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How political change paved the way for indigenous knowledge : the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act   /   Christensen, J.   Grant, M.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 115-123
ASTIS record 61817
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This paper highlights the process of political change that led to the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act (MVRMA), an attempt to recognize the legitimacy of indigenous knowledge in resource management. Evidence from ethnographic interviews shows the importance of involving indigenous knowledge holders in local land and resource management decisions, which are grounded in land-claim settlement processes. However, the authority of the Indian and Northern Affairs Canada minister acts as a barrier to genuine involvement of indigenous knowledge and its holders in resource management. True capacity building in the Northwest Territories cannot succeed without devolution of power from the federal government to territorial and First Nations governments.

Cet article porte sur le changement d'ordre politique qui a donné lieu à la Loi sur la gestion des ressources de la vallée du Mackenzie (LGRVM) visant la reconnaissance de la légitimité des connaissances indigènes en matière de gestion des ressources. Des éléments probants découlant d'entrevues ethnographiques attestent de l'importance de faire appel aux indigènes possédant des connaissances en ce qui a trait aux décisions relatives aux terres régionales et à la gestion des ressources qui sont enracinées dans les processus de règlement des revendications territoriales. Cependant, l'autorité du ministre des Affaires indiennes et du Nord canadien constitue un obstacle à la possibilité de faire véritablement appel aux connaissances indigènes et aux personnes possédant ces connaissances en matière de gestion des ressources. Dans les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, l'habilitation véritable ne peut se concrétiser sans la déconcentration du pouvoir du gouvernement fédéral aux gouvernements des territoires et des Premières nations.


Freshwater mollusks survive fish gut passage   /   Brown, R.J.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 124-128, ill.
ASTIS record 61818
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Freshwater mollusks figure prominently in the diets of humpback whitefish (Coregonus pidschian) and broad whitefish (C. nasus), two benthic-feeding coregonid species. A recent examination of pea clams (Sphaeriidae), valve snails (Valvatidae), and pond snails (Lymnaeidae) from the lower digestive tracts of these fish found that many of the mollusks were alive. Survival completely through gut passage would indicate a dispersal mechanism for freshwater mollusks that has not been previously recognized. A field investigation was conducted with wild-caught humpback and broad whitefish to test the hypothesis that clams and snails are capable of surviving complete gut passage. Wild fish were captured alive and held in collection totes to obtain feces samples. Pea clams and valve snails were abundant in fish feces, and pond snails were present but not abundant. An average of 483 pea clams and 833 valve snails per fish were observed to have survived complete gut passage, while only a single surviving pond snail was found. These findings suggest that fish may play an important role in the dispersal of freshwater mollusks within freshwater systems.

Les mollusques d'eau douce constituent une partie imposante du régime alimentaire du corégone à bosse (Coregonus pidschian) et du corégone tschir (C. nasus), deux corégonidés à alimentation benthique. L'analyse récente de pisidies (Sphaeriidae), de valvatidés (Valvatidae) et de lymnéidés (Lymnaeidae) provenant du tractus digestif inférieur de ces poissons a permis de constater que grand nombre de ces mollusques étaient toujours en vie. Le fait d'avoir entièrement survécu dans le passage digestif porterait à croire qu'il s'agirait là d'un mécanisme de dispersion des mollusques d'eau douce qui n'a jamais encore été reconnu. Une étude sur le terrain a été réalisée au moyen de corégones à bosse et de corégones tschir afin de mettre à l'épreuve l'hypothèse selon laquelle les pisidies, les valvatidés et les lymnéidés sont capables de survivre à travers tout le passage digestif. Des poissons sauvages ont été capturés en vie et conservés dans des sacs de prélèvement dans le but de recueillir des échantillons de fèces. Les pisidies et les valvatidés abondaient dans les fèces des poissons, tandis que les lymnéidés ne s'y retrouvaient pas en abondance. En moyenne, 483 pisidies et 833 valvatidés ayant survécu à travers le passage digestif ont été observés dans chaque poisson, tandis qu'un seul lymnéidé avait survécu. Ces constatations laissent croire que les poissons pourraient jouer un rôle important dans la dispersion des mollusques d'eau douce au sein des systèmes d'eau douce.


The Mackenzie Inuit whale bone industry : raw material, tool manufacture, scheduling, and trade   /   Betts, M.W.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 129-144, ill., maps
ASTIS record 61821
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The bones of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) were used by Mackenzie Inuit groups in producing a number of items essential to transportation and procurement. However, the whale bone industry, and its relationship to Mackenzie Inuit economic and social systems, is poorly understood. A recently excavated archaeological assemblage from McKinley Bay, Northwest Territories, provides a record of intensive Nuvugarmiut whale bone tool manufacture, which can be used to reconstruct a reduction sequence. Bowhead bone reduction at McKinley Bay focused on ribs, which were transversely worked into large sections. Cortical blanks were isolated from central rib sections, but proximal and distal rib sections were treated directly as blanks and preforms for the production of large durable tools, such as harpoon heads, adze sockets, mattock blades, and picks. The intensive whale bone reduction at McKinley Bay was part of a broader gearing-up strategy focused on the manufacture and repair of sleds and harpoons needed for the late winter migration and spring seal hunt. More generally, because the whale bone industry was intimately related to the bowhead hunt and its proceeds, it may provide fundamental insights about key aspects of coastal whaling societies, such as social organization, redistribution, and inter-territorial trade.

Les groupes d'Inuits du Mackenzie se servaient des os de baleines boréales (Balaena mysticetus) pour produire un certain nombre d'articles essentiels en matière de transport et d'approvisionnement. Cependant, l'industrie des os de baleine, de même que son lien avec les systèmes socioéconomiques des Inuits du Mackenzie, sont mal compris. Grâce à des fouilles archéologiques récentes à la baie de McKinley, dans les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, on a découvert une installation de fabrication intensive d'outils en os de baleine au Nuvugarmiut, ce qui a permis de reconstruire une séquence de transformation. La transformation d'os de baleines boréales à la baie de McKinley portait sur les côtes de baleine. Celles-ci étaient travaillées en grosses sections. Les pièces brutes corticales étaient isolées des sections de côtes centrales, tandis que les sections de côtes proximales et distales étaient traitées directement en tant que pièces brutes et ébrutées en vue de la réalisation de gros outils durables, comme des masses de harpon, des douilles d'herminettes, des lames de pioches ou de haches et des pics. La transformation intensive des os de baleine à la baie de McKinley relevait d'un programme plus important de fabrication et de réparation de traîneaux et de harpons dont les gens se servaient pour la migration de fin d'hiver et la chasse au phoque du printemps. De manière plus générale, puisque l'industrie des os de baleine était étroitement liée à la chasse à la baleine et à ses produits, elle pourrait permettre d'en savoir plus sur des aspects clés des sociétés baleinières de la côte, comme l'organisation sociale, le répartition du peuple et le commerce entre les territoires.


Possible use of foresight, understanding, and planning by wolves hunting muskoxen   /   Mech, L.D.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 145-149, ill.
PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 024-06
ASTIS record 61830
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On Ellesmere Island in 2006, arctic wolves (Canis lupus arctos) were observed making a two-pronged approach to a herd of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and, on another occasion, ambushing muskoxen. Both observations seemed to provide evidence that the wolves were using foresight, understanding, and planning. Although the possible use of insight and purposiveness has been documented in captive wolves, the present report is one of the few to document the possibility that freeranging wolves use these other three mental processes.

En 2006, sur l'île Ellesmere, des loups arctiques (Canis lupus arctos) ont été observés en train d'approcher sur deux fronts un troupeau de boeufs musqués (Ovibos moschatus) et une autre fois, en train de tendre une embuscade à des boeufs musqués. Ces deux observations portent à croire que les loups sont en mesure de prévoir, de comprendre et de planifier. Bien que le recours possible à la prévoyance et à l'intentionnalité ait été officiellement remarqué chez les loups en captivité, le présent rapport est l'un des rares documents énonçant la possibilité que les loups en liberté aient recours à ces processus mentaux.


Reducing vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic : the case of Nunavut, Canada   /   Ford, J.   Pearce, T.   Smit, B.   Wandel, J.   Allurut, M.   Shappa, K.   Ittusujurat, H.   Qrunnut, K.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 150-166, ill., maps
ASTIS record 61831
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Research conducted with the communities of Arctic Bay and Igloolik in Nunavut identified key areas where policy can help Inuit reduce their vulnerability to climate change, focusing on the renewable resource harvesting sector. The policy responses are based on an understanding of policy development and decision making and on an understanding of the processes that shape vulnerability, which in Nunavut comprise the erosion of traditional Inuit knowledge and land-based skills, the weakening of social networks, and a reduction in harvesting flexibility. Policies relating to cultural preservation, wildlife comanagement, and harvester support can serve as entry points for influencing these processes. Our recommendations fall within the mandates of the Government of Nunavut and the institutions created under the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, and they have been identified as policy priorities by communities and Inuit organizations.

Grâce à des recherches effectuées auprès des collectivités de la baie de l'Arctique et d'Igloolik au Nunavut, on a réussi à déterminer comment la politique peut rendre les Inuits moins vulnérables au changement climatique en se concentrant sur le secteur de l'exploitation des ressources renouvelables. La compréhension de l'élaboration des politiques, de la prise de décisions et des processus qui engendrent la vulnérabilité permet d'aboutir à des réponses en vue de l'établissement de politiques. Au Nunavut, cette vulnérabilité se traduit par l'érosion des connaissances traditionnelles inuites et des habiletés d'utilisation de la terre, l'affaiblissement des réseaux sociaux et l'atténuation de la souplesse caractérisant l'exploitation. Les politiques en matière de conservation culturelle, de cogestion de la faune et de soutien à l'exploitation servent de point d'entrée pour influencer ces processus. Nos recommandations cadrent avec les mandats du gouvernement du Nunavut et des établissements créés en vertu de l'Entente de revendication territoriale du Nunavut. Les collectivités et organismes inuits les considèrent comme des priorités en matière de politique.


Grey whale calls recorded near Barrow, Alaska, throughout the winter of 2003-04   /   Stafford, K.M.   Moore, S.E.   Spillane, M.   Wiggins, S.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 167-172, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 61833
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Since the mid-1990s, gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) have been reported with increasing frequency near Barrow, Alaska, during summer and autumn months. In collaboration with a broad-scale oceanographic study, three autonomous acoustic recorders were moored northeast of Barrow in October 2003 to provide capability for year-round detection of calls. Two recorders were recovered in September 2004, one from the continental slope (water depth = 316 m) and one from near the base of the slope (water depth = 1258 m). The shallow instrument recorded for roughly 3 months (87 days), and the deeper instrument for roughly 7.3 months (222 days). Gray whale calls were recorded on both instruments throughout their periods of operation. The calling rate at the shallower instrument was higher than at the deeper recorder, but surprisingly, the deeper instrument detected calls throughout the 2003-04 winter, though the calling rate diminished as winter progressed. Low-frequency N1/S1 pulses, the most common of the calls produced by gray whales, were recorded from deployment through December 2003 on the shallower of the two instruments and from deployment through May 2004 on the deeper instrument. Because this is the first-ever winterlong acoustic study, we cannot be certain that gray whales have not overwintered in the Beaufort Sea in the past. However, a combination of increasing population size and habitat alteration associated with sea ice reduction and warming in the Alaskan Arctic may be responsible for the extra-seasonal gray whale occurrence near Barrow.

Depuis le milieu des années 1990, des baleines grises (Eschrichtius robustus) ont été signalées de plus en plus souvent près de Barrow, en Alaska, pendant les mois d'été et d'automne. En collaboration avec une étude océanographique à grande échelle, trois enregistreurs acoustiques autonomes ont été amarrés au nord-est de Barrow en octobre 2003 afin de pouvoir détecter les cris de baleine à l'année. Deux enregistreurs ont été récupérés en septembre 2004, un de la pente continentale (à une profondeur d'eau de 316 m) et l'autre près de la base de la pente (à une profondeur de 1 258 m). L'instrument le moins profond a enregistré les sons pendant trois mois environ (87 jours), tandis que l'instrument le plus profond a enregistré les sons pendant environ 7, 3 mois (222 jours). Les cris de baleines grises ont été enregistrés au moyen des deux instruments. Le nombre de cris enregistrés à l'aide de l'instrument le moins profond était plus élevé qu'avec l'instrument le plus profond. Cependant, et fait étonnant, l'instrument le plus profond a détecté des cris pendant l'hiver 2003-2004, bien que le nombre de cris ait diminué au fur et à mesure que l'hiver avançait. Les ondes pulsées de basse fréquence N1/S1, soit les cris les plus courants produits par les baleines grises, ont été enregistrées à partir de l'installation de l'instrument le moins profond en décembre en 2003 et de l'installation de l'instrument le plus profond jusqu'au mois de mai 2004. Puisqu'il s'agit de la première étude acoustique ayant duré pendant tout l'hiver, nous ne pouvons pas savoir avec certitude si les baleines grises n'ont pas hiverné dans la mer de Beaufort par le passé. Toutefois, l'augmentation de la population de baleines, alliée à la modification de l'habitat, à la diminution de la glace de mer et au réchauffement qui sévit dans la région arctique de l'Alaska, pourrait être responsable de la présence de baleines grises hors saison près de Barrow.


Modeling the impact of climate change on runoff and annual water balance of an Arctic headwater basin   /   Pohl, S.   Marsh, P.   Bonsal, B.R.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 173-186, ill., maps
ASTIS record 61834
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Climate change will be an important issue facing Arctic areas in the coming decades since climate models are projecting warmer and wetter conditions for many northern regions. From a hydrological perspective, critical issues include a shortened snow cover season, changes in winter snow cover properties, and changes in the timing and volume of snowmelt runoff. To assess the impacts of projected temperature and precipitation changes on the hydrology of a small Arctic headwater basin, the distributed hydrological model WATFLOOD was used in conjunction with selected Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and future climate scenarios. It was found that the hydrological model simulated basin runoff adequately either with input climate data collected in the study area or with input data from a long-term climate station located approximately 50 km south. WATFLOOD was then used to predict future runoff using GCM outputs for the 2040-69 and 2070-99 time periods. The results gave dates of first and peak runoff that were, on average, up to 25 days earlier than in current (1961-90) climate. In addition, future runoff and evaporation volumes increased by up to 48% as a result of projected increases in temperature and precipitation. Furthermore, a large number of simulated years showed midwinter melt periods, which will have major impacts on snowpack properties and, in turn, on human, animal, and plant life in this region.

Au cours des décennies à venir, puisque les modèles climatiques projettent des conditions plus chaudes et plus humides pour de nombreuses régions nordiques, les régions arctiques feront face à l'important enjeu du changement climatique. Du point de vue hydrologique, les enjeux critiques se traduisent par une saison de couverture de neige plus courte, par des changements du point de vue des propriétés de la couverture de neige hivernale ainsi que par des changements par rapport au moment et au volume d'écoulement de la fonte des neiges. Nous avons utilisé le modèle hydrologique distribué WATFLOOD, certains modèles de circulation globale et des scénarios climatiques futurs pour évaluer les incidences des changements projetés en matière de températures et de précipitations sur l'hydrologie d'un petit bassin d'amont de l'Arctique. Le modèle hydrologique a permis de simuler, de manière adéquate, l'écoulement du bassin soit grâce à l'introduction des données climatiques recueillies dans la région visée par l'étude, soit grâce aux données à long terme provenant d'une station climatique située à une cinquantaine de kilomètres au sud. Ensuite, WATFLOOD a permis de prédire l'écoulement futur en recourant au débit des modèles de circulation globale pour les périodes allant de 2040 à 2069 et de 2070 à 2099. D'après les résultats obtenus, les dates du premier écoulement et de l'écoulement de pointe seraient devancées de jusqu'à 25 jours par rapport au climat actuel (période de 1961 à 1990). De plus, les volumes d'écoulement et d'évaporation futurs connaissaient une augmentation atteignant jusqu'à 48 % en raison des élévations prévues de températures et de précipitations. De plus, un grand nombre d'années simulées a permis de constater des périodes de fonte en plein milieu de l'hiver, ce qui aura une grande incidence sur les propriétés de la couverture de neige et, par conséquent, sur les êtres humains, les animaux et la vie végétale dans cette région.


Post-den emergence behavior of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in northern Alaska   /   Smith, T.S.   Partridge, S.T.   Amstrup, S.C.   Schliebe, S.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 187-194, ill., maps
ASTIS record 61835
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We observed polar bear (Ursus maritimus) maternity den sites on Alaska's North Slope in March 2002 and 2003 in an effort to describe bears' post-den emergence behavior. During 40 sessions spanning 459 h, we observed 8 adults and 14 dependent cubs outside dens for 37.5 h (8.2% of total observation time). There was no significant difference between den emergence dates in 2002 (mean = 15 Mar ± 4.1 d) and 2003 (mean = 21 Mar ± 2.1 d). Following initial den breakout, polar bears remained at their den sites for 1.5 to 14 days (mean = 8.1 ± 5.1 d). The average length of stay in dens between emergent periods was significantly shorter in 2002 (1.79 h) than in 2003 (4.82 h). While outside, adult bears were inactive 49.5% of the time, whereas cubs were inactive 13.4% of the time. We found no significant relationships between den emergence activity and weather. Adult polar bears at den sites subjected to industrial activity exhibited significantly fewer bouts of vigilance than denned bears in undisturbed areas (t = -5.5164, df = 4, p = 0.00). However, the duration of vigilance behaviors at sites near industrial activity was not significantly shorter than at the other sites studied (t = -1.8902, df = 4, p = 0.07). Results for these bears were within the range of findings in other studies of denned polar bears.

Nous avons observé des tanières de maternité d'ours polaires (Ursus maritimus) sur le versant nord de l'Alaska aux mois de mars 2002 et 2003 dans le but de décrire le comportement de sortie des ours après leur séjour dans la tanière. Dans le cadre de 40 séances d'observation ayant duré 459 heures, nous avons observé 8 ours adultes et 14 oursons à charge en dehors des tanières pendant 37,5 heures (soit 8,2 % de la durée d'observation totale). Il n'y avait pas de différence importante entre les dates de sortie des tanières en 2002 (moyenne = 15 mars ± 4,1 j) et 2003 (moyenne = 21 mars ± 2,1 j). Après la première sortie de la tanière, les ours polaires restaient à l'emplacement de leur tanière pendant 1,5 à 14 jours (moyenne = 8,1 ± 5.1 j). La longueur moyenne du séjour en tanière entre les périodes de sortie était beaucoup plus courte en 2002 (1,79 h) qu'en 2003 (4,82 h). Une fois sortis, les ours adultes étaient inactifs pendant 49,5 % du temps, tandis que les oursons étaient inactifs pendant 13,4 % du temps. Nous n'avons pas trouvé de lien important entre l'activité une fois sorti de la tanière et le temps qu'il faisait. Les ours polaires adultes à l'emplacement de tanières assujetties à des activités industrielles affichaient beaucoup moins de séquences de vigilance que les ours en tanière des régions tranquilles (t = -5,5164, dl = 4, p = 0,00). Cependant, la durée des comportements de vigilance aux emplacements situés près d'activités industrielles n'était pas beaucoup plus courte qu'aux autres emplacements étudiés (t = - 1,8902, dl = 4, p = 0,07). Les résultats enregistrés pour ces ours tombaient dans l'étendue des constatations découlant d'autres études d'ours polaires en tanière.


Drinking water and potential threats to human health in Nunavik : adaptation strategies under climate change conditions   /   Martin, D.   Bélanger, D.   Gosselin, P.   Brazeau, J.   Furgal, C.   Déry, S.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 195-202, ill., map
ASTIS record 61836
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In Nunavik, chlorine-treated water is delivered daily, by tank truck, to the houses, where it is stored in tanks. A large part of the Inuit population continues to depend on an untreated water supply, however. This traditional activity poses certain risks in a region with an abundant presence of migratory animals. Nunavik has also experienced significant climate warming since the beginning of the last decade. The main goal of this study, which took place in 2003 and 2004, was to evaluate drinking habits that may place Nunavik residents at an increased risk of gastroenteric diseases in the context of climate change. During the Amundsen cruise in fall 2004, we observed that raw water from the collection sites most frequently visited (brooks, lakes, rivers) was of good quality in most of the villages. Regular monitoring of these sites is necessary, however, and the public should be warned when the sites become contaminated. Of particular concern was the water from the individual storage containers, which was much more contaminated than the water at the collection sites. To develop or improve the climate change adaptation strategies in this area, we propose 1) establishing an appropriate environmental monitoring system, 2) improving wastewater disposal and municipal water systems, 3) involving nursing staff in microbiological testing of the water at community sites, 4) raising public awareness of the risks related to raw water consumption, and 5) gathering strategic health information during the periods of the year when cases of gastroenteric diseases are most frequent, in order to establish whether there is a link between these disorders and water quality.

Au Nunavik, de l'eau traitée par chloration est livrée à domicile tous les jours au moyen d'un camion-citerne, après quoi cette eau est stockée dans des réservoirs. Cependant, une grande partie de la population inuite continue de s'approvisionner en eau non traitée. Cette activité traditionnelle pose certains risques dans une région caractérisée par une abondance d'animaux en migration. Aussi, depuis le début de la dernière décennie, le Nunavik a enregistré un réchauffement climatique considérable. Cette étude, qui s'est déroulée de 2003 à 2004, avait pour but principal d'évaluer les habitudes de consommation d'eau qui sont susceptibles de mettre les habitants du Nunavik davantage à risque de subir des maladies gastro-entériques dans le contexte du changement climatique. Dans le cadre de la croisière de l'Amundsen à l'automne 2004, nous avons constaté que l'eau brute des lieux de collecte les plus souvent visités (les ruisseaux, les lacs et les rivières) était de bonne qualité dans la plupart des villages. Cela dit, la surveillance régulière de ces emplacements s'avère nécessaire et le grand public devrait être averti en cas de contamination. L'eau des contenants de stockage individuels représentait une source de préoccupation particulière, car elle était bien plus contaminée que l'eau des lieux de collecte. Afin d'élaborer ou d'améliorer les stratégies d'adaptation au changement climatique dans cette région, nous proposons ce qui suit : 1) établir un système de surveillance environnementale adéquat, 2) améliorer le système d'élimination des eaux usées et le réseau municipal d'alimentation en eau, 3) faire appel au personnel infirmier pour faire les tests microbiologiques de l'eau aux emplacements communautaires, 4) sensibiliser le grand public davantage aux risques liés à la consommation d'eau non traitée, 5) recueillir des renseignements stratégiques sur la santé pendant les périodes de l'année où les maladies gastro-entériques sont plus fréquentes afin de déterminer s'il existe un lien entre ces maladies et la qualité de l'eau.


Albert Lincoln Washburn (1911-2007)   /   Benson, C.S.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 212-214, 1 port.
ASTIS record 61844
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Professor Albert Lincoln Washburn, the first executive director of the Arctic Institute of North America (from 1945 to 1950), died in Seattle on January 30, 2007, at the age of 95. “Link,” as his friends knew him, loved the Arctic. He dedicated his life to fieldwork and to intensive study of the Arctic and the polar regions in general, focusing on glacial and periglacial environments and Quaternary history of the earth. All of his research had the common thread of understanding periglacial processes. In addition to an active career in the field, he did an exceptional amount of administrative work. ... His first taste of the Arctic came in 1937, when he and Richard F. Flint were the geologists on Louise A. Boyd's expedition to the fjord regions of East Greenland. The stunning beauty and grandeur of East Greenland did their magic. Link was “hooked” on the Arctic. [In 1935 he married Tahoe Talbot, who was his companion and field assistant for over 50 years.] Link and Tahoe carried out fieldwork on Victoria Island, Northwest Territories, during July and August of 1938 and 1939, and from April 1940 to February 1941. This field study became Link's PhD dissertation at Yale University under the direction of Richard Flint. World War II delayed publication of the work until 1947, when it appeared as Memoir 22 of the Geological Society of America. During the war, Link served as an intelligence officer in the Arctic, Desert, Tropic Information Center (ADTIC) of the U.S. Army Air Forces. This service contributed, indirectly, to the origin of AINA and Link's role in it. Dr. Laurence M. Gould, Chief of the Arctic Section of ADTIC, was in frequent contact with Canadian colleagues, and it was clear that Canada and the United States faced many common problems. Gould was a key participant, with Washburn, among others, in two planning meetings during 1944 that led to the joint Canada-U.S. establishment of AINA, as a binational organization dedicated to the advancement of knowledge about the Arctic. It was decided to base the Institute in Canada, with headquarters in Montreal. Gould served as acting director until Washburn was released from the military and became the first fulltime director in 1945. ... Link went on to become director of the U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment (SIPRE), which in 1961 became the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). ... Link continued his own fieldwork near Mesters Vig in the King Oscar Fjord region of East Greenland, which he had first visited during the Louise Boyd expedition in 1937. He made a reconnaissance study in the summer of 1955, established instrumented sites in 1957, and made observations each year from 1957 through 1961, and again in 1964. His fieldwork on Cornwallis Island, Arctic Canada, in what is now Nunavut Territory, extended from 1981 to 1995. He conducted research in Antarctica in 1957 and 1958 and was involved in planning the multinational Dry Valley Drilling Project in 1972 - 75. ... Washburn was deeply involved in establishing two journals: Arctic, first published in 1948, and Quaternary Research, published since 1970. His own bibliography of more than 60 titles spans the time from 1939 to 1999. ... The many facets of Link's career included scholarship, research, administration, and careful, detailed planning, as well as his mentoring role, his generosity, and his friendship to many people. He was my boss in the early 1950s and a friend for more than half a century.


Jørgen Meldgaard (1927-2007)   /   Appelt, M.   Grønnow, B.   Gulløv, H.C.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 215-216, 1 port.
ASTIS record 61845
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When Jørgen Meldgaard passed away on 9 March 2007, an era in Danish Arctic research ended. Ten years earlier he had retired from his position at the National Museum of Denmark after almost 40 years as a curator and half a century in the service of Eskimology. As the last person in a unique line of Danish Arctic scholars, Meldgaard succeeded through his work in continuing a research tradition that includes Therkel Mathiassen (1892-1967), Kaj Birket-Smith (1893-1977), Erik Holtved (1899-1981), Helge Larsen (1905-84), and Eigil Knuth (1903-96). Their pioneering work in Arctic cultural history and Eskimo archaeology was carried out for the National Museum of Denmark. ... [Jørgen started his fieldwork in northeast Greenland where he became deeply fascinated with Arctic archaeology. His work took him to some of the most important archaeology sites in Alaska, Nunavut, Greenland and Newfoundland.] In 1959 the then 32-year-old Jørgen took up a position as curator of Eskimo collections at the Department of Ethnography. During the following almost four decades, he concentrated on museum tasks, exhibitions, consultancy for the new Greenland Museum in Nuuk, planning new fieldwork in Greenland, and from the introduction of Home Rule in 1979, repatriation of objects to the independent museum in Greenland. Last, but not least, his long and admired experience made him an appreciated adviser for upcoming students in the Arctic field. Jørgen's research initiatives were many, and he always invited Greenlandic, Danish, and foreign scholars and students to follow him in the field. His applications were always well written: he could convincingly describe the purpose of the investigation in a few incisive words. Some of these have become legendary: for example, “As I have phrased it before, several of these new traits in early Dorset smell of forest” (Meldgaard, 1962:95). In 1961, Jørgen launched the excavation of Thjoldhild's Church, the oldest church in North America, where one of theteam members, Gwyn Jones, collected material for his famous book, "The Norse Atlantic Saga" (1964). He was the head of the Danish Archaeological Expedition to Iran in 1962 - 63. In 1966, he initiated the project on cultural encounters between Eskimos and Europeans that resulted in excavations of the early 18th-century mission station and surrounding Inuit settlements in 1969 - 75, as well a large-scale Inuit-Norse project with around 50 participants in 1976 - 77. He was a member of the scientific group that presented the studies of the mummies from Qilakitsoq, Greenland. He initiated the Knud Rasmussen Memorial Expedition to Melville Bay (1979 - 80), and in 1982, he invited his old teacher Helge Larsen to the Qaaja site in Jakobshavn Icefjord. In 1992, he traveled to Thule on a research trip, with the main purpose of returning the human remains of the small group of Polar Eskimos whom Peary had taken to New York alive a century earlier. He ended, as he had begun in 1948, by sharing the joys of life in the field with his experienced colleague Hans-Georg Bandi, on a field trip to Disko Bay in 1996. ... There is hardly a research topic Jørgen did not touch. His efforts span from the earliest Palaeo-Eskimo cultures, over the fabled Dorset culture, to the whalers of the Thule culture. He also explored the European presence in North America, from medieval Norse settlements to traces left by the whalers to colonial Greenland. For many years, it was customary for foreign scholars to stop over in Copenhagen for inspiration from the Danish research environment, which has been described as “the world center of arctic anthropology” (Fitzhugh, 1994:77). Jørgen was instrumental in maintaining this position. ...


Robert S. Janes and Hector Pitchforth grave relocations   /   Stenton, D.R.
Arctic, v. 60, no. 2, June 2007, p. 217-220, ill.
ASTIS record 61849
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A few kilometres west of the community of Mittimatalik (Pond Inlet) on northern Baffin Island lie the shallow graves of two qallunaat who died in the 1920s in different locations and under very different circumstances. One grave holds the remains of the Newfoundland trader Robert S. Janes (Sakirmiaq), who died in March 1920 at Kangiq, in the vicinity of Cape Crauford near the northern tip of Baffin Island. Janes' death at the hands of an Inuk set in motion a chain of events, including a murder trial, that would have lasting implications for law enforcement in Canada's Arctic (Grant, 2002). His body, interred temporarily near Cape Crauford, was later retrieved by the RCMP and transported to Mittimatalik for burial. The second grave contains the body of an Englishman named Hector Pitchforth (called Aullaq, or Audlaq), a resident trader with the Sabellum Trading Company, who died at age 40 in the winter of 1927 near Cape Henry Kater, on the central east coast of Baffin Island. Pitchforth's death was apparently caused by a combination of illness and starvation. His body was conveyed to Mittimatalik by the RCMP in 1927 and buried that summer next to the grave of Robert Janes (White, 1985; Grant, 2002). The deaths of Janes and Pitchforth occurred during a formative period in Canadian Arctic history, when social, economic, and legal relations between Inuit and qallunaat were being redefined. As a result, their graves are of historical significance to the community, to Nunavut, and to Canada. However, over the eight decades that have elapsed since the deaths, the graves have suffered the depredations of time and of benign neglect. They are located on the shore of Tasiujaq (Eclipse Sound) near Qilalukkat (Salmon Creek) - a popular camping and fishing locality and also a tourist destination because of its large Thule culture archaeological site. ... In 2004, responding to a request from the community, and with the permission of relatives of the deceased, the Government of Nunavut undertook the exhumation of the remains and their reburial in a location where the impacts from human activity would be reduced and the threat from erosion eliminated. The work was conducted under the Nunavut Archaeology Program, established in 2002 by the Department of Culture, Language, Elders and Youth (CLEY) as a means to help communities manage, investigate, and protect archaeological resources. ... This project was the first exhumation and reburial under the program. The provision of archaeological training and employment opportunities for Inuit is a key component of the Nunavut Archaeology Program, and in 2006 a multiyear archaeology field training program commenced in partnership with the Inuit Heritage Trust. ... Because the project was “non-investigative,” the bodies were exhumed and reburied as quickly as possible. The remains were handled in a careful and respectful manner, and as they were removed, they were immediately transferred into the new coffins, transported to the new gravesite, and reburied. The replacement grave markers, modeled after the original marker on the Janes grave (carved by RCMP Corporal Finley McInnes; S. Grant, pers. comm. 2005), were then set in place. ...


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