Putting the Canadian polar house in order   /   Hik, D.S.   Sloan, K.K.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. iii-v
ASTIS record 54110

Northern Canada is facing unprecedented social, political, economic, environmental, and cultural changes. Unfortunately, attention to northern issues has typically been sustained for only short periods in response to external events usually associated with interests in minerals, oil and natural gas reserves, or pipelines. Public policy needs to be supported by a strong knowledge base: the results of scholarly studies and various research and monitoring programs can help government to identify problems, set priorities, and implement solutions. The cumulative effect of inadequate federal funding has been to marginalize northern research, creating a crisis in capacity and knowledge that can no longer be ignored. ... Several fundamental problems have contributed to the current crisis in northern science and research in Canada. Canada has no accepted northern science and research strategy. ... There is a conspicuous lack of funding for northern research in Canada, at a time when most other polar countries have significantly increased their investment in research capacity, including infrastructure and logistical support. ... Federal northern science and research programs and resources are fragmented across numerous departments and agencies. Conflicting mandates between and within individual departments result in poor planning and a lack of continuity. ... Numerous disincentives in the research community have diminished interest in northern research. Thus a lack of training and replacement of northern researchers has led to a serious reduction in our capacity to address northern issues in many fields. So how do we put our polar house in order? ... Building on the suggestions made by England (2000), we propose a two-part solution to secure Canadian leadership in northern science and research. These proposals both enhance political identity and accountability and improve opportunities for effective planning and action. First, there is a critical need to develop a national strategy for Northern Science, Research, and Knowledge (NSRK). This NSRK Strategy would be tabled in Parliament and would provide direction for national commitments and activities. The Strategy would be developed by an interdepartmental deputy minister committee, in consultation with northern governments (territorial and aboriginal), the northern colleges and research institutes, university-based northern research institutes, northern communities and the private sector. ... Second, we propose that the federal government establish a Canadian Northern Research Service. The Service would support the development of a NSRK Strategy .... The Service would also provide a home for northern training and education initiatives, particularly the University of the Arctic. The Northern Scientific Training Program is already one of the most successful ways of enhancing northern research expertise, but it could be expanded to include northern students and greater community involvement. ...

Factors affecting the observed densities of ringed seals, Phoca hispida, in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, 1996-99   /   Frost, K.J.   Lowry, L.F.   Pendleton, G.   Nute, H.R.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 115-128, ill., maps
ASTIS record 54111

Aerial surveys were conducted during late May and early June 1996-99 in the central Beaufort Sea of Alaska, using strip-transect methods. The purpose of these surveys was to quantify and model the effects of environmental covariates on ringed seal counts and to provide density estimates that would be useful for evaluating trends in seal abundance. Total survey effort included 40-88 transect lines per year covering 1198-2701 km². Observed densities ranged from 0.81 seals/km² in 1996 to 1.17 seals/km² in 1999. We examined the effects of habitat, weather, and time of day on observed seal densities, using univariate chi-square goodness-of-fit tests. We also used a multivariate generalized linear model to estimate the relationship between seal counts and covariates. Three habitat-related variables - water depth, location relative to the fast ice edge, and ice deformation - had substantial and consistent effects. The highest densities occurred at depths between 5 and 35 m. Densities were also highest in relatively flat ice and near the fast ice edge, declining both shoreward and seaward of that edge. Univariate analysis suggested that observed densities were generally highest at about 1200 h Alaska daylight time, but time was not a significant variable in the generalized linear models. Analyses of the effects of weather factors on seal counts were inconclusive. This was likely at least partially because temperature and wind speed were measured at survey altitude, rather than on the ice surface, and surveys were conducted only in weather considered suitable for hauling out. The final multivariate model did not account for a substantial proportion of the variation in seal counts. We think this result was largely due to date-related variation in the proportion of seals hauling out, an issue our surveys were not suited to address.

De 1996 à 1999, à la fin de mai et au début de juin, on a effectué des relevés aériens dans la partie centrale de la mer de Beaufort alaskienne, en utilisant des méthodes d'échantillonnage en bande. Ces relevés avaient pour but de quantifier et de modéliser les effets de covariables environnementales sur le comptage des phoques annelés, et de fournir des estimations de densité qui pourraient servir à évaluer les tendances dans l'abondance des phoques. Le travail de relevé a porté chaque année sur un total allant de 40 à 88 lignes-transects, couvrant une superficie de 1198 à 2701 km². Les densités observées allaient de 0,81 phoque par km² en 1996 à 1,17 phoque par km² en 1999. On a étudié les effets de l'habitat, du climat et du moment de la journée sur les densités de phoques observées, à l'aide de tests d'adéquation chi carré à une variable. On a également eu recours à un modèle linéaire généralisé à plusieurs variables pour évaluer le rapport entre les comptages de phoques et les covariables. Trois variables reliées à l'habitat - profondeur de l'eau, position par rapport à la lisière de la banquise côtière et déformation de la glace - avaient des effets importants et constants. Les plus fortes densités se produisaient à des profondeurs de 5 à 35 m. Elles se retrouvaient également sur la glace relativement plane et près de la lisière de la banquise côtière, diminuant à la fois en direction du rivage et en direction de la mer depuis la lisière. L'analyse à une variable suggère que les densités observées étaient généralement plus fortes à environ 12 h (heure avancée de l'Alaska), mais le moment de la journée ne constituait pas une variable d'importance dans les modèles linéaires généralisés. Les analyses de l'impact des facteurs météorologiques sur les comptages de phoques n'ont pas donné de résultats concluants. Ceci était probablement dû au moins en partie au fait que la température et la vitesse du vent étaient mesurées à l'altitude où se faisaient les relevés plutôt qu'à la surface de la glace, et les relevés n'étaient effectués que par temps jugé approprié pour que les phoques montent sur la glace. Le modèle final à plusieurs variables ne représentait pas une proportion substantielle de la variation dans les comptages de phoques. Ce résultat, selon nous, était dû en grande partie à une fluctuation reliée à la date dans la proportion de phoques qui montaient sur la glace, question que nos relevés n'étaient pas conçus pour aborder.

Habitat use of ringed seals, Phoca hispida, in the North Water area (north Baffin Bay)   /   Born, E.W.   Teilmann, J.   Acquarone, M.   Riget, F.F.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 129-142, ill., maps
ASTIS record 54112

In conjunction with the International North Water Polynya Study in Smith Sound (northern Baffin Bay) in 1997-99, we examined the area use and diving activity of 23 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) that had been equipped with satellite transmitters on the Greenland side of the North Water (NOW) area. The study covered the period 12 August 1996-30 June 1999. Contact with the seals was maintained for an average of 108 days (range: 8-332 days). Four seals emigrated from the NOW area. During all seasons, the seals that remained in the area spent about 90% of the time in coastal (< 100 m deep) waters in the eastern parts of the NOW area. The total area visited by the seals during the open-water season ranged between 10 300 km² (1996) and 18 500 km² (1998), corresponding to about 15% to 25% of the entire NOW area. In winter, the total area visited by the seals varied between 2500 km² (1996-97) and 7000 km² (1998-99), and in spring, between 800 km² (1999) and 2100 km² (1997). Individual movement was significantly greater during the open-water season than during winter and spring. Maximum dive depths recorded were over 500 m (maximum for the instrument) outside and 376 m inside the NOW, for a 96 kg male seal. Non-adult seals spent about 99% of the time in waters less than 100 m deep, and more than 92% of the time in the upper 50 m. In contrast, adults tended to spend more time at greater depths. The study indicated that (1) the ringed seals took advantage of the generally lighter ice conditions in the eastern NOW, and (2) that non-adults likely exploited ice-associated amphipods and young polar cod (Boreogadus saida), and adults, mainly older polar cod and cephalopods taken at greater depths.

Conjointement avec l'étude internationale sur la polynie de l'Eau du Nord dans le détroit de Smith (partie nord de la baie de Baffin) menée de 1997 à 1999, on a examiné l'utilisation de cette zone et l'activité de plongée de 23 phoques annelés (Phoca hispida) munis d'émetteurs-satellite du côté groenlandais de la région de l'Eau du Nord («NOW»). L'étude a couvert la période allant du 12 août 1996 au 30 juin 1999. Le contact avec les phoques a été maintenu pendant une moyenne de 108 jours (étendue: 8-332 jours). Quatre phoques ont émigré de la zone NOW. Durant toutes les saisons, les phoques qui restaient dans la zone passaient environ 90% du temps dans des eaux côtières (profondeur < 100 m) dans les secteurs orientaux de NOW. La superficie totale visitée par les phoques durant la saison d'eau libre allait de 10 300 km² (1996) à 18 500 km² (1998), correspondant à environ 15 à 25% de toute la zone NOW. En hiver, l'étendue totale fréquentée par les phoques allait de 2500 km² (1996-1997) à 7000 km² (1998-1999), et au printemps, de 800 km² (1999) à 2100 km² (1997). Les déplacements individuels étaient de beaucoup plus grands durant la saison d'eau libre qu'au cours de l'hiver et du printemps. Les profondeurs maximales de plongée enregistrées dépassaient 500 m (limite de l'instrument) à l'extérieur de la zone NOW et 376 m à l'intérieur, pour un phoque mâle de 96 kg. Les phoques non adultes passaient environ 99% du temps dans des eaux à une profondeur ne dépassant pas 100 m, et plus de 92% du temps dans les 50 m supérieurs. En revanche, les adultes avaient tendance à passer plus de temps à de plus grandes profondeurs. L'étude révèle 1) que les phoques annelés tiraient parti du fait qu'il y avait moins de glace dans la partie orientale de NOW, et 2) que, selon toute vraisemblance, les non-adultes exploitaient amphipodes et jeune morue polaire (Boreogadus saida) associés à la glace, les adultes se nourrissant surtout de morue polaire plus âgée et de céphalopodes prélevés à de plus grandes profondeurs.

Summer distribution of marine birds in the western Beaufort Sea   /   Fischer, J.B.   Larned, W.W.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 143-159, ill., maps
ASTIS record 54113

Proposed expansion of oil and gas development into offshore waters of the Beaufort Sea has raised concerns that marine birds could be affected by disturbance and oil spills. We conducted aerial surveys to determine the composition and distribution of avian species in the western Beaufort Sea. We sampled marine waters up to 100 km from shore, between Cape Halkett and Brownlow Point in June, July, and August of 1999 and 2000 and between Point Barrow and Demarcation Point in July 2001. Approximately 90% of the birds we observed were sea ducks, predominantly long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis), king eiders (Somateria spectabilis), and scoters (Melanitta spp.). Densities of most species decreased with distance from shore, although king eider densities were higher in deeper, offshore waters. Densities of long-tailed ducks increased in nearshore coastal lagoons at the onset of post-breeding moult, and densities of eiders increased offshore during their peak moult migration. In general, bird densities were highest in areas with less than 30% ice cover, although high densities of king eiders occurred in areas with 30%-60% ice cover. Our results suggest species-specific uses of the Beaufort Sea in summer for moulting, migration, brood rearing, and foraging. The vulnerability of marine birds to potential oil spills and disturbance will depend on the location of facilities, timing of events, and ice conditions.

Un projet d'expansion de l'exploitation pétrolière et gazière dans les eaux du large de la mer de Beaufort a soulevé des questions au sujet des retombées éventuelles pour les oiseaux marins suite aux perturbations et à des déversements d'hydrocarbures. On a effectué des relevés aériens pour analyser la composition et la répartition des espèces aviaires dans la mer de Beaufort occidentale. On a échantillonné les eaux marines jusqu'à une distance de 100 km du rivage, en juin, juillet et août de 1999 et de 2000, entre Cape Halkett et Brownlow Point et, en juillet 2001, entre Point Barrow et Demarcation Point. Environ 90% des oiseaux observés étaient des canards de mer, surtout des hareldes kakawis (Clangula hyemalis), des eiders à tête grise (Somateria spectabilis) et des macreuses (Melanitta spp). Les densités de la plupart des espèces diminuaient en s'éloignant du rivage, encore que celles de l'eider à tête grise étaient plus élevées dans les eaux plus profondes du large. Les densités de la harelde kakawi augmentaient dans les lagunes côtières à proximité du rivage au début de la mue post-reproductrice, et celles de l'eider augmentaient au large au plus fort de la migration de mue. En général, les densités d'oiseaux étaient plus fortes dans les zones où il y avait moins de 30% de manteau glaciel, encore que de fortes densités de l'eider à tête grise se trouvaient dans les zones ayant de 30 à 60% de manteau glaciel. Nos résultats suggèrent qu'en été les espèces utilisent la mer de Beaufort d'une façon qui leur est propre pour la mue, la migration, l'élevage des couvées et le nourrissage. La vulnérabilité des oiseaux marins face à d'éventuels déversements d'hydrocarbures et perturbations va dépendre de l'emplacement des installations, du moment où se produiront les événements et de l'état des glaces.

Modeling the effects of human activity on Katmai brown bears (Ursus arctos) through the use of survival analysis   /   Smith, T.S.   Johnson, B.A.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 160-165, ill., maps
ASTIS record 54114

Brown bear-human interactions were observed in 1993, 1995, and 1997 at Kulik River in Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska. We analyzed these interactions using survival analysis, creating survival curves for the time that bears remained on the river in the presence, and absence, of human activity. Bear-only survival curves did not vary significantly between years (p = 0.067). Ninety-seven percent of bears left the river within 70 minutes of arrival in all years. Temporal patterns of bear activity were unaffected by the presence of humans as long as the bears did not share river zones with humans (p = 0.062 to p = 0.360). When people and bears did not share river zones, 38.6% (1993), 36.0% (1995), and 37.0% (1997) of bears remained on the river for at least 10 minutes after arrival. In contrast, when people and bears shared river zones, fewer bears remained on the river after the first 10 minutes, with 28.6% (1993), 25.0% (1995), and 32.6% (1997) observed in each year. We conclude that human activity displaced 26.0% (1993), 30.5% (1995), and 12.0% (1997) of the bears using the river, which otherwise would likely have remained longer. Over the three years of study, habituation to human activity may account for observed changes in bears' use of the river.

En 1993, 1995 et 1997, des interactions ours brun-être humain ont fait l'objet d'observations à la rivière Kulik, dans la réserve de parc national Katmai, en Alaska. On a analysé ces interactions en ayant recours à l'analyse de survie, créant des courbes de survie pour la durée où les ours restaient à la rivière en présence et en l'absence d'activité humaine. Les courbes de survie pour l'ours seul ne variaient pas sensiblement d'une année à l'autre (p = 0,067). Dans tous les cas, 97% des ours quittaient la rivière dans les 70 minutes suivant leur arrivée. Les schémas de comportement temporel des ours n'étaient pas affectés par la présence d'êtres humains tant que les ours ne partageaient pas les mêmes zones de rivière que les humains (p = 0,062 à p = 0,360). Quand individus et ours ne partageaient pas les mêmes zones de rivière, 38,6% (1993), 36,0% (1995) et 37,0% (1997) des ours restaient à la rivière au moins 10 minutes après leur arrivée. En revanche, quand individus et ours partageaient les zones de rivière, moins d'ours restaient à la rivière au-delà des 10 premières minutes, 28,6% (1993), 25,0% (1995) et 32,6% (1997) ayant été observés chaque année. On conclut que l'activité humaine a délogé 26,0% (1993), 30,5% (1995) et 12,0% (1997) des ours utilisant la rivière, qui, autrement, seraient restés plus longtemps. Au cours des trois années de l'étude, il se pourrait que l'accoutumance à l'activité humaine explique les changements que l'on a observés dans l'utilisation de la rivière par les ours.

Breeding biology of Steller's Eiders (Polysticta stelleri) near Barrow, Alaska, 1991-99   /   Quakenbush, L.   Suydam, R.   Obritschkewitsch, T.   Deering, M.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 166-182, ill., maps
ASTIS record 54115

The breeding biology of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) near Barrow, Alaska, was studied from 1991 to 1999. The number of nests found per year ranged from 0 to 78. Mean clutch size was 5.4 (SD = 1.6, n = 51), incubation period was 24 days, and Mayfield nest success ranged from 0 to 35%. Egg survival was 24% overall (n = 451). Most nests were found on the rims of low-centered polygons near ponds with emergent vegetation. Marked broods remained within 700 m of their nest sites, and duckling survival was low. Steller's eiders nested in five of the nine years studied, corresponding with years of high lemming density and nesting pomarine jaegers (Stercorarius pomarinus) and snowy owls (Bubo scandiacus). Steller's eiders may choose to nest only in years with abundant lemmings for two reasons: first, abundant lemmings provide an alternative prey source for foxes and other predators of eiders; second, jaegers and owls defending their own nests may inadvertently provide protection to eiders nesting nearby.

De 1991 à 1999, on a étudié la biologie de reproduction de l'eider de Steller (Polysticta stelleri) près de Barrow, en Alaska. Le nombre de nids trouvés annuellement allait de 0 à 78. La taille moyenne de la couvée était de 5,4 (écart type = 1,6, n = 51), la période d'incubation était de 24 jours et le succès de la couvée calculé selon la méthode de Mayfield allait de 0 à 35%. La survie des œufs était dans l'ensemble de 24% (n = 451). La plupart des nids étaient situés sur le bord de polygones concaves près d'étangs avec une végétation émergente. La progéniture marquée restait dans les 700 m du site du nid, et la survie des canetons était faible. L'eider de Steller a niché cinq ans sur les neuf de l'étude, soit ceux correspondant aux années où il y avait une forte densité de lemmings, ainsi que de nids de labbes pomarins (Stercorarius pomarinus) et de harfangs des neiges (Bubo scandiacus). Il se pourrait que l'eider de Steller choisisse de ne se reproduire que durant les années d'abondance de lemmings pour deux raisons: la première, c'est qu'une abondance de lemmings offre une source alternative de proies pour les renards et d'autres prédateurs de l'eider; la deuxième, c'est que les labbes pomarins et les harfangs qui défendent leurs propres nids pourraient, involontairement, offrir une protection aux eiders qui nichent à proximité.

Evidence for a decline in northern Quebec (Nunavik) belugas   /   Hammill, M.O.   Lesage, V.   Gosselin, J.-F.   Bourdages, H.   de March, B.G.E.   Kingsley, M.C.S.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 183-195, ill., maps
ASTIS record 53837

Systematic aerial line-transect surveys of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, were conducted in James Bay, eastern Hudson Bay, and Ungava Bay from 14 August to 3 September 2001. An estimated 7901 (SE= 1744) and 1155 (SE = 507) belugas were present at the surface in the offshore areas of James Bay and Hudson Bay, respectively. An additional 39 animals were observed in estuaries during the coastal survey, resulting in an index estimate of 1194 (SE = 507) in eastern Hudson Bay. No belugas were observed in Ungava Bay. Observations from systematic surveys conducted in 1993 and 2001 were analyzed using both line-transect and strip-transect methods to allow comparisons with the strip-transect survey conducted in 1985. A population model incorporating harvest information and fitted to aerial survey data indicates that the number of belugas in eastern Hudson Bay has declined by almost half because of high harvest levels. Subsistence harvest levels must be reduced significantly if this population is to recover.

Des relevés aériens systématiques de bélugas (Delphinapterus leucas) par échantillonnage en ligne ont été effectués dans la baie James, l'est de la baie d'Hudson et la baie d'Ungava du 14 août au 3 septembre 2001. On a estimé respectivement à 7901 (erreur-type = 1744) et 1155 (erreur-type = 507) le nombre de bélugas présents en surface au large des côtes de la baie James et de la baie d'Hudson. Trente-neuf individus de plus ont été observés dans les estuaires pendant le relevé côtier, produisant ainsi un indice de 1194 (erreur-type = 507) dans l'est de la baie d'Hudson. Aucun béluga n'a été vu dans la baie d'Ungava. Les observations des relevés systématiques de 1993 et de 2001 ont été analysées selon deux méthodes d'échantillonnage, en ligne et en bande, afin de permettre une comparaison avec le relevé en bande de 1985. Un modèle d'analyse des populations, intégrant les données de prélèvements et ajusté aux résultats du relevé aérien, indique que le nombre de bélugas dans la baie d'Hudson a presque diminué de moitié en raison du taux élevé des prélèvements de subsistance. Ces derniers doivent être réduits de façon importante pour que cette population puisse se rétablir.

Long foraging movement of a denning tundra wolf   /   Frame, P.F.   Hik, D.S.   Cluff, H.D.   Paquet, P.C.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 196-203, maps
ASTIS record 54116

Wolves (Canis lupus) on the Canadian barrens are intimately linked to migrating herds of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus). We deployed a Global Positioning System (GPS) radio collar on an adult female wolf to record her movements in response to changing caribou densities near her den during summer. This wolf and two other females were observed nursing a group of 11 pups. She traveled a minimum of 341 km during a 14-day excursion. The straight-line distance from the den to the farthest location was 103 km, and the overall minimum rate of travel was 3.1 km/h. The distance between the wolf and the radio-collared caribou decreased from 242 km one week before the excursion to 8 km four days into the excursion. We discuss several possible explanations for the long foraging bout.

Les loups (Canis lupus) dans la toundra canadienne sont étroitement liés aux hardes de caribous des toundras (Rangifer tarandus). On a équipé une louve adulte d'un collier émetteur muni d'un système de positionnement mondial (GPS) afin d'enregistrer ses déplacements en réponse au changement de densité du caribou près de sa tanière durant l'été. On a observé cette louve ainsi que deux autres en train d'allaiter un groupe de 11 louveteaux. Elle a parcouru un minimum de 341 km durant une sortie de 14 jours. La distance en ligne droite de la tanière à l'endroit le plus éloigné était de 103 km, et la vitesse minimum durant tout le voyage était de 3,1 km/h. La distance entre la louve et le caribou muni du collier émetteur a diminué de 242 km une semaine avant la sortie à 8 km quatre jours après la sortie. On commente diverses explications possibles pour ce long épisode de recherche de nourriture.

Translating climate change impacts at the community level   /   Duerden, F.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 204-212
ASTIS record 54117

It is well recognized that climate change will have considerable impact on the physical landscapes of northern Canada. How these impacts will be transmitted to the level of human activity is not clear, but it needs to be understood by governments and other decision makers to help them identify and implement appropriate approaches to ameliorate the effects of climate change. Translating physical changes into human impacts is not a simple task; communities are not passive players that will respond to changes in the physical environment in easily predictable ways. While many prognoses about change are made on a large scale, human activity is highly localized, and impacts and responses will be conditioned by local geography and a range of endogenous factors, including demographic trends, economic complexity, and experience with "change" in a broad sense. More and more studies are yielding important information about community-level experience, both past and current, with environmental shifts in the North, but research effort by social scientists falls short of what is required to reduce the level of uncertainty, and it compares unfavourably with the physical sciences' dedication to the climate change problem. A pan-northern research effort, building on a long legacy of social science research in the North, would go some way towards translating the promise of change into probable community impacts.

Il est bien connu que le changement climatique va avoir un impact considérable sur le paysage physique du nord du Canada. La façon dont ces retombées vont se transmettre au niveau de l'activité humaine n'est pas claire, mais les gouvernements et d'autres décideurs doivent la comprendre afin de pouvoir cerner et mettre sur pied des approches visant à amortir ces retombées. Traduire des changements physiques en répercussions humaines relève plus que d'une simple tâche; les communautés ne sont pas des intervenants passifs qui vont réagir au changement de leur milieu physique de façon nettement prévisible. Si bien des pronostics au sujet du changement sont établis sur une grande échelle, l'activité humaine, elle, est très localisée, et les impacts et réactions seront conditionnés par la géographie locale et par une gamme de facteurs endogènes, y compris les tendances démographiques, la complexité économique et l'expérience du "changement" au sens large. De plus en plus d'études fournissent de l'information importante sur l'expérience - passée comme actuelle - qui se vit au niveau de la communauté en rapport avec les changements environnementaux dans le Nord. Les travaux de recherche des spécialistes en sciences sociales ne sont toutefois pas à la hauteur pour diminuer le niveau d'incertitude, et ils se comparent mal à la détermination des sciences physiques de s'attaquer au problème du changement climatique. Des travaux à l'échelle du Nord, qui s'appuieraient sur une longue tradition de recherche en sciences sociales dans le Nord, aideraient dans une certaine mesure à traduire la promesse de changements en retombées probables au niveau des communautés.

June Helm (1924-2004)   /   Andrews, T.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 220-222, 1 portrait
ASTIS record 54118

June Helm, an anthropologist who worked for 50 years studying the culture and ethnohistory of Dene in the Mackenzie River drainage, has passed away at the age of 79. In declining health for many weeks, she died peacefully in her sleep on 5 February 2004, at home in the company of her husband, Pierce King. In 1945 June married Richard S. "Scotty" MacNeish, a Ph.D. candidate in archaeology, .... In 1949, Helm and MacNeish moved to Ottawa, Canada. While June worked as a sessional lecturer at Carleton University (1949-1959), MacNeish was employed as an archaeologist with the National Museums of Canada. During MacNeish's archaeological fieldwork in the Northwest Territories in the summer of 1950, he learned of a teaching opportunity in the community of Jean Marie River. In 1951, June and her research partner, Teresa Carterette, went to the community as volunteer English teachers, launching a 50-year career in the North. June's work in Jean Marie River (1951-52) formed the basis for her dissertation at the University of Chicago, which granted her a Ph.D. in 1958. She and Scotty MacNeish divorced amicably the same year. ... Over the next three decades, June made many trips north (in 1951, 1952, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1959-60, 1967-72, 1974, 1976, and 1979). During these years, she undertook ethnographic research and field excursions along the Yukon and Northwest Territories western Arctic coast, at Jean Marie River, Fort Good Hope, Deline, Fort Simpson, Lac La Martre, and Rae. In 1959, Nancy O. Lurie joined June for five months of fieldwork in Lac La Martre, beginning a 25-year focus on Dogrib ethnography and a research partnership that produced several influential and important articles, books, and reports. Helm and Lurie remained close friends, keeping in regular contact and visiting often throughout Helm's life. ... June became one of North America's most eminent anthropologists, holding a tenured position at the University of Iowa from 1960 to 1999. In March 1989, she suffered a serious stroke, resulting in partial paralysis on her right side. Despite this handicap, she maintained regular office hours at the university until her retirement in December 1999. ... June's numerous publications have made a significant contribution to Dene ethnography and ethnohistory. Her 11 books and monographs and over 40 chapters and articles, most focused on the Dene of the Mackenzie drainage, have left an important record of historical and ethnographic documentation. ...Over the last four years, June worked to organize her photographs, audiotapes, field notes, letters, and other documents for donation to the Northwest Territories Archives. Just a few months ago, a large shipment of her material arrived. As an expression of her deep respect and fondness for the people of the North, she felt it important that her research materials be returned to the North. In conjunction with her efforts to return the caribou skin lodge these donations constitute a major contribution to the preservation of Dene historical and ethnographic documentation. They will continue to gain in importance as future generations of young Dene find value in them.

Graham Westbrook Rowley (1912-2003)   /   MacDonald, J.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 223-224, 1 portrait
ASTIS record 54119

Most readers of Arctic will have heard with sadness the news of Graham Rowley's death in Ottawa on December 31, 2003. And many will have read with gratitude the heartfelt tributes his passing occasioned in the press on both sides of the Atlantic, which variously detailed Graham's lifelong, wonderfully eclectic engagement with the Canadian Arctic through exploration, administration, scholarship, and scientific enterprise. Graham's introduction to the Arctic came in 1936. ... he seized the chance to join Tom Manning's British Canadian Arctic Expedition (1936-39), which was headed for northern Baffin Island and the largely unexplored east coast of Foxe Basin. ... As the expedition's archaeologist, Graham had one main quest, set for him by Diamond Jenness at the National Museum in Ottawa: to unearth conclusive evidence of an ancient Arctic culture quite distinct from the so-called Thule culture described by Danish archaeologist Therkel Mathiassen. ... At Avvajja, [near Igloolik Island] he was able to excavate a uniquely "Dorset" site, confirming Jenness's hunch, and establishing the Dorset culture as archaeological fact. He published the results of his archaeological investigations in an article entitled "The Dorset Culture of the Eastern Arctic," which appeared in the American Anthropologist (New Series 42, 1940). ... The British Canadian Arctic Expedition left its mark on Igloolik's recorded oral history. Graham and Reynold Bray (who tragically drowned in September 1938) are especially remembered. They both had Inuktitut names, Graham being Makkuktu'naaq ('the little, or likeable, young man'), and Reynold, Umiligaarjuk ('the little bearded one'). A mixture of surprise, amusement, and admiration had greeted their arrival in Igloolik by dog team in February 1937. Here were two young white men, remarkably ill-dressed, lice-infested, walking on the shanks of their skin boots, and almost out of supplies, who had journeyed more or less alone from Repulse Bay, some 200 miles away, in the middle of winter. Even more remarkably, they knew how to manage a dog team, build snow houses, and (especially Graham) communicate in basic Inuktitut. Inuit elders interviewed in Igloolik during the 1990s still remembered Graham's departure for the war and the doubts they had entertained at the time about his chances of survival. But survive he did. Graham returned to Ottawa after the war. Still serving in the Canadian Army, he commanded the advance party of "Exercise Musk-Ox," an operation designed to test the effectiveness of motorized vehicles in the Arctic and Subarctic regions of Canada. The assignment took him from Churchill, Manitoba, across the barrens by tractor-train to Baker Lake. Retiring from the Army in 1946, he joined the Defence Research Board, where he was responsible for Arctic research. He oversaw the Board's sponsorship and support of Operation Lyon, which brought a medical research team, including Graham, to Igloolik by R.C.A.F Canso aircraft in the late summer of 1949. Needless to say, he took the opportunity to engage again in archaeological excavation, picking up where he had left off ten years previously, and uncovered some interesting Dorset and Thule material. In 1947, ... Graham and ... like-minded friends, founded the Arctic Circle Club, an Ottawa-based association that quickly became the focus for all those with northern interests. ... In 1951, Graham began his 23-year career with the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources ..., serving first as Secretary of the Advisory Committee on Northern Development, responsible for the coordination of government activities in the North, then as Scientific Adviser. ... he was closely involved with the planning and establishment for the Eastern Arctic Scientific Resource Centre, now the Igloolik Research Centre, which opened in 1975 and, through federal and now territorial administration, has supported scientific research in northern Foxe Basin ever since. ... Graham re tired from the Public Service in 1974, .... The archaeological work of Graham's daughter Susan on Igloolik Island, which spanned a decade beginning in the mid-1980s, happily gave Graham the opportunity to return frequently to his old haunts. ... Graham's professional achievements were widely acknowledged: investiture in the Order of Canada, honorary doctorates from Carleton Univesity and the University of Saskatchewan, the Massey Medal of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society, and the Northern Science Award, to name a few. He was also a past Chairman of the Arctic Institute of North America. ...

Krüger's final camp in Arctic Canada?   /   Brooks, R.C.   England, J.H.   Dyke, A.S.   Savelle, J.
Arctic, v. 57, no. 2, June 2004, p. 225-229, ill., 1 portrait
ASTIS record 54120

On 3 July 1999, John England, Art Dyke, and undergraduate student Michelle Laurie were surveying raised marine shorelines on Axel Heiberg Island halfway between Cape Southwest and the mouth of Surprise Fiord. During this work, they discovered a site with objects that appeared to be "of considerable antiquity." ... Only the compass and the transit were collected for preservation and identification. Protruding through the surface sand was evidence of additional material, including what appeared to be tent canvas, as well as printed material and a shirt (or long underwear) with label of German origin. ... As both England and Dyke are well acquainted with the history of Arctic exploration, they began to consider who might have left the instrument, and under what circumstances, given its evident value. ... The abandoned samples clearly identified the site as a geological camp. The abandonment of specimens would be consistent with a team in some difficulty. ... The 1999 find described here now provides the best evidence concerning the probable fate of Hans Krüger and his team. The German label on the partially buried clothing, the fragment that appears to be tent canvas, the old-style canister, the small pile of rock samples, and most significantly, the evidence gleaned from the small transit, point to new evidence concerning this 70-year-old Arctic mystery. Why would one abandon such easily transported and important possessions that would constitute the very heart of the scientific expedition? The overriding impression that one is left with at this sparse site is its abandonment under duress. The fact that so few provisions remained, and that the tent itself many have been destroyed, suggests that the camp may have suffered a late spring snowstorm that buried what remained, and the explorers had no time or energy left to excavate it before escaping eastward. Regardless, if the site is Krüger's, then his team made it several hundred kilometres farther back on their return journey than was previously thought. Sadly, Krüger's fiancé and mother never had conclusive evidence of their loss, and their anguish is revealed in letters sent to Krüger via the RCMP in 1931, now preserved in the Library and Archives Canada. His fiancé never married and tragically committed suicide in 1946. We hope that the planned archeological survey of the subsurface and the snow-filled gullies adjacent to the site will help clarify what we have presented here, further confirming that this is Krüger's final camp. Since scientific surveys, including ours, have been so widely conducted along the coastlines to the east that lead into and through Eureka Sound, it is unlikely that any subsequent camp will be found.

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