The ASTIS database cites the following 8 publication(s) by Carl Benson. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.
Richard Harrison Ragle (1923-2013) / Benson, C.S.
(Arctic, v. 66, no. 3, Sept. 2013, p. 373-374, portrait)
ASTIS record 78248.
Richard Harrison (Dick) Ragle was born on 11 June 1923 and died on 13 May 2013, just 30 days before his 90th birthday. ... Dick’s long-term interest in the Arctic and Antarctic guided his academic studies. His introduction to the polar regions was due in part to his acquaintance with Admiral Richard E. Byrd, .... From 1954 to 1960, he was a geologist with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Snow Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment (SIPRE); this organization was renamed in 1964 as the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). In 1954, Dick was assistant leader of an expedition on the Greenland Ice Sheet that traveled inland from Thule at 77° N and revisited sites measured in 1952 and 1953. He took to this new element like a duck to water. In 1955, he was assistant leader of the follow-up, a six-man expedition that extended measurements for 2000 km. The 1955 expedition re-measured sites (pits 3–4 m deep) for the first 193 km (120 miles) along a route that went from Thule inland to the center of the ice sheet and then south to 70° N and west to the French Central Station and out to the west coast. ... Dick conducted a SIPRE school on the ice sheet in 1956 for people going to the Antarctic Ice Sheet. He then led SIPRE Expeditions in North Greenland (1958) and the Antarctic deep drilling project on Ross Ice Shelf (1958–59). In 1958, he led a team that rescued 13 military personnel from a crash on the Greenland ice cap, transporting the airmen 435 km across the ice to safety. For this rescue, Dick was awarded the U.S. Army’s highest civilian award, the Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service. In 1960, he was in charge of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf drilling project of the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA) and the SIPRE South and South-Central Greenland Expedition. From 1960 to 1974, he worked again with AINA as chief pilot and leader of the Ice Field Ranges Research Project, based mainly at the AINA Kluane Lake Research Station. He conducted a wide range of research projects that included glaciology, investigations of the effects of the 1964 Alaska earthquake, and management of the projects at Kluane Lake. It is of interest that the scope of his flying included operations on aircraft carriers and high-altitude ski landings on Mt. Logan. From 1974 to 1977, Dick was a senior geologist at the consulting firm of Dames and Moore in Anchorage, Alaska. He was involved with the environmental and physical analysis of ice forces on facilities at Prudhoe Bay, as well as logistically important characteristics of seasonal ice formation. From 1977 to 1979, he was assistant director for Operations at the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory at Barrow, Alaska. He again served as a consultant with Northern Technical Services in Anchorage as well as a private consultant. In addition to his research and operational activities, Dick enjoyed teaching and did it frequently during his life. He was a Fellow of the Arctic Institute of North America and the Geological Society of America. ... (Au)
B, F, R, L
Airplanes; Arctic Institute of North America. Icefield Ranges Research Project; Biographies; Expeditions; Geologists; Geology; Glaciology; Ice caps; Ice sheets; Management; Measurement; Military operations; Ragle, Richard Harrison, 1923-2013; Research stations; Search and rescue
G0811, G10, G0813, G15
Antarctic regions; Kluane Lake region, Yukon; Logan, Mount, Yukon; Nordgrønland; Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, Nunavut
Erich H. Follmann (1943-2010) / Benson, C.S.
(Arctic, v. 63, no. 4, Dec. 2010, p. 485-486, portrait)
ASTIS record 72235.
Erich H. Follmann passed away on 26 July 2010 in Anchorage, Alaska. ... He received his BA in biology from Loyola University, Chicago, in 1965, and his MS (1968) and PhD (1973) in zoology at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale. ... From 1972 to 1976, Erich was a senior biologist with Woodward-Clyde Consultants, conducting environmental assessments on proposed pipelines in Texas, on the East Coast, and in Alaska, where he was a scientific adviser regarding the environmental and biological impact of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline. ... In 1976, he became a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Institute of Arctic Biology (IAB). During 1976-79, most of his time was spent at the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) in Barrow, where he conducted research on cold adaptation in arctic foxes, wolves, wolverines, and grizzly bears, using radio telemetry. He devised a unique application of modern technology to traditional practices by inserting a transmitter in whale harpoons to allow tracking of animals struck by Inupiaq hunters, thus reducing wounding loss. He was also the first to develop adaptations of telemetry that used subcutaneous transmitters to record the temperature and heart rate of free-ranging grizzly bears. Erich joined the UAF Department of Biology, Fisheries and Wildlife in 1985 and became a tenured faculty member in 1989, with a quarter-time appointment in IAB. He especially enjoyed teaching and advising undergraduates at UAF. ... Erich's personal research focused on northern wildlife of particular interest to Alaska Natives, especially the arctic fox and polar bears. He was concerned with the denning habits of grizzly and polar bears and the subsistence use of whales. Because of the practical nature of his work, Erich was an important ambassador for UAF among the people of northern Alaska. He was honored to work with the subsistence hunters in Barrow and Kaktovik and appreciated the knowledge of the Arctic they shared with him. Erich was revered by his many students for his warmth, humor, and dedication to their success, which extended to his support staff as well. ... He was a member of the Arctic Institute of North America Board of Governors from 1994 to 2010; during this time, he was chairman of the AINA bi-national Grant-in-Aid Program. In 2010 the program funded 18 out of 39 proposals; the total amount distributed in grants of $1000 during Erich's chairmanship exceeded $120 000. ... In addition to all of his research, mentoring, and administrative activities, he taught three courses every year. The Erich Follmann Memorial Scholarship has been established at the University of Alaska Foundation to assist students who pursue careers in Arctic biology. (Au)
I, Q, J, R, T, N
Alaska Highway Oil Pipeline Project; Arctic foxes; Arctic Institute of North America; Biographies; Biology; Cold adaptation; Cold physiology; Denning; Environmental impacts; Follmann, Erich H., 1943-2010; Grizzly bears; Higher education; Hunting; Inuit; Mammals; Polar bears; Radio tracking of animals; Research; Research funding; Subsistence; Telemetry; University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Whales
Albert Lincoln Washburn (1911-2007) / Benson, C.S.
(Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 212-214, 1 port.)
ASTIS record 61844.
Professor Albert Lincoln Washburn, the first executive director of the Arctic Institute of North America (from 1945 to 1950), died in Seattle on January 30, 2007, at the age of 95. “Link,” as his friends knew him, loved the Arctic. He dedicated his life to fieldwork and to intensive study of the Arctic and the polar regions in general, focusing on glacial and periglacial environments and Quaternary history of the earth. All of his research had the common thread of understanding periglacial processes. In addition to an active career in the field, he did an exceptional amount of administrative work. ... His first taste of the Arctic came in 1937, when he and Richard F. Flint were the geologists on Louise A. Boyd's expedition to the fjord regions of East Greenland. The stunning beauty and grandeur of East Greenland did their magic. Link was “hooked” on the Arctic. [In 1935 he married Tahoe Talbot, who was his companion and field assistant for over 50 years.] Link and Tahoe carried out fieldwork on Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, during July and August of 1938 and 1939, and from April 1940 to February 1941. This field study became Link's PhD dissertation at Yale University under the direction of Richard Flint. World War II delayed publication of the work until 1947, when it appeared as Memoir 22 of the Geological Society of America. During the war, Link served as an intelligence officer in the Arctic, Desert, Tropic Information Center (ADTIC) of the U.S. Army Air Forces. This service contributed, indirectly, to the origin of AINA and Link's role in it. Dr. Laurence M. Gould, Chief of the Arctic Section of ADTIC, was in frequent contact with Canadian colleagues, and it was clear that Canada and the United States faced many common problems. Gould was a key participant, with Washburn, among others, in two planning meetings during 1944 that led to the joint Canada-U.S. establishment of AINA, as a binational organization dedicated to the advancement of knowledge about the Arctic. It was decided to base the Institute in Canada, with headquarters in Montreal. Gould served as acting director until Washburn was released from the military and became the first fulltime director in 1945. ... Link went on to become director of the U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment (SIPRE), which in 1961 became the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). ... Link continued his own fieldwork near Mesters Vig in the King Oscar Fjord region of East Greenland, which he had first visited during the Louise Boyd expedition in 1937. He made a reconnaissance study in the summer of 1955, established instrumented sites in 1957, and made observations each year from 1957 through 1961, and again in 1964. His fieldwork on Cornwallis Island, Arctic Canada, in what is now Nunavut Territory, extended from 1981 to 1995. He conducted research in Antarctica in 1957 and 1958 and was involved in planning the multinational Dry Valley Drilling Project in 1972 - 75. ... Washburn was deeply involved in establishing two journals: Arctic, first published in 1948, and Quaternary Research, published since 1970. His own bibliography of more than 60 titles spans the time from 1939 to 1999. ... The many facets of Link's career included scholarship, research, administration, and careful, detailed planning, as well as his mentoring role, his generosity, and his friendship to many people. He was my boss in the early 1950s and a friend for more than half a century. (Au)
V, B, T, A
Anthropology; Arctic Institute of North America; Biographies; Expeditions; Geologists; Geology; Glacial geology; Inuit; Periglacial landforms; Planning; Publishing; Research; Research organizations; United States. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory; Washburn, Albert Lincoln, 1911-2007
G081, G06, G10, G15
Antarctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Cornwallis Island, Nunavut; Kong Oscar Fjord region, Greenland; North American Arctic; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut
Fifty years of McCall Glacier research : from the International Geophysical Year 1957-58 to the International Polar Year 2007-08 / Weller, G. Nolan, M. Wendler, G. Benson, C. Echelmeyer, K. Untersteiner, N.
(Arctic, v. 60, no. 1, Mar. 2007, p. 101-110, ill., maps)
ASTIS record 61128.
... McCall Glacier, located in the eastern Brooks Range of northern Alaska ..., has the longest and most complete history of scientific research of any glacier in the U.S. Arctic. Spanning the period from the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957-58 to the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-08, this research has resulted in perhaps the best record of recent climate change and its impacts in this region of the Arctic. ... This essay attempts to document the history of research on the glacier, as well as the evolution of research logistics there, through personal anecdotes from some of the scientists involved. ... What were the conclusions and lessons learned from these studies conducted over half a century? First, they demonstrated the usefulness of long-term, systematic quantitative observations on the ground, particularly observations of complex processes, like those observed and measured on McCall Glacier. Such long-term observations are not that frequent in the Arctic, and in these days of satellite remote sensing are becoming even less so. The information obtained from the studies provided a clear picture of the dramatic changes that have occurred in this region of the Arctic, caused largely by changes in the climate. ... The studies also demonstrated the foresight of their early initiators, the dedication and contributions of the scientists who were involved, and the importance of proper data archival. ... There is also another lesson to be learned from this experience. While the McCall Glacier project has at this point turned into a long-term (50-year) study, the record itself was created through the contributions of several short-term projects. These were funded sporadically and resulted in gaps in the record. One of the causes for this is the paucity of federal funding opportunity for long-term glacier research projects. This is a problem not only for glacier research, but for all Arctic research, as long-term studies are the only way to ensure sufficient understanding of important processes such as the climate changes we are experiencing now. The future prospects of obtaining long-term glacier records remains bleak, and the record will likely continue to have gaps. Although modern data loggers for remotely measuring weather, ice melt, and ice motion may help bridge these gaps, it has been and likely will continue to be the initiative, energy, and at some points the personal resources of individual scientists involved that provide a semblance of research continuity. As glaciers around the world continue to recede, will there still be a McCall Glacier or a McCall Glacier Project at the next IPY in 2057? If the present trends continue, the final chapter in the McCall Glacier story may not be far off .... (Au)
F, V, E, A, R
Ablation; Accumulation; Aerial photography; Albedo; Boreholes; Climate change; Deglaciation; Depth hoar; Effects of climate on ice; Environmental impacts; Firn; Geographical positioning systems; Glacial melt waters; Glacier variations; Glaciers; Glaciology; Heat budgets; History; IGY 1957-58 Research publications; International Geophysical Year 1957-58; International Polar Year 2007-08; Logistics; Mapping; Mass balance; Measurement; Melting; Meteorology; Pollution control; Precipitation (Meteorology); Radar; Research funding; Research stations; Runoff; Science; Scientists; Snow cover; Snow stratigraphy; Solar radiation; Surveying; Temperature; Temporal variations; Thickness; Topography; Velocity; Weather stations
McCall Glacier, Alaska
Thermal regime of a small Alaskan stream in permafrost terrain / Corbin, S.W. Benson, C.S.
In: Permafrost : Fourth International Conference, proceedings, July 17-22, 1983. - Washington, D.C. : National Academy Press, 1983, p. 186-191, figures
ASTIS record 14561.
Goldstream Creek near Fairbanks, Alaska is about 8 m wide, 0.25 m deep, and flows 0.3 to 1.3 m³/s. From 1963 to 1973, hydrological and temperature observations were made to determine thermal effects of the stream on the relict permafrost that underlies much of the valley. Soil freezing beginning in October causes build-up of ground-water pressure, and the stream overflows repeatedly until about January, forming aufeis deposits 1 to 2 m thick, depending on depth of soil freezing, which is primarily controlled by the amount of snow cover. The data permitted calculations of the thermal diffusivity of unfrozen soil, using Fourier series, numerical step models and differential analyses; average values ranged from 4 x 0.0000001 m²/s in areas away from the stream to over 15 x 0.0000001 beneath the stream. Overflows facilitate heat loss from the ice by removing the insulating snow layer. However, they also add heat as the water percolates through fractures in the ice and releases latent heat as it freezes. The mechanism of adding heat is more effective than conduction which is the only mechanism for transporting heat to the upper surface. Although the surface temperature during summer is lower in the stream than in the surrounding ground (11 °C compared with > 22 °C) the summer heat pulse penetrates deeper under the stream; this is partly due to the topography of the stream channel. The net effect on the permafrost is to lower the relict permafrost table, from about 4 m away from the stream, to nearly 6 m beneath the stream. (Au)
Heat transmission; Permafrost; Permafrost beneath rivers; Rivers; Thermal regimes
Fairbanks region, Alaska
Water temperature measurements in turbulent streams during periods of frazil-ice formation / Osterkamp, T.E. Gilfilian, R.E. Gosink, J.P. Benson, C.S.
(Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Applied Glaciology, held in New Hampshire, U.S.A., 23-27 August 1982 / Edited by S.C. Colbeck. Annals of glaciology, v. 4, 1983, p. 209-215, ill.)
ASTIS record 11990.
Libraries: ACU NFSMO
Field measurements of water temperatures in two turbulent streams in interior Alaska have been made during periods of frazil-ice production. ... Water supercooling at the time of frazil-ice nucleation was <10 mK. These measurements show that frazil-ice nuclei in streams must be other ice particles, cold organic materials, cold soil particles, or a combination of these, that may be introduced into the stream of mass exchange processes at the air-water interface. The maximum observed supercooling was Delta Tm = 40 mK. Two measured values for the residual supercooling were 3 and 9 mK. Frazil growth rates calculated from the observed values of supercooling show that, unless the period of residual supercooling is very long, most of the frazil-ice production during one night of supercooling occurred in the transient thermal period from the time of nucleation to the time that the water became residually supercooled. (Au)
Formation; Frazil ice; Rivers; Temperature
Alaska; Chatanika River, Alaska; Goldstream Creek (64 59 N, 148 54 W), Alaska
The seasonal snow cover of Arctic Alaska : final report / Benson, C.S. United States. Office of Naval Research [Sponsor]
Washington, D.C. : Arctic Institute of North America, 1969.
vi, 47 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Research paper - Arctic Institute of North America, no. 51)
ASTIS record 34907.
The snow cover of Arctic Alaska includes two distinct types which are separated by the Brooks Range. On the Arctic Slope the snow has a wind-swept, continuous surface which resembles that of the Greenland or Antarctic ice sheets. The snow of Interior Alaska, between the Brooks and Alaska Ranges, lies in heavily forested land with patches of smooth continuous snow cover occurring on lakes and swamps and on hilltops above timberline. The structure of the Arctic Slope snow consists of a hard, wind-packed layer, overlying a coarse, low density depth hoar layer; it resembles the top annual stratigraphic unit of the perennial dry-snow facies of a polar ice sheet. Large drifts formed on lake and river banks can be clearly separated into those caused by storm winds and prevailing winds. The general shapes of the drifts are reproduced each year. This is especially true of the prevailing-wind drifts because their size, and the volume of snow in them, is virtually independent of the amount of snowfall. In the valleys of Interior Alaska the snow cover is characterized by low density, steep temperature gradients and a thick basal depth hoar layer which sometimes makes up two-thirds or more of the snow pack. The depth hoar results from solid-state distillation and a redistribution of mass caused by the upward-directed vapor gradient in the snow. Experiments indicate an upward flux of about 0.03 g H2O/cm²/day which is an order of magnitude greater than values calculated according to a pure diffusion model. (Au)
Depth hoar; Evaporation; Heat transmission; Physical properties; Snow; Snow cover; Snowdrifts; Temperature
Glaciological studies on Mount Wrangell, Alaska, 1961 / Benson, C.S.
(Arctic, v. 21, no. 3, Sept. 1968, p. 127-152, ill., figures, tables)
ASTIS record 10040.
Measurements of temperature,density, hardnesss and stratigraphic profiles were made in the upper 10 m of the snow cover in the caldera and an adjacent snow-filled crater. Facies parameters calculated for the summit area, 4000-4300 m at 62° N, compare well with the same parameters near the dry-snow line on the Greenland ice sheet. This comparison is part of the purpose of the Mt Wrangell study within the framework of the "hypothetical North Polar Ice Sheet", based on a concept that the Greenland ice sheet behaves as though it belonged to a much larger ice sheet, which is symmetrical about the North Pole. The mean annual temperature, based on the measurements at 10 m depth in the caldera and inactive craters, is -20C. The mean annual value of accumulation in smooth central areas of the caldera is >100 cm water equivalent. Velocity of surface movement in the caldera averages about 5 cm/day or ~20 m/yr. (AB)
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