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Introduction: man and the Barents Sea ecosystems   /   Hacquebord, L.   de Korte, J.   Veluwenkamp, J.W.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. iii-iv
ASTIS record 36834
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... The study of the interaction between man and nature demands an interdisciplinary approach. The various disciplines, however, differ greatly with regard to their methods and cultures, and these differences handicap cooperation. The Arctic Centre of the University of Groningen aims at overcoming this handicap. Founded over 25 years ago, the Centre is a platform for polar research in the Netherlands and has a long-term, multidisciplinary research program in the polar regions. As one means to bridging the gap between the disciplines, it organizes international symposia. The Ninth International Symposium of the Arctic Centre, held in Groningen, the Netherlands, in November 1992, dealt with the interaction between man and the ecosystems of the Barents Sea. Specialists of several disciplines met to discuss many relevant questions. What are the characteristics of the Barents Sea ecosystems, and how do these systems function? What natural resources are available in the area? By whom and how have they been exploited? What effects has this exploitation had on nature and society? The articles presented here are the edited versions of papers presented at the Symposium. Individually, they are hardly interdisciplinary. But they all approach the same geographical area, trying to answer the same questions from their own angles. We hope that this volume will tempt the reader to take note of problems and processes which may not have his constant attention, but which are certainly related to problems and processes which are the object of his specialization and which are part of the chain of causes and effects known as reality. We also hope that these articles will contribute to the rise of new perspectives and new, truly interdisciplinary formulations of problems. ...


Barents Sea geology, petroleum resources and commercial potential   /   Doré, A.G.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 207-221, ill., maps
ASTIS record 36835
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Geologically, the Barents Sea is a complex mosaic of basins and platforms. It underwent intracontinental sedimentation from about 240 million years ago to the early Cenozoic, about 60 million years ago, after which it bordered the developing Atlantic and Arctic oceans. Geophysical investigations began during the 1970s, and the first offshore drilling occurred in the early 1980s. In Norwegian waters, drilling has proven 260-300 billion cubic meters of gas, with minor oil. Most of the reserves are contained in Jurassic sandstones. Exploration problems include the predominance of gas over oil and leakage of hydrocarbons from traps in recent geological time; both are connected with the intense erosion of the Barents Shelf that took place during the Cenozoic. Exploration efforts currently focus on new targets in areas such as the Finnmark Platform, the Nordkapp Basin, the Western Margin, and the area between 74 30 N and Spitsbergen. Oil accumulations have been discovered in Russian waters offshore from the Timan-Pechora Basin. However, major sedimentary basins west of Novaya Zemlya have yielded the most significant results. The largest finds include the Stokmanovskaya and Ludlovskaya supergiant gas fields. Stokmanovskaya alone has gas reserves in the order of 2500 billion cubic meters. Seismic surveys have documented a large inventory of untested structures, and further resources are probably present in the disputed area between Norwegian and Russian waters. Options for commercial development of both Norwegian and Russian discoveries are currently being evaluated. These include the possible export of liquefied natural gas from the Norwegian Snohvit Field to the European market. A consortium has carried out feasibility studies on the Russian Stokmanovskaya Field, and gas export solutions are being evaluated. In general, economic exploitation is hindered by the low price of natural gas, the distance to potential markets, difficult logistics, restricted drilling seasons and environmental concerns.

Du point de vue géologique, la mer de Barents est une mosaïque complexe de bassins et de plates-formes. Elle a subi une sédimentation intracontinentale depuis il y a près de 240 millions d'années jusqu'au cénozoïque inférieur, il y a environ 60 millions d'années, après quoi, elle a bordé les océans Atlantique et Arctique en formation. Des recherches géophysiques ont débuté au cours des années 1970, et le premier forage en mer a eu lieu au début des années 80. Dans les eaux norvégiennes, le forage a révélé des réserves prouvées de 260 à 300 milliards de mètres cubes de gaz, contenant un peu de pétrole. La plupart des réserves sont renfermées dans des grès du jurassique. La prédominance du gaz par rapport au pétrole et la dispersion d'hydrocarbures à partir de pièges formés au cours d'une période géologique récente comptent parmi les problèmes liés à l'exploration; ils sont tous deux reliés à l'érosion intensive de la plate-forme de Barents qui a eu lieu au cours du cénozoïque. Les efforts d'exploration portent actuellement sur de nouvelles cibles telles que la plate-forme du Finnmark, le bassin du NordKapp, la marge occidentale, ainsi que la zone située entre 74°30' de latitude N. et le Spitzberg. On a découvert des gisements de pétrole dans les eaux russes, au large du bassin de Timan-Petchora. Mais ce sont les bassins sédimentaires à l'ouest de la Nouvelle-Zemble qui ont donné les résultats les plus probants. Parmi les grandes découvertes, on compte les très vastes gisements de gaz de Stokmanovskaya et de Ludlovskaya. Celui de Stokmanovskaya renferme à lui seul des réserves de gaz de l'ordre de 2500 milliards de mètres cubes. Des relevés sismiques ont attesté l'existence de nombreuses structures non explorées, et d'autres ressources se trouvent probablement dans la région contestée située entre les eaux russes et les eaux norvégiennes. Des options visant l'exploitation commerciale des découvertes norvégiennes comme russes sont actuellement à l'étude. Elles comprennent l'exportation éventuelle du gaz naturel liquéfié du gisement norvégien de Snøhvit vers le marché européen. Un consortium a réalisé des études de faisabilité sur le gisement russe de Stokmanovskaya, et des solutions à l'exportation du gaz sont en cours d'évaluation. De manière générale, l'exploitation économique est freinée par le faible prix du gaz naturel, l'éloignement des marchés potentiels, une logistique difficile, des saisons de forage restreintes et des préoccupations environnementales.


Bird observations in Severnaya Zemlya, Siberia   /   de Korte, J.   Volkov, A.E.   Gavrilo, M.V.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 222-234, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 36836
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Fieldwork in different parts of Severnaya Zemlya in 1985, 1991, 1992 and 1993 and aerial surveys in 1994 revealed a limited bird fauna with a total of 17 breeding species. The most numerous breeding birds are cliff-nesting seabirds, comprising little auk (Alle alle), 10 000-80 000 pairs; kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), 5000-10 000; black guillemot (Cepphus grylle), 1000-5000; ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea), 1000-2000; and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), 500-1000. They breed all over the archipelago, usually in rather small mixed- or single-species colonies. Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) 100-500, and herring gull (Larus argentatus) 1-10, breed as solitary pairs or with a few pairs together. Of tundra birds, only brent goose (Branta bernicla), purple sandpiper (Calidris maritima) and snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis) are found breeding on most of the major islands. The other tundra species--red-throated diver (Gavia stellata), king eider (Somateria spectabilis), sanderling (Calidris alba), Arctic skua (Stercorarius parasiticus), long-tailed skua (Stercorarius longicaudus), snowy owl (Nyctea scandiaca) and Lapland bunting (Calcarius lapponicus)--breed in small numbers and in limited areas, often not every year. Of the even fewer mammal species, reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) occurs occasionally, while Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) are locally common in some years.

Des études sur le terrain menées dans différentes parties de la Severnaïa Zemlia en 1985, 1991, 1992 et 1993 ainsi que des relevés aériens effectués en 1994 ont révélé une avifaune limitée comptant au total 17 espèces reproductrices. Les oiseaux nicheurs les plus nombreux sont ceux nichant sur les falaises. Ils comprennent le mergule nain (Alle alle) [10 000 à 80 000 paires]; la mouette tridactyle (Rissa tridactyla) [5000 à 10 000]; le guillemot à miroir (Cepphus grylle) [1000 à 5000]; la mouette blanche (Pagophila eburnea)[1000 à 2000]; et le goéland bourgmestre (Larus hyperboreus) [500 à 1000]. Ils nichent sur tout l'archipel, en général en colonies plutôt petites rassemblant des espèces mixtes ou une seule espèce. La sterne arctique (Sterna paradisaea) [100 à 500], et le goéland argenté (Larus argentatus) [1 à 10], nichent en paires solitaires ou avec quelques autres paires. Des oiseaux de la toundra, seuls la bernache cravant (Branta bernicla), le bécasseau violet (Calidris maritima) et le bruant des neiges (Plectrophenax nivalis) nichent sur la plupart des grandes îles. Les autres espèces de la toundra - le huart à gorge rousse (Gavia stellata), l'eider à tête grise (Somateria spectabilis), le bécasseau sanderling (Calidris alba), le labbe parasite (Stercorarius parasiticus), le labbe à longue queue (Stercorarius longicaudus), le harfang des neiges (Nyctea scandiaca) et le bruant lapon (Calcarius lapponicus) - nichent en petits nombres et dans des zones limitées, et souvent pas chaque année. Parmi les espèces de mammifères - encore moins nombreuses que les oiseaux - on trouve de temps à autre le renne (Rangifer tarandus), tandis que le renard arctique (Alopex lagopus) et le lemming à collerette (Dicrostonyx torquatus) abondent localement certaines années.


Viking expansion northwards : mediaeval sources   /   Hofstra, T.   Samplonius, K.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 235-247, maps
ASTIS record 36837
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Evidence for Scandinavian activities in the northwestern part of the Barents Sea is scanty; according to the Annals, Svalbard (i) was discovered in 1194, but the entry refers to Jan Mayen rather than present-day Svalbard/Spitsbergen. By contrast, the southern fringe of the Barents Sea was more than once crossed by Vikings on their way to Bjarmaland (Russia) in the White Sea area. As early as the end of the ninth century, an Old English source tells of a Norse expedition to that area and Old Norse sources indicate the existence of trade links back to the tenth century, possible even earlier. The commodities traded and levied were tusks, precious furs and skins. The trade, also with the nearby Sami, was controlled by Norse chieftains living on the coast south of Tromso, who competed for power with the kings of Norway. Both kings and chieftains were involved in the Bjarmaland expeditions, as can be seen from historical sources and from fiction. A final expedition took place in 1222. The trips to Bjarmaland did not lead to correct ideas about the geography of the Barents Sea area as a whole. Firm knowledge was limited, leaving room for superstition and learned speculations, such as a land-bridge to Greenland and a race of arctic giants, thought to live somewhere north of Bjarmaland. As to the Barents Sea proper, the sources reflect problems with sailing.

On ne possède que très peu d'indices attestant des activités scandinaves dans la partie nord-ouest de la mer de Barents. Selon les chroniques, le Svalbari fut découvert en 1194, mais l'entrée se réfère à Jan Mayen plutôt qu'au Svalbard/Spitzberg de maintenant. Par contre, la bordure méridionale de la mer de Barents a été traversée plus d'une fois par les Vikings en route vers le Bjarmaland (Russie) dans la région de la mer Blanche. Dès la fin du IXe siècle, un document en vieil anglais rapporte une expédition norroise dans cette région et des documents en vieux norrois révèlent l'existence de liens commerciaux remontant au Xe siècle, peut-être même avant. Les objets échangés et prélevés consistaient en défenses, fourrures précieuses et peaux. Le commerce, qui se faisait également avec les Samits tout proches, était contrôlé par les princes norrois habitant la côte au sud de Tromsø, qui luttaient pour le pouvoir avec les rois de Norvège. Rois comme princes participèrent aux expéditions du Bjarmaland, comme en attestent les sources historiques et les ouvrages de fiction. Une dernière expédition eut lieu en 1222. Les voyages au Bjarmaland ne permirent pas de se faire une idée juste de la géographie de la mer de Barents en général. On ne savait pour sûr que peu de choses, ce qui laissait place à la superstition et à des suppositions acquises, telles que l'existence d'un pont continental vers le Groenland et d'une race de géants arctiques, qu'on croyait vivre quelque part au nord du Bjarmaland. Quant à la mer de Barents même, les sources historiques témoignent de problèmes concernant la navigation.


In search of Het Behouden Huys: a survey of the remains of the house of Willem Barentsz on Novaya Zemlya   /   Hacquebord, L.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 248-256, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 36838
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In August 1992, a Russian-Dutch expedition organized by the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in St. Petersburg, Russia and the Arctic Centre of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands surveyed the site of the house of Novaya Zemlya in which the Dutch explorer Willem Barentsz and his crew spent the winter of 1596-97. This survey made it clear that the plundering of the site had been so profound that an excavation would be useless. Comparison of the results of the 1992 survey with the observations made by Elling Carlsen, who discovered the site in 1971, showed that it is improbable that all the remaining objects are still in situ. However, the field study and the supplementary historical research nevertheless cast some new light onto interesting aspects of this notable event in the history of the discovery of the region around the North Pole. The visit to the site made clear that the house was built on a peninsula, and not on the shore of a bay as had been thought up to now. The immediate surroundings turned out to be flat, and not hilly as historical illustrations sugested. It was also evident that these illustrations usually show a mirror image of the house. The house appears to have been constructed in the log cabin manner, with beams which slotted into each other at the corners. The objects found in 1992 made it clear that much handiwork was done during the wintering. The bone material informed us about the diet of the winterers, which consisted of salted beef and fox meat.

En août 1992, une expédition russo-néerlandaise montée par l'institut de recherche arctique et antarctique de Saint-Pétersbourg en Russie et par le centre arctique de l'université de Groningue aux Pays-Bas a fait une étude du site de la maison construite en Nouvelle-Zemble, dans laquelle l'explorateur néerlandais Willem Barentsz et son équipage passèrent l'hiver de 1596-97. Cette étude a révélé sans nul doute possible que le pillage du site avait été si intensif qu'il était inutile de procéder à des fouilles. Une comparaison des résultats de l'étude de 1992 avec les observations faites par Elling Carlsen, qui découvrit le site en 1871, a révélé qu'il est improbable que tous les objets découverts par Carlsen soient encore in situ. L'étude sur le terrain et la recherche historique supplémentaire ont cependant jeté un peu de lumière sur des aspects intéressants de cet événement notable dans l'histoire de la découverte de la région avoisinant le pôle Nord. La visite sur le site a permis de confirmer que la maison était bien construite sur une presqu'île et non sur le rivage d'une baie comme on l'avait pensé jusqu'à maintenant. Les alentours immédiats se sont révélés plats et non formés de collines comme les dessins historiques le laissaient entendre. Il est également évident que ces illustrations montrent la plupart du temps une image de la maison en miroir. Celle-ci semble avoir été construite dans le style des cabanes en rondins, les madriers s'encastrant les uns dans les autres aux angles. Les objets trouvés en 1992 permettent d'affirmer que l'hivernage donnait lieu à bien des petits travaux de bricolage. Le matériel osseux nous informe sur le régime alimentaire des personnes qui hivernaient là, régime qui consistait en boeuf salé et en viande de renard.


The Murman coast and the northern Dvina Delta as English and Dutch commercial destinations in the 16th and 17th centuries   /   Veluwenkamp, J.W.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 257-266, maps
ASTIS record 36839
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In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Murman coast trade and the Northern Dvina trade were two clearly distinct branches of Western European commerce. The Murman coast trade involved the commerce with the regional economy of the Kola Peninsula, and the Northern Dvina trade coincided with the transit trade with the Russian interior. In the 1550s, the English established commercial relations with interior Russia via the mouth of the Northern Dvina, mainly exchanging woolen cloth and metals for north and central Russian forestry and agriculture products. In the 1570s, the Dutch followed suit, and by the second decade of the seventeenth century, they had squeezed the English almost completely out of the Russian market. The Northern Dvina trade became a major line of Dutch business, involving the transit trade with interior Russia, the exchange of the products of the north and central Russian forestry and agriculture for gold and silver money and a wide range of military stores and luxury goods. In the 1560s, the Dutch developed commercial relations with the Murman coast, exchanging locally produced exports like cod, salmon, furs and train oil for locally used imports like woolen cloth, tinware, salt, pepper, and wine. In addition, from the early 1570s, the Dutch used Kola as an alternative to the Northern Dvina mouth as a port for the transit trade with interior Russia; but they did so only until about 1585, when the tsar directed all foreign trade of interior Russia to proceed via the newly founded port of Archangel on the Northern Dvina. After that, Kola only remained an international commercial port for the local economy of the Murman coast. The Dutch continued to trade with the Murman coast on a very small scale throughout the seventeenth century, but Archangel was by far their main commercial destination in the Barents Sea area.

Au XVIe et XVIIe siècle, les échanges de la côte Mourmane et ceux de la Dvina septentrionale représentaient deux branches distinctes du commerce européen occidental. Les échanges de la côte Mourmane faisaient intervenir le commerce avec l'économie régionale de la presqu'île de Kola, et ceux de la Dvina septentrionale coïncidaient avec le commerce de transit avec l'intérieur de la Russie. Dans les années 1550, les Anglais établirent des relations commerciales avec l'intérieur de la Russie via l'embouchure de la Dvina septentrionale, troquant surtout étoffes de laine et métaux contre des produits forestiers et agricoles du nord et du centre de la Russie. Durant les années 1570, les Hollandais firent de même, et, vers 1620, ils avaient presque complètement évincé les Anglais du marché russe. Les échanges de la Dvina septentrionale devinrent un important volet du monde des affaires hollandais, mettant en jeu le commerce de transit avec l'intérieur de la Russie, le troc des produits forestiers et agricoles du nord et du centre de la Russie contre de la monnaie en or et en argent, ainsi qu'une vaste gamme de fournitures militaires et d'articles de luxe. Dans les années 1560, les Hollandais établirent des relations commerciales avec la côte Mourmane, troquant des produits d'exportation locaux comme la morue, le saumon, les fourrures et l'huile de poisson contre des importations destinées à un usage local comme des étoffes de laine, de la ferblanterie, du sel, du poivre et du vin. En outre, dès le début des années 1570, les Hollandais se servirent de Kola comme alternative à l'embouchure de la Dvina en tant que port pour le commerce de transit avec l'intérieur de la Russie; mais cela ne dura que jusque vers 1585, lorsque le tsar décida que tout le commerce extérieur de l'intérieur de la Russie devait passer par le port d'Arkhangelsk que l'on venait de créer sur la Dvina septentrionale. Après quoi, Kola ne resta un port de commerce international que pour la côte Mourmane. Les Hollandais continuèrent de commercer avec la côte Mourmane à très petite échelle durant tout le XVIIe siècle, mais Arkhangelsk fut de loin leur plus importante destination commerciale dans la région de la mer de Barents.


Pelagic fish and the ecological impact of the modern fishing industry in the Barents Sea   /   Gjøsæter, H.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 267-278, ill., maps
ASTIS record 36840
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The Barents Sea/Norwegian Sea ecosystem is inhabited by two large pelagic fish stocks, the Norwegian spring spawning herring and the Barents Sea capelin. The herring stock feeds in the high-production polar front area in the western Norwegian Sea, and spawns at the Norwegian coast. The larvae are transported into the Barents Sea, where they spend the first two to four years of life. The capelin stock spends its whole life in the Barents Sea, spawning along the southern coasts and feeding in the nutrient-rich areas in the northern parts of the sea. The herring stock was brought almost to extinction during the 1960s by the combined effect of overfishing and environmental conditions. This stock is now recovering. Much fishing effort was shifted to capelin when the herring fishery was stopped, and the capelin supported large fisheries in the 1970s. In the mid 1980s, the capelin stock size suddenly declined to a very low level. The factors involved were recruitment failure, low individual growth rates, high natural mortality, and, in the last phase, high fishing mortality. The recruitment failure was most likely caused by predation by some abundant year classes of herring in 1983-85. The low growth rate was probably caused by the scarcity of prey organisms, while the high mortality rate of the adult capelin stock was an effect of predation from abundant year classes of cod during the same period. After having recovered in the period 1989-91, the capelin stock once more collapsed during 1992-93. The reasons were the same as for the collapse in the 1980s, except that fishing had no effect on the most recent collapse.

L'écosystème formé par la mer de Barents et la mer de Norvège est peuplé par deux importants stocks de poissons pélagiques, le hareng norvégien qui se reproduit au printemps et le capelan de la mer de Barents. Le stock de hareng se nourrit dans la zone hautement productive du front polaire dans l'ouest de la mer de Norvège, et fraie sur la côte norvégienne. Les larves sont transportées dans la mer de Barents, où elles passent de deux à quatre ans au début de leur vie. Le stock de capelan passe toute sa vie dans la mer de Barents, frayant le long des côtes méridionales et se nourrissant dans les zones riches en éléments nutritifs situées dans les parties septentrionales de la mer. Au cours des années 1960, le stock de hareng a presque été décimé en raison de l'effet combiné de la surpêche et des conditions environnementales. Ce stock est maintenant en train de se renouveler. Lorsqu'on a cessé de pêcher le hareng, la pêche au capelan a connu un essor considérable et, dans les années 70, ce poisson a soutenu une importante industrie de pêche. Au milieu des années 80, la taille du stock de capelan a décliné subitement pour atteindre un très bas niveau. Les facteurs en cause étaient le manque de renouvellement, un faible taux de croissance individuelle, une mortalité naturelle élevée, et, durant la dernière phase, une haute mortalité due à la pêche. Le manque de renouvellement était probablement dû à la prédation exercée par certaines classes abondantes de harengs de 83 à 85. Le faible taux de croissance était probablement dû à la rareté des organismes-proies, tandis que le taux élevé de mortalité du stock de capelan adulte était une conséquence de la prédation causée par d'abondantes classes annuelles de morues durant cette même période. Après avoir récupéré entre 1989 et 1991, le stock de capelan s'est de nouveau effondré au cours des années 92-93. Les raisons en étaient les mêmes que celles de l'effondrement des années 1980, sauf que la pêche n'était pas un facteur en cause.


Man's impact on the Barents Sea   /   Klungsøyr, J.   Sætre, R.   Føyn, L.   Loeng, H.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 279-296, ill., maps
ASTIS record 36841
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The Barents Sea ecosystem is a polar system with high biological production. Production takes place during a short season, mainly along the ice margin. As biological production is very limited in both space and time, the ecosystem is vulnerable to the influence of human activity. Fishing activity represents the most significant environmental load by man on the Barents Sea. In recent years offshore oil and gas exploration activity has increased, resulting in environmental problems as well as conflicts with fishing operations. Heavy metals and organic contaminants of man-made origin have been observed in both sediments and organisms at different trophic levels. Both long-range atmospheric transport and transport by ocean currents are important. Organic contaminants accumulate mainly in the body fat of the organisms; northern ecosystems are therefore especially vulnerable because fat has much greater ecological importance in such systems than in more southerly ecosystems. In recent years there has been public concern in both Norway and Russia over the possibility of radioactive pollution. Nuclear power plants, nuclear vessels and weapons are present in the area and produce radioactive wastes. Reports of wastes have influenced public opinion in many countries. The Barents Sea is strongly influenced by ocean climate variations. Global climate models forecast that the most elevated ocean temperatures due to possible greenhouse effects will probably occur in polar regions.

L'écosystème de la mer de Barents est un système polaire ayant une haute productivité biologique. La production a lieu au cours d'une brève saison, principalement le long de la marge glaciaire. Étant donné que la production biologique est très limitée à la fois dans le temps et dans l'espace, l'écosystème est très sensible à l'activité humaine. La pêche constitue le plus gros fardeau environnemental que fait peser l'être humain sur la mer de Barents. Au cours des dernières années, l'exploration pétrolière et gazière au large a augmenté, donnant lieu à des problèmes écologiques ainsi qu'à des conflits avec l'industrie de la pêche. On a trouvé des métaux lourds et des contaminants organiques anthropiques dans les sédiments comme dans les organismes, et ce, à différents niveaux trophiques. Le transport atmosphérique de longue portée et le transport par les courants océaniques sont importants. Les contaminants organiques s'accumulent surtout dans le tissu adipeux des organismes; les écosystèmes nordiques sont donc particulièrement vulnérables car le gras a beaucoup plus d'importance écologique dans ces systèmes que dans des écosystèmes localisés plus au sud. Durant les dernières années, en Norvège comme en Russie, le public s'est dit concerné par une éventuelle pollution radioactive. Centrales, vaisseaux et armes nucléaires sont présents dans la région et produisent des déchets radioactifs. Des rapports sur ces déchets ont influencé l'opinion publique dans de nombreux pays. La mer de Barents est fortement influencée par les variations du climat océanique. Des modèles climatiques planétaires prédisent que c'est probablement dans les régions polaires que se produiront les plus fortes hausses de températures océaniques dues à l'effet de serre éventuel.


Maxwell John Dunbar (1914-1995)   /   Grainger, E.H.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 306-307, ill.
ASTIS record 36842
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Max Dunbar died on 14 February 1995, in his 81st year. A Scot, born in Edinburgh, he spent the first three or four years of his life there. ... In 1933, Max entered Trinity College, Oxford, to read Zoology. There he soon came under the influence of the pioneer ecologist, Charles Elton. This led to participation in the Oxford University Exploration Club, exposure to the fascination of Greenland, and an invitation to join a group set up to map a section of the western Greenland coast. The expedition reached Greenland in August 1935, and so began Max's lifelong involvement with the Arctic. A second visit in 1936 confirmed his interest in marine biology, the main thrust of his later career. ... The advent of the war caused Canada and others to recognize the strategic importance of Greenland. As a result, the first Canadian consulate in Greenland was opened in 1940. In 1942, Max became Canada's third consular representative there. He remained in Greenland until 1943, and returned later for two further postings, which ended in 1946. Along with consular duties, Max was able to accomplish considerable work on the oceanography of western Greenland fjords. ... On his return from Greenland to Montreal, Max joined the Department of Zoology at McGill. He was almost immediately approached by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada to begin a marine study in the Canadian eastern Arctic. With a graduate student from McGill, Max started in Ungava Bay in 1947 what was to become a continuing program of oceanographic study extending throughout the Canadian Arctic. ... Max taught in the Department of Zoology at McGill from 1946 until 1963. He directed the Marine Sciences Centre at McGill from 1963 until 1977, and its successor, the Institute of Oceanography, from 1978 until his official retirement and appointment as Professor Emeritus in 1982. Evidence that "retirement" did not signify the end of his working life is given by the appearance of at least 32 publications dated 1983 and later, and by his role as a founding member and an active participant in the Centre for Climate and Global Change Research at McGill from 1990 until only months before his death. ... Max's career in research spanned nearly 60 years and was mainly related to the sea. He developed a classification of ecological zonation in northern seas which has stood well the tests of time. He advanced study of the structure of polar marine ecosystems, and added much to our understanding of marine climatic change. He pioneered work on the probable importance of natural selection at the ecosystem level, that is, on a scale above the level of species selection, and this was not without controversy. He engaged in many studies on marine biogeography in northern seas, often with emphasis on the importance of dispersal routes of the past. ... He was a man whose influence was felt far and wide and will long remain.


Trevor Lloyd (1906-1995)   /   Bird, J. B.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 308-309, ill.
ASTIS record 36843
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Trevor Lloyd died in Ottawa on 6 February 1995, at the age of 88. For more than half a century he had been one of Canada's foremost geographers. He had gained an international reputation for his social science studies of the circumpolar world and particularly for his contributions in northern economic and political geography. Henry Trevor Lloyd was born in London, England on 4 May 1906. His Quaker parents had come from Wales, and as a young boy he returned with them when they made their home in the Rhondda valley. Before he left school the valley had become the most economically and socially depressed part of the South Wales coal field, and his deep, lifelong concern for social justice in society clearly dated from his personal observations at that time. ... By 1942 he was attracted to university teaching and was increasingly interested in the North. ... In the last year of the war he went to Greenland to replace Max Dunbar as Canadian consul. He had hardly been back in his Dartmouth department (of which he had become chairman) when in 1947 he returned to Ottawa for a year to be appointed Chief of the recently created Geographical Bureau. In this position, continuing the objectives of his predecessor, Diamond Jenness, he was able to encourage and support young scientists who were developing research in the Canadian Arctic ... these included women as well as men. It was in this period that Trevor Lloyd began his close ties to the newly created Arctic Institute of North America. He edited the first two volumes of Arctic (1948-49) and the editorial standards as well as the format he established were to remain unchanged for the next 25 years. Created a Fellow in 1948, he became a Governor in 1950. His main contribution to the Institute was maintained in the sixties when he was almost continuously a Governor and for 1967-69, Chairman of the Board. His special interest was in encouraging the expansion of the Institute's outstanding research library. ... He left Dartmouth in 1959 to become the first Professor of Human Geography at McGill University; three years later he became chairman of the department, a position he held until the end of 1966. He was fortunate in his period of tenure as McGill departmental chairman, as it coincided with a period of stability and considerable economic prosperity in the university. Under his guidance and driven by his great energy, the department doubled its size and expanded its northern research interests, which until then had been primarily in the physical environment, into social, economic and cultural fields. He revitalized the Stanstead Geography Summer School which specialized in arctic programs. He paid particular attention to the need of schoolteachers specializing in geography and put into effect his plans to improve the quality of geography teaching in McGill's Institute of Education. With external help, he initiated a review of the map resources of the university, a consequence of which today is the large map and airphoto collection, now part of the university's Hitschfeld environmental library. ... When the Arctic Institute left Montreal in 1975, Trevor Lloyd felt he had lost close contact with two first-class northern libraries, the Arctic Institute's and the Baker collection. He worked wholeheartedly to develop McGill's Centre for Northern Studies and Research, and was its director in the last years before he retired in 1977. After retirement he ... returned to Ottawa where he continued to work for the rest of his life on Canadian northern administrative policies. He became deeply committed to founding a national Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies and became its executive director in 1980. ...


Frederick A. Milan (1924-1995)   /   Elsner, R.   Pauls, F.P.
Arctic, v. 48, no. 3, Sept. 1995, p. 310-311, ill.
ASTIS record 36848
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Frederick A. Milan died on 28 January 1995 after a series of strokes and related illness of several years. ... His activities around the polar regions of the world are well known and fondly remembered. Fred was Professor Emeritus of Human Ecology and Anthropology at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. ... His work as an assistant on the Harvard Peabody Museum Anthropological Expedition to the Aleutian Islands in 1949 heightened his interest in the Arctic. It also impressed upon him the utility of studying Russian for understanding the history of the region. Fred worked in the summers of 1950 and 1952 as an archaeological assistant at Deering and Kodiak, Alaska. He was a weather observer on the Juneau Icefield Research Project in the summer of 1951. His major scholastic interests were in anthropology and linguistics, and he graduated in 1952. In 1953 Fred began several years of association with the former United States Air Force Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory near Fairbanks. ... [In 1954] he and other Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory personnel participated in the Mount Wrangell Research Project, a high-latitude cosmic ray study. His role was as a collaborator in a study of high altitude acclimatization of the team members. ... Fred undertook graduate study at several institutions: the Universities of Oregon, Wisconsin and Copenhagen, and the London School of Economics. His linguistic skills became well developed, and he was especially interested in the Inuit language and culture. He spent one winter in northern Sweden traveling and living with a nomadic Sami family. Back in Alaska in 1956, he began his close association with the Inupiat Eskimo village of Wainwright, Alaska. His ability to speak the language enabled him to gain the villagers' confidence and elicit genealogical information, and endeared him to the people. These activities led eventually to successful completion of his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees at the University of Wisconsin. ... In the 1960s Fred played an important role in establishing a worldwide study of northern people as part of the Human Adaptability section of the International Biological Program. ... He was a longtime advocate for multidisciplinary study of the needs for health care delivery and for the international exchange of information about circumpolar health problems and research efforts. In 1967 Fred, Dr. C. Earl Albrecht and colleagues in Alaska and other parts of the United States, Canada, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Greenland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics organized, with the support of the Arctic Institute of North America, the First International Symposium on Circumpolar Health. The symposium was held at Fairbanks in July 1967, and these meetings have continued at three-year intervals at various circumpolar locations. Fred was the president of the Sixth International Congress on Circumpolar Health held at Anchorage in 1984. ... During the 1970s and 1980s Fred was a faculty member at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. He was a much-respected teacher, and he was noted for conveying his enthusiasm for scholarly work and his respect for the people of anthropological study to students and colleagues. The Fred Milan we knew was a genuine free spirit--he looked at the world through eyes wide with perceptive curiosity and interpreted it with kindness and good humor. We have been made richer and wiser by sharing in some of his generous and stimulating life.


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