The importance of the role of history and classical studies in the moulding of man   /   Garrone, G.-M.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 321-323
ASTIS record 41204

In these brief reflections on the role of History and Classical Studies in the shaping of man I should like to pay homage to the work of your Committee, in which History and, in particular, Geography, employing diverse other sciences, endeavour to give to mankind in an unbiased manner the possession and knowledge of a considerable and largely unknown section of his past and of his present terrestrial domain. ... History thrusts itself upon us as part of our formation in the sense that it is a continuous process, manifested, accepted, and lived. ... to be unaware of History and to depreciate literary culture is to be ignorant of man and to abandon hope of his improvement. ... If one accepts that man is capable of evil one also has to accept that he is capable of good. The dreadful crimes of the past and present should be contrasted with the wholly admirable and marvellous feats and creations revealed by genius, saintliness, and ordinary humble humanity. ... if History appears to be a minor science in conjunction with the exact sciences it is only because its completely unique character is misunderstood. It is not the mission of History to discover new laws and thereby to create useful techniques. Its raison d'Ítre is completely original. In a sense History will always remain more real than the sciences where the subject and result are abstract. History provides the point through which all general knowledge is inserted into reality, for the real is always individual. ... History engenders a "wisdom" which is not easy to put into a formula but which shows man his limits and his capabilities. It begets a moderation which the ancients expressed in the word "Nemesis", which guards against false adventures but gives at the same time a zest for risk. ... Humanities are a normal channel for the moulding of man's character and a way of accepting fundamental values difficult to acquire otherwise. To form a man is to help him discover his inner self; once this path is open he is ready to go out and meet others. ... So, the first duty is to help man understand himself .... To be able to do this he needs to be familiar with the experience of other men - to have had patient and continued contact with the enduring witness to posterity of the lives and writings of men from past centuries. There lies the inheritance preserved and communicated by classical literature. ... if man wishes to surpass himself and aspire to the heights, the only way to do this is through his inner being: as Saint Augustine has expressed so admirably, "from without to within, from within to the sublime". ... It is by looking inwards that one becomes fit to communicate and hold a real dialogue with another. In discovering others one discovers oneself and becomes able to listen to others. ... In becoming more conscious of the wonderful riches within the framework of our own horizons we are in a better position to avoid misunderstanding cultures coming from another sphere. ... The important thing is to keep the essential values within view: man's discovery of his inner self, thence the real discovery of others. The more we bear these values in mind and the more we come to understand the significance of history and of the classical disciplines, so much the more may we hope for their progress and enrichment through the extraordinary contributions of these times in which you yourselves are so actively engaged. ...

The evangelization of the Arctic in the Middle Ages: Gardar, the "Diocese of Ice"   /   Rey, L.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 324-333, ill.
ASTIS record 17378

The author outlines the history of the evangelization of Greenland from the days of Saint Brendan until the loss of communication with the area in the 1400's apparently through worsening climate. The author includes letters from two popes of Rome expressing anxiety for the fate of the Christian Greenlanders.

Cosmology and cartography   /   Pognon, E.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 334-340, ill.
ASTIS record 17420

This paper describes early cartographers' concepts of the world and its polar regions. Some comments on the relationships of astronomy to cartography are made (inclusion of Ptolemaic thought) and of the importance of technical method in cartography. Most of the paper is devoted to a description of medieval cartography and cosmology.

The Greco-Roman conception of the north from Pytheas to Tacitus   /   Chevallier, R.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 341-346
ASTIS record 17421

In this attempt to outline the main phases in the unveiling of the north in terms of present-day research, we define 'North' as all the regions bordering the Atlantic Ocean which Strabo contains in his expression 'Paroceanitide', i.e. northwest Gaul (including the province of Belgium), the Britannic Isles, Lower Germany, and the Scandinavian peninsula. ... [The article summarizes Greek and Roman knowledge of the farthest northern frontiers by providing a survey of principal sources for the researcher of classical antiquity, and the archaeologist.]

Geographical perceptions of the north in Pomponius Mela and Ptolemy   /   Dilke, O.A.W.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 347-351, ill.
ASTIS record 17422

The Greeks and Romans were rather slow to change their views of the North which they had developed over hundreds of years. ... [The author outlines what was and was not known of the Arctic in early times, particularly in the world of Mela and Ptolemy.]

Surviving sources of the classical geographers through late antiquity and the medieval period   /   Parroni, P.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 352-358
ASTIS record 17423

... The aim in this paper is to follow the evolution of this thread of classical geography from late antiquity through to the mixture of tradition and innovation which succeeded it in the medieval period, without any pretensions to being exhaustive in the naming of authors, and limiting the geographical region discussed to the north. ...

The paleohistory of circumpolar arctic colonization   /   Kozlowski, J.   Bandi, H.-G.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 359-372, ill.
ASTIS record 17424

We have attempted to show that the circumpolar arctic zone was colonized from different regions of Eurasia. This penetration took place at different stages according to the evolution of palaeogeographical conditions during the last glacial phase and the early part of the Holocene.

The Saami peoples from the time of the voyage of Ottar to Thomas van Westen   /   Meriot, C.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 373-384, ill.
ASTIS record 17425

The history of the discovery and understanding of the Saami peoples can be divided into three periods. The earliest record goes back to Tacitus .... This prehistory of the Sammi peoples can be said to end with the History of the Langobards by Paulus Diaconus (Varnefrid) about A.D. 780 .... The latest period of discovery began in the eighteenth century, through scholars in various disciplines, and through countless travellers passing through more for recreation than for reasons of serious exploration. Between these two phases, there was a long transition period beginning with Ottar's account of his journey in Lappland (dated at the end of the ninth century, about 890), and ending at the turn of the seventeenth into the eighteenth century with the first scientific works of learned men such as von Westen (1682-1727). ...

The participation of the kings in the early Norwegian sailing to Bjarmeland (Kola Peninsula and Russian waters), and the development of a royal policy concerning the northern waters in the Middle Ages   /   Blom, G.A.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 385-388
ASTIS record 17426

... In earlier times Finmark and the inner parts of Troms were not inhabited by Norwegians but by a Finnish-Ugrain-speaking nomadic people, few in numbers, called Fins. ... [The author traces the movement of Norwegians into Finmark and the polar regions from the early account of King Alfred the Great, informed by Ottmar, through to the Middle Ages. The Danish monarchs inherited the sea empire and became entangled in conflict with England, Germany, Holland, Sweden and Russia as the struggle for free economic enterprise increased.]

Some landmarks in Icelandic cartography down to the end of the sixteenth century   /   Sigurdsson, H.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 389-401, ill.
ASTIS record 17427

The author presents a survey of the early accounts of voyages to Iceland and describes the maps by navigators from many nations.

"A very interesting point in geography": the 1773 Phipps expedition towards the North Pole   /   Savours, A.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 402-428, ill.
ASTIS record 17428

... Phipps' voyage of 1773 ... lasted only for one season, and did not attain the North Pole. It was, nevertheless, of considerable historical and scientific interest and deserves greater recognition than merely being known as the expedition on which young Nelson tried to shoot the polar bear. The voyage has sometimes been called a failure, but when one considers the matter, it was bound to fail. It was not until two centuries later, in our own time, that a ship navigated the ice of the central polar basin to reach the North Pole. ...

In search of a sea route to Siberia, 1553-1619   /   Armstrong, T.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 429-440, ill.
ASTIS record 17429

... The cumulative effect of these voyages was to make western Europeans aware that it was possible, but difficult, to sail eastward to the straits which separate what we now call the Barents and the Kara seas. But none of the recorded voyages was able to conquer the ice and to proceed farther eastward than that, and it was not until the eighteenth century that we read of specific voyages, this time Russian, deep into the Kara Sea. ... The western European activity in these waters may have been more extensive than Hakluyt and Purchas allow, and more important, the locals, whether Norse, Finno-Ugrians, or Slavs, may have known a great deal more than their inability to write has permitted us to take account of. My object in this paper is to see whether recent research can help us to raise the veil a little on some of these possibilities.

The discovery of the Koryaks and their perception of the world   /   Charrin, A.-V.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 441-445, ill.
ASTIS record 17430

The first information that we have about the Koryaks was reported in 1669 by Sosnovskij, the administrator of the small fortified town of Okhotsk, who had heard of them from the Tunguzian people. The first true ethnographic data were gathered only in 1700, when Atlasov (1935 [1891)], who had left the fortified town of Anadyr in 1697 to explore new territory, discovered Kamchatka and collected interesting information about the population of that peninsula, in particular the Koryaks. This was the beginning of a long period of exposure. Without doubt, it was the 'second Kamchatka expedition' (1733-1746) that supplied the most useful elements of the study for this region and its population. ...

The route to China: northern Europe's arctic delusions   /   Saladin d'Anglure, B.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 446-452, ill.
ASTIS record 17431

The author writes of Henry Hudson and his expedition as exemplifying the interest of northern European countries in finding a sea route to China.

England's search for the northern passages in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries   /   Wallis, H.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 453-472, ill.
ASTIS record 17432

For persistence of effort in the face of adversity no enterprise in the history of exploration was more remarkable than England's search for the northern passages to the Far East. ... Three routes were available: over the North Pole, by the northeast, and by the northwest, and all featured in exploration plans. The polar route seemed the most direct, but other considerations concentrated the effort on the Northeast and Northwest Passages, and by 1600 the northwest was the favoured route. Thus England established in the sixteenth century a pattern of enterprise which persisted over a period of some 350 years. ...

Dutch activities in the north and the Arctic during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries   /   Braat, J.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 473-480, ill.
ASTIS record 17433

The Dutch were engaged in important activities in the north and in the Arctic during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, particularly in the areas of commerce, exploration, whaling, and cod-fishing. Dutch commerce with northern Europe must have begun around the middle of the sixteenth century; their explorations were started in 1584, and they began whaling in 1612. All of these activities expanded during the seventeenth century, at a time when the United Provinces became the greatest commercial power in Europe. ... Accounts of Dutch activities in the north and in the Arctic were popular in Holland from the very beginning. Manuscripts, printed works, and illustrations concerning our Arctic past are numerous. Also, since the mid-1800s, it has been possible to develop an historical research covering the various aspects of Holland's Arctic past, involving several disciplines - history of explorations and of cartography, economic history, and maritime history (Muller, 1874).

Mare clausum et mare liberum   /   Johnson Theutenberg, B.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 481-492, ill.
ASTIS record 17434

... In this paper I have attempted to trace the evolution of two important legal concepts - important for international law, but also important for world policy. The rules of international law reflect the political ambitions and needs of states. This was true for the historic periods covered herein, and it is true for today. We have penetrated into the arguments and thoughts surrounding the concepts of mare clausum and mare liberum. In ancient times the former concept was widely recognized, and the latter broke through during the seventeenth century, reflecting new needs of the existing states. ...

Development and achievements of Dutch northern and arctic cartography in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries   /   Schilder, G.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 493-514, ill.
ASTIS record 17435

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Dutch made a vital contribution to the mapping of the northern and arctic regions, and their cartographic work played a decisive part in expanding the geographical knowledge of that time. Amsterdam became the centre of international map production and the map trade. Its cartographers and publishers acquired their knowledge partly from the results of expeditions fitted out by their fellow countrymen and partly from foreign voyages of discovery. This paper will describe the growing Dutch awareness of the northern and arctic regions stage by stage and region by region, with the aid of Dutch maps.

The Basque whaling establishments in Labrador 1536-1632 - a summary   /   Barkham, S.H.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 515-519, ill.
ASTIS record 17436

... Basque whaling was essentially coastal. The Basques had practised whaling along their own coasts from at least the twelfth century and probably before. It is clear that during the sixteenth century the Biscay whale was still by no means exterminated, and well into the seventeenth century Basques continued to send small whaling crews out to Asturias and Galicia for shore-based whaling operations. However, by the 1540s, simultaneously with this winter whaling along the Cantabrian coast, there had been established along the southern shore of Labrador a far more important Basque whaling industry. ...

The role of the Basque, Breton and Norman cod fishermen in the discovery of North America from the XVIth to the end of the XVIIIth century   /   LeHuenen, J.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 520-527, ill.
ASTIS record 17437

The author outlines the history of European fishermen's sailing of North American waters and the discovery of Newfoundland, Cape Breton and Labrador.

From Davis Strait to Bering Strait: the arrival of the commercial whaling fleet in North America's western Arctic   /   Bockstoce, J.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 528-532
ASTIS record 17438

... This paper, then, focuses primarily on the whaling industry as a whole and not centrally upon the arctic regions - because the impetus for the arrival of the whaling fleets at the gates of the American Arctic came directly from the economic centers of Europe and America, and only as the result of a concatenation of political and economic events were the fleets drawn to the north. My discussion will not deal specifically with the history of either the Davis Strait or the Bering Strait whale fishery. It will, rather, analyze the series of events between their two discoveries that led the whaleships to Bering Strait: for although whale fisheries in most parts of the world have been capably studied, far less attention has been paid to the causes which led the fleets to abandon one fishery and begin the exploitation of another. ...

The whalers of Honfleur in the seventeenth century   /   du Pasquier, J.T.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 533-538
ASTIS record 17439

The Honfleur admiralty archives have a remarkable collection of reports made by captains returning from their voyages, among which have been found the accounts of 31 whalers and one other which did not return to Honfleur. These archives also contain some lists of crews, equipment, and provisions on board. We have at our disposal therefore a very interesting collection of documents about 32 French whalers between 1668 and 1688. ... The first part of this paper deals with the ships, their owners and crews; the second part describes the practice of whaling.

The Hanseatic League and Hanse towns in the early penetration of the north   /   Friedland, K.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 539-543, ill.
ASTIS record 17440

... The discovery of unknown lands elevated the glory of monarchs and won admiration for outstanding individuals. These exceptional achievements have been more reliably reported than the less spectacular ones which, consequently, are more complicated subjects for the historian. One of these less spectacular events was the participation of merchants in the opening of the North. There is no detailed documentation of how merchants first found the coasts, bays, and sailing routes of the Arctic, nor is there documentation of the earliest Hanseatic participation in these discoveries (Fig. 1). We have, however, some evidence of fairly early Hanseatic-northern relations. ...

French naval operations in Spitsbergen during Louis XIV's reign   /   Henrat, P.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 544-551, ill.
ASTIS record 17441

In 1895 the Secretary of the Geographical Section of the Committee for Historical Works, Dr. Ernest-Theodore Hamy, published a detailed description of a highly unusual naval chart, undated but probably drawn around A.D. 1630. This valuable document, the property of a British collector, showed "without question, Spitsbergen, the name places being partly in French while, in the middle of the chart, is a coat of arms showing the fleur-de-lys in the style of Louis XIII. The map is entitled La France Artique (sic)!" ... To try to establish the exact date or provenance of this chart is beyond the scope of this paper. ... The essential importance of this chart is its spectacular proof of a continuous French presence in the waters and along the coasts of Spitsbergen, throughout the greater part of the seventeenth century.

Cartographical representation of the Scandinavian arctic regions   /   Ehrensvšrd, U.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 552-561, ill.
ASTIS record 17442

... Thus during the period outlined here, from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries, the four Nordic countries formed - at least in principle - a single kingdom from 1389 to 1523, which later divided into two groups, the one Danish-Norwegian and the other Swedish-Finnish. The contours of the Scandinavian peninsula began to appear on maps of southern Europe in the fourteenth century, but it was only in the following century that cartography, properly speaking, took shape. ...

Images of pre-discovery Alaska in the work of European cartographers   /   Falk, M.W.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 562-573, ill.
ASTIS record 17443

European pre-discovery maps of the area now known as Alaska concern four interlocked issues: (1) an extension of knowledge of California and the northwest coast of America; (2) the nature of the Arctic; (3) what lay north of Japan; and (4) the relationship between America and Asia - how wide was the Pacific? A picture of the general outline of Alaska became clear to European geographers during the last half of the eighteenth century. Many questions concerning the arctic coast lasted well into the nineteenth century, and questions regarding arctic islands were not settled until the twentieth. This paper ends with the year 1728, however, well before Europe actually found out through the work of Du Halde (1735) about the voyage of Bering and Chirikov. ... The maps that have been chosen for study are those which demonstrate concepts of the region where the North Pacific and the Arctic meet and which would clearly have influenced the concept of this region. .. In compiling a carto-bibliography of Alaska for publication (Falk, 1983) I have found roughly 550 relevant pre-1728 maps which are still available for study either in the original or in facsimile. I will not list each map; they can be found in the carto-bibliography. Instead, I have organized these maps in terms of broad concepts and will discuss important examples.

The early cartography of the Bering Strait region   /   Fisher, R.H.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 574-589, ill.
ASTIS record 17444

... In its later phase, from the mid-seventeenth century on, the locale of this mythical strait was shifted eastward to a position between a legendary land of Jeso and America north of California, and became involved in the controversy over a Northwest Passage from Hudson's Bay to the Pacific. It was at this time that another cartography began to develop, based at first on a slim and tenuous knowledge of the facts, but nevertheless carrying with it the promise of a realistic cartography of the Bering Strait region. This was the Russian cartography of northeastern Siberia. Less is generally known about this cartography than about that of the Strait of Anian; yet, since World War II, Soviet scholars have greatly advanced our knowledge of it. This paper will focus on a selected group of maps from the Russian cartography. ...

Exploration and evangelization of the great Canadian north: vikings, coureurs des bois, and missionaries   /   Mary-RousseliŤre, G.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 4, Dec. 1984, p. 590-602, ill.
ASTIS record 17445

... After a preliminary discussion of the possibility of a pre-Columbian evangelization of the Canadian Arctic, the aim of this paper is to describe the main thrusts, first to the northeast and later to the northwest, particularly those which originated in New France. It will also show the predominant part played by the coureurs des bois and their successors, the "voyageurs", or French-Canadian boatmen or bushmen, in the exploration of northwest Canada and in influencing the conversion of the indigenous people to Christianity.

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