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The ASTIS database cites the following 19 publication(s) by Peter Dawson. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Fort Conger : a site of Arctic history in the 21st century   /   Bertulli, M.M.   Dick, L.   Dawson, P.C.   Cousins, P.L.
(Arctic, v. 66, no. 3, Sept. 2013, p. 312-328, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 78237.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic66-3-312.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic4310
Libraries: ACU

Fort Conger, located at Discovery Harbour in Lady Franklin Bay on northern Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, played an intrinsic role in several High Arctic expeditions between 1875 and 1935, particularly around 1900 - 10 during the height of the Race to the North Pole. Here are found the remains of historic voyages of exploration and discovery related to the 19th century expeditions of G.S. Nares and A.W. Greely, early 20th century expeditions of R.E. Peary, and forays by explorers, travelers, and government and military personnel. In the Peary era, Fort Conger's connection with indigenous people was amplified, as most of the expedition personnel who were based there were Inughuit from Greenland, and the survival strategies of the explorers were largely derived from Inughuit material cultural and environmental expertise. The complex of shelters at Fort Conger symbolizes an evolution from the rigid application of Western knowledge, as represented in the unsuitable prefabricated Greely expedition house designed in the United States, towards the pragmatic adaptation of Aboriginal knowledge represented in the Inughuit-influenced shelters that still stand today. Fort Conger currently faces various threats to its longevity: degradation of wooden structures through climate and weathering, bank erosion, visitation, and inorganic contamination. Its early history and links with Greenlandic Inughuit have suggested that the science of heritage preservation, along with management practices of monitoring, remediation of contamination, and 3D laser scanning, should be applied to maintain the site for future generations. (Au)

V, U, T, A, M
Archaeology; Artifacts; British Arctic Expedition, 1875-1876; Cairns; Cold weather performance; Design and construction; Effects monitoring; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; Forts; Greely, Adolphus Washington, 1844-1935; Heritage sites; History; Houses; Inuit; Lady Franklin Bay Expedition, 1881-1884; Laser remote sensing; Management; Nares, Sir George Strong, 1831-1915; Peary, Robert Edwin, 1856-1920; Reclamation; Shelters; Sleds ; Social interaction; Survival; Traditional knowledge; Weathering; Wood preservation

G0813, G10
Fort Conger, Nunavut; Greenland; Quttinirpaaq National Park, Nunavut


Application of 3D laser scanning to the preservation of Fort Conger, a historic polar research base on northern Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada   /   Dawson, P.C.   Bertulli, M.M.   Levy, R.   Tucker, C.   Dick, L.   Cousins, P.L.
(Arctic, v. 66, no. 2, June 2013, p. 147-158, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 77890.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic66-2-147.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic4286
Libraries: ACU

Fort Conger, located in Quttinirpaaq National Park, Ellesmere Island, is a historic landmark of national and international significance. The site is associated with many important Arctic expeditions, including the ill-fated Lady Franklin Bay Expedition of the First International Polar Year and Robert Peary's attempts to claim the North Pole. Although situated in one of the most remote locations on earth, Fort Conger is currently at risk because of the effects of climate change, weather, wildlife, and human activity. In this paper, we show how 3D laser scanning was used to record cultural features rapidly and accurately despite the harsh conditions present at the site. We discuss how the future impacts of natural processes and human activities can be managed using 3D scanning data as a baseline, how conservation and restoration work can be planned from the resulting models, and how 3D models created from laser scanning data can be used to excite public interest in cultural stewardship and Arctic history. (Au)

U, E, J
Climate change; Electronic data processing; Environmental impacts; Expeditions; Forts; Heritage sites; Lasers; Photography

G0813
Fort Conger, Nunavut


Accessing hunter-gatherer site structures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy : applications at a Taltheilei settlement in the Canadian Sub-Arctic   /   Butler, D.H.   Dawson, P.C.
(Journal of archaeological science, v. 40, no. 4, Apr. 2013, p.1731-1742, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 77211.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.jas.2012.11.015
Libraries: ACU

The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on soils and caribou bone from a Taltheilei culture settlement in northern Canada contribute to developing micro-archaeological approaches suitable for locating and characterizing hearth and midden features on hunter-gatherer sites. A weak yet pervasive signal for montgomeryite was developed from the diagenesis of dispersed ash and caribou processing residues. Disordered calcite, carbonate hydroxylapatite, charcoal, and burned bone in two pit-house hearth deposits indicate that both wood and bone were used for fuel. Crystallinity indices and carbonate/phosphate ratios for bone indicate high intensity burning. These data, in tandem with the presence of semi-subterranean dwellings, demonstrate that this particular tundra-based encampment was occupied during cold seasons, a type of settlement behaviour previously unrecognized in the Taltheilei archaeological record. Our results confirm that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an accessible, rapid, and cost effective means of discovering micro-archaeological evidence valuable for reconstructing hunter-gatherer site structures. (Au)

U, C, I, H, N
Artifacts; Bones; Calcite; Carbonates; Caribou; Charcoal; Clay; Cores; Dene Indians; Design and construction; Detection; Fuels; Heritage sites; Indian archaeology; Infrared radiation; Iron; Mapping; Middens (Archaeology); Seasonal variations; Shelters; Social interaction; Soil chemistry; Soils; Spatial distribution; Spectroscopy; Subsistence; Traditional land use and occupancy; Vibration; Wood fuel

G0813
Maguse Lake region, Nunavut


Dynamic Inuit social strategies in changing environments : a long-term perspective   /   Friesen, T.M.   Dawson, P.C.   Dyke, A.S.   Finkelstein, S.A.   Gendron, D.   Hodgetts, L.M.   Ross, J.M.   Savelle, J.M.   Whitridge, P.J.   Woollett, J.M.
In: Abstracts : International Polar Year Canada, Early Results Workshop, February 16-18, 2010, Fairmont Château Laurier, Ottawa, Ontario. - [Ottawa] : Government of Canada Program for International Polar Year, [2010], p. 33
Abstract of an oral presentation.
ASTIS record 69825.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The IPY research initiative "Dynamic Inuit Social Strategies in Changing Environments: A Long-Term Perspective" is composed of six separate field projects. Each project combined archaeological fieldwork with traditional knowledge and paleoenvironmental research to further our understanding of the "big picture" of Inuit culture history over the past 800 years. This paper will present preliminary results in terms of three broad themes. First, the initial migration of Thule Inuit from Alaska to the eastern Arctic will be discussed in terms of the social organization of the migrating groups, and the role of bowhead whale distributions as a factor in determining the nature of the migration. Second, we will document changes in Inuit society from the time of the initial migration to the 19th Century, as seen in phenomena such as social organization, subsistence, and technology. These changes are being studied in relation to causal factors as diverse as climate change, external contacts with Europeans, and social dynamics within Inuit societies. Third, since the project was designed to function closely with Inuit communities and organizations, we will review some of the more successful ways in which these research partnerships developed. (Au)

T, U, I, N, E
Animal distribution; Bowhead whales; Climate change; Culture (Anthropology); Human ecology; Human migration; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Native organizations; Palaeoecology; Public participation; Research; Social change; Social institutions; Subsistence; Thule culture; Traditional knowledge

G081, G06
Alaska, Northern; Nunavut


Documenting Mackenzie Inuit architecture using 3D laser scanning   /   Dawson, P.C.   Levy, R.M.   Oetelaar, G.   Arnold, C.   Lacroix, D.   Mackay, G.
(Alaska journal of anthropology, v. 7, no. 2, 2009, p. 29-44, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 73888.
Languages: English
Libraries: AEU

Laser scanning is currently being used in various areas of the world to document, preserve, and analyze ancient architecture. Laser scanners record the proveniences of numerous points on an object's surface. The resulting three-dimensional images can be used to test various building scenarios, analyze activity areas in a three-dimensional context, and digitally archive heritage resources threatened with destruction via erosion and industrial activities. Laser scanning may have applicability in the western Canadian Arctic, where archaeological research has become increasingly focused on the interpretation of Mackenzie Inuit architecture and the preservation of houses threatened by erosion. The use of laser scanning technology in an environment as remote and challenging as the Arctic provides an excellent case study for assessing the benefits of using this approach in a region associated with both complex architecture and excellent preservation. We conclude that laser scanning is feasible at isolated arctic field sites, but suggest that short-range, high-resolution scanners, similar to the one used in the study, are best suited to recording specific architectural details, rather than complete dwellings. (Au)

U, T, I, R, E, L, D
Bones; Costs; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Earthquakes; Electronic data processing; Erosion; Heritage sites; Houses; Instruments; Inuit archaeology; Logistics; Maps; Risk assessment; Sea level; Social institutions; Storms; Surveying; Thule culture; Transportation; Whales

G0811, G0812
Herschel Island, Yukon; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Richards Island, N.W.T.; Yukon North Slope


Unfriendly architecture : using observations of Inuit spatial behaviour to design culturally sustaining houses in Arctic Canada   /   Dawson, P.C.
(Housing studies, v. 23, no. 1, Jan. 2008, p. 111-128, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 69199.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1080/02673030701731258
Libraries: ACU

In the decades following the Second World War, Inuit of the Canadian Arctic were introduced to Euro-Canadian architecture in communities that were scattered throughout the North. These houses, and the settlements in which they were situated, were spatially designed around Euro-Canadian concepts of family, community, economics and administrative control. Direct observations of space use by Inuit families were carried out in a remote Canadian Arctic community, and interpreted using space syntax analysis and agency theory. The results of this study indicate that the programmatic categories typically used to structure Euro-Canadian houses, such as bedrooms, kitchens, living rooms and porches, are rarely adhered to by Inuit families. While this apparent mismatch between intended versus actual uses of space may appear arbitrary, it is, in fact, systematically matched to the spatial structure of the houses they inhabit. These interpretations have important implications for the development of aboriginal housing policy in northern Canada. (Au)

T, M, R, V, N
Acculturation; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Equipment and supplies; Food preparation; Government; Handicrafts; Hide preparation; History; Houses; Housing; Hunting; Inuit; Social conditions; Social interaction; Social policy; Socio-economic effects; Storage; Subsistence; Welfare

G0813
Arviat, Nunavut


Big brother architecture : performance and design in the Canadian Arctic   /   Dawson, P.C.
(Architecture and performance. On/site review, 15, Spring 2006, p. 22-23, ill.)
ASTIS record 59745.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Winston Churchill once remarked that 'we shape our buildings, and afterwards our buildings shape us'. Some anthropologists have suggested that we forge our cultural identities through daily practices which become imprinted onto the floor plans of the houses we inhabit. Out of this emerges a circular process - architecture shapes the performance of daily life, which, in turn, shapes future architectural practice. Sometimes, Inuit use of ordinary Canadian houses challenges this premise. (Au)

T, R, U, N, M
Acculturation; Archaeology; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Equipment and supplies; Ethnography; Food preparation; Food preservation; Heating; Houses; Housing; Inuit; Maintenance; Public education campaigns; Relocation; Social change; Social conditions; Social interaction; Socio-economic effects; Spatial distribution; Subsistence

G0813, G081
Arviat, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic


Reconstructing a Thule whalebone house using 3D imaging   /   Levy, R.   Dawson, P.C.
(IEEE multimedia, v. 13, no. 2, Apr.-June 2006, p. 78-83, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 59734.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1109/MMUL.2006.41
Libraries: ACU

Thule peoples are the cultural and biological ancestors of contemporary Inuit and Eskimo groups of the North American Arctic and Greenland. By the late 12th or early 13th century, Thule groups had expanded eastward from the Bering Strait region into the Canadian Arctic. Unlike northwestern Alaska, the coastlines of the Eastern Arctic were largely devoid of driftwood. Consequently, the Thule people used whalebone to construct the roofing frameworks of their coastline winter houses. They erected the roof framework over a house pit furnished with a flagstone floor, raised sleeping platform, kitchen, and storage areas; and covered the roof frame with hide and a thick layer of turf, moss, and snow. Archaeologists know little about how these enigmatic houses were constructed because few exist intact. Reconstructing a 3D model of a Thule house can provide new insights into how the Thule people constructed and used these dwellings. Our reconstruction of a Thule whalebone house provides a good case study of laser scanning's use on an object of complex geometry. The reconstruction process would have been difficult, if not impossible, to resolve using 2D drawings because manual drafting or 2D computer-aided design (CAD) can't easily solve a 3D structural system based on complex skeletal elements, such as a whale's mandibles, cranium, and maxillas. (Au)

U, I
Animal anatomy; Bones; Bowhead whales; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Electronic data processing; Houses; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Laser profilometry; Mapping; Maps; Mathematical models; Models; Right whales; Spatial distribution; Thule culture

G0813
Bathurst Island, Nunavut


Space, place, and the rise of "urbanism" in the Canadian Arctic   /   Dawson, P.C.
In: Space and spatial analysis in archaeology / Edited by Elizabeth C. Robertson, Jeffrey D. Seibert, Deepika C. Fernandez, and Marc U. Zender. - Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary Press, 2005, p. 169-175, ill.
Paper originally presented at the conference: Space and spatial analysis in archaeology held at the University of Calgary, Nov. 18th, 2002.
References.
ASTIS record 59784.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

From an archaeological perspective, the rise of urbanism is often seen as a gradual process involving increasing settlement nucleation, and the indigenous development of more complex levels of community organization. In contrast, the creation of permanent nucleated settlements in the Canadian Arctic by the Federal Government in the 1950s and 60s introduced Inuit families to urban life almost overnight. The layout and design of these new Arctic towns was based upon Euro-Canadian concepts of community structure, administrative control, and social cooperation. Roads, utility hook-ups, and building codes replaced cultural values, familial ties, and the requirements of traditional activities in determining the spatial organization of buildings within settlements. Furthermore, the geographical locations of these new communities were selected on the basis of access to air and sea transportation, issues of Canadian sovereignty, or the needs of industry, and sometimes required the relocation of Inuit families to new and unfamiliar regions of the Arctic. In this paper, I compare the location, layout, and design of post-war Arctic towns and hamlets with traditional camps, and examine the effects of planned communities and the rapid shift to urbanism on Inuit culture. (Au)

R, T, S, L, U
Colonialism; Community development; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Electronic data processing; Government; Human migration; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Kinship; Location; Maps; Mathematical models; Native urban residence; Outpost camps; Planning; Relocation; Roads; Social change; Social conditions; Social institutions; Social interaction; Social policy; Socio-economic effects; Spatial distribution; Transportation; Villages

G0813
Arviat, Nunavut; Rankin Inlet (Hamlet), Nunavut


Using computer modelling and virtual reality to explore the ideological dimensions of Thule whalebone architecture in Arctic Canada   /   Dawson, P.C.   Levy, R.
(Internet archaeology, v. 18, Winter 2005)
References.
Indexed from the Web.
Non-subscribers may only access the 3-page description containing citation information, abstract and table of contents.
Not seen by ASTIS.
ASTIS record 59737.
Languages: English
Web: http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue18/dawson_index.html

Arctic archaeologists have long suspected that the whalebones used to construct semi-subterranean winter houses by Thule culture peoples were symbolically resonant. These assumptions are based on observations of the non-utilitarian use of jaw bones and crania in Thule house ruins, and ethnographic descriptions of architectural symbolism relating to the whale hunt in Historic Alaskan Inupiat houses. In this paper, we use a 3-dimensional computer reconstruction of a semi-subterranean whalebone house to search for visual expressions of whaling-related ritual in Thule architecture. Results suggest that the whalebone superstructure may have been designed to evoke important themes when viewed from specific locations within the house, and under different lighting conditions. These themes, which appear in Inupiat myths and stories, involve the belief that women transform houses into living whales during the time of the hunt. (Au)

U, I
Animal anatomy; Bones; Culture (Anthropology); Customs; Design and construction; Electronic data processing; Ethnography; Houses; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Legends; Light; Mapping; Maps; Mathematical models; Models; Rites and ceremonies; Spatial distribution; Thule culture; Whales; Whaling

G081, G06
Alaska; Canadian Arctic


Euro-Canadian style homes a mis-match for Inuit lifestyles, study finds   /   Dawson, P.C.
(Newsletter - National Housing Research Committee, Fall 2004, p. 1-2, ill.)
References.
Indexed from the Web.
ASTIS record 59743.
Languages: English

Most houses occupied by Inuit families are not suited to their lifestyles, concludes a study directed by Dr. Peter Dawson of the University of Calgary's Department of Archaeology. Activities such as hunting, fishing, the upkeep of rifles, fishing nets, snow machines as well as family entertaining and visiting habits make the lives of Inuit families vastly different from mainstream Euro-Canadian society. Yet, since the 1950's, architects have tended to focus primarily on increasing cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency of northern house designs. “The unique economic and cultural configurations of Inuit families have been largely left out of the design process,” said Dr. Dawson, whose report, An Examination of the Use of Domestic Space by Inuit Families Living in Arviat, Nunavut, was recently published by CMHC. It was funded through CMHC's External Research Program. ... (Au)

T, R, U, N, M
Acculturation; Archaeology; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Equipment and supplies; Ethnography; Food preparation; Food preservation; Heating; Houses; Housing; Inuit; Maintenance; Social change; Social conditions; Social interaction; Socio-economic effects; Spatial distribution; Subsistence

G0813, G081
Arviat, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic


Reconstructing traditional Inuit house forms using three-dimensional interactive computer modelling   /   Levy, R.M.   Dawson, P.C.   Arnold, C.
(Visual studies, v. 19, no. 1, Apr. 2004, p. 26-35, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 59735.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1080/1472586042000204825
Libraries: ACU

Virtual heritage environments provide researchers and the general public with a tool for exploring archaeological data in a dynamic and interactive fashion. This paper discusses recent attempts by the authors to construct a prototype three-dimensional interactive computer model of an Inuvialuit sod house based on archaeological, ethnohistoric and ethnographic data from the outer Mackenzie Delta area in Arctic Canada. Such computer models have the potential to provide significant insights into the design principles used in traditional Inuit architecture. They can also be integrated with three-dimensional scans of cultural artifacts and other recorded media to create an interactive virtual heritage environment. In addition to providing an armature for the collection of oral histories and traditional knowledge, these web-based virtual environments allow members of the general public to experience cultural sites in inaccessible areas like the Canadian Arctic. Virtual environments may also provide archaeologists with new insights into the role that human senses may have played in the design of small-scale dwellings. This paper will focus on how the computer model was constructed, and presents examples of how the model can be used both as a research and education tool. (Au)

U, R, V, R
Animal anatomy; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Driftwood; Education; Electronic data processing; Ethnography; Ethnology; History; Houses; Internet; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Light; Mackenzie Eskimos; Mapping; Maps; Mathematical models; Models; Psychology; Research; Rocks; Spatial distribution; Traditional knowledge

G0812
Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.


Analysing the effects of spatial configuration on human movement and social interaction in Canadian Arctic communities   /   Dawson, P.C.
In: Proceedings : Space Syntax : 4th International Symposium / Edited by J. Hanson. - London : Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, 2003, v. 1 of 2, p. 37.1-37.11, ill.
References.
Indexed from the Web.
ASTIS record 59742.
Languages: English

In the archaeological record, the rise of sedentary communities is often a gradual process involving increasing settlement nucleation, and the indigenous development of more complex levels of community organization. In contrast, the creation of permanent nucleated settlements in the Canadian Arctic by the Federal Government in the 1950s and 1960s introduced Inuit families to settled community life almost overnight. The layout and design of these new arctic towns were based upon Euro-Canadian concepts of community structure, administrative control, and social cooperation. Roads, utility hookups, and building codes replaced cultural values, familial ties, and the requirements of traditional activities in determining the placement of roads and homes within settlements. Axial analysis is used to examine the effect that the spatial configuration of Canadian arctic communities has had on patterns of movement and social interaction among Inuit inhabitants. Analysis of field observations conducted over a two-month period in the hamlet of Arviat, Nunavut Territory indicate that integration is a much better predictor of vehicular than pedestrian traffic, and that each is characterized by a different pattern of movement. I argue that this unique pattern of pedestrian movement is generated by cultural values in Inuit society which stress the need for regular face-to-face contact among members of extended families. These results may have important implications for northern community planning. (Au)

T, L, R, U, N, S, M
Acculturation; All-terrain vehicles; Archaeology; Community development; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Electronic data processing; Ethnography; Houses; Inuit; Kinship; Land use; Maps; Outpost camps; Psychology; Regional planning; Relocation; Roads; Social change; Social conditions; Social interaction; Socio-economic effects; Spatial distribution; Subsistence; Trucks; Villages

G0813, G081
Arviat, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic; Rankin Inlet (Hamlet), Nunavut


Examining the impact of Euro-Canadian architecture on Inuit families living in Arctic Canada   /   Dawson, P.C.
In: Proceedings : Space Syntax : 4th International Symposium / Edited by J. Hanson. - London : Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, 2003, v. 1 of 2, p. 21.1-21.16, ill.
References.
Indexed from the Web.
ASTIS record 59741.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.spacesyntax.net/symposia/sss4/fullpapers/21Dawsonpaper1.pdf

Recent ethnographic fieldwork in the Canadian Arctic has revealed differences in the patterns of housekeeping practiced by Inuit and Euro-Canadian families. These differences are reflected in the types of activities Inuit families carry out, and how these activities are distributed within houses. The majority of Inuit family activities occur in integrated spaces such as living rooms and kitchens, because daily activities provide an important context for social interaction among family members. The use of space syntax analysis to examine houses built over the past 50 years in the Canadian north indicates a trend towards floor plans with narrow view fields and a greater number of smaller rooms. This trend reflects the increasing importance of individualism and privacy in Euro-Canadian society, and is not compatible with the more collective forms of social interaction that characterize Inuit families. These results should be of importance to architects and planners interested in designing and building houses that better reflect the cultural values and lifestyles of Inuit families. (Au)

T, R, U, N, M
Acculturation; Archaeology; Carving stone; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Electronic data processing; Equipment and supplies; Ethnography; Fishing; Food preparation; Food preservation; Handicrafts; Heating; Hide preparation; Houses; Housing; Hunting; Inuit; Maintenance; Social change; Social conditions; Social interaction; Spatial distribution; Subsistence

G0813, G081
Arviat, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic


Space syntax analysis of central Inuit snow houses   /   Dawson, P.C.
(Journal of anthropological archaeology, v. 21, no. 4, Dec. 2002, p. 464-480, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 59744.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/S0278-4165(02)00009-0
Libraries: ACU

Space syntax is a graph-based theory used by architects to examine how the spatial layout of buildings and cities influences the economic, social, and environmental outcomes of human movement and social interaction. Archaeologists have explored this concept by analyzing how social structure is reflected in the spatial configuration of public and domestic architecture. In this paper, space syntax is used to examine the spatial morphology of snow houses built by three Central Inuit groups in the Canadian Arctic, based on ethnohistoric and ethnographic accounts. The results of this study demonstrate that variation in family structure and the behavioral directives present in Inuit kinship systems are reflected in the spatial configurations of snow house architecture. This has important implications for understanding how architecture might be used to identify enduring and changing patterns of household and community organization in the archaeological record. (Au)

T, V, U, F
Central Eskimos; Copper Eskimos; Culture (Anthropology); Customs; Dancing; Design and construction; Electronic data processing; Ethnography; Explorers; Hall, Charles Francis, 1821-1871; Heating; Houses; Igloos; Iglulik Eskimos; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Jenness, Diamond, 1886-1969; Kinship; Mapping; Maps; Mathematical models; Mathiassen, Therkel, 1892-1967; Measurement; Size; Snow as a construction material; Snowdrifts; Social interaction; Spatial distribution; Thermal properties; Thule culture

G0813, G0815
Dolphin and Union Strait region, Nunavut; Melville Peninsula, Nunavut; Repulse Bay, Nunavut; Skraeling Island, Nunavut


Interpreting variability in Thule Inuit architecture : a case study from the Canadian High Arctic (statistical data included)   /   Dawson, P.C.
(American antiquity, v. 66, no. 3, July 2001, p. 453-470, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 59738.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.2307/2694244
Libraries: ACU

The semisubterranean whale-bone house is one of the most recognizable aspects of Thule Inuit culture. Following their arrival in the Canadian Arctic approximately 1,000 years ago, Thule peoples built these impressive and often enigmatic dwellings for occupation during the long winter months. Variability in the architectural properties of semisubterranean house forms has traditionally been used by archaeologists to infer cultural and historical relationships between regions, and establish seasonal and/or functional distinctions in usage. An analysis of 31 semisubterranean houses from two Thule winter village sites in the Canadian High Arctic using multivariate statistics and computer-aided drafting reveals a range of architectural variability that may represent attempts by Thule builders to accommodate 1) fluctuations in the availability of key building materials, 2) differences in household mobility, or 3) whaling-related social differentiation between households. These results have important implications for understanding the relationships among house form, environment, and culture in Thule Inuit society. The semisubterranean whale-bone houses that dot the coastlines of the Canadian Arctic have long been of interest to arctic archaeologists. These enigmatic dwellings are a distinctive feature of Thule culture peoples, who arrived in the Canadian Arctic from the area of the Bering Strait approximately 1,000 year ago. The Thule people are ancestral to historic and contemporary Inuit cultures in Canada, and the unique architectural configurations of their houses have been used by archaeologists to infer cultural and historical relationships between regions, examine the life histories of the sites they are found in, and explore aspects of the economies, societies, and ideologies of their builders and inhabitants. Many archaeologists recognize that these structures are not simply "containers of artifacts," but artifacts in their own right. McCartney (1979), for example, has argued that the semisubterranean house exists within a dynamic and systemic network of human behaviors. Such behaviors relate to the procurement of building materials, the selection of specific construction and design techniques, and the decision to re-use or abandon dwellings. (Au)

U, I, N, J
Animal anatomy; Artifacts; Bones; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Electronic data processing; Equipment and supplies; Ethnography; Houses; Human bioclimatology; Human geography; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Kinship; Maintenance; Mapping; Maps; Mathematical models; Models; Psychology; Rocks; Seasonal variations; Social conditions; Social institutions; Spatial distribution; Thule culture; Thule Expedition, 5th, 1921-1924; Whales; Whaling

G0813, G06
Alaska; Baffin Island, Nunavut; Bathurst Island, Nunavut; Brooman Peninsula, Nunavut; Devon Island, Nunavut; Porden Point, Nunavut; Somerset Island, Nunavut


Variability in traditional and non-traditional Inuit architecture, A.D. 1000 to present   /   Dawson, P.C.   Helmer, J.W. [Supervisor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, 1997.
xviii, 372 leaves.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. NQ31019)
ISBN 0-612-31019-1
Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., 1997.
The citation and abstract information in this record is used with the permission of ProQuest Information and Learning Company. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained from UMI® Dissertation Services, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346 USA. Telephone: 734-761-7400. Web-page: wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations.
Appendices.
References.
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from PQDT.
ASTIS record 52943.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONL ACU

This dissertation presents a history of house forms used by Inuit in the Eastern Canadian Arctic, from AD.1000 to present. I focus on three particular types of dwellings; the semi-subterranean whale bone house, the composite snow house, and the government subsidized prefabricated house. I attempt to correlate changes in house selection, design, and use, with environmental and social factors which have impacted on Inuit families over the past one thousand years. A statistical analysis of semi-subterranean whale bone houses from two Thule sites in the Canadian High Arctic reveals architectural variability which reflects the use of two distinctive building strategies. I argue that these two strategies reflect attempts by Thule builders to accommodate (1) fluctuations in the availability of key building materials, and (2) differences in the anticipated use-life of a dwelling. The spatial analysis of semi-subterranean whalebone houses and composite snow houses demonstrates that the spatial organization of each house form is generated by a different space syntax, or set of 'rules' which define how spaces are combined together. I argue that each space syntax reflects the distinctive socioeconomic configuration of Thule and Historic Inuit families. The implication that social processes are reflected in the spatial organization of traditional Inuit architecture is then used as a baseline for understanding the impact that Euro-Canadian architecture has had on traditional Inuit households during the Settlement Era (1950 to present). I argue that the spatial organization of traditional Inuit houses and Euro-Canadian houses are generated by different space syntaxes; each reflecting the differing socioeconomic configuration of Inuit and Euro-Canadian families. As a consequence of this, I contend that Euro-Canadian house designs and housing programs effectively undermined the solidarity of the traditional Inuit extended family (Ilagiit), and fostered the ascendancy of the nuclear family; a household form favored by the Canadian Government for administrative purposes. (Au)

U, T, M, R, E, I, H, M
Acculturation; Animal distribution; Animals; Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric temperature; Bones; Caucasians; Climate change; Climatology; Design and construction; Diseases; Economic conditions; Elders; Equipment and supplies; Government; Houses; Housing; Igloos; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Neoeskimo culture; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeogeography; Plant distribution; Plants (Biology); Precipitation (Meteorology); Public participation; Shelters; Social institutions; Social policy; Social surveys; Socio-economic effects; Spatial distribution; Theses; Thule culture; Whales; Whaling; Winds

G0813
Nunavut


"Unsympathetic users" : an ethnoarchaeological examination of Inuit responses to the changing nature of the built environment   /   Dawson, P.C.
(Arctic, v. 48, no. 1, Mar. 1995, p. 71-80, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 35671.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic48-1-71.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1226
Libraries: ACU

Recent trends in modern architectural theory stress the dynamic relationship that exists between culture and the built environment. Such theories hold that because different cultures are characterized by distinctive types of economic, social, and ideological relationships, they require different forms of spatial order to sustain them. Through the adoption of such a perspective, this paper examines the effects of Euro-Canadian prefabricated housing on modern Inuit groups in the central and eastern Canadian Arctic. Preliminary results suggest that the "alien" spatial environments of the southern-style prefabricated house may have contributed to increasing gender asymmetry, a transformation of social relations through the delayed resolution of interpersonal conflicts, confusion over how, when and where to conduct various household activities, and a loss of cultural identity among contemporary Inuit. (Au)

T, M, R, K, U, M
Acculturation; Community development; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Economic conditions; Gender differences; Government; Health; Houses; Housing; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Mental health and well-being; Neoeskimo culture; Planning; Psychology; Social conditions; Social interaction; Social policy; Spatial distribution; Thule culture

G081
Canadian Arctic


The effect of high latitude Arctic environments on the formation, composition and interpretation of faunal assemblages recovered from archaeological sites : a model   /   Dawson, P.C.
Toronto : University of Toronto, 1990.
1 v.
Thesis (M.A.) - University of Toronto, Dept. of Archaeology, Toronto, Ont., 1990.
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from NSTP.
ASTIS record 31087.
Languages: English

The unique environmental and ecological conditions that characterize high latitude arctic regimes have the potential to effect and influence the formation and composition of faunal assemblages produced through cultural activity. Suggest that M.N.I. (Minimum Number of Individual) and N.I.S.P. (Number of Identified Specimen) counts - two quantification methods important in Archaeo-zoological investigations, can be influenced by the degree to which a faunal assemblage has been ravaged by various taphonomic processes. The 1990 field season at Pauline Cove, on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory, involved the excavation, mapping and recording of two Inuvialuit Sod Houses. These structures are associated with a Historic American whaling settlement which existed at Pauline Cove during the latter half of the 18th century. The 1991 field season will focus on the excavation of two prehistoric structures and associated caches on Avadlek spit, located on the southwest side of Herschel Island. The principal investigator will be examining Inuvialuit culture change as a result of contact with American whalers, traders, explorers, and missionaries, through the systematic comparison of the archaeological assemblages of these prehistoric houses, with those contemporaneous with the historic American whaling settlement at Pauline Cove. Based on the analysis of faunal material gathered during the 1990 and 1991 field seasons, will involve the designing of a series of taphonomic models, based on bone density and differential survivorship. These models will then be tested on the faunal assemblages recovered from Pauline Cove and Avadlek Spit to compare their respective condition (ravaged vs pristine), predict to what degree M.N.I. and N.I.S.P. counts might be altered, and examine the potential effect that such alterations might have on the archaeological visibility of subsistence change on Herschel Island. (Au)

U
Acculturation; Artifacts; Bones; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Subsistence; Theses; Whaling

G0811
Herschel Island, Yukon


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