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Painted wooden plaques from the MacFarlane collection : the earliest Inuvialuit graphic art   /   Morrison, D.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 351-360, ill., maps
ASTIS record 60284
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In the 1860s, fur trader Roderick MacFarlane amassed a large ethnographic and zoological collection from the western Canadian Arctic, mainly on behalf of the Smithsonian Institution. Among the many items collected are eight hand-sized wooden plaques bearing incised polychrome scenes of traditional Inuvialuit (Mackenzie Inuit) life. The earliest significant examples of Inuvialuit graphic art in existence, these pieces provide a unique perspective on Inuvialuit culture and history at a critical period: during the first generation of sustained European contact.

Dans les années 1860, Roderick MacFarlane, commerçant en fourrures, a recueilli une grande collection d'objets ethnographiques et zoologiques de l'ouest de l'Arctique canadien, surtout au nom du Smithsonian Institution. Parmi les nombreux articles qu'il a recueillis se trouvent huit plaques format de poche portant des gravures polychromes de scènes représentant la vie traditionnelle des Inuvialuits (les Inuits du Mackenzie). Ces oeuvres représentent les premiers exemples importants d'art graphique des Inuvialuits et à ce titre, elles offrent une perspective unique sur la culture et l'histoire des Inuvialuits à une période critique : pendant la première génération de contact soutenu avec les Européens.


Interspecific killing of an arctic fox by a red fox at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska   /   Pamperin, N.J.   Follmann, E.H.   Petersen, B.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 361-364, ill.
ASTIS record 60285
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We report on the interspecific killing of an arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) by a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in the Prudhoe Bay Oilfield, Alaska, an event that was captured on video in November 2004. Both the video and evidence from observation indicate that this may be a case of intraguild predation. The interaction represents an extreme example of competitive behavior and suggests that increased contact between these two sympatric canids in northern Alaska could be detrimental to arctic foxes.

Dans un champ pétrolifère de la baie Prudhoe, en Alaska, un renard roux (Vulpes vulpes) a tué un renard arctique (Alopex lagopus). Il s'agit là d'une attaque interspécifique qui a été captée sur vidéo en novembre 2004. La vidéo et les indices prélevés au moment de l'observation laissent croire qu'il pourrait s'agir d'une prédation intraguilde. Cette interaction représente un exemple extrême de comportement compétitif et laisse supposer que le contact accru entre ces deux canidés sympatriques du nord de l'Alaska pourrait nuire aux renards arctiques.


An early collection of the red alga, Mikamiella ruprechtiana, made by Carl Merck on the Billings Expedition to Alaska (1785-94)   /   Wynne, M.J.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 365-369, ill.
ASTIS record 60286
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A number of original watercolored illustrations of North Pacific marine algae accompanied by the original algal specimens are deposited in the State Botanical Collection, National Herbarium of Victoria, Australia. These illustrations were executed by W.G. Tilesius, surgeon-naturalist-artist on the Krusenstern Expedition (1803-06). One of these illustrated specimens was collected in the period 1790-91 on Unalaska Island, the Aleutian Islands, by C.H. Merck, naturalist-botanical collector on the Billings Expedition (1785-94). This marine alga, given the manuscript name "Palmetta aleutica" by Tilesius, is one of the earliest known specimens of marine algae collected from Alaskan waters. Its identity is Mikamiella ruprechtiana.

Un certain nombre d'aquarelles originales d'algues marines du Pacifique nord accompagnées de spécimens d'algues font partie de la collection botanique d'État du National Herbarium de Victoria, en Australie. Ces illustrations ont été réalisées par W.G. Tilesius, chirurgien, naturaliste et artiste de l'expédition Krusenstern (1803 - 1806). Un des spécimens illustrés a été recueilli pendant la période de 1790 -1791 sur l'île d'Unalaska, dans les îles Aléoutiennes, par C.H. Merck, naturaliste et collectionneur botanique de l'expédition Billings (1785- 1794). Cette algue marine, que Tilesius a nommée « Palmetta aleutica », constitue l'un des premiers spécimens connus d'algues marines provenant des eaux alaskiennes. Son identité est Mikamiella ruprechtiana.


Making sense of contaminants : a case study of Arviat, Nunavut   /   Tyrrell, M.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 370-380
ASTIS record 60287
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Inuit and scientists are increasingly aware of the presence of contaminants in the Arctic food web and of the threat these contaminants pose to human and environmental health and well-being. The varied ways that Inuit think about and react to contaminants in the foods they eat are explored in a case study of one Inuit community: Arviat, on the northwest coast of Hudson Bay. Reactions to contaminants are mixed. While Inuit are informed of scientific findings through a variety of media, they also have their own explanations for the changes that are taking place in the animals on which they rely. This study juxtaposes global cause and effect, as understood by the scientific community, and the local causes and effects of contamination as understood by Inuit. The Inuit of Arviat are incorporating contaminants research into their hunting practice and earning money by collecting tissue samples and hosting southern researchers. This typical Nunavut community demonstrates the heterogeneity of understanding that exists and the ways in which local people are turning something very negative to their advantage.

Les Inuits et les scientifiques sont de plus en plus conscients de la présence de contaminants dans le réseau alimentaire de l'Arctique ainsi que des risques que posent ces contaminants à l'égard de la santé et du bien-être de l'être humain et de l'environnement. Les Inuits ont des réactions et des réflexions variées quant à la présence de contaminants dans la nourriture et celles-ci ont fait l'objet d'une étude de cas portant sur la collectivité inuite d'Arviat, sur la côte nord-ouest de la baie d'Hudson. Les réactions vis-à-vis des contaminants sont partagées. Bien que les Inuits soient au courant des constatations scientifiques grâce à divers médias, ils ont également leurs propres explications pour justifier les changements qui se produisent chez les animaux dont ils dépendent. Cette étude juxtapose les causes et les effets à l'échelle planétaire, tels que les scientifiques les comprennent, de même que les causes et les effets de la contamination à l'échelle locale, tels que les Inuits les comprennent. Les Inuits d'Arviat intègrent la recherche sur les contaminants à leur pratique de la chasse et gagnent de l'argent en prélevant des échantillons de tissus et en accueillent les chercheurs du sud. Cette collectivité typique du Nunavut atteste de la compréhension hétérogène qui existe et de la manière dont les gens de la région tirent des avantages d'une situation très négative.


An incidence of multi-year sediment storage on channel snowpack in the Canadian High Arctic   /   Lamoureux, S.F.   McDonald, D.M.   Cockburn, J.M.H.   Lafrenière, M.J.   Atkinson, D.M.   Treitz, P.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 381-390, ill., maps
PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 020-05
ASTIS record 60288
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During June 2005, we identified the presence of sediment buried within multi-year channel snowpack of a small river located near Cape Bounty, Melville Island, Nunavut (74°55' N, 109°35' W). Photographic evidence indicates that the sediment was deposited during the 2003 season by the initial meltwater flowing on the snowpack, which was dammed by snow upstream of a channel constriction. The resulting pond covered a minimum area of 180 m² and contained an estimated minimum 27 Mg of sediment. Suspended sediment measurements during the 2003 season indicate that deposition on the snowpack at this location represented 49%-65% of the sediment transport prior to the ponding and emplacement of the sediment on the snow, and approximately 20% of the measured sediment flux for the entire season. Multi-year snow accumulations immediately downstream exhibited similar sediment deposition on snow, but no evidence of multi-year sediment storage was present. By contrast, a similar stream in an adjacent watershed channelized rapidly, with minimal sediment deposition on the snow, and delivered a large pulse of sediment to the downstream lake. These results provide quantitative evidence for the magnitude of sediment storage on snowpack and point to the unique role that snow plays in the fluvial geomorphology of High Arctic watersheds.

En juin 2005, nous avons dénoté la présence de sédiment enterré dans une plaque de neige datant de plusieurs années d'une petite rivière située près de cap Bounty, sur l'île Melville, au Nunavut (74°55' N, 109°35' O). D'après des preuves photographiques, le sédiment a été déposé pendant la saison 2003 par l'eau de fusion initiale s'écoulant sur la plaque de neige, qui avait été endiguée par la neige en amont d'un canal confiné. L'étang qui en a découlé recouvrait une aire minimale de 180 m² et contenait, selon les estimations, au moins 27 Mg de sédiment. Les mesures de sédiment en suspension pendant la saison 2003 indiquent que ce dépôt sur la plaque de neige à cet endroit représentait entre 49 % et 65 % du transport de sédiment avant l'accumulation d'eau et l'emplacement de sédiment sur la neige, et environ 20 % du flux de sédiment mesuré pour toute la saison. Les accumulations de neige de plusieurs années immédiatement en aval comptaient des dépôts de sédiment semblables sur la neige, quoi qu'aucun emmagasinage de sédiment sur plusieurs années n'était présent. Par contraste, un cours d'eau similaire d'un bassin hydrographique adjacent s'est canalisé rapidement, avec peu de dépôts de sédiment sur la neige, puis a laissé une grande quantité de sédiment au lac en aval. Ces résultats fournissent des preuves quantitatives quant à l'ampleur de l'emmagasinage de sédiment sur la plaque de neige et laissent envisager le rôle unique que joue la neige sur la géomorphologie fluviale des bassins hydrographiques de l'Extrême-Arctique.


New spruce (Picea spp.) macrofossils from Yukon Territory : implications for Late Pleistocene refugia in Eastern Beringia   /   Zazula, G.D.   Telka, A.M.   Harington, C.R.   Schweger, C.E.   Mathewes, R.W.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 391-400, ill., maps
ASTIS record 60289
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New radiocarbon-dated plant macrofossils provide evidence for black spruce (Picea mariana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) within the unglaciated Yukon Territory at the onset of glacial conditions during the Marine Isotope Stage 3/2 transition, between about 26 000 and 24500 14C yr BP. These data indicate that spruce trees were able to reproduce sexually and grow to maturity within a glacial environment characterized by widespread steppe-tundra vegetation, loess aggradation, and icewedge formation. These trees may have been restricted to rare valley-bottom habitats that provided adequate shelter and moisture similar to those at the present latitudinal tree line. Previously published hypotheses suggest that low Picea frequencies in regional Beringian pollen data point to the local persistence of spruce trees through the last glaciation. Although our data provide evidence for local spruce trees at the onset of the last glaciation, the available macrofossil record is inconclusive regarding the survival of spruce through the Last Glacial Maximum in Eastern Beringia. These new plant macrofossil data require palynologists to reexamine the relationship between Picea pollen frequency and local trees and highlight the importance of integrated pollen- and macrofossil-based paleoecological reconstructions.

De nouveaux macrofossiles de plantes datés au C14 attestent de la présence d'épinette noire (Picea mariana) et d'épinette blanche (Picea glauca) dans le territoire non glaciaire du Yukon au début des conditions glaciaires, pendant la transition Marine Isotope Stage 3/2, et s'étendant entre environ 26 000 et 24 500 années avant le présent, daté au C14. Selon ces données, les épinettes étaient capables de se reproduire par voie sexuée et de croître jusqu'à maturité dans un milieu glaciaire caractérisé par une végétation à forte densité de steppe et de toundra, par l'aggradation de loess et par une formation de glace fossile. Il se peut que ces arbres se limitaient à de rares habitats au fond de vallées, habitats qui leur procuraient un abri adéquat et un degré d'humidité similaires à ceux qui existent dans la limite actuelle transversale de végétation des arbres. D'après des hypothèses déjà publiées, la faible fréquence de Picea dans les données régionales de pollen bérégien laissent supposer la persistance locale des épinettes pendant la dernière glaciation. Bien que nos données fournissent la preuve de l'existence d'épinettes locales au début de la dernière glaciation, les données macrofossiles disponibles ne sont pas concluantes en ce qui a trait à la survie de l'épinette pendant le dernier maximum glaciaire dans la Béringie de l'Est. Ces nouvelles données macrofossiles de plantes impliquent que les palynologues doivent réexaminer la relation entre la fréquence du pollen de Picea et les arbres locaux, et font ressortir l'importance des reconstructions paléoécologiques intégrées du pollen et des macrofossiles.


Cultures in collision : traditional knowledge and Euro-Canadian governance processes in northern land-claim boards   /   White, G.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 401-414
ASTIS record 60290
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This paper analyzes how traditional knowledge (TK) is used by two of the co-management and regulatory boards established under the comprehensive land-claim agreements in Canada's territorial North: the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB) and the Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board (MVEIRB). A comparison of the defining characteristics of Western “Weberian” bureaucracy, which sets the framework within which these and other boards operate, and central tenets of traditional northern Aboriginal culture highlights the oftentimes stark incompatibilities between what amount to different worldviews. Both boards are shown to have made substantial and sincere efforts at incorporating TK into their practices. The NWMB, with its wildlife-focused mandate, is better able to accommodate TK in its work than is the MVEIRB, which deals with complex legal regulatory issues. Both, however, are limited in their capacity to fully incorporate TK into their operations by the exigencies of the modern bureaucratic state.

Le présent document analyse la manière dont les connaissances traditionnelles (CT) sont utilisées par deux des offices de cogestion et de réglementation fondés en vertu des accords exhaustifs de revendication territoriale dans le Nord canadien, soit l'office Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB) et l'office Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board (MVEIRB). La comparaison des caractéristiques déterminantes de la bureaucratie « weberienne » occidentale, qui établit le cadre de fonctionnement de ces offices et d'autres offices, et des principes fondamentaux de la culture autochtone traditionnelle du Nord fait ressortir les incompatibilités parfois difficiles entre ce qui se résume à être des visions différentes du monde. Les deux offices ont fait des efforts considérables et sincères pour intégrer les connaissances traditionnelles à leurs pratiques. Le NWMB, avec son mandat axé sur la faune, est mieux en mesure de tenir compte des connaissances traditionnelles dans son travail que le MVEIRB, qui s'occupe de questions réglementaires et juridiques complexes. Cela dit, ces deux organismes ont une capacité limitée quand vient le temps d'intégrer entièrement les connaissances traditionnelles à leur exploitation, limitations qui découlent des exigences de l'État bureaucratique moderne.


Exploration history and mineral potential of the central Arctic Zn-Pb district, Nunavut   /   Dewing, K.   Sharp, R.J.   Muraro, T.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 415-427, ill., maps
ASTIS record 60291
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Exploration in the central Arctic Zn-Pb District took place in five phases: 1) an initial exploration period (1960-70), during which most surface showings on Cornwallis and Little Cornwallis islands were found; 2) a discovery period (1971-79), during which the buried Polaris ore body was discovered and its feasibility and viability established, new showings were found farther afield, and many showings received limited drill testing; 3) the production period (1980-88), dominated by drilling at Polaris Mine; 4) an ore-replacement exploration period (1989-2001), during which showings close to Polaris were extensively drilled, showings on Cornwallis Island drill tested, and new showings found and drilled farther away; and 5) a reclamation period (2002-05), during which the infrastructure was removed and the mine site restored. Factors affecting the timing and rate of exploration were generally intrinsic to the region: 1) discovery of showings in 1960, 2) discovery of the Polaris ore body in 1971, 3) declining reserves between 1989 and 2002, 4) closure of the mine in 2002, 5) the short exploration season and difficult logistics, and 6) lack of competition. The external drivers of exploration were 1) oil-related exploration that led to the discovery of the Polaris showings, 2) the onset of regional exploration coinciding with spikes in the price of zinc, and 3) the surge in scientific interest in carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposits in 1967. Probabilistic, discovery-time curve analysis indicates that over 50 showings remain undiscovered. Because logistics controlled the target selection, the standard assumption of a logical discovery process (from largest target to smallest target) is likely invalid. This means that large, untested targets may still exist in the district.

Les travaux d'exploration dans le district de Zn-Pb du centre de l'Arctique se sont déroulés en cinq étapes : 1) une période d'exploration initiale (1960-1970), durant laquelle la plupart des traces détectées sur l'île Cornwallis et la Petite île Cornwallis ont été trouvées; 2) une période de découverte (1971-1979), pendant laquelle la zone de minéralisation enterrée de Polaris a été découverte et sa faisabilité et sa rentabilité ont été déterminées, de nouvelles traces ont été décelées plus au loin, et de nombreuses traces ont fait l'objet d'un nombre restreint d'essais de foration; 3) une période de production (1980-1988), dominée par les travaux de foration à la mine Polaris; 4) une période d'exploration de remplacement de minerai (1989-2001), dans le cadre de laquelle les traces situées à proximité de Polaris ont fait l'objet de forations intenses, les traces de l'île Cornwallis ont fait l'objet d'essais et de nouvelles traces ont été découvertes et forées plus loin; et 5) une période de remise en état (2002-2005), durant laquelle l'infrastructure a été retirée et l'emplacement de la mine a été restauré. Généralement, les facteurs touchant la programmation et le régime d'exploration étaient intrinsèques à la région : 1) la découverte des traces en 1960, 2) la découverte du corps minéralisé de Polaris en 1971, 3) la diminution des réserves entre 1989 et 2002, 4) la fermeture de la mine en 2002, 5) la courte saison d'exploration et la logistique qui présentait des difficultés, et 6) l'absence de concurrence. Les motifs externes à l'exploration étaient les suivants : 1) l'exploration pétrolière qui a engendré la découverte des traces de Polaris, 2) le début de l'exploration régionale qui coïncidait avec les variations brusques du prix du zinc, et 3) l'intérêt soudain, dans le monde scientifique, envers les gisements de Zn-Pb dans la roche hôte carbonatée en 1967. L'analyse probabiliste de la courbe de découverte par rapport au temps indique que plus d'une cinquantaine de traces n'ont toujours pas été découvertes. Puisque la logistique décidait du choix des cibles, il est très vraisemblable que l'hypothèse standard d'un processus de découverte logique (de la cible la plus grande à la cible la plus petite) ne soit pas valable. Cela signifie que de vastes cibles n'ayant pas fait l'objet d'essais existent encore dans le district.


The gender gap in higher education in Alaska   /   Kleinfeld, J.   Andrews, J.J.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 428-434
ASTIS record 60292
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A gender gap strongly favoring women is occurring in higher education throughout the Arctic and is especially severe among indigenous groups. This study documents the size, nature, and recent increase in the gender gap at the University of Alaska, especially for Alaska Native students. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide statistical documentation of this phenomenon. We find that among Alaska Natives, women are earning bachelor's degrees at almost three times the rate of men and associate degrees at almost five times the rate of men. Furthermore, the gender gap in favor of females widened between 1998 and 2004, the most recent year for which we have information. The experience at the University of Alaska shows that increasing access and providing college preparation and support services alone are not enough to engage indigenous young men in postsecondary education. What may also be needed are ways of making education more compatible with traditional male cultural roles and community values. The Community Trades Technology Program at the University of Alaska has succeeded in enrolling large numbers of young Native men in a postsecondary program through such an educational model. The program 1) is located in the students' home community; 2) offers cohort-based instruction that enrolls most of the students' friends; 3) emphasizes practical, hands-on knowledge and the lore of the trade; 4) embeds academic instruction in practical tasks, such as writing letters about construction supplies; 5) connects the educational program to immediate employment in construction projects scheduled for the community; and 6) provides practical help to people, such as doing home repairs, without charge.

En matière d'études supérieures dans l'Arctique, il existe un écart prononcé entre les sexes, écart qui se montre en faveur des femmes et se manifeste surtout dans les groupes indigènes. Ce document porte sur l'ampleur, la nature et l'accroissement récent de l'écart entre les sexes à l'Université de l'Alaska, plus particulièrement chez les étudiants autochtones de l'Alaska. À notre connaissance, il s'agit de la première étude à fournir de la documentation statistique au sujet de ce phénomène. Nous avons constaté qu'au sein des Autochtones de l'Alaska, les femmes décrochent un baccalauréat au moins trois fois plus souvent que les hommes, et des diplômes associés au moins cinq fois plus souvent que les hommes. De plus, l'écart entre les sexes en faveur des femmes s'est intensifié entre 1998 et 2004, l'année la plus récente pour laquelle nous possédons de l'information. L'expérience de l'Université de l'Alaska indique que l'amélioration de l'accès et la prestation de services de préparation et de soutien ne suffisent pas à attirer les jeunes hommes à faire des études postsecondaires. Ce qu'il faut probablement, c'est une façon de rendre l'éducation plus compatible avec les rôles traditionnels et culturels de l'homme, ainsi qu'avec les valeurs communautaires. Le programme communautaire de technologies et de métiers (Community Trades Technology Program) de l'Université de l'Alaska a réussi à recueillir les inscriptions de grands nombres de jeunes hommes autochtones dans un programme postsecondaire grâce à un modèle d'études de ce genre. Le programme 1) est donné au sein de la collectivité même des étudiants; 2) est caractérisé par des cours dispensés à la cohorte, qui est composée principalement des amis des étudiants; 3) met l'accent sur des connaissances pratiques et manuelles, ainsi que sur l'attrait des métiers; 4) intègre l'instruction théorique aux tâches pratiques, comme la rédaction de correspondance au sujet de matériaux de construction; 5) établit un lien entre le programme d'études et des emplois immédiats dans le cadre de travaux de construction prévus dans la région; et 6) fournit de l'aide pratique visant à aider les gens, en faisant des réparations à domicile par exemple et ce, gratuitement.


Joan Ryan (1932-2005)   /   Robinson, M.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 447-448, ill.
ASTIS record 60301
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... Born into a stressed and dysfunctional Irish-Canadian family in a poor neighbourhood in Montreal, in 1932, Joan had a difficult start. Her parents William and Winnifred had seven children, of whom two died in infancy. Her mother died in 1934 in childbirth, and her older sister Margaret played a major role in raising Joan until Margaret went into religious training with S.S.-Éléonare-de-Jésus Congregation de Nôtre-Dame. In her late teens, Joan met the loving Birchard family of Ottawa. Her initial contact was with Charlotte (Char) Birchard, who directed the YMCA Camp Oolawhan. Char's husband Carl and children Janet and Kris played a key role in forming Joan's sense of family and service to community. ... She thrived at Camp Oolawhan over several years as a counselor, and entered college to achieve her Quebec Permanent Teacher's Certificate in 1952. Joan completed a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology at Carleton University in 1957, having had to interrupt her studies from time to time to pay her way. She taught ballroom dancing and swimming and did whatever was necessary to make ends meet. BA in hand, Joan decided to travel to Fairbanks, Alaska, and study for a Master of Education in Psychology. ... In Alaska, Joan honed her career-long interest in aboriginal peoples, their coming to grips with modernity, and their need for resident community development teachers who could unlock young minds and talent. ... Joan's passion fed on the need for social justice, and it found expression in research and training to help local communities in the realms of land claims, local economic development, preservation and use of aboriginal languages, and promotion of the use of traditional knowledge in the local delivery of medicine, education, and justice. ... Upon her graduation in 1959 in Fairbanks, Joan went to work in the Canadian North, focusing her energies as a Northern Service Officer and teacher with Indian and Northern Affairs Canada in George River and Ungava Bay, Quebec,and Lac La Martre, Northwest Territories. In 1964, ... Joan ... enrolled as a PhD student in the fledgling Department of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of British Columbia. It was typical of Joan that she had not taken one course in anthropology, but she harboured a complete determination to enter the discipline .... Again, typically, with no partner or spouse, little money, and fierce determination, she adopted two young aboriginal daughters, Sandra and Tanis. Upon graduation with her PhD, Joan applied for a tenure-track position at the new University of Calgary in 1967. Joan got the job, and progressively bore down on her career, rising to full professorship in 1988. She became the first female department head (1978-83) and all the while participated in cultivating the careers of a generation of Canadian applied anthropology students by serving on numerous MA and PhD committees. On a sabbatical in Montreal, she wrote her first major work, Wall of Words: The Betrayal of the Urban Indian (1978), and began contributing peer-reviewed papers to her discipline. She also was instrumental in the founding of the Canadian Anthropology Society (CASCA) and of its journal, Anthropologica (formerly Culture). ... At age 55 in 1987, Joan elected early retirement from the University and switched her affiliation to the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA) ... [where she helped to pioneer] northern participatory action research (PAR) projects in Fort McPherson and Lac La Martre. ... Perhaps the keystone publication of this period in Joan's life was Doing Things the Right Way: Dene Traditional Justice in Lac La Martre, N.W.T. (1995) .... This book is the final report of the Dene Traditional Justice Project in Lac La Martre and is now widely in use as a “how to” text on conceptualizing, funding, and operating PAR projects. It is certainly worth noting that Joan's commitment to PAR never wavered or waned: at the age of 70, she was still applying her skills in Déline, NWT, as the Coordinator of the Field Workers Training Program in Traditional Knowledge Research on the Déline Uranium Team. ... In recognition of her lifelong efforts, Joan received the Prix Weaver-Tremblay Prize for exceptional contributions to Canadian Applied Anthropology, as well as the Chief David Crowchild Memorial Award of the City of Calgary. A nomination for the Order of Canada was circulating at the time of her death. To have known Joan was a gift now shared by those who continue on in the causes of cultural diversity, social justice for the oppressed, and friendship for all fellow travellers. Joan - you were a life force for good, and you still are not spent.


Effects of plant functional groups on vegetation dynamics and ecosystem properties   /   McLaren, J.R.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 449-452, ill.
ASTIS record 60349
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... Species composition is likely to play an important role in determining ecosystem function because species differ in their traits. The effect of the loss of a species on an ecosystem is the result of both (1) the loss of the direct effects of the organism on ecosystem functioning and (2) the response of other organisms to that loss. These effects and responses occur through numerous mechanisms. For example, species can directly affect soil nutrient and water content through varying root mass. In addition, specific species can alter plant community composition through varying competitive abilities and facilitative effects, which in turn may affect ecosystem function. To date, most experimental biodiversity work has used random assembly experiments, which contain artificially assembled communities of local plants (e.g., Hooper and Vitousek, 1997; Tilman et al., 1997; Hector et al., 1999; Fridley, 2003). Recently, however, removal experiments in natural communities are being promoted as a more realistic way to examine the consequences of biodiversity loss (Diaz et al., 2003). The major difference between random assembly experiments and removal experiments is that the manipulated communities have gone through different assembly processes: removal experiments are based on naturally assembled communities and therefore may include important natural processes that might be underestimated by random assembly experiments. My PhD research uses a removal experiment to examine the roles of different plant functional groups (groups of plants that have similar roles in a community, e.g., grasses, legumes) both in influencing plant community dynamics (responses of other functional groups to the loss of a particular group) and in determining ecosystem function (properties and processes of an ecosystem affected by the biota). Specifically, my questions are: 1. Do different functional groups have different effects on community dynamics and ecosystem processes? 2. Does the role of a functional group change when the environment changes? ... The study area is a relatively dry grassland near Kluane Lake in the southwestern Yukon in northern Canada. The area is in the rain shadow of the St. Elias Mountains and receives a mean annual precipitation of ca. 230 mm. About half of this total falls as rain during the summer months, but it also includes an average annual snowfall of about 100 cm. The grassland is surrounded by a spruce forest community dominated by Picea glauca. I recognized three functional groups of grassland plants: graminoids, nonleguminous forbs (hereafter called forbs), and legumes. The grassland is dominated by the graminoids Poa glauca and Carex stenophylla and also contains many nonleguminous forbs (dominated by Erigeron caespitosus and Artemisia frigida) and legumes (dominated by Oxytropis campestris). ... Preliminary results: Samples and data for this experiment are still under analysis. However, preliminary results indicate significant effects of removals on many of the ecosystem functions measured. For example, significant effects of removal were found for soil nutrients including total N, NO3-, P, and S. For N and NO3-, control treatments generally had lower nutrient supply rates than the removal treatments, whereas the opposite trend was found for P and S. NH4+ and P were the only nutrients significantly affected by the removal-fertilizer interaction, indicating that for these nutrients the role of a functional group is partially determined by the environment in which it is found. Litter decomposition results indicate that grasses play an important role in this ecosystem in controlling nutrient recycling. The presence of grasses in a community creates conditions that promote decomposition both through changes in the environment and also through changes in the species composition of the litter material; species mixtures containing grasses decompose more rapidly than those without grass. Further exploration of these mixtures indicates that while the grasses themselves do not generally have different decomposition rates in mixture vs. monoculture, their presence promotes decomposition of other species present. This indicates that loss of grass species from this ecosystem may have interactive effects on decomposition greater than those predicted by either common source decomposition experiments or litter mixing experiments independently. Significance: My research examines the role that different functional groups play in determining ecosystem processes within a natural grassland in the southwest Yukon. In addition, I am examining whether these roles are consistent between environments or whether environmental change may also lead to changes in the relationship between plant functional groups and their environment. These types of experiments are particularly important in Arctic ecosystems because of their sensitivity to climate change. Since climate warming may be amplified through positive feedbacks in these systems (Grogan and Chapin, 2000), the effects of warming could become evident in the Arctic before they are noticed elsewhere. Additionally, community ecology is particularly understudied in northern ecosystems. In particular, biodiversity research has commonly focused on temperate grassland ecosystems, despite the possible severe impacts of species changes (both losses and additions) in depauperate alpine and Arctic ecosystems. ...


Habitat and movement ecology of grizzly bears in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT   /   Edwards, M.A.
Arctic, v. 59, no. 4, Dec. 2006, p. 453-456, ill.
ASTIS record 60350
PDF

... Low density, high mobility, and large home ranges describe Arctic grizzly bear populations (Ferguson and McLoughlin, 2000). When compared to other large carnivores, grizzlies are considered to have a lower ecological resilience, which is characterized by low population density, low fecundity, and low dispersal ability through developed areas (Weaver et al., 1996). Low resilience suggests that grizzlies are especially vulnerable to development-related disturbance. The sensitivity of the species makes it difficult for population numbers to increase in multi-use landscapes where the cumulative impacts of industry, subsistence and sport hunting, problem and defence kills, and recreational activities are the norm. The Mackenzie Gas Project will transect areas occupied by grizzly bears within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, which is also at the northernmost edge of their geographical range. At these northern latitudes, grizzly bears must accumulate enough energy reserves to last the 6-7 months of winter dormancy (Nagy et al., 1983). We do not know what effects a pipeline will have on the grizzlies of the Mackenzie Delta, but it could make it more difficult for them to meet their resource needs given a short active 5-6 month period (Nagy et al., 1983). Harding and Nagy (1980) predicted that hydrocarbon development in the region could be detrimental to grizzly bears because of the loss of available resources, and that mortality from problem bear-human interaction could result in population decline. ... The primary goals of my project are to collect baseline information on grizzly bear ecology before pipeline construction begins, to describe annual and seasonal home range size and distribution, and to identify important habitats. The information gained will form the foundation for model development to assess the affect of oil and gas-related activities on grizzly bears. Major project objectives are 1) to describe habitat selection patterns, 2) to quantify movement patterns, and 3) to incorporate these patterns into a scenario-based modelling approach to assess the response of grizzly bears to pipeline-related development. ... My research is being conducted in the Mackenzie Delta region north of Inuvik to the Beaufort Sea (ca. 28 000 km²).


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