Have you met SARA?   /   Gau, R.J.   Carrière, S.   Clark, K.   Yonge, L.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. iii-v
ASTIS record 62420

Long before there was legislation that introduced rules about wildlife, people were managing and protecting wildlife in the North. However, the pressures on wildlife have now changed. With climate change and industry pressures, how do we decide what to protect and how to protect it? One factor that influences this decision is the federal Species At Risk Act (SARA), which has started to shape priorities and set directions for northern science. ... Species don't just appear on a species-at-risk list. The first step in creating such lists is to identify which species might be in danger of being at risk, by assessing the general status of wild plants and animals. In the Northwest Territories (NWT), the last general status assessment of species was done in 2006 and included over 1700 species. In the next step, information from the general status ranks is rolled up with information from other Canadian jurisdictions to produce a national general status rank for each species. Species that are ranked as "may be at risk" at the national level are sent to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) for a detailed assessment. COSEWIC then assesses whether a species should be classified as a species at risk and sends its assessment to the federal minister. Generally, the process from COSEWIC assessment to SARA listing has worked well, but there have been some "hiccups," resulting in differences between the COSEWIC and SARA lists. For example, COSEWIC has assessed the Dolphin-Union population of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus), polar bears (Ursus maritimus), grizzly bears (U. arctos), and wolverine (Gulo gulo) as species of special concern, and Peary caribou (R.t. pearyi) as endangered. However, these species have not been added to the legal list under SARA, largely because of consultation issues or socioeconomic considerations. One result of SARA is that the COSEWIC list is no longer used to indicate which species need specialattention. Instead, the focus has shifted noticeably to the more limited SARA list. ... The NWT, Yukon, and Nunavut are in the enviable situation of still having vast areas of intact habitat for our wildlife species. Consequently, some species, such as the boreal population of woodland caribou, are at risk nationally, but not at risk in the North. However, the SARA listing still applies, and effective protection must be provided to SARA-listed species. To keep the federal government from stepping in, northern jurisdictions must proactively show they are effectively protecting these species. The SARA requirement to identify and protect critical habitat for all endangered and threatened species listed by SARA has brought about a shift in habitat-based management. ... SARA's requirement to identify and protect critical habitat should not be the only motive for identifying wildlife research needs. ... SARA funding tends to be directed towards activities such as re-introduction studies or habitat enhancement projects. However, these types of activities are almost never valid as recovery actions in the North. Simple inventories of lesser-known species and population monitoring of species at risk may be priorities for the NWT, but species-at-risk funds rarely cover these kinds of activities. ... The system of land tenure in the North complicates the issue of development and its impacts on species at risk, particularly in the NWT and Nunavut, which lack devolution agreements with the federal government. Under SARA, listed species other than fish or migratory birds receive immediate protection only in national parks, migratory bird sanctuaries, and other areas under the purview of the competent federal ministers under SARA: Environment Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. However, the majority of the land base in Nunavut and the NWT is considered unoccupied federal Crown land. While the governments of the NWT and Nunavut have authority for wildlife management on this land, they do not have control over the land or, therefore, over most wildlife habitat. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) administers the land, but the minister of INAC is not a competent minister under SARA. Thus, there are species listed in a federal act, on federal land in the North, but the role of the primary land manager in implementing SARA is limited, and the role of land and water boards in the North further complicates matters. ... SARA deadlines for recovery strategies and management plans have already changed some northern planning priorities with respect to wildlife research, monitoring, and management. Also, recovery planning under SARA can be challenging. Many of the protocols and policies required to guide recovery planning under SARA are still being developed. Because recovery planning under SARA often involves multiple jurisdictions and national priorities, northern biologists, wildlife managers, wildlife comanagement boards, governments, and aboriginal self-governments need to plan for recovery or monitoring actions that will not only help the species in the North, but also take into consideration the populations outside their jurisdiction. This means priorities and research needs may not be determined in the North. There are still vast expanses of pristine wilderness areas north of the 60th parallel; as a result, the list of species considered to be at risk in the North is significantly smaller than in southern jurisdictions. However, SARA, with its legal list of species at risk, is having a considerable impact on northern wildlife management. The fifth anniversary of SARA is in December 2007. Northern jurisdictions should take this opportunity to cooperatively investigate how SARA has influenced priorities and modified wildlife research and monitoring activities so we can better set priorities for the future. We need to increase efficiencies in listing and recovery planning. We need to come to an understanding about roles and responsibilit ies with respect to species at risk and environmental assessment and land use. And finally, northern jurisdictions have the opportunity to design their own territorial species-at-risk legislation in a way that will not only complement SARA, but also assert the needs and priorities of northern species.

Wind climate of the Whitehorse area   /   Pinard, J.-P.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 227-237, ill., maps
ASTIS record 62421

Measurements from Whitehorse upper-air and nearby mountaintop stations were analyzed with a focus on wind energy development in the region. Fifty years of measurements indicate the region has become warmer and windier. Measurements at the upper-air station have shown increases of 2.7°C for surface temperature and 1 m/s for mid-valley winds over the past 50 years (1956-2005). The winters have warmed more dramatically than the summers. Winter temperature inversions have become shallower, and a mid-valley winter jet has become a predominant feature. Wind data for 2001-05 indicate that a minimum annual mean wind speed of 6 m/s begins at about 150 m above the Whitehorse valley floor, or 850 m above sea level. At this elevation and higher, wind speeds reach a maximum in December and a minimum in July. The predominant wind direction above the mountaintops was from the southwest, while stations within the Whitehorse Valley recorded winds from the south-southeast. Stations that were more exposed to the southwest reported more predominant winds from this direction. An analysis of the relationship between geostrophic and valley winds concluded that, relative to winds aloft, valley winds were as strong in parallel valleys as they were in perpendicular valleys. The pressure gradients associated with the winds aloft were the dominant forcing mechanism for winds in a perpendicular valley. Geostrophic winds that were parallel to the valley forced the valley winds along the same direction through a downward momentum transport. Wintertime inversions suppress the downward momentum transport, but pressure-driven winds are only indirectly modulated by stratification (because of turbulent friction, which is likely to be suppressed by stable stratification) and so are less sensitive to that factor. Further investigation of wind energy potential is recommended for hills within the valleys, particularly in areas well exposed to southwest winds.

Des mesures prises dans la haute atmosphère de Whitehorse et dans les stations de sommets de montagnes environnantes ont été analysées en portant une attention particulière à la formation de l'énergie éolienne dans la région. D'après des mesures prélevées sur une période de 50 ans, la région est maintenant plus chaude et plus venteuse qu'elle ne l'était auparavant. Les mesures de la station de la haute atmosphère attestent d'augmentations de 2,7° C pour la température de surface et de 1 m/s pour les vents en milieu de vallée au cours des 50 dernières années (1956-2005). Les hivers se sont réchauffés de façon plus spectaculaire que les étés. Les inversions de températures d'hiver sont devenues plus minces, tandis qu'un jet d'hiver en milieu de vallée est maintenant une caractéristique prédominante. Les données relatives au vent pendant les années 2001 à 2005 indiquent une vitesse du vent moyenne annuelle minimale de 6 m/s commençant à environ 150 m au-dessus du plancher de la vallée de Whitehorse, soit à 850 m au-dessus du niveau de la mer. À cette altitude et au-dessus de celle-ci, les vitesses du vent atteignent leur maximum en décembre et leur minimum en juillet. La direction prédominante du vent au-dessus des sommets de montagnes provenait du sud-ouest, tandis qu'aux stations de la vallée de Whitehorse, les vents venaient du sud et du sud-est. Les stations les plus exposées au sud-ouest ont signalé plus de vents prédominants provenant de cette direction. L'analyse de la relation entre les vents géostrophiques et les vents de la vallée a permis de conclure que relativement aux vents d'en haut, les vents de la vallée étaient aussi forts dans les vallées parallèles que dans les vallées perpendiculaires. Les gradients de pression associés aux vents d'en haut constituaient le mécanisme de la force dominante pour les vents d'une vallée perpendiculaire. Les vents géostrophiques qui étaient parallèles à la vallée forçaient les vents de la vallée à adopter la même direction en raison d'un transport au mouvement descendant. Les inversions d'hiver supprimaient le transport au mouvement descendant, mais les vents obéissant à la pression ne sont qu'indirectement modulés par la stratification (en raison du frottement turbulent, ce qui est susceptible d'être supprimé par la stratification stable) et par conséquent, ils sont moins sensibles à ce facteur. Nous recommandons qu'une enquête plus poussée soit réalisée sur l'énergie éolienne naturelle des collines des vallées, particulièrement dans les endroits bien exposés aux vents du sud-ouest.

Distribution and movements of the Teshekpuk caribou herd, 1990-2005 : prior to oil and gas development   /   Person, B.T.   Prichard, A.K.   Carroll, G.M.   Yokel, D.A.   Suydam, R.S.   George, J.C.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 238-250, ill., maps
ASTIS record 62423

Four caribou (Rangifer tarandus grantii) herds calve on the North Slope of Alaska, three of which have been exposed to little or no resource development. We present 15 years of baseline data on the distribution and movements of 72 satellite-collared and 10 GPS-collared caribou from the Teshekpuk caribou herd (TCH) that have had little to no exposure to oil and gas activities. Fixed-kernel home range analyses of collared caribou revealed that calving grounds were concentrated (i.e., 50% kernel utilization distribution) along the northeastern, eastern, and southeastern shores of Teshekpuk Lake. During the postcalving period, 51% and 35% of caribou moved through two constricted zones to the east and west of Teshekpuk Lake, respectively, and accessed insect-relief habitat along the Beaufort Sea coast. During late summer and early fall, TCH caribou were concentrated to the southeast and southwest of Teshekpuk Lake. Although 65% of the Teshekpuk caribou wintered in two areas on the central coastal plain around the village of Atqasuk and south of Teshekpuk Lake, other TCH animals wintered in a great variety of places, including the Seward Peninsula, the eastern and southern Brooks Range, and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. We detected an apparent emigration rate of 6.9%. One male and five female TCH caribou joined the breeding populations of the Western Arctic and Central Arctic herds. TCH caribou traveled an average distance of 2348 ± 190 km annually. Movement rates were at a maximum in midsummer, lowest in winter, and intermediate during spring and fall migrations. Restrictions on oil and gas leasing and surface occupancy have been in place to protect calving, migratory corridors, and insect-relief habitat for the TCH, but these protections are likely to be removed. These data will provide a good baseline that can be used to compare predevelopment distribution and movement patterns of TCH caribou to distribution and movement patterns during and after petroleum development.

Quatre hardes de caribous (Rangifer tarandus grantii) vêlent sur la côte nord de l'Alaska, dont trois de ces hardes ont été exposées à peu ou pas d'aménagement des ressources. Nous présentons des données de base échelonnées sur 15 ans relativement à la répartition et aux déplacements de 72 caribous dotés d'un collier émetteur par satellite et de 10 caribous munis d'un collier émetteur GPS de la harde de caribous de Teshekpuk (HCT), caribous qui ont été peu ou pas du tout frottés aux activités pétrolières et gazières. L'analyse du noyau fixe des domaines vitaux des caribous à collier a révélé que les lieux de vêlage étaient concentrés (c'est-à-dire 50 % de la répartition de l'utilisation du noyau) le long des côtes nord-est, est et sud-est du lac Teshekpuk. Après la période de vêlage, 51 pour cent et 35 pour cent des caribous se déplaçaient au sein de deux zones de constriction à l'est et à l'ouest du lac Teshekpuk, respectivement, et accédaient un habitat où se trouvait moins d'insectes sur la côte de la mer de Beaufort. Vers la fin de l'été et le début de l'automne, les caribous de la HCT étaient concentrés au sud-est et au sud-ouest du lac Teshekpuk. Bien que 65 pour cent des caribous de Teshekpuk passaient l'hiver dans deux régions de la plaine côtière centrale autour du village d'Atqasuk et au sud du lac Teshekpuk, les autres bêtes de la HCT passaient l'hiver dans divers endroits, dont la péninsule de Seward, les versants est et sud des montagnes de Brooks et la Réserve faunique nationale de l'Arctique. Nous avons détecté un taux d'émigration apparent de 6,9 pour cent. Un caribou mâle et cinq caribous femelles de la HCT ont rejoint les populations de reproduction des hardes de l'ouest et du centre de l'Arctique. En moyenne, le caribou de la HCT parcourait une distance de 2348±190 km annuellement. Les taux de déplacement étaient à leur point le plus élevé au milieu de l'été, tandis qu'ils étaient à leur niveau le plus bas l'hiver et à un niveau intermédiaire pendant les migrations du printemps et de l'automne. Il existe des restrictions en matière de location et d'occupation en surface pour le pétrole et le gaz afin de protéger le vêlage, les corridors de migration et les habitats à faible taux d'insectes pour la HCT, mais il est vraisemblable que ces restrictions soient éliminées. Ces données fourniront une bonne base pour comparer la répartition et les déplacements du caribou de la HCT avant la mise en valeur des ressources à la répartition et aux déplacements du caribou de la HCT pendant et après la mise en valeur pétrolière.

A Common Eider × King Eider hybrid captured on the Kent Peninsula, Nunavut   /   Trefry, S.A.   Dickson, D.L.   Hoover, A.K.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 251-254, ill.
ASTIS record 62424

On 25 June 2002, we captured and recorded measurements of a male common eider (Somateria mollissima) × king eider (S. spectabilis) hybrid at Nauyak Lake, on the Kent Peninsula, Nunavut. This is the first documented capture of a hybrid eider, rarely observed in North America. Structural body measurements and mass of the hybrid were intermediate compared to those of Pacific common eiders (S.m. v-nigrum) at the same study site and king eiders at a nearby study site during the same time of year. The plumage of the captured hybrid had characteristics of both parent species. Mate pairing on overlapping spring staging or wintering areas of common and king eiders may occasionally result in hybrid offspring.

Le 25 juin 2002, nous avons capturé un hybride composé d'un eider à duvet (Somateria mollissima) × un eider à tête grise (S. spectabilis) au lac Nauyak, dans la péninsule de Kent, au Nunavut, puis nous avons pris note de ses mesures. Il s'agit de la première capture répertoriée d'un eider hybride, ce qui est rarement observé en Amérique du Nord. Les mesures et la masse de la structure corporelle de l'hybride étaient intermédiaires comparativement à celles des eiders à duvet du Pacifique (S.m. vnigrum) du même lieu d'étude et à celles des eiders à tête grise d'un lieu d'étude avoisinant pendant la même période de l'année. Le plumage de l'hybride que nous avons capturé présentait des caractéristiques des deux espèces. Il arrive parfois que les accouplements aux haltes migratoires du printemps ou aux aires d'hivernage partagées par les eiders à duvet et les eiders à tête grise donnent lieu à une progéniture hybride.

Bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) migration and calling behaviour in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, autumn 2001-04 : an acoustic localization study   /   Blackwell, S.B.   Richardson, W.J.   Greene, C.R.   Streever, B.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 255-270, ill., maps
ASTIS record 62425

The westward migration of bowhead whales (Bering Sea stock) was studied during autumn 2001-04 as part of an oil industry monitoring program. An array of Directional Autonomous Seafloor Acoustic Recorders (DASARs) was deployed northeast of the Northstar oil production island near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Underwater sounds were recorded continuously for 24-35 days per year, mainly in September. More than 130 000 bowhead calls were detected, and the directional capability of DASARs allowed triangulation of whale position for ~93 500 calls. The migration pathway was closer to shore in 2003-04 than in 2001-02. Calls were clumped in space and time, and there was significantly more calling at night than by day. From 65% to 82% of calls were simple frequency-modulated calls, and the percentage of complex calls was positively related to the daily number of calls. No songs were detected, but in 2004 there were numerous call sequences consisting of repeated identical calls in series and generally lasting up to a few minutes. The DASAR methodology provides detailed information on the temporal and spatial distribution of calling whales and on their acoustic repertoire.

La migration à l'ouest de la baleine boréale (population de la mer de Béring) a été étudiée durant quatre automnes (2001-2004) dans le cadre d'un programme d'étude de l'industrie pétrolière. Un réseau d'enregistreurs sous-marins autonomes et directionnels (DASAR) a été déployé au nord-est de Northstar, une île artificielle d'exploitation pétrolière près de Prudhoe Bay en Alaska. Des enregistrements sous-marins continus ont été récoltés pendant 24 à 35 jours chaque année, principalement pendant le mois de septembre. Plus de 130 000 appels de baleines ont été enregistrés et la capacité directionnelle des DASAR a permis de déterminer par triangulation la position des baleines pour ~ 93 500 de ces appels. Le corridor de migration s'est avéré plus proche de la côte en 2003-2004 qu'en 2001-2002. Les appels des baleines étaient groupés dans le temps et l'espace et il y avait significativement plus d'appels la nuit que le jour. Soixante-cinq à 82 % des appels appartenaient au type dit « simple », et le pourcentage d'appels du type « complexe » était positivement corrélé au nombre journalier d'appels. Aucun chant n'a été détecté, mais les enregistrements de 2004 contenaient de nombreuses séquences d'appels composées de séries d'appels identiques répétés pendant 30 minutes et plus. L'utilisation des DASAR a permis d'obtenir des renseignements détaillés sur la distribution spatiale et temporelle de baleines boréales vocalisant ainsi que sur leur répertoire acoustique.

Most northerly observation of a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) in Canada : photographic and DNA evidence from Melville Island, Northwest Territories   /   Doupé, J.P.   England, J.H.   Furze, M.   Paetkau, D.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 271-276, ill., maps
ASTIS record 62426

During geological studies in 2003 and 2004 on Melville Island, Northwest Territories, Canada, field parties photographed and gathered genetic information on one or more grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). To our knowledge, these data constitute the most northerly observations made of this species in North America. The DNA of a hair sample collected on Melville Island in 2004 is genetically indistinguishable from DNA collected from a population of grizzly bears around Paulatuk, Northwest Territories, along the northern mainland coast. It is also distinct from the DNA of the Viscount Melville polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population. Our evidence and review suggest that, at a minimum, transient grizzly bears are now regular visitors to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. More research will be required to understand the significance of these observations, but a small viable population of grizzly bears may now be using areas in or around Melville Island.

Dans le cadre d'études géologiques réalisées en 2003 et en 2004 sur l'île Melville, dans les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, au Canada, des chercheurs sur le terrain ont photographié et recueilli de l'information génétique sur un ou plusieurs grizzlys (Ursus arctos). À notre connaissance, il s'agit des données représentant les observations sur cette espèce qui ont été recueillies les plus au nord de l'Amérique du Nord. L'ADN d'un échantillon de poil prélevé sur l'île Melville en 2004 est indifférenciable, du point de vue génétique, de l'ADN prélevé au sein d'une population de grizzlys de la région de Paulatuk, Territoires du Nord-Ouest, le long de la côte nord. Par ailleurs, il est distinct de l'ADN de la population d'ours polaires du Vicomte de Melville (Ursus maritimus). D'après les preuves que nous avons recueillies et notre analyse, à tout le moins, les grizzlys de passage sont maintenant des visiteurs habituels dans l'archipel Arctique canadien. D'autres recherches devront être effectuées afin de comprendre l'importance de ces observations, mais une population petite, bien que viable, de grizzlys pourrait maintenant utiliser les régions de l'île Melville ou situées tout près.

Distribution of breeding shorebirds on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska   /   Johnson, J.A.   Lanctot, R.B.   Andres, B.A.   Bart, J.R.   Brown, S.C.   Kendall, S.J.   Payer, D.C.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 277-293, maps
ASTIS record 62428

Available information on the distribution of breeding shorebirds across the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is dated, fragmented, and limited in scope. Herein, we describe the distribution of 19 shorebird species from data gathered at 407 study plots between 1998 and 2004. This information was collected using a single-visit rapid area search technique during territory establishment and early incubation periods, a time when social displays and vocalizations make the birds highly detectable. We describe the presence or absence of each species, as well as overall numbers of species, providing a regional perspective on shorebird distribution. We compare and contrast our shorebird distribution maps to those of prior studies and describe prominent patterns of shorebird distribution. Our examination of how shorebird distribution and numbers of species varied both latitudinally and longitudinally across the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska indicated that most shorebird species occur more frequently in the Beaufort Coastal Plain ecoregion (i.e., closer to the coast) than in the Brooks Foothills ecoregion (i.e., farther inland). Furthermore, the occurrence of several species indicated substantial longitudinal directionality. Species richness at surveyed sites was highest in the western portion of the Beaufort Coastal Plain ecoregion. The broad-scale distribution information we present here is valuable for evaluating potential effects of human development and climate change on Arctic-breeding shorebird populations.

Les renseignements qui existent en matière de répartition des oiseaux de rivage en reproduction sur la plaine côtière de l'Arctique en Alaska sont anciens, fragmentés et restreints. Ici, nous décrivons la répartition de 19 espèces d'oiseaux de rivage à partir de données recueillies à 407 lieux de recherche entre 1998 et 2004. Cette information a été recueillie grâce à une technique de recherche consistant en une seule visite rapide durant les périodes d'établissement du territoire et de début d'incubation, périodes pendant lesquelles les comportements sociaux et les vocalisations permettent de bien repérer les oiseaux. Nous décrivons la présence ou l'absence de chaque espèce, de même que le nombre général d'espèces, ce qui procure une perspective régionale de la répartition des oiseaux de rivage. Nous comparons et contrastons nos cartes de répartition des oiseaux de rivage à celles d'études antérieures, en plus de décrire les tendances les plus marquées en matière de répartition des oiseaux de rivage. Notre examen de la variation latitudinale et longitudinale en matière de répartition et de nombre d'espèces d'oiseaux de rivage à l'échelle de la plaine côtière arctique de l'Alaska nous a permis de constater que la plupart des espèces d'oiseaux de rivage se manifestaient plus souvent dans la région écologique de la plaine côtière de Beaufort (c'est-à-dire plus proche de la côte) que dans la région écologique des contreforts de Brooks (c'est-à-dire plus à l'intérieur des terres). Par ailleurs, l'occurrence de plusieurs espèces indiquait une directionalité longitudinale substantielle. La richesse des espèces aux sites à l'étude était à son meilleur dans la partie ouest de la région écologique de la plaine côtière de Beaufort. Les renseignements sur la répartition à grande échelle que nous présentons ici jouent un rôle dans l'évaluation des effets éventuels des travaux de mise en valeur par l'être humain et du changement climatique sur les populations d'oiseaux de rivage en reproduction de l'Arctique.

Limnological characteristics of a High Arctic oasis and comparisons across northern Ellesmere Island   /   Keatley, B.E.   Douglas, M.S.V.   Smol, J.P.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 294-308, ill., maps
PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 012-07
ASTIS record 62429

Rapidly warming temperatures in the Arctic are predicted to markedly alter the limnology of tundra lakes and ponds. These changes include increases in aquatic production, pH, specific conductivity, and nutrient levels. However, baseline limnological data from High Arctic regions are typically restricted to single sampling events or to repeated samplings of a few select sites, which limits our ability to assess the influence of climatic change. We employ two techniques to examine the influence of a warmer climate on High Arctic aquatic ecosystems. First, we compare limnological characteristics in July 2003 of 23 ponds and lakes from an atypically warm High Arctic oasis on Ellesmere Island to those of 32 ponds and lakes located across northern Ellesmere Island, where climatic conditions are much cooler and more typical of High Arctic environments. Second, we resample 13 sites originally analyzed in 1963 to assess the influence that 40 years of rising temperatures (as documented by meteorological records) have had on the limnological characteristics of these freshwater ecosystems. The specific conductivity values, as well as the concentrations of nutrients and related variables (especially dissolved organic carbon, DOC), from the Arctic oasis sites are among the highest yet reported from the Canadian High Arctic, and they are significantly higher than those from the polar desert around northern Ellesmere Island. Comparison of the modern and historical data indicated that most oasis sites currently have higher pH than they did in 1963, which is consistent with the documented warming of temperatures.

On prévoit que les températures en hausse rapide dans l'Arctique auront pour effet de modifier considérablement la limnologie des lacs et étangs de la toundra. Parmi ces changements, notons l'augmentation de la production aquatique, du pH, de la conductibilité spécifique et des niveaux de nutriments. Toutefois, les données limnologiques de base des régions de l'Extrême-Arctique se limitent typiquement à des événements d'échantillonnage unique ou à des échantillonnages répétés de quelques sites choisis, ce qui a pour effet de restreindre notre aptitude à évaluer l'influence des changements climatiques. Nous avons eu recours à deux techniques pour examiner l'influence d'un climat plus chaud sur les écosystèmes aquatiques de l'Extrême-Arctique. Premièrement, nous comparons les caractéristiques limnologiques de juillet 2003 de 23 lacs et étangs d'oasis atypiquement chaudes de l'Extrême-Arctique sur l'île d'Ellesmere à celles de 32 étangs et lacs parsemés dans le nord de l'île d'Ellesmere, où les conditions climatiques sont beaucoup plus fraîches et plus typiques des milieux de l'Extrême-Arctique. Deuxièmement, nous avons rééchantillonné 13 sites qui avaient d'abord été analysés en 1963 et ce, dans le but d'évaluer l'influence qu'ont eu 40 années de températures à la hausse (d'après les données météorologiques) sur les caractéristiques limnologiques de ces écosystèmes d'eau douce. Les valeurs de conductibilité spécifique, de même que les concentrations en nutriments et les variables connexes (surtout le carbone organique dissous ou COD) des oasis de l'Extrême-Arctique figurent parmi les valeurs les plus élevées signalées dans l'Extrême-Arctique canadien, et sont considérablement plus élevées que celles des déserts polaires du nord de l'île d'Ellesmere. La comparaison des données contemporaines aux données historiques laisse entrevoir que la plupart des oasis ont un pH plus élevé actuellement qu'en 1963, ce qui coïncide avec la constatation documentée de l'augmentation des températures.

Annual arctic wolf pack size related to arctic hare numbers   /   Mech, L.D.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 309-311, ill.
PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 026-06
ASTIS record 62431

During the summers of 2000 through 2006, I counted arctic wolf (Canis lupus arctos) pups and adults in a pack, arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) along a 9 km index route in the area, and muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in a 250 km² part of the area near Eureka (80° N, 86° W), Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. Adult wolf numbers did not correlate with muskox numbers, but they were positively related (r² = 0.89; p < 0.01) to an arctic hare index. This is the first report relating wolf numbers to non-ungulate prey.

Pendant les étés 2000 à 2006, j'ai compté les jeunes loups arctiques et les adultes (Canis lupus arctos) d'une bande, les lièvres arctiques (Lepus arcticus) le long d'une route indexée de 9 km dans la région, et les boeufs musqués (Ovibos moschatus) dans une zone de 250 km² près d'Eureka (80° N, 86° O), sur l'île d'Ellesmere, au Nunavut, Canada. Le nombre de loups adultes ne corrélait pas avec le nombre de boeufs musqués, mais il était relié de manière positive (r² = 0,89; p < 0,01) à un index de lièvres arctiques. Il s'agit du premier rapport établissant un lien entre le nombre de loups et des proies non ongulées.

Jan Welzl (1868-1948)   /   Millman, L.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 312-314, ill.
ASTIS record 62432

In the 1930s and 1940s, a man named Jan Welzl lived in the Yukon Territory's Dawson City, a town more or less surrounded by goldfields. ... No doubt his Dawson neighbors would have been surprised to learn that the unconventional Czech had recently been at the center of a literary controversy. The book that inspired this controversy, Thirty Years in the Golden North, first appeared in English in 1932. ... Jan Welzl did not write Thirty Years in the Golden North. Rather, he dictated it. In the mid-1920s, Welzl returned to Czechoslovakia from wherever he'd been in the Arctic and, more or less indigent, began giving lectures on his travels. ... Lecturing did not bring in much money, so Welzl started sending articles to newspapers. There was one problem with this idea: the man who signed his articles "An Arctic Bismarck" or "Bear Eater" was a terrible writer. ... But because the articles about his Siberian adventures seemed to contain some good stories, they were passed on to two legitimate writers, a pair of journalists named Bedrich Golombek and Edvard Valenta. ... Welzl talked and the journalists took notes. ... And so Thirty Years in the Golden North (Czech title: Tfiicet Let Na Zlatém Severu) was born. Welzl relinquished all rights to the book for 2000 crowns, slightly less than one hundred dollars. ... Meanwhile, Welzl himself had traveled north again. He wanted to go back to Siberia, but because of ice on the Yukon River and also because he had run out of money, he got only as far as Dawson City. Dawson, which in many respects was as eccentric as he was, appealed to Welzl, so he decided to settle there. The availability of junk appealed to him as well. At places like the Yukon Sheet Metal Works, he began collecting scrap materials for his new obsession - a perpetual motion machine. ... On September 19, 1948, Jan Welzl died at the age of 80. He died, I should say, after a fashion, for he was reborn in Communist Czechoslovakia a few years later. In his new incarnation, "Eskimo Welzl" (as he was affectionately called) became a symbol of unfettered individualism. ... In the early 1950s, Czechs began making pilgrimages to Welzl's grave in the Catholic Cemetery above Dawson. When I visited the grave myself in 1992, someone had placed a boot on it, a tribute to Welzl's erstwhile wandering habit, and the cross was so laden with wreaths that it seemed in danger of toppling over. Truth to tell, this cross did not mark Welzl's grave. It seems that an early Czech visitor had simply gone to the cemetery, picked out a convenient cross, and tacked Welzl's name onto it. In all probability, Welzl's admirers were laying their wreaths on the grave of an itinerant Italian labourer named Peter Fagetti. Welzl's own final resting place is unknown, a fate somehow appropriate for a man around whom questions hover like mosquitoes on a warm Yukon day.

AIDJEX revisited : a look back at the U.S.-Canadian Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment 1970-78   /   Untersteiner, N.   Thorndike, A.S.   Rothrock, D.A.   Hunkins, K.L.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 3, Sept. 2007, p. 327-336, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 62459

Introduction: The Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment (AIDJEX) was an American-Canadian project to develop a comprehensive model of sea ice cover under the combined influences of the atmosphere and the ocean. From sea ice modeling studies in the 1950s and early 1960s, it had become clear that the "missing link" in resolving the momentum equation was the flow law for sea ice, that is, the law describing internal ice stress and its spatial propagation (Doronoin and Kheisin, 1975). The central idea of AIDJEX was that a realistic formulation of this law would eventually permit the construction of a sea ice model that could be built into the global climate models being developed at that time. The momentum equation, also known as Newton's Second Law, states that the acceleration of a body, multiplied by its mass, is proportional to the sum of all forces acting on it. In the case of sea ice cover as it exists on the Arctic Ocean, the acceleration is negligibly small, so the sum of all forces acting upon the ice must be zero. These forces are the tangential forces exerted by the wind and ocean currents, a force resulting from the rotation of the earth (the Coriolis force), and a small component of gravity resulting from the dynamic tilt of the sea surface. These external forces are counteracted by an internal stress with which the ice resists deformation. This relationship is expressed by a "flow law" that relates the external stress to the rate of deformation. The four external stress terms in the momentum equation lend themselves to direct observation, but the internal stress cannot be measured directly and must be deduced from the deformation of an array of points (marked by stations or ice camps). Given the scale of air and water stress, this measurement clearly required multiple manned stations. The notion had been discussed at various meetings and workshops held by the Arctic Institute of North America and the National Research Council's Polar Research Board, but as yet there was no concerted effort within the sea ice community to develop a scientific plan for a project. The first "embryonic" plan was formulated in 1965, but the actual impetus to develop a serious project plan came in 1968, with a phone call to one of us (N.U.) from Walt Wittmann of the Navy Hydrographic Office. Reminding us that we had discussed the need for a multiple-station project, Wittmann offered seed funding for the development of a scientific plan. The first version of such a plan was submitted to the Office of Naval Research in July 1969. While it is difficult in retrospect to unravel the multitude of personal recollections, individual biases, and historical facts, it is clear that this first scientific plan was the right seed planted in the right soil, because within the next two years AIDJEX was off and running. Between 1970 and 1978, the Project Office published 40 issues of the AIDJEX Bulletin: in total, more than 4000 pages of original scientific papers, field reports, data reports, workshop reports, and translations of relevant Russian papers. Thanks to the generous effort by colleagues at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the entire collection and the 1972 and 1975 Operations Manuals are now available on the Internet at .

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