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Human dimensions of the Arctic system   /   Huntington, H.P. [Editor]
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. iii
ASTIS record 55073
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In 1997, the National Science Foundation (USA) started a project called Human Dimensions of the Arctic System, given the acronym HARC. This initiative was part of the Arctic System Science Program, intended to promote understanding of the processes and feedbacks that involve and shape the physical, biological, and social components of the Arctic. HARC, in turn, was designed to boost research involving those social components, examining ways in which humans affect and are affected by the Arctic system. In a meeting of HARC investigators in 2002, several people suggested compiling a journal issue dedicated to Arctic human dimensions research. This issue [Arctic, v. 57, no. 4] is the result. I am grateful to the authors of the papers for making that idea a reality. On their behalf and mine, I thank the National Science Foundation for funding this issue and the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States for administrative and intellectual support. Arctic human dimensions research neither began nor developed in isolation. Various national and international efforts, such as the International Human Dimensions Program (IHDP), have sponsored, encouraged, and developed a community of researchers for the field. Nonetheless, HARC stands out in three ways: it has a clear geographic focus; it has a strong link to physical and biological research in the same region and program; and researchers have had considerable latitude in determining appropriate subjects and methods for their studies. This collection of papers reflects that diversity, constituting a rough and partial summary of HARC's achievements, plus one paper ... that was not part of HARC but addresses a relevant topic. ... three main conclusions can be drawn. First, the human dimensions of the Arctic system are extensive, complex, and diverse. Second, the study of human dimensions is similarly diverse, innovative, and compelling. Third, the field has matured to the stage that the next major challenge lies in synthesizing the results of many individual studies so that we can discern patterns and paradigms that will further illuminate the various case studies already conducted. If we can maintain the momentum generated by the work to date, the study of human dimensions in the Arctic has a bright future.


Sea changes ashore : the ocean and Iceland's herring captial   /   Hamilton, L.C.   Jónsson, S.   Ögmundardóttir, H.   Belkin, I.M.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 325-335, ill., maps
ASTIS record 55060
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The story of Siglufjörður (Siglufjordur), a north Iceland village that became the "Herring Capital of the World," provides a case study of complex interactions between physical, biological, and social systems. Siglufjörður's natural capital - a good harbor and proximity to prime herring grounds - contributed to its development as a major fishing center during the first half of the 20th century. This herring fishery was initiated by Norwegians, but subsequently expanded by Icelanders to such an extent that the fishery, and Siglufjörður in particular, became engines helping to pull the whole Icelandic economy. During the golden years of this "herring adventure," Siglufjörður opened unprecedented economic and social opportunities. Unfortunately, the fishing boom reflected unsustainably high catch rates. In the years following World War II, overfishing by an international fleet eroded the once-huge herring stock. Then, in the mid-1960s, large-scale physical changes took place in the seas north of Iceland. These physical changes had ecological consequences that led to the loss of the herring's main food supply. Severe environmental stress, combined with heavy fishing pressure, drove the herring stocks toward collapse. Siglufjörður found itself first marginalized, then shut out as the herring progressively vanished. During the decades following the 1968 collapse, this former boomtown has sought alternatives for sustainable development.

L'histoire de Siglufjörður (Siglufjordur), un village du nord de l'Islande qui acquit le statut de «Capitale mondiale du hareng», offre une étude de cas des interactions complexes qui ont lieu entre des systèmes physiques, biologiques et sociaux. Le capital naturel de Siglufjörður - un bon port et la proximité de bancs de harengs exceptionnels - a contribué à sa mise en valeur comme grand centre de pêche durant la première moitié du XXe siècle. La pêche au hareng, pratiquée tout d'abord par les Norvégiens, prit un tel essor avec les Islandais qu'elle devint, avec Siglufjörður en particulier, le moteur qui contribua à faire marcher toute l'économie de l'Islande. Durant les années fastes de cette «ère du hareng», il y eut à Siglufjörður des ouvertures économiques et sociales sans précédent. Malheureusement, le boom de la pêche représentait des taux de prises trop élevés pour être durables. Au cours des années qui suivirent la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, la surpêche pratiquée par une flottille internationale fit baisser le stock de harengs jadis abondant. Puis au milieu des années 1960, il se produisit, dans les eaux situées au nord de l'Islande, des changements à grande échelle sur le plan physique. Ces derniers eurent des conséquences écologiques qui aboutirent à la disparition de la source principale de nourriture du hareng. Un stress environnemental très fort, joint à des pressions pour augmenter encore plus les prises, mena les stocks de harengs à l'effondrement. Siglufjörður se trouva tout d'abord marginalisé, puis, à mesure que le hareng disparaissait, carrément exclu. Durant les décennies suivant l'effondrement de 1968, cette ancienne ville champignon a tenté de trouver des solutions de rechange pour se développer de façon durable.


An Arctic disaster and its policy implications   /   Brunner, R.D.   Lynch, A.H.   Pardikes, J.C.   Cassano, E.N.   Lestak, L.R.   Vogel, J.M.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 336-346, maps
ASTIS record 55064
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The purpose of the research reported here is to help the community in Barrow, Alaska, clarify its vulnerability to extreme weather events, and devise better-informed policies for reducing that vulnerability and adapting to climate variability and change. We examine the worst disaster on record there - a storm that struck on 3 October 1963 - from different disciplinary perspectives and in the context of other severe storms. The major policy responses to date have been a beach nourishment program, a feasibility study of additional means of erosion control, and an emergency management plan. Additional possible responses have been identified in the community's cumulative experience of these storms, but have not yet been fully explored or implemented. Meanwhile, given inherent uncertainties, it is clear that sound policies will allow for corrective action if and when expectations based on the best available knowledge and information turn out to be mistaken. It is also clear that the people of Barrow are in the best position to understand the evolving situation and to decide what to do about it.

Les travaux de recherche que l'on présente ici ont pour but d'aider la collectivité de Barrow (Alaska) à définir son degré de vulnérabilité à des conditions climatiques extrêmes, et à créer des politiques plus éclairées qui réduiraient cette vulnérabilité et favoriseraient l'adaptation à la variabilité et au changement climatiques. On examine le pire désastre jamais enregistré à cet endroit, soit une tempête qui fit rage le 3 octobre 1963, et ce, sous l'angle de différentes disciplines et dans le contexte d'autres grandes tempêtes. Jusqu'à présent, les politiques majeures d'intervention se sont résumées à un programme de recharge de plage, à une étude de faisabilité portant sur des mesures supplémentaires de lutte contre l'érosion et à un plan de gestion des situations d'urgence. L'expérience cumulative de la collectivité relative à ces tempêtes a permis de dégager d'autres interventions possibles, sans qu'elles aient toutefois été explorées à fond ou concrétisées. Entre-temps, vu les incertitudes inhérentes à ce genre de choses, il est évident que des politiques bien pensées permettront l'application de mesures correctives si et quand les prédictions fondées sur les toutes dernières connaissances et informations disponibles s'avèrent erronées. Il est en outre évident que les habitants de Barrow sont les mieux placés pour comprendre comment la situation évolue et pour décider des mesures à prendre.


Drift velocities of ice floes in Alaska's northern Chukchi Sea flaw zone : determinants of success by spring subsistence whalers in 2000 and 2001   /   Norton, D.W.   Gaylord, A.G.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 347-362, ill., maps
ASTIS record 55065
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By March each year, coast-influenced sea ice in Alaska's northern Chukchi Sea consists of the shorefast ice itself plus ice floes moving in a zone that extends from immediately beyond the shorefast ice to coherent pack ice, some 100 km farther offshore. Because westward-drifting polar pack ice encounters fewer landmasses (and less resistance from them) once it passes Point Barrow, a semipermanent polynya or flaw zone dominates coastal ice in this region. Iñupiat residents use open water in flaw leads to hunt migrating bowhead whales from mid-April to early June. Although Iñupiat hunters grasp the nature and importance of ice in motion beyond their horizon, the flaw zone has received less scientific attention than either shorefast ice or polar pack ice farther offshore. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery is a form of remote sensing recently made available that allows us to address ice movement at a spatial scale familiar to traditional hunters. SAR-tracked ice movements differed between 2000 and 2001, illustrating contrasts between adverse and optimal conditions for spring whaling at Barrow. Case studies of ice-floe accelerations in the two contrasting seasons suggest that many variables influence ice motion. These include weather, seafloor topography, currents, sea-level changes, and events that occurred earlier during an annual accretion of ice. Adequate prediction of threats to ice integrity in the northern Chukchi Sea will require adjustments of our current concepts, including 1) recognizing the pervasive influence of the flaw zone; 2) replacing a focus on vessel safety in ice-dominated waters with an emphasis on ice integrity in high-energy environments; and 3) chronicling ice motions through coordinated ground observation and remote sensing of March-June events in future field studies.

Quand arrive mars chaque année, la banquise soumise à l'influence de la côte dans la partie nord de la mer des Tchouktches de l'Alaska est formée de la glace côtière elle-même plus des floes en mouvement dans une zone qui s'étend de la lisière de la glace côtière au pack cohérent, à quelque 100 km plus au large. Vu que, une fois passée la pointe Barrow, le pack polaire dérivant vers l'ouest se heurte à moins de masses continentales (et donc moins de résistance), une polynie ou zone de séparation semi-permanente domine la banquise côtière dans cette région. Les résidents Iñupiat utilisent l'eau libre des zones de séparation pour chasser la baleine boréale sur sa route de migration de la mi-avril au début juin. Même si les chasseurs Iñupiat saisissent bien la nature et l'importance de la glace en mouvement au-delà de leur horizon, la zone de séparation a fait l'objet de beaucoup moins de recherches que la banquise côtière ou le pack polaire plus au large. L'imagerie satellitaire obtenue par radar à antenne synthétique (SAR) est une forme de télédétection toute récente qui nous permet d'étudier le déplacement de la glace à une échelle spatiale que connaissent bien les chasseurs traditionnels. Les déplacements de la glace suivis au SAR différaient en 2000 et 2001, illustrant le contraste entre des conditions défavorables et des conditions optimales pour la chasse printanière à la baleine faite à Barrow. Des études de cas de l'accélération des floes observée au cours de ces deux saisons où les conditions contrastaient, suggèrent qu'un grand nombre de variables influencent le déplacement de la glace. Celles-ci comprennent le climat, la topographie du fond marin, les courants, les changements du niveau de la mer et les événements qui ont eu lieu antérieurement durant une accrétion annuelle de glace. Pour prédire de façon satisfaisante les menaces à l'intégrité de la glace dans le nord de la mer des Tchouktches, il va nous falloir rectifier notre façon de penser actuelle, y compris: 1) reconnaître l'influence omniprésente de la zone de séparation; 2) changer l'accent de la sécurité des navires dans les eaux où domine la glace, à l'intégrité de la glace dans des milieux de haute énergie; et 3) enregistrer, lors de futures études sur le terrain, les déplacements de la glace en coordonnant les observations terrestres et la télédétection des événements ayant lieu de mars à juin.


Observations on shorefast ice dynamics in Arctic Alaska and the responses of the Iñupiat hunting community   /   George, J.C.   Huntington, H.P.   Brewster, K.   Eicken, H.   Norton, D.W.   Glenn, R.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 363-374, ill.
ASTIS record 55066
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Although shorefast sea ice forms a platform that facilitates travel, camping, and hunting by Iñupiat subsistence hunters and fishers in the western Arctic, the nearshore sea-ice zone remains an unforgiving and dynamic environment. Traditional hunters constantly hone site-specific experiences and skills with which to optimize the reward-to-risk ratio inherent in operating from this coastal ice. Nearshore ice conditions nevertheless can change suddenly, endangering even the most experienced subsistence hunters. This study examines two (of several) 20th-century events, 40 years apart, in which shorefast ice failed, threatening Iñupiat whale hunters with loss of confidence, livelihood, and life. These events differed in character. In one event, the shorefast ice was "crushed" by moving ice floes. In the other, the shorefast ice broke free of land. Our examination focuses on the relationship of subsistence hunters to the ice, the environmental causes of ice failures, the evolving technology for predicting ice behavior, and the longer-term implications of global change for this system. The complexity of geophysical processes underlying coastal ice behavior makes ice failures unpredictable. Thus, hunters must assume and manage risk. The variable and uncertain environment to which whale hunters are accustomed has produced an inherent flexibility that has helped them adapt to new conditions and will continue to do so in the future.

Bien que la banquise côtière constitue une plate-forme qui permet aux Iñupiat de l'Arctique de l'Ouest de se déplacer et de camper lorsqu'ils pratiquent la chasse et la pêche de subsistance, la zone de banquise proche du littoral reste un milieu dynamique qui ne pardonne pas. Les chasseurs traditionnels améliorent constamment les habiletés et l'expérience reliées à des sites particuliers, qui leur permettent d'optimiser le rapport récompense-risque inhérent au fait de travailler depuis la glace côtière. Les conditions de cette dernière peuvent toutefois changer brusquement, mettant en danger même les chasseurs de subsistance les plus chevronnés. Cette étude se penche sur deux (parmi plusieurs) épisodes survenus au XXe siècle, à 40 ans d'écart, durant lesquels la banquise côtière s'est rompue, ébranlant la confiance des baleiniers Iñupiat et menaçant leur moyen de subsistance ainsi que leur vie. Ces événements étaient de nature différente. Dans l'un, la glace côtière avait été «écrasée» par des floes en dérive. Dans l'autre, la banquise côtière s'était détachée de la terre ferme. Notre étude se concentre sur le rapport entre les chasseurs de subsistance et la glace, les causes environnementales de la fragilisation de la glace, la technologie mise au point actuellement qui permettrait de prédire le comportement de la glace, et les implications à long terme du changement climatique pour ce système. La complexité des processus géophysiques sous-jacents au comportement de la banquise côtière fait que les ruptures de la banquise sont imprévisibles. Les chasseurs doivent donc assumer le risque et le gérer. L'environnement variable et incertain auquel sont accoutumés les chasseurs de baleine leur a donné une souplesse inhérente qui les a aidés à s'adapter à de nouvelles conditions et continuera de le faire dans l'avenir.


Understanding human and ecosystem dynamics in the Kola Arctic : a participatory integrated study   /   Voinov, A.   Bromley, L.   Kirk, E.   Korchak, A.   Farley, J.   Moiseenko, T.   Krasovskaya, T.   Makarova, Z.   Megorski, V.   Selin, V.   Kharitonova, G.   Edson, R.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 375-388, ill., maps
ASTIS record 55069
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The Lake Imandra watershed is located in one of the most developed regions in the Arctic - the Kola Peninsula of Russia. Approximately 300 000 people live on the roughly 27 000 km² watershed, making it one of the most densely populated areas of the Arctic. Most of the people are involved in large-scale mineral extraction and processing and the infrastructure needed to support this industry. This paper reports the results of a pilot project staged for the Lake Imandra watershed that has put human dynamics within the framework of ecosystem change to integrate available information and formulate conceptual models of likely future scenarios. The observation period is one of both rapid economic growth and human expansion, with an overall economic decline in the past decade. We are applying the Participatory Integrated Assessment (PIA) approach to integrate information, identify information gaps, generate likely future scenarios, and link scientific findings to the decision-making process. We found an increasingly vulnerable human population in varying states of awareness about their local environment and fully cognizant of their economic troubles, with many determined to attempt maintenance of relatively high population densities in the near future even as many residents of northern Russia migrate south. A series of workshops have involved the citizens and local decision makers in an attempt to tap their knowledge of the region and to increase their awareness about the linkages between the socioeconomic and ecological components.

Le bassin hydrographique du lac Imandra est situé dans l'une des régions les plus développées de l'Arctique, soit la presqu'île de Kola, en Russie. Près de 300 000 personnes vivent dans la zone du bassin qui couvre environ 27 000 km², ce qui en fait l'une des régions les plus peuplées de l'Arctique. La plupart des habitants travaillent dans l'extraction et le traitement miniers à grande échelle ainsi que dans l'infrastructure qui soutient cette industrie. Le présent article rapporte les résultats d'un projet pilote mis sur pied pour le bassin du lac Imandra, projet qui a placé la dynamique humaine dans le cadre du changement des écosystèmes, afin d'intégrer l'information disponible et de formuler des modèles conceptuels de scénarios probables dans l'avenir. La période d'observation en est une à la fois de croissance économique et d'expansion démographique rapides, suivie d'un déclin général au cours de la dernière décennie. On a recours à la méthode d'évaluation participative intégrée (EPI) pour intégrer l'information, y dégager des lacunes, générer des scénarios probables dans l'avenir et établir un lien entre résultats de la recherche et processus décisionnel. On a trouvé qu'il y avait une population humaine de plus en plus vulnérable qui était sensibilisée à divers degrés aux problèmes locaux de l'environnement et pleinement consciente des difficultés économiques, population dont une bonne part était fermement décidée à tenter de maintenir à brève échéance des densités de population relativement élevées, alors même que les résidents du nord de la Russie migrent en grand nombre vers le Sud. On a tenu une série d'ateliers avec citoyens et décideurs locaux pour chercher à capter leurs connaissances de la région et à accroître leur sensibilisation aux liens existant entre les composantes socio-économiques et écologiques.


A framework for assessing the vulnerability of communities in the Canadian Arctic to risks associated with climate change   /   Ford, J.D.   Smit, B.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 389-400, ill.
ASTIS record 55070
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Adaptation to climate change is recognized as an important policy issue by international bodies such as the United Nations and by various national governments. Initiatives to identify adaptation needs and to improve adaptive capacity increasingly start with an assessment of the vulnerability of the system of interest, in terms of who and what are vulnerable, to what stresses, in what way, and what capacity exists to adapt to changing risks. Notwithstanding the scholarship on climate change itself, there are few studies on the nature of Arctic communities' vulnerability to climate-change risks. We review existing literature on implications of climate change for Arctic communities, develop a conceptual model of vulnerability, and present an analytical approach to assessing climate hazards and coping strategies in Arctic communities. Vulnerability is conceptualized as a function of exposure to climatic stresses and the adaptive capacity to cope with these stresses. The analytical framework employs place-specific case studies involving community residents and integrates information from multiple sources, both to document current exposures and adaptations and to characterize future exposures and adaptive capacity.

L'adaptation au changement climatique est perçue comme un enjeu crucial par les organes internationaux tels que les Nations unies et plusieurs gouvernements nationaux. Des initiatives visant l'identification des besoins en matière d'adaptation, ainsi que l'amélioration de la capacité adaptative, débutent de plus en plus par un bilan de la vulnérabilité du système en cause, c'est-à-dire qui et quoi est vulnérable à quels stress et de quelle manière, et quelle capacité existe pour une adaptation aux risques changeants. Malgré les travaux de recherche sur le changement climatique même, il n'existe que peu d'études sur la nature de la vulnérabilité des communautés arctiques aux risques découlant du changement climatique. On passe en revue la documentation qui existe sur les implications que représente le changement climatique pour les collectivités arctiques, on élabore un modèle conceptuel de vulnérabilité et on présente une approche analytique à l'évaluation des dangers dus au climat et des stratégies d'adaptation dans les collectivités arctiques. La vulnérabilité est conceptualisée sous la forme d'une fonction de l'exposition aux stress climatiques et de la capacité adaptative permettant de composer avec ces stress. Le cadre d'analyse fait appel à des études de cas spécifiques à un lieu, mettant en cause des résidents de la communauté, et il intègre de l'information venant de sources multiples afin de documenter les expositions et adaptations actuelles et de caractériser les futures expositions ainsi que la capacité d'adaptation correspondante.


Adaptation and sustainability in a small Arctic community : results of an agent-based simulation model   /   Berman, M.   Nicolson, C.   Kofinas, G.   Tetlichi, J.   Martin, S.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 401-414, ill.
ASTIS record 55071
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Climate warming and resource development could alter key Arctic ecosystem functions that support fish and wildlife resources harvested by local indigenous communities. A different set of global forces - government policies and tourism markets - increasingly directs local cash economies that communities use to support subsistence activities. Agent-based computational models (ABMs) contribute to an integrated assessment of community sustainability by simulating how people interact with each other and adapt to changing economic and environmental conditions. Relying on research and local knowledge to provide rules and parameters for individual and collective decision making, our ABM generates hypothetical social histories as adaptations to scenario-driven changes in environmental and economic conditions. The model generates projections for wage employment, cash income, subsistence harvests, and demographic change over four decades based on a set of user-defined scenarios for climate change, subsistence resources, development, and government spending. Model outcomes assess how scenarios associated with economic and climate change might affect the local economy, resource harvests, and the well-being of residents for the Western Arctic Canadian community of Old Crow, Yukon. The economic and demographic outcomes suggest implications for less quantifiable social and cultural changes. The model can serve as a discussion tool for a fuller exploration of community sustainability and adaptation issues.

Le réchauffement climatique et la mise en valeur des ressources pourraient modifier des fonctions clés de l'écosystème arctique qui assurent le maintien des ressources ichtyques et fauniques exploitées par les collectivités autochtones locales. Un autre jeu de forces à l'échelle mondiale - les politiques gouvernementales et les marchés du tourisme - dirige de plus en plus les économies monétaires locales qu'utilisent les collectivités pour soutenir leurs activités de subsistance. Des modèles informatiques orientés agent (ABM) concourent à une évaluation intégrée de la viabilité des collectivités en simulant les interactions entre les personnes et leur adaptation aux conditions changeantes de l'économie et de l'environnement. S'appuyant sur des travaux de recherche et sur le savoir local afin de fournir règles et paramètres pour la prise de décisions individuelle et collective, notre ABM génère des histoires sociales fictives comme adaptations à des changements dans les conditions environnementales et économiques définis dans un scénario. Le modèle génère des projections pour l'emploi salarié, le revenu monétaire, les prélèvements de subsistance et le changement démographique au cours de quatre décennies. Ces projections sont fondées sur un ensemble de scénarios définis par l'utilisateur concernant le changement climatique, les ressources de subsistance, la mise en valeur et les dépenses publiques. Les résultats produits par le modèle évaluent la façon dont les scénarios associés aux changements économique et climatique peuvent affecter l'économie locale, l'exploitation des ressources et le bien-être des résidents de la communauté canadienne de Old Crow, située au Yukon, dans l'Ouest de l'Arctique. Les résultats économiques et démographiques suggèrent qu'il existe des répercussions sur des changements sociaux et culturels moins quantifiables. Le modèle peut servir d'outil de discussion pour explorer plus à fond les questions de viabilité et d'adaptation des collectivités.


Timescapes of community resilience and vulnerability in the circumpolar North   /   Robards, M.   Alessa, L.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 415-427, ill.
ASTIS record 55072
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Historical relationships between people and a changing Arctic environment (which constitute a social-ecological system, or SES) can offer insights for management that promote both social and ecological resilience. The continued existence of healthy renewable resources around communities is particularly important, as subsistence and commercial use of local resources are often the only practical avenues to healthy, long-term security for those communities. Our research draws on the position that SESs exist in an environment that is explicitly temporal: frequently cyclic, changing, contextual, and contingent. Therefore, the causes and effect of disturbances to SESs are rarely temporally linear; instead, they are characterized by a complex array of hysteretic effects and alternate (possibly repeating) states. The term 'timescapes' describes the time-space context element and its fundamental importance to sustainable practices. We investigate social-ecological timescapes of the circumpolar North in relation to four primary provisioning practices (hunting/gathering, pastoralism, agriculture, and market-based economy). Broadly, we identify distinct social-ecological states, interspersed with periods of change. For specific communities that have maintained their existence through a series of periods of profound change, we propose that elements of social and ecological resilience have been neither incrementally lost nor gained through time; rather, they have waxed and waned in accordance with specific, and sometimes repeating, conditions. To maintain their existence, we believe, communities have had to maintain their ability to recognize gradual or rapid changes in social, ecological, or economic conditions and reorganize themselves to adapt to those changes, rather than to any specific outcomes of a change. That is, they have adapted to a dynamic environment, not a preferred state. However, centralized Western management, despite fundamental flaws in accounting for local linkages between culture, economics, and the environment, is increasingly circumscribing local practices. We believe that the significant challenge of maintaining equity and resilience of remote communities, within and outside the Arctic, will necessitate incorporating localized cultural values and decision-making processes that fostered prior community existence with (data from) Western interdisciplinary research.

Les relations historiques entre les êtres humains et un milieu arctique en évolution (formant un système socio-écologique ou SSE) peuvent nous éclairer sur une gestion qui appuie à la fois la résilience sociale et la résilience écologique. La présence continue de ressources renouvelables saines dans les environs des collectivités est d'une importance capitale, vu que l'utilisation des ressources locales à des fins de subsistance et de commerce représente souvent le seul moyen concret d'assurer la santé à long terme de ces collectivités. Nos travaux partent du principe que les SSE existent dans un milieu qui est explicitement temporel: fréquemment cyclique, changeant, dépendant du contexte et contingent. Il en ressort que les causes et les conséquences des perturbations aux SSE sont rarement linéaires dans le temps, mais plutôt caractérisées par un ensemble complexe d'effets d'hystérésis et d'états alternatifs (se répétant éventuellement). L'expression «échelle de temps et d'espace» décrit l'élément du contexte spatio-temporel et son importance fondamentale pour les pratiques durables. On étudie les échelles de temps et d'espace socio-écologiques du Nord circumpolaire en rapport avec quatre pratiques primaires d'approvisionnement (chasse/cueillette, pastoralisme, agriculture et économie de marché). D'une façon générale, on dégage des phases socio-écologiques distinctes, séparées par des périodes de changement. Pour certaines collectivités qui ont survécu durant une série de périodes de changements profonds, on suggère que les éléments formant la résilience sociale et écologique n'ont pas disparu, pas plus qu'ils n'ont été acquis de façon progressive au cours du temps; ils ont plutôt fluctué selon des conditions spécifiques, qui se répétaient parfois. Afin de se perpétuer, selon nous, ces collectivités ont dû maintenir leur capacité à reconnaître les changements graduels ou rapides qui se manifestaient dans les conditions sociales, écologiques ou économiques, et se réorganiser elles-mêmes pour s'adapter à ces changements, plutôt qu'à des conséquences spécifiques issues des changements. Ce qui revient à dire que ces collectivités se sont adaptées à un environnement dynamique, et non à un état qu'elles privilégiaient. Cependant, bien qu'elle comporte des failles fondamentales concernant la reconnaissance des liens de nature locale entre culture, économie et environnement, la gestion occidentale centralisée limite de plus en plus les pratiques locales. On est d'avis que le grand défi pour maintenir l'équité et la résilience des collectivités isolées, dans l'Arctique et à l'extérieur, exigera que l'on intègre les valeurs de la culture locale et les processus décisionnels qui ont soutenu l'existence antérieure de la collectivité aux données de recherche interdisciplinaire occidentale.


Maxwell E. Britton (1912-2004)   /   Schindler, J.F.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 436-438, ill.
ASTIS record 55077
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Maxwell E. Britton, a well-known and highly respected Arctic research scientist and administrator, died at his home in Arlington, Virginia on March 16, 2004. He was 92. Recognized for his dedication to Arctic research, he pioneered innovative ways of pursuing research under the extreme conditions of the far North. Further, Britton was one of the first scientists to specialize in Arctic ecology. Max Britton was born on January 26, 1912 in Hymera, Indiana .... After attending public schools in Hymera, he went to Indiana State College where he received his AB degree in 1934. ... He then attended Ohio State University, where he was awarded an MS degree in 1937. His doctorate ... was earned at Northwestern University in 1941. Three years earlier, Max had been given an instructorship, which began an association with the faculty at Northwestern University that lasted until 1955. ... His last year as a Northwestern faculty member was spent on research leave at Stanford University. While at Stanford, Max was offered a position with the Office of Naval Research (ONR), a position he at first declined but later accepted, with the idea of remaining only two years. ... Once Max became engrossed in the Arctic program at ONR, he decided to continue in that position and remained there until 1971. Britton's duties included monitoring the Navy contract with the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA). ... He became affiliated with AINA after he retired from ONR. Then in 1974, Max joined the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). ... He retired from the USGS in 1983 to his home in Arlington, Virginia. ... Max Britton had an early start as a research scientist. During his freshman year in botany at Indiana State College, he excelled to the point that Dr. Ben Smith, his instructor, offered him a job as a laboratory assistant. ... Dr. Smith recommended that Max, continue his research at Ohio State University with Dr. L.H. Tiffany and Dr. E.N. Transeau, both prominent phycologists during the 1930s. ... Dr. Tiffany, who moved to Northwestern University as the Chair of the Botany Department, asked Max to accompany him for work on a doctorate, which he did. Max's experience as a teaching assistant during his first year at Northwestern led to appointment as an Instructor in 1938. ... Whereas most academics placed their research on hold during military service in World War II, Max was the exception. ... Upon returning to Northwestern University after the war, with a promotion to Associate Professor, Max began to "enlarge his horizons." His curiosity about the developing field of ecology, led to the laying out of a new program for research into the ecology of the Arctic tundra. ... As Scientific Officer of the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL), Max Britton was enthusiastic in his support of all kinds of basic research, both within and outside his own field of expertise. ... NARL was operated as a national facility open to all federally funded scientists and engineers. He promoted a wide gamut of research, but did not ignore the demographics of the local people. He felt that their contribution and knowledge of the local environment were of primary importance in accomplishing the goals of the laboratory. ... In recognition of his many contributions to both Arctic science and continued research, the investigators at the ARL informally named the area of the tundra where Dr. Britton pursued his research as "Britton Manor." ... Max Britton was an extremely talented writer and a master of the English language as is well reflected in his published scientific papers. His abilities at and dedication to administrative duties are well demonstrated ....


Allen P. McCartney (1940-2004)   /   Veltre, D.W.   Savelle, J.M.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 439-440, ill.
ASTIS record 55078
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Northern studies lost one of its most esteemed practitioners on June 15, 2004, with the death of Allen P. McCartney, who had suffered from Parkinson's-related disease for several years. He was 63. For over four decades, Allen pursued an especially broad range of anthropological and archaeological research interests: he was perhaps the only recent scholar whose work spanned the North American Arctic, from the western Aleutian Islands in Alaska to the eastern Canadian Arctic. Allen was born in Fayetteville, Arkansas, on August 8, 1940 .... He graduated [from the University of Arkansas in 1958] ... with a B.A. and high honors in Sociology and Anthropology .... It was also while an undergraduate, when he studied the World War II internment of Aleuts in southeastern Alaska for a class paper, that Allen first became interested in the North. For assistance with his paper, Allen wrote to biological anthropologist William Laughlin, Professor of Anthropology at the University of Wisconsin and the foremost Aleutians scholar of the time. This led, ultimately, to Allen's entrance in 1962 to the graduate program in anthropology at Wisconsin .... In the summer before Allen's first semester at Wisconsin, Laughlin invited him to take part in the 1961-63 Aleut-Konyag Prehistory and Ecology Project. ... Allen's part in Laughlin's project - which continued during the summer of 1963, when he served as excavation supervisor - centered on excavations in the Nikolski village area of southwestern Umnak Island, which included the important sites of Chaluka and Anangula. Allen earned his M.A. in 1967 from Wisconsin, with a thesis entitled "An Analysis of the Bone Industry from Amaknak Island, Alaska." ... In 1968, Allen took part in the Northwest Hudson Bay Thule Project, which focused on the Kamarvik, Silumiut, and IgluligardJuk sites. In the following year, he served as the principal investigator for excavations at the Silumiut site, under contract to the National Museum of Man. His 1971 doctoral dissertation, "Thule Eskimo Prehistory Along Northwestern Hudson Bay," was based on this fieldwork. Over the span of his graduate student years, Allen held instructor and lecturer positions at various campuses of the University of Wisconsin Center System. In 1970, he joined the faculty at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville as an assistant professor of anthropology. He was promoted to associate professor in 1974 and to professor in 1979. He remained at Arkansas for his entire professional career, retiring because of illness in the spring of 2003. In addition to his service as chair of the anthropology department for six years, Allen was instrumental in establishing the Ph.D. program in Environmental Dynamics, an interdisciplinary specialty emphasizing the study of complex human and environmental interactions and change. He served as its first director from 1998 to 2002. ... With such an active research career and varied interests, Allen's academic output was prodigious, ranging from short notes to full, single-authored monographs. However, one of Allen's most notable strengths was his ability-and indeed great enthusiasm-for bringing together archaeologists of various theoretical and analytical approaches. ... As equally impressive as his writings was another, sometimes unrecognized contribution that Allen made that was crucial to the development of northern anthropology .... This came in the form of his editorship of the journal Arctic Anthropology in 1981-89 and 1996-2000 and his role as Associate Editor in 1989-95 and in 2001. Additionally, Allen served on the Board of Governors of the Arctic Institute of North America in 1977-79 and as Associate Editor of the Alaska Journal of Anthropology in 2001. ...


Foraging behaviours and population dynamics of arctic foxes   /   Samelius, G.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 441-443, ill.
ASTIS record 55079
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... The main objectives of my work are to examine (1) how arctic foxes use seasonally abundant foods and (2) how seasonal and annual fluctuations in food abundance affect foraging behaviours and population dynamics of arctic foxes. I am especially interested in how arctic foxes use geese and their eggs (i.e., seasonally abundant foods) and how this varies with fluctuations in small mammal abundance (i.e., foods that fluctuate annually). ... My work is done at Karrak Lake (67°14'N, 100°16'W) and surrounding areas in the Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary in Nunavut, Canada. ... Fieldwork for my project was done in the spring and summers of 2000-04, and data analyses are currently underway. I monitor population dynamics of arctic foxes in two goose nesting areas at Karrak Lake and two areas outside the influence of nesting geese, whereas I monitor foraging behaviours of arctic foxes in one section of the goose colony at Karrak Lake. ... I examine foraging behaviours of arctic foxes by observing individually marked foxes with spotting scopes .... Avoiding cache loss to competitors is a critical component for the evolution of caching .... I examine how nesting distribution of geese and dispersal of geese away from the colony affect cache loss by evaluating the survival rate of experimentally deployed caches .... I examine arctic fox diets by comparing isotope ratios (delta 13C and delta 15N) of fox tissues ... with those of food items collected in the field .... Fur is metabolically inactive, whereas blood is metabolized continuously ..., so by examining spring blood and winter fur I obtain information on both spring and fall diets. Geese are not present at Karrak Lake in either spring or fall, so goose signatures in this study represent foods cached in summer. I monitor population dynamics of arctic foxes ... through line-transect surveys, mark-recapture studies, and den inventories. ... Goose eggs (from both nests and existing caches) made up 91% of all foods taken by arctic foxes during goose-nesting at Karrak Lake. Foxes cached 96% of these eggs (i.e., most eggs from existing caches were moved to new locations) whereas other foods (i.e., small mammals, geese, and passerine eggs) were either consumed immediately or brought back to den sites. ... Age of cache sites and dispersal by geese away from the colony after hatch (when ca. 1 million geese and their offspring leave the colony in about 10 days) affected loss of experimental caches. These results suggest that both food abundance and strategies to prevent ageing of cache sites (e.g., cache site selection and moving of caches in poor condition) were important in affecting the arrangement of caches at our study site. Cached eggs constituted 30% to 40% of the arctic foxes' diet in autumn and 0% to 30% in spring. ... The abundance of arctic foxes was predominantly affected by abundance of geese ... whereas the density of breeding foxes and litter size were predominantly affected by small mammal abundance. ... This study will provide information on how seasonal and annual fluctuations in food abundance influence use of stored foods and population dynamics of arctic foxes. ... This study will also provide information on predator-prey interactions, which can be used for management and conservation of both arctic foxes and Arctic-nesting birds. ...


Population genetics, life history, and ecology of Arctic marine fishes   /   Hardie, D.C.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 4, Dec. 2004, p. 444-448, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 55080
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... My research uses a comparative approach to reveal genetic, ecological, and life-history adaptations of Arctic fish species to the unique challenges of their environment at the northern extreme of their ranges. This paper highlights recent developments in my doctoral research, which can be separated into two general areas. The first is directed towards advancing knowledge of the evolutionary ecology and biodiversity of noncommercial Arctic marine fishes. The second concerns landlocked populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) persisting as marine relicts in saline coastal lakes on Baffin Island, at the northern extreme of the species' range in Canada. ... Noncommercial fishes were sampled from bycatch taken during Fisheries and Oceans Canada's turbot surveys in Baffin Bay and Davis Strait in September and October 2004. Trawling occurred at randomized stations in depth strata ranging from 400 to 1500 m in depth in Baffin Bay and Davis Strait .... My goal was to obtain approximately 100 specimens of species for which we had already obtained large samples of conspecifics or closely related taxa from temperate Atlantic waters. ... As conspecific samples are obtained, we will collect basic biological data, such as distribution, length, weight, sex, age, growth rate, fecundity, and age and size at maturity, to compare these features between high Arctic and temperate Atlantic populations. The most notable trend in the bycatch obtained during the fall of 2004 surveys ... was the paucity of species occurring to the north of Lancaster Sound. ... Species diversity was slightly higher ... off northeastern Baffin Island .... Our fieldwork in 2003 confirmed that the large cod in these lakes [Qasigialiminiq and Tariujarusiq Lakes, southwestern end of Cumberland Sound] were Gadus morhua, and not the more frequently landlocked Greenland cod, Gadus ogac, and that the lakes were saline meromictic lakes akin to Ogac Lake. ... The objectives of this part of my research include (i) basic physical, chemical, and biotic characterization of Arctic lakes in which Atlantic cod occur, and (ii) the study of aspects of their population biology, life history, and genetics. ... we have collected data on the length, weight, sex, maturity, liver weight, gonad weight, and stomach contents from 100 subadult and adult cod from each lake, and from a further 100 juvenile cod from Ogac Lake. Tissue samples and otoliths were also collected, for genetic and age/growth analysis, respectively. Underwater video was used to qualify benthic macrofauna and to observe cod behaviour in all three lakes. Plankton tows were made ... to compare micro-invertebrate populations among lakes .... Bathymetric measurements were taken using sonar across a number of transects in both Qasigialiminiq and Tariujarusiq to compare them to Ogac Lake.... Salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen strata were measured in each basin of each lake, again to compare abiotic limnology across lakes and over time at Ogac Lake. ... Temperature data loggers were deployed near the outflow of each lake to record the timing and frequency of tidal inflows. ... During the series of high spring tides that entered Ogac Lake in early July 2004, we collected samples of marine biota flowing into the lake, .... These samples consisted primarily of marine fish larvae and amphipods, although a high biomass of jelly-plankton ... was also observed entering the lake. ... Although Qasigialiminiq and Tariujarusiq are salt meromictic lakes, similar to Ogac Lake, both are warmer at all depths, and surface salinity is higher at Tariujarusiq (7‰) than at the other two lakes <1‰). ... Cannibalism appears to be less frequent among adult and subadult cod in the Cumberland Sound lakes (~14%) compared to Ogac Lake (~35%). ... Remarkably, our most conservative estimate of fish and amphipod biomass entering the lake during a 55-minute tidal inflow is 238 kg. .. Our calculations from tide predictions suggest that between 35 and 45 tides enter the lake during the open-water season each year. ... tidal inflows are crucial not only to replenish lake salinity, but also as a vital source of nutritive biomass to support these populations. The results of our genetic studies revealed remarkably low allelic variation at seven polymorphic microsatellite loci, providing evidence that these are small, inbred, and isolated marine relict populations. ... The fact that all three cod lakes occur in areas that were glaciated during the last ice age, and that the contemporary range of Atlantic cod in Canadian waters is constrained to the northern tip of Labrador, suggests that Atlantic cod probably extended their range northward during a postglacial period of ameliorated Arctic Ocean conditions, and colonized these coastal lakes, which would have been in the process of formation by glacioisostatic rebound during that period. ...


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