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Response of lacustrine biota to Late Holocene climate and environmental conditions in northernmost Ungava (Canada)   /   Saulnier-Talbot, É.   Larocque-Tobler, I.   Gregory-Eaves, I.   Pienitz, R.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 153-168, ill., maps
ASTIS record 80913

Sediment cores from three lakes located in the northernmost region of Ungava, Québec (Canada) were examined to define aquatic community and ecosystem variability during the Late Holocene period. A chironomid-based transfer function was used to reconstruct August air temperature trends, and lacustrine primary production was inferred from sedimentary biogenic silica content and siliceous microfossil abundances. Trends in primary production, sediment organic matter content (estimated through loss on ignition), and chironomid-inferred temperature were compared to explore potential effects of environmental change on biotic assemblage composition at centennial to millennial time scales. Although no direct correlation between chironomid-inferred August air temperature and primary production was observed, we found indications that both chironomid and diatom communities were responding to the same overarching regional climatic and environmental processes. Over the last decade, northern Québec has been undergoing notable, rapid warming that contrasts with the relative inertia of the past few millennia. This study provides a baseline against which recent and future environmental changes in this region can be compared.

Les archives sédimentaires couvrant la période de l’Holocène tardif ont été examinées dans trois lacs situés dans la région du nord de l’Ungava, au Québec (Canada). Un modèle d’inférence basé sur les assemblages de chironomides a été utilisé pour reconstruire la variabilité des températures de l’air du mois d’août, et la production primaire lacustre a été inférée par le contenu sédimentaire en silice biogénique et les abondances des microfossiles siliceux. Les variations historiques de la production primaire, du contenu organique du sédiment (évalué par la perte au feu) et les températures inférées ont été comparées afin d’explorer les effets potentiels des changements environnementaux sur la composition des assemblages à différentes échelles temporelles (centenaires à millénaires). Malgré le fait qu’aucune corrélation directe n’ait été observée entre les températures inférées en août et la productivité primaire, certaines indications suggèrent que les communautés de chironomides et de diatomées répondaient aux mêmes processus climatiques et environnementaux régionaux. Au cours de la dernière décennie, le nord du Québec a connu un réchauffement rapide et marqué, contrastant avec l’inertie relative des derniers millénaires. Cette étude fournit le scénario de référence par rapport auquel les changements environnementaux actuels et futurs pourront être comparés dans cette région.


Identification of potential foraging areas for bowhead whales in Baffin Bay and adjacent waters   /   Nielsen, N.H.   Laidre, K.   Larsen, R.S.   Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 169-179, ill., maps
ASTIS record 80916

The bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) is the Arctic’s largest and most dependent predator on zooplankton; however, knowledge about its important foraging areas in Baffin Bay and adjacent waters is limited. Data on movement, horizontal velocity (ms-1), dive depth (m), and dive rate (dives h-1) were obtained from 39 bowhead whales (31 females, 6 males, and 2 of undetermined sex) instrumented with satellite-linked time-depth recorders (SLTDRs) in spring 2009 and 2010 in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Thirty-eight whales provided information on dive rates and movement, and potential foraging areas were identified on the basis of low dive rates and stationary behaviour. Nine potential foraging areas were identified: Disko Bay and adjacent region, Clyde Inlet, Isabella Bay, Broughton Island, Cumberland Sound, Frobisher Bay, Hudson Strait, southern Foxe Basin, and northern Foxe Basin. Two females returned to Disko Bay the following spring (duration of tags > 420 days). Their diving behavior indicated that all whales exhibited a large degree of flexibility in their use of potential feeding areas in Baffin Bay and adjacent waters. The variability of habitat selection may buffer against climate-induced changes in the preferred habitats of bowhead whales.

La baleine boréale (Balaena mysticetus) est le plus grand prédateur de zooplancton de l’Arctique. Elle est également le prédateur qui dépend le plus de cette espèce. Cependant, on possède peu de connaissances sur les importantes zones d’alimentation de la baleine boréale dans la baie de Baffin et les eaux adjacentes. Des données au sujet des déplacements et de la vélocité horizontale (ms-1), de la profondeur des plongeons (m) et du taux de plongeons (plongeons h-1) ont été obtenues à partir de 39 baleines boréales (31 femelles, six mâles et deux baleines au sexe non déterminé) dotées d’enregistreurs de profondeur temporelle satellitaires (SLTDR) au printemps 2009 et au printemps 2010 dans la baie de Disko, dans l’ouest du Groenland. Trente-huit baleines ont permis d’obtenir de l’information sur le taux de plongeons et les déplacements, de même que sur les zones d’alimentation potentielles en fonction des plongeons en faible profondeur et du comportement stationnaire. Neuf zones d’alimentation potentielles ont été déterminées, soit la baie de Disko et la région adjacente, le passage Clyde, la baie Isabella, la baie Broughton, le détroit de Cumberland, la baie Frobisher, le détroit d’Hudson, le sud du bassin Foxe et le nord du bassin Foxe. Deux femelles sont retournées à la baie de Disko le printemps suivant (durée des étiquettes > 420 jours). Leur comportement de plongée laissait entrevoir que toutes les baleines possédaient un grand degré de souplesse quant à leur utilisation des zones d’alimentation potentielles dans la baie de Baffin et les eaux adjacentes. La variabilité de la sélection de l’habitat peut avoir pour effet d’amortir les changements découlant du climat dans les habitats préférés des baleines boréales.


Regional variability of megabenthic community structure across the Canadian Arctic   /   Roy, V.   Iken, K.   Archambault, P.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 180-192, ill., map
ASTIS record 80919

Major climate changes are underway in the Canadian Arctic, but our ability to monitor and predict their impact on faunal community structure is hindered by the lack of baseline diversity data. This study combined megabenthic community data sampled at 78 stations from 2007 to 2011 across the Western and Eastern Canadian Arctic biogeographic units. These large biogeographic units were divided into five geographical regions to provide regional estimates of observed and predicted taxon richness. We did not detect a strong regional difference in benthic community characteristics, observing only a lower richness in the Amundsen Gulf region than in the neighboring Beaufort Sea region. The Amundsen Gulf region had the highest turnover (beta) diversity, coincident with high environmental heterogeneity. The strong and distinctive presence in the Beaufort Sea region of Saduria spp., a euryhaline isopod, demonstrated the particular influence of the Mackenzie River on the community composition of that region. Our analysis showed that in various regions, about 34% to 59% of megabenthic taxa in Canadian Arctic waters are still to be documented. This study provides useful baseline data for both national and pan-Arctic evaluations of benthic diversity in the Arctic Ocean.

Des changements climatiques majeurs sont en cours dans l’Arctique canadien, mais notre capacité à surveiller et à prévoir leurs impacts sur la structure des communautés est entravée par le manque de données de référence sur la diversité. Cette étude combine des données sur les communautés mégabenthiques échantillonnées à 78 stations de 2007 à 2011 à l’intérieur des unités biogéographiques de l’ouest et de l’est de l’Arctique canadien. Ces grandes unités biogéographiques ont été divisées en cinq régions géographiques afin de fournir des estimations régionales de richesse taxonomique observée et prédite. Nous n’avons pas détecté de fortes différences régionales dans les caractéristiques des communautés benthiques. Seule la richesse observée est inférieure dans le golfe d’Amundsen par rapport à la région voisine de la mer de Beaufort. La région du golfe d’Amundsen a la diversité bêta la plus élevée, ce qui coïncide avec une grande hétérogénéité de conditions environnementales. La composition taxonomique de la mer de Beaufort est différente de celle des autres régions. La présence distinctive et forte de Saduria spp., un isopode euryhalin, dans la région de la mer de Beaufort illustre l’influence du fleuve Mackenzie sur la composition taxonomique de cette région. Notre analyse démontre que régionalement, environ 34 % à 59 % des taxa mégabenthiques restent à être répertoriés dans les eaux arctiques canadiennes. Cette étude fournit des données de référence utiles pour les évaluations nationales et panarctiques de la diversité benthique de l’océan Arctique.


Seasonal movements and diving of ringed seals, Pusa hispida, in the western Canadian Arctic, 1999-2001 and 2010-11   /   Harwood, L.A.   Smith, T.G.   Auld, J.C.   Melling, H.   Yurkowski, D.J.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 193-209, ill., maps
ASTIS record 80930

Satellite-linked time-depth recorders were deployed on 17 ringed seals in early summer in 1999, 2000, and 2010, near the Inuvialuit community of Ulukhaktok, Northwest Territories, Canada. The main objective was to investigate movements and diving behaviour of ringed seals in the Prince Albert Sound (PAS) and eastern Amundsen Gulf (EAG) regions in relation to season, sex, and age-class. Tags performed well on 16 of 17 tagged seals, with average tracking periods of 256 d (SD 69, range: 134 - 352). Adult and subadult ringed seals traveled considerable distances throughout the open water period (mean = 5844 km, range = 1232 - 9473 km), using vast home ranges during this season, shown with 90 Percent Volume Contours (90 PVC) averaging 122 854 km² for subadults, 76 658 km² for adult females, and 21 649 km² for adult males. Overall, adults spent 69.5% of the observed open water days in foraging/resident mode and 22.8% in traveling mode. The majority (75%) of total observed foraging/resident time was spent in PAS and EAG. Eleven of 12 adults made forays outside EAG and PAS to distant areas, including Prince of Wales Strait (7 seals), Viscount Melville Sound (6), Minto Inlet (4), western Amundsen Gulf (4), and six other zones. During open water season, subadults spent 36.8% traveling and 51.4% foraging/ resident, also mainly in EAG and PAS (61%), but they all traveled to distant zones, eight in total. During winter, all tagged adult females, five of seven adult males, and three of four subadults returned to PAS and EAG to occupy winter home ranges that were on average 15% of the size of the open water home range (mean winter ranges = 1299 km² for adult males, 3599 km² for adult females, and 30 499 km² for subadults). The mean size of the winter home ranges varied by as much as a factor of 10 among the three winters examined. Seal movements were most restricted during the winters with extensive fast ice (1999 - 2000 and 2010 - 11) and least restricted during the winter (2000 - 01) when fast ice did not form in EAG. In winter, adult females made more long, deep dives than either adult males or subadults.

Des enregistreurs de profondeur temporelle en liaison avec un satellite ont été déployés sur 17 phoques annelés au début des étés 1999, 2000 et 2010 près de la collectivité inuvialuite d’Ulukhaktok, dans les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, au Canada. L’objectif principal consistait à étudier les déplacements et les comportements de plongée des phoques annelés des régions du détroit de Prince-Albert (DPA) et de la partie est du golfe Amundsen (EGA) en fonction de la saison, du sexe et de la classe d’âge. Les étiquettes ont donné des résultats valables dans le cas de 16 des 17 phoques étiquetés, les périodes moyennes de pistage ayant atteint 256 jours (SD 69, étendue : 134 - 352). Les phoques annelés adultes et jeunes adultes parcouraient des distances considérables pendant la période des eaux libres (moyenne = 5 844 km, étendue = 1 232 - 9 473 km), dans de vastes domaines vitaux au cours de la saison. Les pourcentages du volume des contours de 90 (90 PVC) s’établissaient en moyenne à 122 854 km² pour les jeunes adultes, à 76 658 km² pour les femelles adultes et à 21 649 km² pour les mâles adultes. Dans l’ensemble, les adultes ont passé 69,5 % des journées observées en eaux libres en mode d’alimentation et de résidence, et 22,8 % en mode de déplacement. La majorité (75 %) du temps total observé en mode d’alimentation et de résidence était dans le DPA et l’EGA. Onze adultes sur 12 se sont aventurés en dehors du DPA et de l’EGA pour atteindre des endroits éloignés, dont le détroit du Prince-de-Galles (7 phoques), le détroit du Vicomte de Melville (6), l’anse Mintot (4), l’ouest du golfe Amundsen (4) et six autres zones. Pendant la saison des eaux libres, les jeunes adultes ont passé 36,8 % du temps en mode de déplacement et 51,4 % du temps en mode d’alimentation ou de résidence, également principalement dans le DPG et l’EGA (61 %), mais ils se sont tous rendus dans des zones éloignées, huit en tout. Durant l’hiver, toutes les femelles adultes étiquetées, cinq mâles adultessur sept et trois jeunes adultes sur quatre sont revenus dans le DPA et l’EGA pour occuper des domaines vitaux hivernaux qui correspondaient, en moyenne, à 15 % de la taille du domaine vital en eaux libres (étendues moyennes des domaines hivernaux = 1 299 km² pour les mâles adultes, 3 599 km² pour les femelles adultes et 30 499 km² pour les jeunes adultes). La taille moyenne des domaines vitaux hivernaux a varié en fonction d’un facteur de 10 au cours des trois hivers à l’étude. Le déplacement des phoques était plus restreint pendant les hivers où la glace était rapide (1999-2000 et 2010-2011) et moins restreint pendant l’hiver (2000-2001) où la glace rapide ne s’est pas formée dans l’EGA. L’hiver, les femelles adultes faisaient plus de plongées longues et profondes que les mâles adultes ou les jeunes adultes.


Cultural consensus on salmon fisheries and ecology in the Copper River, Alaska   /   Naves, L.C.   Simeone, W.E.   Lowe, M.E.   Valentine, E.M.   Stickwan, G.   Brady, J.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 210-222, ill., maps
ASTIS record 80935

This study assessed levels of agreement in knowledge and opinions about salmon fisheries and ecology of the Copper River, Alaska, in three user groups: the Ahtna, an Alaska Native people indigenous to the upper river; commercial fishers who fish at the mouth of the river; and fishery managers and biologists with jurisdiction over the entire watershed. We anticipated that cultural background, academic training, long-term experience on the water, and spatial focus would be reflected in each group’s knowledge and opinions. Cultural consensus analysis showed agreement within each group, similar opinions between commercial fishers and managers and biologists, and distinct Ahtna opinions. Managers and biologists were the most cohesive group; they related to the entire watershed and relied on quantitative information as the basis for fisheries management. Ahtna focused on the upper river and incorporated observed long-term sociocultural, economic, and environmental changes into their opinions about the fisheries. Commercial fishers focused on the lower river and had strong familiarity with scientific principles of fisheries management. The similar views of commercial fishers and managers and biologists may result from the fact that commercial fishers’ economic success also depends on their understanding of fisheries management. To respond to socioeconomic and ecological sustainability issues, fisheries management would benefit from recognizing these perspectives and promoting participation of all stakeholder groups and effective communication among them.

Cette étude a permis d’évaluer les degrés d’accord en matière de connaissances et d’opinions sur l’écologie et la pêche au saumon de la rivière Copper, en Alaska, chez trois groupes d’utilisateurs : les Ahtna, peuple autochtone de l’Alaska natif du haut de la rivière; les pêcheurs commerciaux qui pêchent à l’embouchure de la rivière; et les gestionnaires et biologistes des pêches qui ont compétence sur l’ensemble du bassin versant. Nous nous attendions à ce que les connaissances et les opinions de chaque groupe soient rattachées aux antécédents culturels, à l’expérience académique, à l’expérience à long terme de la pêche et l’orientation spatiale. L’analyse du consensus culturel a permis de démontrer un accord au sein de chaque groupe, des opinions similaires entre les pêcheurs commerciaux et les biologistes-gestionnaires, et des opinions distinctes chez les Ahtna. Les biologistes-gestionnaires ont constitué le groupe le plus cohérent. Ils comprenaient l’ensemble du bassin versant et s’appuyaient sur des données quantitatives pour gérer les pêches. Pour leur part, les Ahtna se concentraient sur le haut de la rivière et tenaient compte, dans leurs opinions au sujet des pêches, des changements socioculturels, économiques et environnementaux observés à long terme. Les pêcheurs commerciaux se concentraient sur le bas de la rivière et connaissaient bien les principes scientifiques de la gestion des pêches. Les points de vue similaires des pêcheurs commerciaux et des biologistes-gestionnaires peuvent découler du fait que la réussite financière des pêcheurs commerciaux dépend aussi de leur compréhension de la gestion des pêches. Pour répondre aux questions de durabilité écologique et socioéconomique, la gestion des pêches pourrait bénéficier de la reconnaissance de ces perspectives, puis promouvoir la participation de tous les groupes d’intervenants de même que des communications efficaces entre eux.


Monetary poverty in Inuit Nunangat   /   Duhaime, G.   Édouard, R.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 223-232
ASTIS record 80939

This article measures for the first time the scope of poverty in Inuit Nunangat, the four regions of the Canadian Arctic where Inuit people live. On the basis of a monetary definition of poverty, we propose and apply a method adapted to key characteristics of the Inuit condition. For each region, we developed a low income measure (LIM) that takes household composition and consumer prices into account, using data from the master file of the 2006 Census of Canada and surveys by Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada on the Revised Northern Food Basket. For Inuit Nunangat as a whole, the low income measure was $22 216 and the low income rate (LIR) was 44%. Values vary among regions: in Nunavik, for example, the low income rate is 37.5%. However, throughout Inuit Nunangat, poverty rates are significantly higher than those observed in Canada. We recommend further statistical exploration to better identify not only the factors correlated with households living in poverty, but also a qualitative approach to produce an Inuit emic perspective. Both tools are necessary for informed policy to fight against poverty.

Cet article mesure, pour la première fois, l’étendue de la pauvreté dans l’Inuit Nunangat, les quatre régions de l’Arctique canadien habitées par les Inuits. En nous fondant sur une définition monétaire de la pauvreté, nous proposons une méthode qui tient compte de caractéristiques de la condition inuite : pour chacune des régions, nous avons développé une mesure du faible revenu (MFR) qui reflète la composition des ménages par l’utilisation des données du fichier-maître du Recensement du Canada de 2006, et les prix à la consommation par l’utilisation des données du Panier de provision nordique révisé calculé par le ministère des Affaires autochtones et du Développement du Nord du Canada. Pour l’ensemble de l’Inuit Nunangat, la mesure du faible revenu (MFR) obtenue se situait à 22 216 $, et le taux de faible revenu (TFR) était de 44 %. Les résultats varient selon les régions : au Nunavik, par exemple, le taux de faible revenu est de 37,5 %. Néanmoins, les taux de pauvreté dans l’Inuit Nunangat sont significativement plus élevés que ceux observés au Canada. Nous recommandons que des études subséquentes approfondissent la question, d’abord des études statistiques avancées pour identifier les caractéristiques associées à la pauvreté monétaire, ensuite des études qualitatives pour dépasser la définition monétaire de la pauvreté et parvenir à une définition émique, c’est-à-dire, une définition qui rendrait compte de la perception inuite de la pauvreté. Ces deux types d’études constitueraient des apports nécessaires pour mieux orienter les politiques de lutte à la pauvreté.


Inuit traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), subsistence hunting and adaptation to climate change in the Canadian Arctic   /   Pearce, T.   Ford, J.   Cunsolo Willox, A.   Smit, B.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 233-245, ill., map
ASTIS record 80944

This paper examines the role of Inuit traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in adaptation to climate change in the Canadian Arctic. It focuses on Inuit relationships with the Arctic environment, including hunting knowledge and land skills, and examines their roles in adaptation to biophysical changes that affect subsistence hunting. In several instances, TEK underpins competency in subsistence and adaptations to changing conditions, which includes flexibility with regard to seasonal cycles of hunting and resource use, hazard avoidance through detailed knowledge of the environment and understanding of ecosystem processes, and emergency preparedness, e.g., knowing what supplies to take when traveling and how to respond in emergency situations. Despite the documented importance of TEK in adaptation and in maintaining a level of competency in subsistence, the relationships between TEK and adaptation to climate change are not well defined in the scholarly literature. This paper aims to conceptualize the relationships between TEK and adaptation to climate change by drawing on case study research with Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. TEK is considered an element of adaptive capacity (or resilience) that is expressed as adaptation if TEK is drawn upon to adapt to changing conditions.

Cet article se penche sur le rôle des connaissances écologiques traditionnelles (CET) inuites en matière d’adaptation au changement climatique dans l’Arctique canadien. Il porte plus précisément sur les relations des Inuits avec l’environnement de l’Arctique, notamment en ce qui a trait à leurs connaissances de la chasse et à leurs pratiques ancestrales, puis il examine leur rôle en matière d’adaptation aux changements biophysiques qui exercent une influence sur la chasse de subsistance. Dans plusieurs cas, les CET servent de fondement aux aptitudes de survie et à l’adaptation aux conditions changeantes, ce qui implique de la souplesse vis-à-vis des cycles saisonniers de chasse et d’utilisation des ressources, l’évitement des dangers grâce à une connaissance approfondie de l’environnement et à la compréhension de la dynamique des écosystèmes et l’état de préparation en cas d’urgence, à savoir les vivres et le matériel dont ils doivent se doter lorsqu’ils sont en déplacement et la façon de réagir en situation d’urgence. Malgré l’importance documentée des CET sur l’adaptation et le maintien d’un niveau de compétence en vue de la subsistance, les liens entre les CET et l’adaptation au changement climatique ne sont pas bien définis dans les écrits érudits. Cet article cherche à conceptualiser les liens entre les CET et l’adaptation au changement climatique en s’appuyant sur une recherche d’étude de cas avec les Inuits de l’Arctique canadien. Les CET sont considérées comme un élément de la capacité adaptative (ou de la résilience) exprimée sous forme d’adaptation pourvu qu’elles soient employées pour favoriser l’adaptation aux conditions changeantes. Cette capacité dépend du développement, de l’accumulation et de la transmission des CET au sein des générations et entre elles.


Gendering environmental assessment : women's participation and employment outcomes at Voisey's Bay   /   Cox, D.   Mills, S.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 246-260
ASTIS record 80945

This paper examines the effect of Inuit and Innu women’s participation in environmental assessment (EA) processes on EA recommendations, impact benefit agreement (IBA) negotiations, and women’s employment experiences at Voisey’s Bay Mine, Labrador. The literature on Indigenous participation in EAs has been critiqued for being overly process oriented and for neglecting to examine how power influences EA decision making. In this regard, two issues have emerged as critical to participation in EAs: how EA processes are influenced by other institutions that may help or hinder participation and whether EAs enable marginalized groups within Indigenous communities to influence development outcomes. To address these issues we examine the case of the Voisey’s Bay Nickel Mine in Labrador, in which Indigenous women’s groups made several collective submissions pertaining to employment throughout the EA process. We compare the submissions that Inuit and Innu women’s groups made to the EA panel in the late 1990s to the final EA recommendations and then compare these recommendations to employment-related provisions in the IBA. Finally we compare IBA provisions to workers’ perceptions of gender relations at the mine in 2010. Semi-structured interviews revealed that, notwithstanding the recommendations by women’s groups concerning employment throughout the EA process, women working at the site experienced gendered employment barriers similar to those experienced by women in mining elsewhere. We suggest that the ineffective translation of EA submissions into EA regulations and the IBA, coupled with persistent masculinity within the mining industry, weakened the effect of women’s requests for a comprehensive program to hire and train Indigenous women.

Dans cet article, nous nous penchons sur la participation des femmes inuites et innues aux processus d’évaluations environnementales (EE) et sur l’effet de cette participation sur les recommandations des EE, les négociations relatives à l’entente sur les répercussions et les avantages (ERA) et les expériences de travail à la mine de la baie Voisey, au Labrador. La documentation portant sur la participation indigène aux EE fait l’objet de critiques, en ce sens qu’elle accorderait trop d’importance aux processus et pas suffisamment à l’examen de la manière dont le pouvoir influence les décisions prises dans le cadre des EE. Dans cette optique, deux questions critiques se posent par rapport à la participation aux EE : la manière dont les processus des EE sont influencés par d’autres institutions susceptibles de favoriser la participation ou de lui nuire, et à savoir si les EE permettent aux groupes marginalisés à l’intérieur des communautés indigènes d’influencer les résultats des projets d’exploitation. Pour approfondir ces questions, nous avons examiné le cas de la mine d’exploitation du nickel de la baie Voisey au Labrador, pour lequel des groupes de femmes indigènes ont présenté plusieurs mémoires collectifs se rapportant à l’emploi pendant l’EE. Nous comparons les mémoires présentés par les groupes de femmes inuites et innues à la commission de l’évaluation environnementale vers la fin des années 1990 aux recommandations finales de l’EE, puis nous comparons ces recommandations aux dispositions relatives à l’emploi de l’ERA. Et enfin, nous comparons les dispositions de l’ERA aux perceptions des travailleurs en ce qui a trait aux relations entre les deux sexes à la mine en 2010. Des entrevues semi-structurées ont révélé que, nonobstant les recommandations des groupes de femmes en matière d’emploi dans le cadre du processus de l’EE, les femmes qui travaillent à la mine ont connu des obstacles en raison de leur sexe, à l’instar des obstacles que doivent surmonter les autres femmes du domaine de l’exploitation minière. Nous suggérons que la traduction inefficace des mémoires de l’EE en règlements de l’EE et de l’ERA, jumelée à la masculinité qui prévaut au sein de l’industrie minière, ont eu pour effet d’affaiblir les demandes des femmes préconisant un programme exhaustif d’embauche et de formation de femmes indigènes.


Bernard Roderick Pelletier (1923-2013)   /   Frisch, T.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 268, port.
ASTIS record 80946
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Bernard Roderick Pelletier, known to all as Bern or Bernie, was born in Toronto on 25 June 1923. In 1941, on his 18th birthday, not yet graduated from high school, Bernie enlisted in the army and was posted overseas the following year. ... After the war, Bernie finished high school, and in 1947, he entered McGill University to study geology. There he met Judy, whom he married in 1950, the year they both graduated. Bernie went on to McMaster University, where he obtained an MSc, and thereafter to John Hopkins University for his PhD. Under the guidance of the famed geologist-sedimentologist Francis J. Pettijohn, Bernie's thesis, completed in 1957, was a pioneering analysis of the Pocono sandstone formation of late Paleozoic age in the Central Appalachian basin, which unequivocally indicated that the sediment source was a continental landmass in the east. As only open ocean lay east of the Appalachians, this result was considered heretical in some quarters. With the advent of plate tectonic theory, however, Bernie was fully vindicated. Evidence came to light that, in late Paleozoic time, Africa was joined to eastern North America and could readily have supplied the sediment that formed the Pocono. Bernie was justly proud of this study and considered it to be among his best work. Bernie joined the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) in Ottawa in 1957. ... In 1963, Bernie was appointed Head of Marine Geology at GSC, taking up his duties at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO) in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, where he was to remain for 12 years. Bernie's marine fieldwork was accomplished largely from BIO's research vessel CSS Hudson in Hudson Bay, the Atlantic Ocean, and particularly the Arctic. One diversion occurred in 1968, when Pisces submersibles, the development of which Bernie was involved in, were taken to Thule, Greenland, and put aboard the CCGS Labrador. These craft made numerous dives in the Arctic, from Nares Strait to the Norwegian Sea. Bernie was Chief Scientist on Leg 8 (from Victoria, British Columbia, to Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories) of Hudson-70, the world's last multidisciplinary global oceanographic expedition and the first circumnavigation of the Americas, in 1970. On that leg, two important discoveries were made in the Beaufort Sea: seabed scouring by ice pressure ridges and under-sea pingos, potential hazards to submarine pipelines and ships, respectively. Bernie continued working in the Arctic until 1975, when he returned to the Ottawa headquarters of GSC to complete a series of marine sciences atlases of the Beaufort Sea and surroundings, a task that stretched into his retirement years. Bernie's final contribution, virtually complete at the time of his death in 2013, was the Environmental Atlas of the Beaufort Coastlands. The coastlands include the northern basin of the Mackenzie River drainage area. Comprising 70 essays, 98 maps, and more than 200 photographs, the atlas, co-edited with Barbara Medioli, was released in 2014 as GSC Open File 7619. ...


Yves Oscar Fortier (1914-2014)   /   Frisch, T.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 269-270, port.
ASTIS record 80947
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Yves Fortier, a geologist of unusual versatility, former director of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), and a pioneer of the modern study of Canadian High Arctic geology, died in Ottawa on 19 August 2014, at age 100. Yves Oscar Fortier was born in Quebec City .... His early education was a classical one, at the Jesuit Séminaire de Québec; from there, he went on to Laval University, obtaining a BA in 1936. One of his teachers, Fr. J.W. Laverdière, introduced Yves to geology. Entering Queen's University in 1936, he chose the Geology option in Mining Engineering. He was awarded a BSc in 1940. That same year, Yves began a study of the mineral chromite-important in steelmaking, particularly for the war effort-while employed as a field assistant to Dr. C.H. Stockwell of the GSC, who was investigating the Appalachian rocks of the Eastern Townships of Quebec. This work led to the award of an MSc by McGill University in 1941. Yves continued his investigations of potential chromite deposits in the southern Quebec Appalachians, eventually focusing on geological mapping of the Mount Orford area for the GSC. This project formed the subject of a PhD dissertation at Stanford University, where Yves spent two academic years from 1941 to 1943. In 1943 Yves joined the GSC full-time as a Junior Wartime Technologist and began work in the Archean-age Precambrian shield of the Ross Lake area, northwest of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. After a second summer at Ross Lake, Yves completed mapping of the Mount Orford area in the fall of 1944. His PhD degree was conferred by Stanford in 1946. Yves spent the 1946 field season studying uranium mineralization in the Port Radium area of Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories. Yves began the Arctic phase of his career in 1947, when he was directed to evaluate the potential for local use of coal deposits in the area of Pond Inlet, northern Baffin Island. ... Yves become the first GSC geologist to penetrate the Arctic Islands by air. He was profoundly impressed by the superb exposure of rocks and structures in treeless terrain that was unexplored geologically. In 1949 Yves investigated the Precambrian granitic terrane of Meta Incognita Peninsula, southern Baffin Island, using two Acadia-type fishing boats-one on the Frobisher Bay coast, the other on the Hudson Strait side-and pack dogs on land, respectively crewed and handled by Inuit. By now Yves was the designated Arctic Islands expert at GSC. From a study of air photographs, recently made available, Yves recognized that the folded sedimentary rocks of Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands extended through Cornwallis Island, to the south and east of which lay the platform sediments of Somerset and Devon Islands. Clearly, Cornwallis Island was a key element in the geological architecture of the Arctic Islands. ... As a result, Yves proposed a circumnavigation of Cornwallis Island (7000 km²) by canoe to take place in 1950 and invited Raymond Thorsteinsson, a graduate student in geology and paleontology, and Trevor Harwood of the Defence Research Board, a geologist and former Hudson Bay Company clerk with five years' Arctic experience, to accompany him. ... An account of this remarkable voyage, accomplished without proper maps, has been given by Harwood (1951). ... In the winter of 1953-54, the GSC received a request from the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development for a significant effort to substantiate the petroleum potential of the Arctic Islands. Yves responded by proposing a full-scale, air-supported geological reconnaissance concentrated on the Queen Elizabeth Islands in the spring and summer of 1955. Thus was born Operation Franklin, planned, organized, and led by Yves Fortier. ... After heading successively the GSC's Regional Geology and Economic Geology Divisions in the period 1958-64, Yves in 1964 was appointed 13th director of the Geological Survey of Canada. He was the first francophone to hold that position. His tenure was a time of considerable change, upheaval even, in earth science, as the plate tectonic "revolution" gathered steam and the technology for analyzing and observing Earth rapidly advanced. Yves remained director for nine years, during which the GSC grew and prospered. In 1973 he was appointed Special Advisor for Earth Sciences in the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR), and in 1975 he became the department's Assistant Deputy Minister for Science and Technology. Yves retired in 1976 [with many awards for his achievements and contributions to Arctic geology.]


Raymond Darwin Cameron III (1941-2014)   /   White, R.   Davis, J.L.   Gunn, A.   Russell, D.   Griffith, B.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 271-272, ill.
ASTIS record 80952
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Ray Cameron was widely known as an Arctic scientist and a caribou biologist. And Ray was just as well known and appreciated by colleagues, friends, and family as social and sociable, generous, and as helpful to others as a human can be. In his community of Ester, Alaska, Ray probably plowed more driveways for friends, hosted more gatherings, and organized more barn and house raisings than anyone else. ... His strengths and leanings as a scientist were well recognized in his parallel position as a principal research scientist within the Institute of Arctic Biology and an affiliate professor of wildlife management within the Department of Biology and Wildlife at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. Ray was an untiring advocate for research and a frequent publisher of scientific papers. Ray's PhD research described for the first time the seasonal dynamics of water metabolism and body compositional changes in free-ranging animals at the Reindeer Research Station at Cantwell, Alaska. Ray showed that reindeer were highly adapted to conserve protein-nitrogen even when faced with a low-protein diet. He considered this physiological mechanism as an adaptation to the caribou's foraging on lichens, their main winter forage, which are low in protein. Ray joined ADF&G in 1974 as research biologist studying caribou responses to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and development in the Prudhoe Bay oilfield. He, with ADF&G collaborator Ken Whitten, was instrumental in using radio-collared caribou to identify the Central Arctic Herd as a distinct herd. Then he led the way to measuring how caribou cows avoided the roads and pipelines after calving. This displacement, together with variation in insect harassment, could explain differences in herd productivity. Relating these findings to estimated productivity of females that calved within and adjacent to the oilfield led to recommendations for caribou management. Ray's findings and publications were not without controversy, and even in declining health, he was writing up the last of his analyses on the Central Arctic Herd. Ray's results and their scientific rigor have underpinned much subsequent understanding of how caribou respond to industrial development. He and his colleagues used monitoring of radio-collared females as a means to understand the seasonal dynamics of distribution, body condition, and reproductive success, while also determining survival and growth of calves. Those findings have led to the understanding that Arctic caribou can be habitat-limited, and lifetime reproductive success involves breeding pauses to regain energy and protein reserves after successful weaning. In all, Ray led and contributed to our collective understanding of evolutionary strategies and how caribou adapt to a changeable environment. ... Ray's own words best describe his niche, vision, and mission as an Arctic scientist. In the preface of the Proceedings of the 3rd North American Caribou Workshop (Cameron et al., 1988), he wrote: "This volume is dedicated to the caribou and their ways, to those who endeavor to understand them, and to the belief that understanding will bring forth the wisdom to ensure that those ways are preserved."


Charles Elton's accounts of expeditions from Oxford to the Arctic in the 1920s   /   Pond, C.M.
Arctic, v. 68, no. 2, June 2015, p. 273-279, ill.
ASTIS record 80954

During the 20th Century, university-sponsored expeditions to remote places gradually replaced war and colonization as a young person's chance to demonstrate enterprise, courage, endurance, and organizational ability. Such adventures often set participants on unanticipated career paths and formed lifelong, highly productive friendships. These days, institutions have formal structures for the organization and conduct of expeditions, but there were no such guidelines in the early 1920s, when three groups set out from Oxford to explore the area now known as Svalbard. One such young adventurer was Charles S. Elton, who a decade later established and directed the Bureau of Animal Population in Oxford and became founding editor of the Journal of Animal Ecology. Over the following 35 years, his students and collaborators, who included North Americans Tom Park, Richard Miller, Robert MacArthur, Eugene Odum, Monte Lloyd, William Murdoch, and Dennis Chitty, developed field ecology and population dynamics. Elton participated as a naturalist on all three expeditions, but published only the scientific findings from them. I have recently digitized his unpublished accounts of his personal experiences, which are now freely available as downloadable, searchable files (Elton, 2014a, b, c). The first expedition (Fig. 1) in June - August 1921 was initiated by Julian Huxley (grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley and brother of Aldous), recently returned from active service in World War I, Demonstrator in Zoology and Fellow of New College, Oxford. His main interest was bird behaviour and reproduction, so the 18 expedition members included five ornithologists and others with assorted expertise, including a taxidermist! Much of their equipment was war surplus, including items Charles Elton had acquired from his brother, Leonard, who served with the Army Cyclists Corp. Traveling in a former sealing ship, the Terningen, they camped on Bjørnøya (Bear Island), because it had an “enormous population of sea-birds, especially Guillemots,” on 13 - 23 June 1921; on Prins Karls Forland, off the west coast of Spitsbergen north of Isfjord, on 30 June - 10 July; and near the great Nordenskjold Glacier at the head of Klaas-Billen Bay on 19 July - 16 August. The second expedition to Svalbard, the Merton College Expedition (Fig. 2), also planned in Oxford, took 13 Britons to the Arctic for a month, from 23 July to 23 August 1923.As in 1921, the group set out from Tromsø on the Terningen, this time staffed by nine Norwegians led by Captain Isak Isaksen. They explored Nordaustlandet, the second largest and most northerly island of the archipelago, and Hinlopen Strait between it and northeastern Spitsbergen. Being farther from the warmer seas to the southwest, these areas consist of tundra and permanent ice cap and are still almost uninhabited. The third expedition (Fig. 3), from 7 July to 5 September 1924, concentrated on northwestern Spitsbergen, especially the Woodfjorden and Liefdefjorden areas around 7940 N. With 20 participants, it was the largest and best-equipped expedition, with two ships (Polar bjørn and Oïland), a seaplane, and three sledging parties, and had the most diverse scientific objectives. The Norwegian support team included Captain Helmer J. Hanssen (1870 - 1956), ice-pilot, expert dog-handler, and explorer, who accompanied Amundsen on several Arctic and Antarctic expeditions and was among the group to reach the South Pole on 14 December 1911. ... Three copies of these unpublished documents, partly handwritten and with more than 100 photographs, maps, and drawings on loose-leaf quarto, were filed in simple ring binders. One set was deposited with the Norsk Polarinstitutt, another with the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, and the third was inherited by his family, who lent them to me for digitization. In electronic form, they are now available through the Norsk Polarinstitutt's website (Elton, 2014a, b, c). I have also transcribed and edited Elto n's much more extensive records of wildlife in and around Oxford, especially Wytham Wood, from 1942 to 1965, adding explanatory notes. The Elton Archive is available as downloadable, searchable PDF files through Oxford University's Research Archive (University of Oxford, 2015). His family and I hope these resources will prove useful for historians of science and technology and biographers, as well as those interested in how the climate, landscape, and wildlife have changed during the past century.


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