if this narrative has missed significant elements of the full picture? What if important events, actions, or realities simply were missed or ignored by the government, academics, and the general public? ... This article contends that there has been such an omission. From the early 1960s onward, American (and possibly French and British) and Soviet submarines played deadly games of cat and mouse in and around the Arctic Ocean. Both the maintenance of nuclear deterrence and the conduct of war if deterrence failed depended heavily on what happened within the Arctic maritime regions. ... Very few studies have attempted to integrate the actions of submarines into the greater understanding of Canadian policy. ... The article examines four possible scenarios [Canada knew and approved or supported; Canada knew of foreign submarine incursions but did not approve of them; Canada did not know; no submarine voyages occurred near or in Canadian waters]. Each of these scenarios makes certain assumptions about the conduct of submarine activity in the Arctic and the Canadian government's response to it. Each of these will then be assessed for their impact on Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security in terms of policy and academic understanding. ... CONCLUSION: ... First, it needs to be restated that the lack of evidence on almost all elements of the operation of submarines in the Arctic is one of the most confounding elements of this discussion. ... However there is just enough evidence to be able to make some observations. First, the Arctic region played a pivotal role in the Cold War. ... Second, by virtue of its geography, areas in and near the Canadian Arctic were probably used by American (and possibly French and English) submarines. The Soviet-Russian government has always denied being near Canadian Arctic waters, but this seems unlikely given their geography. Third, the core reason the allied submarines were in the region was ultimately to maintain nuclear deterrence. If this failed they were to stop and defeat the Soviet submarine force. Thus Canada's survival depended on the successful deployment of these submarines. It seems incredible that given the stakes involved there was so little public discussion of the issue. ... it remains confusing that Canada simply ignored the issue. Ultimately, it is seems that the expression "out of sight, out of mind" seems to sum up the reason that this dichotomy exists. Of course it is possible that Canada did play a role, but secretly, so that no signs of the documentary trail have yet surfaced. And it is possible that the successive governments of the day were simply overwhelmed by the issue and preferred to let Canada's allies handle the problem. But the full story is simply not known. ... (Au)

R, L, V, E, J, G
Boundaries; Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Government regulations; History; Ice cover; Icebreakers; International law; Manhattan (Ship); Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military operations; Military policy; NATO; NORAD; Polar Sea (Ship); Public opinion; Sovereignty; Submarines; Tankers; Treaties

G03, G081, G06, G14
Arctic Ocean; Arctic waters; Canadian Arctic waters; Denmark; France; Northwest Passage; Russian Federation; United Kingdom; United States


Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security in a transforming circumpolar world   /   Huebert, R.
In: Canada and the changing Arctic : sovereignty, security, and stewardship / F. Griffiths, R. Huebert, and P.W. Lackenbauer. - Waterloo, Ont. : Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2011, ch. 2, p. 13-68, ill., maps
References as end notes.
ASTIS record 75540.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The core objective of this chapter is to achieve an understanding of Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security in the context of a fundamentally changing Arctic. First, it will examine sovereignty and security. It will then examine the forces that are transforming the very fabric of the Arctic - specifically climate change, resource development, and geopolitical forces. The Arctic is undergoing change at a startling pace, one that has astonished Canadians and the world. It is impossible to pick up a newspaper or to turn on the TV without learning about a new development that has ramifications for the Canadian North. Inevitably any discussion about the Canadian North usually begins with a discussion about "protecting" Arctic sovereignty. Sovereignty is an issue that always attracts the attention of the media and decision makers as well as Canadians in general. One only has to suggest that Canada is "losing" its Arctic sovereignty for a firestorm of heated debates to erupt. It is an interesting era for the Canadian Arctic and for Canadians. Canadian Arctic policy is faced with some of the most intriguing and complex challenges in its history. Never before has the very nature of the Canadian Arctic region been altered by such a widespread set of factors. Perhaps the greatest current challenge for Canada is the worldwide realization that the Arctic is melting so that it is more accessible than ever before. Consequently, Canada must prepare for the outside world's entry into the Arctic. With international challenges to Canadian control of the region now emerging, Canada can no longer afford to ignore its Arctic. (Au)

R, J, E, L, P, Q, T
Arctic Council; Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, 1970; Boundaries; Climate change; Continental shelves; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Icebreakers; Iron; Marine pollution; Marine transportation; Military operations; Mining; Native peoples; Offshore gas fields; Offshore oil fields; Sovereignty; Tankers; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G08, G081, G14, G141, G10, G13, G03, G07
Arctic waters; Beaufort Sea; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters; China; Denmark; Finland; Greenland; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Iceland; Japan; Lincoln Sea; Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Northwest Passage; Norway; Russian Arctic waters; Russian Federation; South Korea; Sweden; United States


Canada and the changing Arctic : sovereignty, security, and stewardship   /   Griffiths, F.   Huebert, R.   Lackenbauer, P.W.
Waterloo, Ont. : Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2011.
xxix, 310 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
ISBN 978-1-55458-338-6, 978-1-55458-413-0(PDF), 978-1-55458-414-7(EPUB)
References.
Appendix: Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Statement on Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy : Exercising sovereignty and promoting Canada's Northern Strategy abroad, August 2010.
ASTIS record 75539.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

It is rare that a territory seen by so few can be emotionally, spiritually, and personally so compellingly important to so many. Yet that is a modest and understated description of the relationship between Canadians and their Arctic region and territories. It is a passionate, possessive, patriotic, and nationalistic relationship second only to our embrace of hockey. It is not yet jingoistic, which is a good thing. But it is also prone, as is often the case with visions seen from a great distance, to substantive and dangerous distortion. To suggest that the relationship is simply geo-strategic, or narrowly territorial, or militaristic, or simply about the oil and gas, is to oversimplify. Because the relationship between Canadians and the Arctic is about all of the above and a highly romantic quality, understanding the dynamics of the romance, its sustainability and attendant risks, is not only constructive but actually vital to the kind of public, defence, and foreign policies essential to maintaining the relationship at its optimum clarity and balance. The political, environmental, and international law prospectus for the Arctic is complex, as are the instruments available for Canada and Canadians to secure our interests. Canada and the Changing Arctic is essentially a careful unpacking of the challenges that are most germane to Canada's Arctic purposes and of the instruments available to deal with them. It is very reflective of Canada's history and the postwar growth and aspirations, which strongly shaped who we are today through events and clarion calls in the 1950s and 1960s, .... This book helps all of us who care about realizing the full potential of our country, internationally, domestically, economically, and in a way that is environmentally responsible, better understand some of the choices relating to the Arctic that need to be better appreciated. One need not agree with all the analyses or conclusions to admire the integrity, thinking, balance, and insight that fuel this book. Every romance needs engagement and reflection. Our romance with the Arctic requires nothing less. ... (Au)

R, V, J, E, L, N, T, P, Q
Arctic Council; Boundaries; Canadian Rangers; Climate change; Economic development; Economic policy; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; History; Hydrography; Icebreakers; Identity; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military operations; Military policy; Native organizations; Native peoples; Natural resources; Research; Ships; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Sustainable economic development; Treaties

G08, G081, G02, G07, G03
Arctic regions; Beaufort Sea; Canada; Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean; Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters


The newly emerging Arctic security environment   /   Huebert, R.
Calgary, Alta. : Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute, 2010.
25 p. ; 28 cm.
(Research paper - Canadian Defence & Foreign Affairs Institute)
Appendix.
References as footnotes.
French résumé provided.
Report date: March 2010.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 74556.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cdfai.org/PDF/The%20Newly%20Emerging%20Arctic%20Security%20Environment.pdf

The Arctic is changing and, as a result, is garnering unprecedented international interest. With warming temperatures, melting ice and greater accessibility to resources in the region, concerns for security in the region are at the forefront of the Arctic states' attempts to maintain their foothold in the Arctic. All of the Arctic states - Canada, Russia, Denmark, Norway and the United States - have downplayed concerns about conflict sparked by a "race for resources" in the Arctic by issuing policy statements. The core of these statements is that the Arctic states will work together to maintain peaceful cooperation in the region. However, the Arctic states are seemingly contradicting the intent of their statements as evidenced by their current actions. All of the Arctic states have begun rebuilding their military forces and capabilities in order to operate in the region. Personnel are undertaking Arctic training exercises; submarines that can operate in ice are being developed or enhanced; icebreakers are being built; and so forth. The catalyst for the Arctic states' efforts appears to be a recognition that the Arctic is critically vital to their interests and they will take the steps necessary to defend these interests. The consequence of these efforts is that notwithstanding the public statements of peace and cooperation in the Arctic issued by the Arctic states, the strategic value of the Arctic is growing. As this value grows, each state will attach a greater value to their own national interests in the region. The Arctic states may be talking cooperation, but they are preparing for conflict. (Au)

R, L, V, J, E, P, Q, N
Airplanes; Arctic Council; Boundaries; Canadian Rangers; Climate change; Costs; Design and construction; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; History; Icebreakers; International law; Melting; Military operations; Military policy; NATO; Natural resources; Negotiation; Planning; Satellites; Sea ice; Sovereignty; Submarines; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G02, G08, G14, G10, G13, G06
Alaska; Arctic regions; Arctic waters; Canada; Denmark; Greenland; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Norway; Russian Federation; United States


Cooperation or conflict in the Arctic?   /   Huebert, R.
(Changes in the Arctic environment and the law of the sea / Edited by M.H. Nordquist, J.N. Moore, and T.H. Eidar. Annual seminar - University of Virginia. Center for Oceans Law and Policy, v. 14, 2010, p. 27-59)
References.
This volume is based on presentations made at the 33rd annual conference of the Center for Oceans Law and Policy, held May 21-22, 2009 in Seward, Alaska.
Available in print and online.
ASTIS record 74485.
Languages: English
Libraries: AEU

The Arctic has remained the least developed international region in the world. Prior to the Second World War it was only the northern indigenous populations with their long history of thriving in the north that were able to live in the region. Individuals from more southern locations could survive only with the greatest of efforts (and in many instances did not survive!). As a result the entire area tended to be ignored and avoided by the rest of the world. However, by the end of the Second World War technological advances had allowed for southerners to start to enter and stay longer in the region. Unfortunately, the onset of the Cold War ended any opportunity for the development of an international cooperative regime as this activity increased. Instead, the Arctic remained divided into one of the most dangerous areas in the world. When the Cold War ended, efforts to develop international institutions and arrangements began in earnest. Of particular note were the creation of the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) and its successor the Arctic Council. However, while these organizations have had some success, most notably the production of the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, these efforts have not created a viable multi-lateral Arctic body. Instead, the existing regime can best be thought of as an immature, fragmented and stunted region-system. In all likelihood, this would have remained the circumstance well into the future. However, events are now developing that are refocusing the attention of the world on the Arctic. The twin forces of climate change and increased resource demand are combining to make the Arctic an increasingly important section of the world. As the ice recedes and the price of oil and gas expands (and contracts for now), both Arctic and non-arctic states are now examining how the Arctic region can be used to their benefit. Many of the Arctic States are also beginning to rebuild their military capabilities in the region. The question that is now developing is the manner in which the Arctic States will interact. Will the Arctic be developed through the use of multilateral tools or will it be left to the action of the individual States to act in a unilateral manner? Will it be a region of cooperation or conflict? (Au)

R, D, E, G, L
Arctic Council; Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy; Boundaries; Climate change; Design and construction; Economic development; Energy resources; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Icebreakers; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Melting; Military policy; Sea ice; Sovereignty; Strategic studies; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G02
Arctic regions; Canada; Denmark; Northwest Passage; Norway; Russian Federation; United States


Course 000 degrees : the maritime enforcement of Canada's Arctic sovereignty and its potential implications for the Canadian Navy   /   Horne, M.S.   Huebert, R. [Supervisor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, 2009.
x, 161 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
ISBN 9780494544204
References.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Thesis (M.S.S).
ASTIS record 81634.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/thesescanada/vol2/002/MR54420.PDF
Libraries: OONL ACU

Canada's sovereignty concerns are maritime and predominately relate to the interpretation of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). With climate change rapidly opening the Arctic for regular foreign maritime activity, the Canadian Navy has undertaken northern operations since 2002 aimed to solidify Canada's ownership and building a naval capacity to operate in northern waters. But, these operations fail to address whether foreign vessels are legally entitled to an international right of passage under UNCLOS guidelines. It remains uncertain whether the Navy will maintain its Arctic presence. Historically it has remained reluctant to do so, while displaying a preference for overseas activities. Furthermore, the Canadian Coast Guard may be better suited for conducting maritime enforcement. Although the current Conservative government has announced plans to procure a new class of naval icebreakers, this decision may impede the Navy's current plans to renew its fleet capabilities. (Au)

R, L, E, D
Capacity building; Climate change; International law; Maritime law; Royal Canadian Navy; Ships; Sovereignty; Theses; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G081, G08
Canada; Canadian Arctic


Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security in a transforming circumpolar world   /   Huebert, R.
Toronto : Canadian International Council, 2009.
43 p. : map ; 28 cm.
(Foreign policy for Canada's tomorrow, no. 4)
References.
French résumé also provided.
Report date: July 2009.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 68194.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.canadianinternationalcouncil.org/download/resourcece/archives/foreignpol/cicfpctno4

The ongoing transformation of the Arctic is as startling as it is unprecedented. Global warming is having a dramatic impact on the Arctic environment, resulting in warmer temperatures, melting ice and the opening of previously ice-covered waterways. Consequently, the Arctic is becoming increasingly accessible to a number of different actors who are descending upon the Arctic with varied, and not mutually beneficial, agendas. As an Arctic nation Canada is not immune to the consequences of the transformation taking place in the Arctic. Various actors come to the Arctic as its increasing accessibility encourages both exploitation and development of this important region. Control of the Arctic will yield significant benefit to the country wielding this control. As challenges to Canada's command of its Arctic region have been made in the past, it is not inconceivable that disputes to Canada's control of its Arctic will be made in the future. Numerous Arctic states now assert their Arctic interests. In addition to Canada, the United States, Russia, Iceland, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway, all seek to bolster their various Arctic claims. Even non-Arctic states such as China, Japan and South Korea have become very active in the region. Their claims vary from resource exploitation and development, to division of the Arctic seabed, right of transit in the Northwest Passage and interests in the Arctic. As the various actors advance their claims, the potential exists for a serious challenge to emerge for Canada's sovereignty and security in its Arctic. Given the transformation of the Arctic, and the consequent challenges to Canadian Arctic sovereignty, the protection of Canadian Arctic sovereignty is essential to the provision of Canadian Arctic security, and vice versa. Sovereignty and security are not mutually exclusive concepts; they are interdependent. The core of Canadian Arctic sovereignty is the federal government's ability to control what happens in the Canadian Arctic, while Arctic security is the Canadian government's ability to respond to all forms of threats that arise in its Arctic region. The government cannot control activity that takes place in its Arctic region in the absence of any ability to enforce against threats that arise and, similarly, the government cannot respond to threats in the region if it does not have control in the region. While previous Canadian governments recognized the importance of Canadian Arctic security and sovereignty, they did little to ensure that it would be achieved. Successive Canadian administrations were unwilling to allocate the financial resources necessary to acquire and maintain assets that would bolster Canada's sovereignty and security in the region. As a result of Canada's perceived diminished capacity to protect its sovereignty and security in the region, other nations have openly sought to advance their Arctic claims, often at the expense of Canada's position. In order to enforce and ensure its sovereignty and security in the Canadian Arctic, our government must act now to take the following steps: [1] First, Canada must improve its decision-making process on Arctic affairs. It needs to create a Cabinet committee, chaired by the Prime Minister, which is focused solely on the Arctic. Only by ensuring that the Prime Minister is continuously engaged in Arctic issues will attention to the region be maintained. [2] Secondly, we must improve Canadian surveillance and enforcement capability. Only the ability to know who is in our Arctic region and what they are doing there will allow us to control those actors and their activities. Outside actors will be unable to operate in the Canadian Arctic undetected or unrestricted. In order to achieve this capability, the Canadian government will have to provide the financial resources necessary to acquire, build and maintain the infrastructure and equipment. [3] Finally, Canada must cooperate better with its Arctic neighbours. Cooperation with other Arctic states, particularly the United States and Russia, will be essential to develop an international Arctic framework that will serve as a guideline for rules of engagement. Canada must be prepared to deal with challenges to its Arctic sovereignty and security now, in a concise and effective manner. To do so later, or to do so now in some half measure, will ensure that Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security is merely a theory and never a reality. (Au)

R, J, E, L, P, Q, T
Arctic Council; Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, 1970; Boundaries; Climate change; Continental shelves; Costs; Design and construction; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Gas hydrates; Geopolitics; Government; Icebreakers; Iron; Marine pollution; Marine transportation; Military operations; Mining; Native peoples; Negotiation; Offshore gas fields; Offshore oil fields; Planning; Prices; Sovereignty; Tankers; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G08, G081, G0815, G14, G141, G10, G13, G03, G07
Arctic waters; Beaufort Sea; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters; China; Denmark; Finland; Greenland; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Iceland; Japan; Lincoln Sea; Lomonosov Ridge, Arctic Ocean; Northern Sea Route, Russian Federation; Northwest Passage; Norway; Russian Arctic waters; Russian Federation; South Korea; Sweden; United States


United States Arctic policy : the reluctant Arctic power   /   Huebert, R.
Calgary, Alta. : School of Public Policy, 2009.
25 p. ; 28 cm.
(SPP briefing papers, v. 2, no. 2, May 2009)
References as footnotes.
Available in print and online (PDF file). Indexed print version.
Pagination varies between the print and PDF versions.
ASTIS record 67470.
Languages: English
Web: http://policyschool.ucalgary.ca/files/publicpolicy/SPPBriefing-HUEBERTonline.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Although the United States is an Arctic nation, the Arctic has seldom figured prominently in US policy. In January 2009 the US released its new Arctic policy. "Arctic Region Policy" signals that the US is beginning to understand that the Arctic is changing in a manner that concerns its vital national interests. The core Arctic issues facing the US are resource development and international circumpolar relations. The development of oil and gas reserves in Alaska is discussed in the context of sustainable development and US domestic energy security, which are often at odds with each other. In regards to circumpolar relation, the US has traditionally been a reluctant Arctic power. It has been unwilling to take the initiative in the area of international Arctic policy. Now, the United States also must act to improve its participation in the main Arctic institutions in order to strengthen cooperation among the Arctic nations. But at the same time, the US must now face a geo-political environment that is becoming more complicated and possibly dangerous than was the case in the last decade. Thus their new policy also emphasizes the priority the US places on security by maintaining a strong military presence in the Arctic. All of these actions are already having an impact on their Arctic neighbors including Canada. This will continue to be the case as American activity increase in the region. Now that the Arctic is transforming due to climate change, resource development, globalization, and geopolitical factors, the United States can no longer ignore the Arctic. (Au)

R, Q, E, J, L, T, N
Arctic Council; Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy; Boundaries; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; Icebreakers; International law; Marine petroleum transportation; Military operations; Native peoples; Negotiation; Offshore gas fields; Offshore oil fields; Offshore oil well drilling; Petroleum leases; Petroleum pipelines; Pollution; Sovereignty; Subsistence; Treaties; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G06, G07, G04, G0815
Alaska; Alaskan Beaufort Sea; Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska; Bering Sea; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Chukchi Sea; Northwest Passage; United States


Canadian sovereignty linked to energy development in the Arctic   /   Beauchamp, B.   Huebert, R.
(Arctic, v. 61, no. 3, Sept. 2008, p. 341-343)
Reference.
ASTIS record 64916.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic61-3-341.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic62
Libraries: ACU

Industry is about to embark seriously on exploration and probable development of Canada's Arctic energy resources. The price of natural gas has recovered from its recent lows and is now on the upswing, with no end in sight. ... The world's largest oilfields are in decline, ... only remote frontier areas such as the Canadian Arctic offer any hope for large new conventional discoveries. ... One of the least worrisome aspects of Arctic energy development is probably the resource itself. Large gas discoveries were made during the first round of exploration three decades ago. There is enough gas in the three large fields of the Mackenzie Delta - Taglu, Niglintgak, and Parsons Lake - to feed the yet elusive Mackenzie Valley pipeline for at least 20 years. Huge quantities of gas were also found in the Arctic Islands, and a number of studies suggest that shipping this gas to market is indeed possible. ... Canada is seriously challenged over the control of what it calls its own Arctic waters. Both Americans and Europeans hold the contentious position that the Northwest Passage is a strait to be used for international navigation. Canada, in contrast, claims that these are internal waters. This disagreement is only about the control of international shipping - but this is still a critically important issue for Canada. If the American position is correct, international shippers - including oil and gas tankers - would not have to ask for Canadian permission to transit these waters. International rather than Canadian rules would thus govern environmental protection and ship construction. If Canada is correct, then international shippers would have to follow Canadian laws and ultimately seek Canadian permission before entering the Passage. Thus, the issue of Arctic sovereignty is very much an environmental issue, as well as an economic and political one. ... It is obvious that the issues of Arctic energy development and Arctic sovereignty are closely linked. ... The current impact of these sovereignty disputes may hurt Canada's relations with its Arctic neighbours - the very same neighbours with which Canada needs to cooperate in order to develop its northern resources in the best environmentally and economically sustainable fashion. Any political uncertainty is yet another significant barrier affecting industry's ability to operate in these already formidable environments. Thus it is in the Canadian government's interests to resolve these disputes as quickly as possible. It needs to do so in a manner that ensures Canadian interests and values are protected in the Arctic. But it also needs to do so in a manner that will allow for long-term cooperation with Canada's northern neighbours as they too develop their natural resources in the region. (Au)

R, Q, A, L, E, C
Boundaries; Climate change; Continental shelves; Design and construction; Energy policy; Foreign relations; Gas fields; Gas pipelines; Geopolitics; Government; Mackenzie Gas Project; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Marketing; Melting; Natural gas; Offshore gas fields; Offshore oil well drilling; Permafrost; Petroleum industry; Prices; Sovereignty; Tankers; Transportation law; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G08, G081, G0815, G02, G09
Arctic regions; Beaufort Sea; Canada; Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic Islands; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Northwest Passage


Soothing Arctic headaches : solving sovereignty issues will be key to future energy development in Canada's northern frontiers   /   Beauchamp, B.   Huebert, R.
(Oilweek, v. 59, no. 1, Jan. 2008, p. 9-10)
ASTIS record 63370.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

It is only a matter of time before industry embarks seriously on exploration and development of Canada's Arctic energy resources. ... One of the least worrisome aspects of Arctic energy development is probably the resource itself. Large gas discoveries were made during the first round of exploration three decades ago. There is enough gas in the three anchor fields of the Mackenzie Gas project - Taglu, Niglintgak, and Parsons Lake - to feed the elusive Mackenzie Valley pipeline for the next 20 years. Huge quantities of gas were also found in the Arctic islands, and shipping this gas to market is within the realm of possibilities if one is to believe a recent study by the Calgary-based Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) ... One of the thorniest problems that these developments will face will be in regards to the issue of Arctic sovereignty. ..., there are serious challenges to Canadian control of its Arctic waters. The core impact of this disagreement is about control of international shipping. If the Americans are right, international shippers - including oil and gas tankers - would not have to ask for Canadian permission to transit these waters and would need to follow international and not Canadian rules governing issues such as environmental protection and ship construction. ... With the growing knowledge of just how large the oil, gas, and gas hydrates fields are in the North combined with the continually rising price of resources, that future day has not arrived. The current impact of these disputes will hurt relations with Canada's Arctic neighbours. These are the very same neigbours with which Canada needs to cooperate in order to develop its northern resources in the best environmentally and economically sustainable fashion. And one cannot forget that any political uncertainty also has a significant retarding effect on industry's ability to operate in these already formidable environments. Thus it is in the Canadian government's interests to resolve these differences as quickly as possible. It needs to do so in a manner that ensures Canadian interests and values are protected in the Arctic. But it also needs to do so in a manner that will allow for long-term cooperation with its northern neighbours as they too pursue the development of their natural resources in the region. Now is the time to act. (Au)

R, Q, J, L, C, E, D
Climate change; Co-management; Continental shelves; Crude oil; Effects of climate on permafrost; Energy policy; Environmental impacts; Environmental policy; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Gas fields; Gas hydrates; Gas pipelines; Geopolitics; Government; Mackenzie Gas Project; Marine petroleum transportation; Maritime law; Natural gas; Petroleum industry; Prices; Sovereignty; Sustainable economic development; Tankers

G081, G0815
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Northwest Passage; United States


The true North as long as it's free : the Canadian policy deficit 1945-1985   /   Lajeunesse, A.   Bercuson, D. [Supervisor]   Huebert, R. [Supervisor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, 2007.
vii, 95 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MR34229)
ISBN 9780494342299
References.
Thesis (M.A.) - University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., 2007.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 76596.
Languages: English
Web: http://ucalgary.academia.edu/AdamLajeunesse/Papers/752080/The_true_North_as_long_as_its_free_The_Canadian_policy_deficit_1945--1985
Libraries: ACU

This thesis is an examination of Canadian policy in the Arctic from 1945 to 1985. Its focus is the issue of sovereignty and how successive governments have attempted to secure Canadian control and ownership over the Northern lands, ice and waters. Ironically, the greatest threat to Canadian sovereignty during the Cold War came from its closest ally, the United State of America. It is thus Canada's relations with the U.S. which are of principal concern. How Ottawa balanced its concerns for sovereignty with the need for continental defence, how it worked to secure American acceptance for its territorial claims, and how it attempted to avoid an American challenge to these claims are the issues which form the core of this thesis. (Au)

R, V, L, E
Boundaries; Costs; DEW Line; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; History; Identity; International law; Manhattan (Ship); Military operations; Military policy; Polar Sea (Ship); Public opinion; Public relations; Sovereignty; Theses; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea; Weather stations

G081, G0815, G08
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; United States


International law, geopolitics and diplomacy in the Northwest Passage   /   Huebert, R.
(Canada's Arctic : vast, unexplored and in demand. The journal of ocean technology (St. John's, N.L.), v. 1, no. 1, Summer 2006, p. 16-18, ill.)
ASTIS record 65907.
Languages: English

... Control over the Northwest Passage has always challenged Canadian decision-makers as they attempt to deal with its international legal status and its geopolitical importance. What is now making all of these issues even more important is the realization that these waters are about to become more accessible and economically important. Climate change could make these waters more open for shipping. When and how remains an issue of some debate, but there is little doubt that as the ice recedes, there will be more ship traffic in the Passage. At the same time, and perhaps of greater importance, is the abundance of resources that are found in and around the Passage. Oil, gas and fish are only a few resources that will be developed as the ice retreats and prices for these increasingly scarce resources increase. The question that follows is how will Canada address the ongoing geopolitical and diplomatic challenges of ensuring that activities in and around the Passage are conducted in a manner that is in Canada's best interests? This will not be easy or cheap. But to ignore the coming challenges is to surrender the long-term control of the Passage. And this would be much more costly in the long term. (Au)

R, L
Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, 1970; Environmental law; Geopolitics; Government; Government regulations; International law; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Military operations; Sovereignty; Submarines; Treaties; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G0815, G09, G07
Canadian Arctic waters; Northwest Passage; United States


Conclusion : integration, innovation, and participation   /   Huebert, R.   Manseau, M.   Diduck, A.
(Breaking ice : renewable resource and ocean management in the Canadian North / Edited by Fikret Berkes, Rob Huebert, Helen Fast, Micheline Manseau, and Alan Diduck. Northern lights series (Calgary, Alta.), 7, 2005, ch. 17, p. 363-372)
ASTIS record 58541 describes the whole book to which this chapter belongs.
ASTIS record 59619.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The main objectives of the book were to learn from the work of diverse local and regional resource management institutions in northern Canada, analyze the underpinning structure, and explore policy options to build capacity to adapt to change. A major focus was on how northern communities can be resilient and sustainable in the face of behavioural and historical conflict, dynamic socio-ecological conditions, and high levels of uncertainty about the future. The North has significant experience to offer the theory and practice of resource and environmental management, particularly with respect to joint problem solving and new institutional arrangements. It is a very dynamic region, presenting a diversity of responses to rapid social, cultural, economic, and environmental changes. Northern Canada has been the home of Aboriginal peoples for a period greatly exceeding the time since its discovery by European explorers. Inuit and First Nations have shown an understanding of and appreciation for the delicate ecological balances of northern ecosystems that southern Canadians are only now beginning to fully comprehend. Thus, any effort to understand and address present and future challenges in the Canadian North should strive to ensure full participation of northern peoples. State-centred methods of resource management and public policy making are becoming increasingly obsolete in the North, and thus innovative and bold thought is required. ... A major lesson of the book is that integrated management (IM) can provide both an analytical framework and a means of developing and implementing policy. Furthermore, the use of IM carries certain normative elements when applied to the North. In terms of analysis, it provides a means of identifying and understanding the competing demands on the environment at different spatial and temporal scales, from both a social and biophysical perspective. At the same time, it provides a means of synthesizing different forms of knowledge to define the nature of the problem. In terms of policy, IM allows (or perhaps requires) decision makers to go beyond state-centred policy responses. The involvement of communities is integral to identifying and responding to problems. ... (Au)

N, J, T, R
Co-management; Creation of Nunavut; Effects monitoring; Environmental protection; Government; Native land claims; Native organizations; Native peoples; Natural resource management; Oceans Act, 1977; Pollution control; Public participation; Regulatory agencies; Self-determination; Social change; Sustainable economic development; Wildlife management

G081
Canadian Arctic


The return of the "Vikings" : the Canadian-Danish dispute over Hans Island - new challenges for the control of the Canadian North   /   Huebert, R.
(Breaking ice : renewable resource and ocean management in the Canadian North / Edited by Fikret Berkes, Rob Huebert, Helen Fast, Micheline Manseau, and Alan Diduck. Northern lights series (Calgary, Alta.), 7, 2005, ch. 15, p. 319-336, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 58541 describes the whole book to which this chapter belongs.
ASTIS record 59617.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The Vikings have returned to Canada and are trying to take over Canadian territory! They have not come in the traditional long boats but are arriving in modern, ice-strengthened frigates. In the summer of 2002, the Danish government sent the frigate Vaedderen to patrol the waters between the northwest corner of Greenland and Ellesmere Island. This was then repeated in the summer of 2003 when the Vaedderen's sistership the Triton arrived in these waters. While the Danes have been regularly sending warships to this area, the 2002 and 2003 voyages are notable for where the vessels specifically sailed and what they did. In a dispute few Canadians were aware of until very recently, the governments of Canada and Denmark contest the ownership of Hans Island, a small island located at the northernmost tip of western Greenland .... It is a small and almost insignificant island that shows up on a few maps. Canada maintains that the island is Canadian, while Denmark contends that it belongs to Greenland and therefore to Denmark. Because the warships sailed into the disputed waters surrounding the island and landed sailors on it, the Canadian government took the step of issuing a diplomatic protest to the Danish government. There is also some evidence to suggest that the Danes have been landing on the island for some time now. If this is the case, the Danish move would represent the first challenge to Canadian northern land territory since the late 1930S (Franckx 1993, 96). When this chapter was first written, few Canadians had heard of the dispute. However, during the spring of 2004 the National Post examined the issue in detail. As a result, most Canadians are now well aware of the "return of the Vikings!" Furthermore, the publicity has also raised the political attention that Canadian decision makers had previously given the issue. This chapter in some ways represents the "ugly duckling" of the work the Integrated Node of the Ocean Management Research Network (OMRN). While the other chapters in this book demonstrate the manner in which principles of integrated management are beginning to be utilized in the Canadian North, this chapter will demonstrate that in the international area, the Canadian government has not been successful. Rather, this chapter will show that the Canadian response to international challenges has been primarily of a reactive and minimalist nature. The issue of Hans Island is important by itself but it is even more important in terms of illustrating an overall lack of strategy when it comes to the issue of Canadian control of Arctic regions in the face of international challenges. Thus, the question that arises is why Hans Island is important enough to cause the Danish government to take the effort to challenge Canada, and for that matter, why has Canada laid claim to it? In and of itself, the island is remote and uninhabited. However, its location affects the manner by which the maritime boundary is determined between northern Greenland and Canada. In turn, this international boundary takes on significance for four reasons. First, these waters may contain important fish stocks, including turbot and shrimp. The boundary will affect the northern divisions of these resources. Secondly, it has been reported that Greenland Inuit have been crossing over to Ellesmere Island to engage in illegal Polar Bear hunts. The Canadian Rangers have been dispatched to Alexandra Fjord on Ellesmere Island but have not caught any of the alleged hunters! If it proves to have been a long-term habit, it is conceivable that the Greenland home rule government could argue that the hunt is an established right. Thus, any other boundary dispute between Canada and Denmark could exacerbate that situation. Third, the impact of climate change is expected to cause substantial warming of the polar region. Thus, while the region today is remote and inhospitable, this could change rapidly as the region warms. There is also the possibility that the island and/or waters immediately surrounding it may have oil reserves. ... , the real problem of the modern day "Vikings" is not in respect of Hans Island itself, but rather in that it demonstrates how bare the Canadian cupboard is with respect to defending the Canadian North! (Au)

R, L, T, I, N, Q
Boundaries; Climate change; Fishes; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government relations; Hunting; Icebreakers; International law; Inuit; Natural resource management; Nunavut Land Claims Agreement; Oil fields; Polar bears; Ships; Sovereignty

G0813, G10, G09
Canada; Denmark; Hans Island waters, Greenland/Nunavut; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Kennedy Channel, Greenland/Nunavut; Nordgrønland; Nunavut


Breaking ice : renewable resource and ocean management in the Canadian North   /   Berkes, F. [Editor]   Huebert, R. [Editor]   Fast, H. [Editor]   Manseau, M. [Editor]   Diduck, A. [Editor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary Press : Arctic Institute of North America, 2005.
xviii, 396 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm + 1 DVD.
(Northern lights series (Calgary, Alta.), 7)
ISBN 1-55238-159-5
Accompanying material: 1 DVD entitled: Community-based monitoring in northern Canada : watching, listening and understanding changes in the environment.
References.
ASTIS record 58541.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The pace of technological, social, and environmental change in Canada's Arctic has profound effects on resource management and policy decisions. The chapters in this volume result from a project undertaken by the Ocean Management Research Network that examines the nature of Arctic environmental evolution and sustainability. From the pressures of development, technological advances, globalization and climate change to social and cultural life, this book attempts to define the nature of competing demands and assess their impact on the environment. These essays provide a detailed examination of ocean and coastal management in the Canadian North, exploring a wide range of issues critical to environmental stewardship, and breaking the ice to connect academics, government managers, policy-makers, aboriginal groups and industry. (Au)

N, T, I, D, J, R, L, K, E, S, C, P
Aboriginal rights; Arctic char; Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme; Beaufort Sea Beluga Management Plan; Beaufort Sea Integrated Management Planning Initiative; Canada's Oceans Strategy, 2002; Caribou; Climate change; Co-management; Communication; DVDs; Economic conditions; Economic development; Effects monitoring; Employment; Environmental impacts; Fish management; Fishes; Food; Health; Marine pollution; Mining; Native land claims; Native peoples; Natural area preservation; Natural resource management; Northern Contaminants Program (Canada); Ocean management; Oceans Act, 1977; Permafrost; Polar bears; Pollution; Public participation; Safety; Social change; Social conditions; Sovereignty; Subsistence; Sustainable economic development; Thawing; Tourist trade; Toxicity; Traditional knowledge; Waste management; Water quality; Wildlife habitat; Wildlife law; Wildlife management

G0813, G0815, G0826, G0812, G07, G0824, G081
Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters; Churchill, Manitoba; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; N.W.T.; Nunavik, Québec; Nunavut


The shipping news part II : how Canada's Arctic sovereignty is on thinning ice   /   Huebert, R.
(International journal (Toronto), v. 58, no. 3, Summer 2003, p. 295-308)
References in footnotes.
ASTIS record 59790 describes F. Griffiths' article refuting the assertions of R. Huebert.
ASTIS record 59792.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.2307/40203861
Libraries: ACU

Climate change is causing fundamental changes in the Canadian north. The net effect is an overall warming process that is now beginning a transformation with the potential to change almost all aspects of life in the region. ... the changing physical environment has the potential to accelerate a wide host of challenges to Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security. A warming Arctic will become a more accessible Arctic for the international community. ... [Franklyn Griffiths] believes such concerns about Canadian Arctic sovereignty are either overstated or so far into the future that they should be of limited concern to Canadians today. I disagree with this assessment. ... while I consider his core arguments to be wrong, I do agree with some of his conclusions. ... he disputes the argument that climate change is creating an environment that will challenge Canadian northern sovereignty, contending that it is not substantiated in fact. On this point, I disagree. ... my reading of recent scientific evidence is that the melting of the ice cover is, indeed, occurring at a rate that warrants concern now, rather than later. Furthermore, I believe that there are numerous threats to Canadian sovereignty that will also occur sooner rather than later. As he proceeds through his argument, however, he still returns to the point that the Canadian Government is not doing enough to protect northern Canadian's interests. He is particularly critical of the government's continued reluctance to involve the Canadian northern peoples in the northern foreign policy process in a meaningful fashion, and it is on these points that I agree with him. ... Where Dr. Griffiths and I part company, however, is on the urgency of the problem of melting ice. ... he argues that climate change is causing only a slow melting of the ice and it will, thus, be a long time before Canadians will have to deal with an "ice free" Northwest Passage. He also argues that no international shipping will occur until these shippers are more confident that the Passage will be safe enough; only then, will they start to ply Canadian waters. Finally, Griffiths minimizes the possibility of another state actively challenging the Canadian claim. While I agree that there is a possibility that this assessment could be true, there is no guarantee that Griffiths is, indeed, correct - and this is too great of a risk for Canadians to take. If he is wrong, which I believe to be the case, Canada will lose substantial control over regions of the north by its delayed action. This will affect all Canadians, but, most severely, it will negatively affect the Canadian northern peoples. ... the issue of Canadian Arctic sovereignty is an issue of control. ... the heart of the debate surrounding Canadian Arctic sovereignty is the question of who gets to control international shipping in the Northwest Passage. Will it be the Canadian government or will it be the international community? ... this debate it is not about bragging rights to claim the Passage as Canadian, but, rather, it is about Canada's ability to ensure that it is Canadians who determine how the Arctic is developed and used. In order to consider the arguments put forward by Dr. Griffiths, this article will consider the following issues: 1) the impact of climate change in the Canadian Arctic; 2) the developing nature of Arctic shipping; 3) Canada-US relations; and 4) Canadian capabilities in the Arctic. ... (Au)

R, L, E, G, T
Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Environmental impacts; Foreign relations; Government; Government regulations; Ice cover; Icebreakers; Inuit; Marine navigation; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Melting; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Ships; Sovereignty; Spatial distribution; Temporal variations; Thickness; Treaties

G0815, G08
Canada; Northwest Passage; United States


Climate change and Canadian sovereignty in the Northwest Passage   /   Huebert, R.
(Isuma : Canadian journal of policy research = Revue canadienne recherche sur les politiques, v. 2, no. 4, Winter 2001, p. 86-94, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 59748.
Languages: English

Climate change in the Arctic is a serious challenge to Canadian Arctic sovereignty and security. Climate change has already led to thinning of the ice cover in the Northwest Passage. If this continues, commercial international shipping and other forms of activity in the area will become more viable. If this happens, Canadian control of its Arctic will face two significant challenges. First, current efforts by the Canadian government to maintain Canadian sovereignty over the Northwest Passage are unlikely to succeed. Second, Canada will need to substantially rethink its enforcement and surveillance capabilities in the Arctic, which will require significant new expenditures in these areas. (Au)

E, T, R, L, J, G, D
Accidents; Boundaries; Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Environmental law; Geopolitics; Icebreakers; International law; Marine navigation; Marine pollution; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Melting; Native land claims; Sea ice; Ships; Sovereignty; Specifications; Tourist trade; Treaties; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G0815, G08
Canada; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Denmark; Hans Island, Greenland/Nunavut; Northwest Passage; United States


The Arctic Council and northern aboriginal peoples   /   Huebert, R.
(Issues in the North, volume III / Edited by Jill Oakes and Rick Riewe. Occasional publication series - Canadian Circumpolar Institute, no. 44, 1998, p. 141-151)
References.
ASTIS record 64859.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU AEU

The Arctic Council, officially created on September 19, 1996 is the first state-level multi-lateral organization focused entirely on circumpolar relations. Of even greater significance was the formal inclusion of three northern Aboriginal organizations as 'Permanent Participants' in the Council: the Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC), the Saami Council and the Association of Indigenous Minorities of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation. This status confers these organizations the right to participate in all forums associated with the Council, including all decision-making discussions. While it does not provide a right to vote, the fact that state members of the Council must reach consensus on all issues suggests that the three northern Aboriginal organizations will carry a de facto, if not an official, veto. It is the contention of the author that the Arctic Council constitutes an important development in the international process of "Global Governance". The elevation of Aboriginal organizations above 'observer status' suggests that official recognition of the participation of Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in international organizations is now becoming a reality. As exciting as this (largely unheralded) development is, there are three issues concerning the role of Permanent Participants on the Arctic Council that must be considered before this event will be fully understood. Issues of decision-making, representation, resources, and related political implications are discussed and a summary of the Arctic Council and Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy form the basis of this paper. ... Issues: The core issue facing the Arctic Council is sustainability versus conservation. At the risk of over-simplifying a complex issue, one of the main debates involves the three Permanent Participants and several NGO conservation groups arguing the right to harvest marine and fur-bearing mammals. Several of the state parties have taken sides in this debate - Canada and Norway argue in support [of] the Indigenous position, while the United States supports several animal rights groups. For the Indigenous groups, the right to harvest marine mammals is of utmost importance. Hunting and trapping have been core economic activities in the north for time immemorial. For many northern Aboriginal peoples there is no alternative to hunting and trapping as a means of livelihood, and the ban on the fur trade has had a devastating impact on their lives. Opposing them are supporters of animal rights groups who believe strongly in their cause and have mobilized political support in the continental United States. The issue does not lend itself to easy solution or compromise. There are signs that this particular issue is already affecting the operations of the Council criteria. The rules of procedures have been delayed because of disagreement over the criteria governing the granting of observer status. The American delegation prefers an open-door policy; Canadian and Norwegian officials are concerned such a policy will make it possible for animal rights groups, the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) in particular, to be granted observer status on the Council. The Canadian and Norwegian governments recognize that most animal rights groups would be opposed to the trade in marine and fur-bearing mammals. The Canadian position is that observer status should be reserved for groups having a northern focus. The outcome of this debate will attest to the ability or inability of Permanent Participants achieving their objectives through the Arctic Council. Conclusion: The Arctic Council is a newly formed institution, and it is too soon to know how successful it will be. However, by recognizing the participation of Indigenous peoples in discussions, it has already made an important contribution towards international cooperation on Arctic issues. The acceptance of the contributions of northern Indigenous peoples to policy will be important for global governance. There are still enormous challenges facing the Council and its success in responding to those challenges will serve as a model for future efforts to promote international cooperation between states and Indigenous peoples. (Au)

R, T, J, N
Aboriginal rights; Anti-harvesting; Arctic Council; Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy; Environmental protection; Fishing; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government relations; Hunting; Marine mammals; Native organizations; Native peoples; Public opinion; Public participation; Sealing; Self-determination; Subsistence; Whaling; Wildlife management

G02
Arctic regions


New directions in circumpolar cooperation : Canada, the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, and the Arctic Council   /   Huebert, R.
(Canadian foreign policy, v. 5, no. 2, Winter 1998, p. 37-57)
References.
ASTIS record 53984.
Languages: English

... Since the end of the Cold War, there has been an explosion of initiatives to deal with the environmental problems facing the North. However, these actions are for the most part under funded and suffer from a lack of overall coordination. In spite of the attempts to act together, there are, therefore, still tremendous difficulties that may continue to limit the effectiveness of environmental initiatives. Cooperation between the main circumpolar actors is currently in a state of transition, making the study of this issue interesting, albeit challenging. Even now, important international meetings are being convened that will have a strong impact on both the development of this cooperation as well as on the role that Canada will play. There are two main fora through which cooperative planning has developed: the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) and the Arctic Council. The two international bodies are closely interrelated, particularly since the official creation of the Arctic Council on 19 September 1996, when the AEPS was placed within the Arctic Council. However, substantial questions relating to the formal integration of these two bodies remain unanswered. It is possible that the Arctic Council will successfully assimilate the actions of the AEPS, expand them and continue to extend circumpolar cooperation. On the other hand, it is possible that the integration between the AEPS and the Arctic Council will prove to be more difficult than anticipated, which could seriously derail existing progress. As will be shown, Canada has played an instrumental role in the creation and maintenance of both the AEPS and the Arctic Council. The success or failure of the Arctic Council, and the AEPS therefore, is central to current Canadian foreign policy in the north. Thus, this article will focus on three elements of particular importance to Canada: 1) Why is there a need for better circumpolar cooperation? 2) How has this cooperation been developed? 3) What has Canada's role been in developing this cooperation? (Au)

R, J, N
Arctic Council; Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy; Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme; Emergency planning; Environmental policy; Environmental protection; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; International Arctic Science Committee; Natural area preservation; Pollution; Program for the Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna; Sealing; Sustainable economic development

G02, G08
Arctic regions; Canada


Polar vision or tunnel vision - the making of Canadian Arctic waters policy   /   Huebert, R.
(Marine policy, v. 19, no. 4, July 1995, p. 343-363)
ASTIS record 45168.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/0308-597X(95)00011-T
Libraries: ACU

This article examined the manner by which Canadian maritime Arctic policy is formulated. It suggests that this policy is largely the result of an ad hoc and reactive process. In general, the policy tends to be the product of a specific event initiated by a non-Canadian actor in the Canadian Arctic. In the early 1970s, this event was the voyages of the American oil tanker, Manhattan. These voyages resulted in the drafting and passage of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, among other measures, to protect Canadian northern waters. Likewise, in August 1985, the voyage of the American Coast Guard icebreaker, Polar Sea, through the Northwest Passage acted as the defining event for the creation of Canadian Arctic maritime policy in the 1980s. The resulting public attention compelled the Canadian Minister of External Affairs to develop and announce on 10 September 1985, six policy initiatives that were to be the core elements of Canadian maritime Arctic policy for the remainder of the decade. This article will examine how and why these policies were selected and will then assess the government's efforts to implement them. In doing so, it will provide insight regarding how Canada creates its maritime Arctic policy. (Au)

R, L, G
Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act, 1970; Boundaries; Environmental policy; Expeditions; Foreign relations; Government; Icebreakers; Maritime law; Polar Sea (Ship); Sovereignty

G081
Canadian Arctic waters; Northwest Passage


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