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The ASTIS database cites the following 28 publication(s) by Charles Arnold. Publications are listed from newest to oldest. Please tell us about publications that are not yet cited in ASTIS.


Mackenzie Inuit lithic raw material procurement in the lower Mackenzie Valley : the importance of social factors   /   MacKay, G.   Burke, A.L.   Gauthier, G.   Arnold, C.D.
(Arctic, v. 66, no. 4, Dec. 2013, p. 483-499, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 78908.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic66-4-483.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic4335
Libraries: ACU

Oral and written historical records indicate that the Mackenzie Inuit traveled up the Mackenzie River from the Arctic Coast to procure lithic raw material in the interior from a quarry at the mouth of the Thunder River, which is known locally by the Gwich'in of the lower Mackenzie Valley as Vihtr'ii Tshik. We evaluate this proposition using non-destructive polarized energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence to compare the geochemical signatures of the lithic raw material from Vihtr'ii Tshik (MiTi-1) and flakes and tools from the Mackenzie Inuit village of Kuukpak (NiTs-1), which is located more than 400 km downriver of the quarry source. The concentrations of nine selected elements-three major elements expressed as oxides (SiO2, Fe2O3T, and K2O) and six trace elements expressed as metals (Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, and Ce)-are compared using descriptive statistics, spider diagrams, and principal components analysis. The geochemical effects of chemical weathering on the surfaces of artifacts are evaluated by measuring element concentrations before and after removal of the weathering rind from select artifacts. The results of our analyses demonstrate that the lithic raw material available at Vihtr'ii Tshik is best characterized as chert, and that 86% of the flakes and tools from Kuukpak analyzed in this study are chemically similar to the raw material from Vihtr'ii Tshik. Historical records and archaeological data indicate that the people of Kuukpak traversed a complex social landscape to obtain stone from Vihtr'ii Tshik through direct procurement. (Au)

U, B, N, I
Artifacts; Beluga whales; Chert; Dene Indians; Fluorometry; Geochemistry; Geology; Inuit-Indian relations; Mackenzie Eskimos; Oral history; Rock quarries; Sacred sites; Subsistence; Thule culture; Trade and barter; Traditional land use and occupancy; Weathering; Whaling; X-rays

G0812
East Channel (Mackenzie River) region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Thunder River region, N.W.T.


The timing of the Thule migration : new dates from the western Canadian Arctic   /   Friesen, T.M.   Arnold, C.D.
(American antiquity, v. 73, no. 3, July 2008, p. 527-538, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 68492.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The Thule migration from Alaska to the eastern North American Arctic is central to the understanding of Inuit history. However despite decades of study, its timing remains controversial, with recent reappraisals suggesting that it may have occurred much later than the date of A.D. 1000 most often assumed for it. In this paper we present newly obtained radiocarbon dates from two early Thule sites, Nelson River (OhRh-l) and Washout (NjVi-2), located on the Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf coasts. This region is crucial to any understanding of the migration, because Thule Inuit would have had to pass through it in order to reach the eastern Arctic. Nelson River in particular has long been considered a good candidate for the earliest Thule site east of Alaska, based on a number of lines of evidence including the presence of both Natchuk and Sicco harpoon heads. In this paper, we present new dates for Nelson River and Washout that demonstrate that neither site was occupied before the thirteenth century A.D. The new dates have profound implications for Arctic archaeology, because they strengthen the case for a thirteenth-century migration, and by doing so demonstrate that it was more rapid and widespread than has generally been believed. The dates also suggest that the "Classic" Thule period is a relatively brief phenomenon, lasting perhaps only 200 years or less, before being rapidly reorganized into the diversity of Inuit societies encountered in later Arctic history. (Au)

U, V, T
Bones; Heritage sites; History; Human migration; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Origin of peoples; Radiocarbon dating; Thule culture

G081, G06, G10
Alaska, Northern; Amundsen Gulf region, N.W.T.; Canadian Arctic Islands; Greenland; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon


Prehistoric beluga whale hunting at Gupuk, Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada   /   Friesen, T.M.   Arnold, C.D.
(Hunting the largest animals : native whaling in the western Arctic and Subarctic / Edited by A.P. McCartney. Studies in whaling, no. 3, 1995, p. 109-125, ill.)
(Hunting the largest animals : native whaling in the western Arctic and Subarctic / Edited by A.P. McCartney. Occasional publication series - Canadian Circumpolar Institute, no. 36, 1995, p. 109-125, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 43092.
Languages: English

Protohistoric and early historic Inuit societies of the Mackenzie River Delta relied on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) for a large proportion of their diet. The ethnohistoric record from Kittigazuit, the largest Mackenzie Inuit site occupied during the historic period, indicates that beluga whales were hunted by driving entire whale pods into shallow waters where they were harpooned and lanced. This report presents a reconstruction of the earlier, prehistoric Mackenzie Inuit beluga hunt on the basis of archaeological data. Several lines of evidence are advanced in support of the hypothesis that the prehistoric beluga hunt at the Gupuk site, located on Richards Island in the Mackenzie Delta, was performed with the same large-scale drive methods recorded for Kittigazuit. The most important data set consists of beluga whale age determinations based on growth layers observed in beluga mandibles recovered from Gupuk. The resulting mortality profile closely resembles catastrophic mortality, which is consistent with large-scale drive hunting at Gupuk. (Au)

N, I, T, U
Animal mortality; Animal population; Artifacts; Beluga whales; Bones; Equipment and supplies; Ethnography; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Mackenzie Eskimos; Measurement; Subsistence; Whaling

G0812, G07
Canadian Beaufort Sea; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.


Zooarchaeology of a focal resource : dietary importance of beluga whales to the precontact Mackenzie Inuit   /   Friesen, T.M.   Arnold, C.D.
(Arctic, v. 48, no. 1, Mar. 1995, p. 22-30, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 35666.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic48-1-22.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1221
Libraries: ACU

Ethnohistoric records indicate that the economy of early historic Mackenzie Inuit was centred on the summer hunt for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). However, no systematic attempt has been made to quantify the dietary importance of beluga whales to earlier, precontact-period Mackenzie Inuit societies. This issue is addressed herein through analysis of over 2000 beluga bones recovered from a semisubterranean house at Gupuk, a Mackenzie Inuit archaeological site on the East Channel of the Mackenzie River. The amount of meat and fat available from beluga whales is compared to that from all other prey species at the site to assess the relative dietary contribution of each taxon. The results indicate that beluga whales were a truly focal resource in the local economy, probably providing over half of the food available to residents of Gupuk and other communities in the Mackenzie Delta for at least half of each year. (Au)

U, I
Animals; Beluga whales; Food; Inuit archaeology; Mackenzie Eskimos; Predation; Subsistence

G0812
Kugmallit Bay region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.


The Inuktuiut of the Eskimo Lakes   /   Morrison, D.   Arnold, C.D.
(Bridges across time : the NOGAP Archaeology Project / Edited by Jean-Luc Pilon. Occasional paper - Canadian Archaeological Association, no. 2, 1994, p. 117-126, ill., maps)
(NOGAP project no. F.01 : Northern hydrocarbon archaeology : A coordinated attempt at developing an integrated archaeological resource management system within the NOGAP area)
References.
ASTIS record 35180.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU OORD

Recent archaeological excavations in the western Canadian Arctic have focused on Inuvialuit (Mackenzie Inuit) sites in the Eskimo Lakes area, a long inland arm of the sea running southwest from Liverpool Bay almost to the Mackenzie River. Although written information on the area dating before 1900 is virtually nonexistent, archaeological and oral history data suggest the Eskimo Lakes played an important role in regional subsistence and exchange patterns over the past 500 years. The area seems to have been the home of a distinctive Inuvialuit group which disappeared sometime prior to the full historic period. (Au)

U, I, V
Diseases; Explorers; History; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Legends; Mackenzie Eskimos; Mortality; Oral history; Population

G0812
Eskimo Lakes region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.


Archaeological investigations on Richards Island   /   Arnold, C.D.
(Bridges across time : the NOGAP Archaeology Project / Edited by Jean-Luc Pilon. Occasional paper - Canadian Archaeological Association, no. 2, 1994, p. 85-93, ill., 1 map)
(NOGAP project no. F.01 : Northern hydrocarbon archaeology : A coordinated attempt at developing an integrated archaeological resource management system within the NOGAP area)
References.
ASTIS record 35178.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU OORD

This paper presents an overview of archaeological excavations that have been carried out by the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre at three localities on Richards Island, in the outer delta of the Mackenzie River. Further research that is planned to analyze the Richards Island archaeological data is discussed. (Au)

U, V, T, A
Acculturation; Artifacts; Beach erosion; Culture (Anthropology); Design and construction; Fishing; Food; History; Houses; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Neoeskimo culture; Oral history; Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre; Social interaction; Storm surges; Trade and barter; Whaling

G0812
Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Richards Island, N.W.T.


Archaeology in the Canadian Arctic : past and present   /   Arnold, C.D.
(Information north, v. 18, no. 3, Sept. 1992, p. 1-7, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 32502.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Political developments are occurring at a rapid pace in the Northwest Territories. These changes will affect not only the people who live there but also others, such as scientists who have a vested interest in the North. These three short essays by Charles Arnold illustrate that the way archaeology has been practised has prompted some of that change. (Au)

U, S, R, T
Aboriginal rights; Archaeologists; Biographies; Bones; Culture (Anthropology); Customs; Ethnographic collections; Graves; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Mathiassen, Therkel, 1892-1967; Museums; Native land claims; Repatriation (Anthropology); Shamanism; Thule culture

G0812, G0813
Baffin Island, Nunavut; N.W.T.; Naujaat, Nunavut; Nunavut; Southampton Island, Nunavut


The Mackenzie Inuit winter house   /   Arnold, C.D.   Hart, E.J.
(Arctic, v. 45, no. 2, June 1992, p. 199-200, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 32501.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic45-2-199.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1393
Libraries: ACU

The Inuit of the Mackenzie Delta area who called themselves "Siglit", built winter homes not out of snow, but of driftwood, and in villages which they occupied annually. This article discusses the earliest historical record of Siglit architecture and building techniques including ventilation and insulation. (ASTIS)

V
Archaeology; Design and construction; Heating; Houses; Insulating materials; Mackenzie Eskimos

G0812
Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.


Winter houses of the Mackenzie Inuit   /   Arnold, C.D.   Hart, E.J.
(Bulletin - Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada, v. 16, no. 2, June 1991, p. 35-39, ill., maps)
References as footnotes.
ASTIS record 74077.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... in many parts of the Arctic the Inuit seldom used the snow iglu, building instead more substantial winter houses out of other materials. Residence in permanent or semi-permanent winter villages in the Arctic has its roots in technological developments which appeared in the Bering Strait region more than 2,000 years ago. The practice spread farther north and then eastward into the Canadian Arctic within the last millennia. Houses were framed using driftwood, whalebone, or stone, depending on available materials. Despite this variation in material, there were overall similarities in features which clearly related to the conservation of heat. All these dwellings were entered through tunnels dug below the floor level to prevent the lighter warm air inside the dwelling from escaping. Within the house, heat was generated either by an open fire or by a lamp, or kudlik, of pottery or stone in which sea mammal oil was burned. The kudlik also provided a source of light, which augmented a window covered with animal gut or a sheet of ice. Another common feature of these houses was raised benches along one or more walls, which elevated the occupants into a layer of warm air. Insulation was provided by a number of means. The floors of the houses were dug below ground level, so there was less wall area exposed to outside air. Heat loss through conduction was minimized by a thick layer of sod enveloping the roof. An accumulation of falling snow on the roof provided an extra layer of insulation and reduced heat lost through infiltration between the roof's sod blocks. Ventilation was important for reducing the accumulation of water vapour and fumes within the house. Some winter houses had ventilation holes in their roofs which could be unplugged when the exchange of damp or stale air was necessary, and in some cases tunnel doors could be adjusted to bring in fresh air. Some builders made vapour barriers by fastening skins to the ceiling, which kept condensation from dripping onto the household contents. One location where people lived in permanent winter villages until comparatively recent times is at the mouth of the Mackenzie River, the traditional home of a group of Inuit who refer to themselves as "Siglit" .... One of the more important sources of food in this area is the beluga whale which enters the warm estuary of the Mackenzie River in large numbers in summer. The Siglit devised an effective hunting technique which involved driving the whales into shallow water where they could easily he seen and speared by hunters in kayaks. Enough meat, blubber, and oil was obtained during the summer whale hunt to last through most of the winter months, which the Siglit spent in villages adjacent to the whale hunting areas. At other times of the year they lived in tents or snow iglus, but the winter village, consisting of substantial houses constructed from driftwood and covered with sod, was considered to be the home base, and, indeed, different groups of Siglit were known by the name given to their villages. The late 1800s saw the arrival of Eurocanadian and American explorers, traders, missionaries, and whalers who brought with them the new goods and ideas that abruptly altered the Siglit's traditional lifestyles, and the diseases that ultimately devastated these communities. For the past several years, the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre has been excavating in several areas where shoreline erosion is erasing the remains of prehistoric Siglit villages. Our archaeological work was designed to salvage what we could of these rapidly-disappearing sites, and to learn how the Siglit lived when their traditional culture flourished. One of our objectives was to discover more about how they built their houses. ... Most of our archaeological work has been at Cache Point, the Pond site, and Gupuk, three villages which were occupied before the coming of Europeans. All are on the east coast of Richards Island .... (Au)

V
Design and construction; Driftwood; Heating; Houses; Insulating materials; Inuit archaeology; Mackenzie Eskimos; Size; Social change; Temporal variations

G0812
Cache Point, N.W.T.; East Channel (Mackenzie River) region, N.W.T.; Richards Island, N.W.T.


Archaeological field training in the NOGAP area   /   Arnold, C.D.   Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre   Hanks, C.C.   Canadian Parks Service. National Historic Parks and Sites   Archaeological Survey of Canada [Sponsor]
(NOGAP project no. F.01 : Northern hydrocarbon archaeology : A coordinated attempt at developing an integrated archaeological resource management system within the NOGAP area)
(NOGAP archaeological project : an integrated archaeological research and management approach / Edited by J. Cinq-Mars and J.-L. Pilon. Occasional paper - Canadian Archaeological Association, no. 1, 1991, p. 7-13, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 30925.
Languages: English
Libraries: OORD

Northern Native people have a long-standing interest in their archaeological heritage, but seldom have had opportunities to participate in archaeological studies. The Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre received NOGAP funding in 1985 and 1986 to help resolve that problem by preparing and providing archaeological field training programs in the hydrocarbon development area. We have found that the key to effective training for people who lack an academic background is to make archaeology relevant. This paper summarizes our approach to archaeological field training, and identifies other ways that native people can participate in archaeological studies. Benefits which archaeological projects can derive from participation by native peoples are also discussed. (Au)

U, T, R, J
Archaeology; Environmental protection; Funding for education; Occupational training

G0812
Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; N.W.T.


Thule pioneers in the Canadian Arctic   /   Arnold, C.D.   McCullough, K.M.
In: Canada's missing dimension : Science and history in the Canadian Arctic Islands / Edited by C.R. Harington. - Ottawa : Canadian Museum of Nature, 1990, v. 2, p. 677-694, ill., 1 map
References.
ASTIS record 36822.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Archaeological investigations on Banks Island in the western Canadian Arctic and on Ellesmere Island in the east have revealed evidence for pioneering groups of Thule Inuit in each of those areas. The Banks Island occupation represents the initial expansion of Thule into the Canadian Arctic, and the sites on Ellesmere Island contain archaeological remains of a later group that migrated eastward from Alaska. These data show the complex nature of processes involved in the prehistoric development of Inuit culture. (Au)

U
Bones; Food; Houses; Human migration; Inuit archaeology; Thule culture

G0813, G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Ellesmere Island, Nunavut


Arctic harpoons   /   Arnold, C.D.
(Arctic, v. 42, no. 1, Mar. 1989, p. 80-81, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 32875.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic42-1-80.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1642
Libraries: ACU

... Harpoons have a wide distribution throughout the world, but it is among the Inuit that the most complex pre-industrial forms were developed. The primary use of the Inuit harpoon was for hunting sea mammals, both at breathing holes in the sea ice and in open water, although in some arctic areas the harpoon was used for fish as well. [The various styles of harpoons used in the Canadian Arctic from Prehistoric, Independence I, Pre-Dorset, early Dorset, late Dorset and Thule are described.] (Au)

V, T
Artifacts; History; Hunting; Inuit

G081
Canadian Arctic


The role of the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre in higher education in the north   /   Arnold, C.D.
In: Education, research, information systems and the North / Edited by W.P. Adams. - [Ottawa] : Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies, 1987, p. 54-56
ASTIS record 20505.
Languages: English

Established in 1979, the Centre has earned a role as the senior institution of a developing network of community museums, archives and other programs extending throughout the Northwest Territories. [In-house endeavours are described, as are opportunities for participation in higher education and research.] (Au)

R
Archives; Higher education; Museums; Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre

G0812, G0813
N.W.T.; Nunavut; Yellowknife, N.W.T.


Preliminary report on the 1986 activities of the Mackenzie Delta heritage project : excavations at Gupuk (NiTs-1)   /   Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre   Arnold, C.D.   Archaeological Survey of Canada [Sponsor]
[S.l.] : Archaeological Survey of Canada, 1986.
34 p.
(Manuscript report - Archaeological Survey of Canada, no. 2821)
(NOGAP project no. F.01 : Northern hydrocarbon archaeology : A coordinated attempt at developing an integrated archaeological resource management system within the NOGAP area)
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from NOGAP.
ASTIS record 30884.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONMM OORD

Investigations were carried out at the Mackenzie Inuit winter village of Gupuk (NiTs-1) located on the east side of Richards Island on the shore of the East Channel. Over 2,000 artifacts were recovered from excavations and from eroding surfaces of the site. Although there is a wide variety of tool types, only one European artifact, a blue bead, was found. All faunal material, with the exception of beluga bone, was brought out of the field for identification. Foot and helicopter surveys were also conducted along the coast of Richards Island and along the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula and the Eskimo Lakes/Sitigi Lakes chain. (NOGAP)

U, B, I
Aerial surveys; Artifacts; Food; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Mackenzie Eskimos; Palaeontology

G0812
Eskimo Lakes region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; Richards Island, N.W.T.; Sitidgi Lake region, N.W.T.; Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, N.W.T.


Archaeological investigations in the Mackenzie Delta and Eskimo Lakes, 1985   /   Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre   Arnold, C.D.   Archaeological Survey of Canada [Sponsor]
[S.l.] : Archaeological Survey of Canada, 1986.
2 v. (99 p.).
(Manuscript report - Archaeological Survey of Canada, no. 2495)
(NOGAP project no. F.01 : Northern hydrocarbon archaeology : A coordinated attempt at developing an integrated archaeological resource management system within the NOGAP area)
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from NOGAP.
ASTIS record 30883.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONMM OORD

Archaeological investigations at Saunatuk and the Narrows on the Eskimo Lakes and at Gopuk on the west bank of the east channel of the Mackenzie River across from Kittigazuit. All sites are prehistoric Mackenzie Inuit. Saunatuk, at the end of a peninsula on the Eskimo Lakes, contained a relatively large amount of human skeletal material as well as faunal material and 175 artifacts. The Narrows site was mapped and briefly tested. The faunal remains consisted largely of caribou and fish. Some human remains were noted on the surface of the Narrows site. The Gopuk site produced a quantity of surface collected artifacts and faunal remains. (NOGAP)

U, B, I
Artifacts; Bones; Food; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Mackenzie Eskimos; Palaeontology

G0812
Eskimo Lakes region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.


Exhibiting "In Search of the Thule Pioneers"   /   Arnold, C.D.   Wolfe, W.
(Thule pioneers / Edited by E. Bielawski, C. Kobelka and R.R. Janes. Occasional papers of the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre, no. 2, 1986, p. 95-110, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 18743.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The authors describe the mounting of the exhibit "In search of the Thule Pioneers", a museum exhibit produced at and for the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre, created to share the findings from the Thule archaeological dig on Banks Island. The concept, storyline, design, and production of this exhibit are explained. (ASTIS)

U
Artifacts; Ethnographic collections; Inuit; Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre; Thule culture

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Yellowknife, N.W.T.


In search of the Thule pioneers   /   Arnold, C.D.
(Thule pioneers / Edited by E. Bielawski, C. Kobelka and R.R. Janes. Occasional papers of the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre, no. 2, 1986, p. 1-93, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 18740.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This paper recounts the findings of the Banks Island Archaeological Research Project. The main objective of this survey and excavation was to trace the original Thule expansion. The paper contains an amplitude of photographs of recovered artifacts with much description and insight into their uses, thereby expanding our knowledge of Thule Culture. (ASTIS)

U
Artifacts; Culture (Anthropology); Ethnology; Food; Human migration; Inuit; Origin of peoples; Radiocarbon dating; Subsistence; Thule culture

G0813, G081, G06, G10
Alaska, Northern; Banks Island, N.W.T.; Canadian Arctic; Vestgrønland


A nineteenth-century Mackenzie Inuit site near Inuvik, Northwest Territories   /   Arnold, C.D.
(Arctic, v. 39, no. 1, Mar. 1986, p. 8-14, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 18459.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic39-1-8.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic2038
Libraries: ACU

A small collection of artifacts obtained from an aboriginal Mackenzie Inuit grave eroded by the Mackenzie River is described. The site appears to date to within the second half of the 19 century, following European contact but before acculturative processes and population decline, which brought about the extinction of traditional Mackenzie Inuit culture. (Au)

U
Inuit archaeology

G0812
Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.


Archaeological reconnaissance in the Mackenzie Delta-Eskimo Lakes region, summer 1984   /   Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre   Arnold, C.D.   Archaeological Survey of Canada [Sponsor]
[S.l.] : Archaeological Survey of Canada, 1985.
2 v. (32 p.) : ill.
(Manuscript report - Archaeological Survey of Canada, no. 2424)
(NOGAP project no. F.01 : Northern hydrocarbon archaeology : A coordinated attempt at developing an integrated archaeological resource management system within the NOGAP area)
Not seen by ASTIS. Citation from NOGAP.
ASTIS record 30885.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONMM OORD

Report on helicopter supported archaeological reconnaissance in the lower Mackenzie Delta - Eskimo Lakes region. The survey routes chosen permitted the examination of a proposed natural gas pipeline, and the re-examination of known sites in the area. A map showing the four flights is included, as is a catalogue of artifacts collected at two sites (NhTs-4 and NiTs-1). Also included are photographs of artifacts and sites. (NOGAP)

U, Q
Aerial surveys; Artifacts; Gas pipelines; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Mackenzie Eskimos

G0812
Eskimo Lakes region, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.


Public archaeology in the Northwest Territories   /   Janes, R.R.   Arnold, C.D.
(Arctic archaeology / Edited by S. Milligan. Musk-ox, no. 33, 1983, p. 42-44, ill., map)
ASTIS record 18718.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

With the establishment of an Archaeology Program in 1982, the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre began to assume greater responsibilities for the protection of the archaeological resources of the Northwest Territories. This paper reviews areas of responsibility, summarizes problems encountered in doing archaeology in the Northwest Territories, and advocates particular approaches to cultural resource management. Those approaches which are favoured combine education, public participation, and dissemination of information with sound research goals. (Au)

U, R
Archaeology; Education; Heritage resources law; Information services; Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre; Research

G0812, G0813
N.W.T.; Nunavut


A summary of the prehistory of the western Canadian Arctic   /   Arnold, C.D.
(Arctic archaeology / Edited by S. Milligan. Musk-ox, no. 33, 1983, p. 10-20, ill.)
Reviewed by ASTIS record 18723.
References.
ASTIS record 18714.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The western regions of the Canadian Arctic bear evidence of human occupation extending more than 3500 years into the past. Although the western Canadian Arctic cannot be separated from adjacent regions when constructing cultural histories, prehistoric occupations of that area often show significant differences when compared to their neighbours to the east and the west. Viewed on a regional basis, the archaeological record provides a glimpse into the complexity of cultural development in the Arctic. (Au)

U
Artifacts; Human migration; Inuit; Palaeoeskimo culture; Punuk culture; Thule culture

G0813, G0812, G0811
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Mackenzie Delta, Yukon; Melville Island, N.W.T./Nunavut; Victoria Island, N.W.T./Nunavut


The intellectual context   /   Arnold, C.D.
(Archaeology in the Northwest Territories. Northern perspectives, v. 10, no. 6, Nov. 1982, p. 2-4, ill.)
ASTIS record 43102.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... The application of scientific techniques of archaeology, combined with judicious borrowing from other fields of study, has resulted in a corpus of information on the events of the prehistoric period. In turn, the Northwest Territories provides a proving ground for the development and testing of new archaeological procedures and in this way contributes to the discipline as a whole. ... Undoubtedly, there are new archaeological discoveries waiting to be made in the Northwest Territories, and researchers will continue to fill gaps in the record, but the emphasis now is on investigations into how different adaptations developed, and why those particular configurations rather than others coalesced. The next major advances in archaeological knowledge likely will come from the development of new analytical techniques to resolve those questions. Some of the most promising new approaches are being developed in the field of ethnoarchaeology - the study of living cultures that maintain ties to the past in an effort to gain a better understanding of archaeological remains. ... Ethnoarchaeology is still in its infancy, but it is a logical next step for researchers in the Northwest Territories because the N.W.T. is one of the few places on the continent still occupied by indigenous peoples who maintain lifestyles not far removed from those of their ancestors. Unfortunately, if recent trends continue and the North strives to "catch up" with the outside world, much of the traditional knowledge and experience will soon be gone. ... Archaeological sites and the information they contain are a non-renewable resource. ... The exposed or shallowly buried nature of the majority of archaeological sites makes them extremely vulnerable in the face of development, and especially to activities that have significant impacts upon the landscape. ... Effective legislation and educational programmes can go a long way towards protecting archaeological sites from human disturbances. However, a third process - natural erosion - is managed less easily. ... Archaeologists have yet another and equally pressing responsibility. Most archaeological research is funded ultimately by the public purse, and thus the archaeological profession must show why archaeological resources warrant further study and protection. These needs have not been communicated adequately to those outside the profession. If the rich heritage of the past is to be preserved, and knowledge of the past pursued through archaeological investigations, the responsibility must be shared by all sectors of society: government, industry, professional archaeologists, and non-archaeologists. The intellectual context of archaeology can no longer remain divorced from its social context. (Au)

U, R
Ethnography; Government regulations; Human ecology; Inuit archaeology; Prehistoric man; Social policy; Thule culture

G0812, G0813
N.W.T.; Nunavut


Demographic process and culture change : an example from the western Canadian Arctic   /   Arnold, C.D.
In: Networks of the past : regional interaction in archaeology : proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference, The Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary, 1981 / Edited by P.D. Francis, F.J. Kense, P.G. Duke. Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, 1981, p. 311-326
References.
ASTIS record 15381.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The discovery of several previously unknown or unreported styles and kinds of tools, as well as new associations of other artifact types, at the Lagoon site (OjRl-3) on Banks Island, N.W.T. has raised questions about the processes of regional diversification and cultural interaction during part of the Paleoeskimo period in arctic prehistory (Arnold 1978). To date, there has been scant evidence to counter the prevailing assumption that Paleoeskimo cultures in the Canadian arctic developed along separate lines from those in Alaska following their divergence from a common Arctic Small Tool tradition base at ca. 2000 B.C. In fact, it seems that for much of prehistoric time the western and central/eastern regions of arctic North America constituted separate culture areas, each of which periodically differentiated into a number of cultural provinces. However, the eclectic nature of the Lagoon assemblage indicates that circumstances within this mosaic, instigating a new trajectory of cultural development. ... This paper accounts for the atypical nature of the Paleoeskimo complex represented at the Lagoon site by outlining how a drop in population which seems to have occured over parts of the western Canadian Arctic between 1000 and 500 B.C. could have fostered new social interrelationships, which are manifest in the form of new traits and trait clusters in the artifact assemblage. (Au)

U
Palaeoeskimo culture; Population

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.; Masik River, N.W.T.


A Paleoeskimo occupation on southern Banks Island, N.W.T.   /   Arnold, C.D.
(Recent research in Eskimo archaeology, papers / Canadian Archaeological Association/Society for American Archaeology Symposium, Vancouver, B.C., April 25-26, 1979. Arctic, v. 33, no. 3, Sept. 1980, p. 400-426, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 5302.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic33-3-400.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic2574
Libraries: ACU

Significant changes occurred within Paleoeskimo cultures during the first millenium B.C. Archaeological remains from the Lagoon site, on Banks Island, N.W.T., provide a new perspective on the nature of those changes and insights into some of the processes involved. (Au)

U
Archaeology; Artifacts; Inuit; Palaeoeskimo culture

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Possible evidence of domestic dog in a Paleoeskimo context   /   Arnold, C.D.
(Arctic, v. 32, no. 3, Sept. 1979, p. 263-265, figure)
References.
ASTIS record 2810.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic32-3-263.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic2625
Libraries: ACU

... domestic dogs played a significant role in the adaptive strategies of most historic Inuit and their archaeological predecessors, the Neoeskimo. ... More skeletal material would be desirable in order to provide a firm identification; nonetheless, the available evidence strongly suggests that a domestic or tamed canid is represented. This conclusion lends some measure of support to the idea that domestic dogs are an integral part of cultural adaptation to the arctic, and as such will probably be shown to have had a widespread distribution in Paleoeskimo cultures. (Au)

U
Dogs; Inuit archaeology

G0813
Canadian Arctic Islands


The Lagoon site (OjR1-3) : implications for Paleoeskimo interactions   /   Arnold, C.D.   Raymond, J.S. [Supervisor]
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, 1978.
xii, 203 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.
(Canadian theses on microfiche, no. 39214)
(Paper - Archaeological Survey of Canada, no. 107, 1981)
(Grant-in-aid - Arctic Institute of North America)
Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Calgary, Dept. of Archaeology, Calgary, Alta., 1978.
Bibliography: p. 188-203.
ASTIS record 8733.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Excavations at the Lagoon site (OjR1-3) on the southern coast of Banks Island, N.W.T., have provided a data base with which to formulate hypotheses concerning the Paleoeskimo culture history of the western periphery of the Canadian Arctic at ca. 500 B.C. In the several centuries previous to that date, Dorset culture is believed to have evolved in the Foxe Basin - Hudson Strait region of the Eastern Arctic, and from there spread by immigration into areas formerly occupied by Pre-Dorset people. At about the same time, Choris and Norton complexes were expanding from Alaska into northwestern Canada. The artifact assemblage obtained from Lagoon site incorporates traits which are characteristic of several of these Paleoeskimo complexes. Since it appears that no more than one occupational episode is represented at the site, diffusion resulting from cross-cultural interactions is hypothesized to account for the nature of the data. In order to develop this postulate, aspects of models devised for historical, biological and anthropological explanations are drawn upon. (Au)

U
Artifacts; Inuit; Inuit archaeology; Palaeoeskimo culture; Theses

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Excavations at the Lagoon Site (OjRl-3), Banks Island, N.W.T., 1977   /   Arnold, C.D.
[Calgary : Dept. of Archaeology, University of Calgary, 1977].
vi, 38 leaves : maps, tables, plates ; 29cm.
Bibliography: p.25-26.
ASTIS record 2009.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This report constitutes a preliminary analysis of the results of a second season of archaeological investigations at the Lagoon Site (OjR1-3), a Paleoeskimo campsite situated near the mouth of the Masik River on the southwest coast of Banks Island, N.W.T. .... Accordingly, a crew of five spent seven weeks at the site during the summer of 1977, testing new areas and extending the excavations of the previous year. The data thus obtained is seen to have a bearing upon our interpretation of the nature of the prehistoric cultural interactions between the western and eastern regions of the North American Arctic. (Au)

V, T, U
Artifacts; History; Inuit; Inuit archaeology

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


Archaeological site survey and excavations on Banks Island, 1976   /   Arnold, C.D.
Calgary, Alta. : University of Calgary, Dept. of Archaeology, [197-?].
vii, 67 p. : figures, [14] leaves of plates, tables ; 30 cm.
Bibliography: leaves 52, 53.
ASTIS record 13836.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

A field programme of archaeological research was conducted during the summer of 1976 for the purpose of investigating the nature and extent of Thule Eskimo occupations along the south coast of Banks Island, N.W.T., from the region of the Masik River in the east to Cape Kellet in the west .... Accordingly, a crew of four was put down by helicopter near the mouth of the Masik River on June 20 with the intent of conducting a foot and boat survey northwest along the coast. Plans in this regard were frustrated, however, as the sea ice in the research area failed to go out until the second week in August. A thorough survey of the areas within hiking distance was conducted during this period; the major part of the time, however, was spent excavating a site showing Pre-Dorset cultural affinities which was located a short distance southeast of the Masik River. ... This report reflects a preliminary assessment of the data obtained, and as such will hopefully contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the history and prehistory of Banks Island. (Au)

U
Thule culture

G0812
Banks Island, N.W.T.


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