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The late prehistoric period in the Mackenzie Valley   /   Morrison, D.A.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 195-209, ill.
ASTIS record 16139
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Artifacts from more than 20 late prehistoric components in the Mackenzie valley are described and compared with those from contemporaneous assemblages from neighbouring areas. MacNeish's Spence River phase is expanded to cover this material, which seems to exhibit at least some integrity and distinctiveness, and which appears to date from about A.D. 700 to the time of European contact. Certain technological similarities are noted with the Klo-Kut and Aishihik phases to the West and the late Taltheilei tradition to the East, but these similarities are difficult to synthesize into any meaningful outline of Canadian Athapaskan prehistory.


A reconnaissance survey of the environmental chemistry in east-central Ellesmere Island, N.W.T.   /   McNeely, R.   Gummer, W.D.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 210-223, ill., maps
ASTIS record 16140
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Snow-pack and surface water samples were collected from east-central Ellesmere Island near Cape Herschel between May and August in 1979-81 to ascertain whether anthropogenic pollution was detectable in a remote "pristine" arctic environment. Snow-pack samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, and chlorophenoxy acid herbicides. Precipitation and surface water samples were analyzed to determine whether the region has been subjected to "acid rain". In addition, the surface water samples were analyzed for as many as 35 inorganic parameters to provide background data on the water quality of the region. Measurable concentrations of Lindane (gamma BHC) and its isomer alpha BHC, HEOD (dieldrin), and DDT were detected at a number of sites, but no polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or chlorophenoxy acid herbicides were detected. The pattern of pesticide residues in this remote area of the Arctic is presumptive evidence that the residues are globally dispersed through the atmosphere. Only copper and the lithophilic metals aluminum and iron were consistently detectable in the snow-pack and surface water samples; all other metals were at or below their detection limits. Thus anthropogenic inputs of metal contaminants such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium, and vanadium, via atmospheric deposition, were not detected in this region. Although "acid rain" was not in evidence in the study area, the surface waters of the local ponds and lakes, many of which are ombrogenic, are potentially susceptible to changes in the acidity of the atmospheric aerosol of the high Arctic.


Phytoplankton chlorophyll distribution in the eastern Canadian Arctic   /   Borstad, G.A.   Gower, J.F.R.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 224-233, ill., maps
ASTIS record 16141
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The distribution of phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration in Jones Sound, Lancaster Sound, and Eastern Baffin Bay was studied during the period 16-27 August 1979, using continuous ship-based horizontal and vertical profiling and continuous aerial water colour measurements. These data are discussed in relation to physical data collected from the ship, and to infrared temperature measurements made from the aircraft and the TIROS series satellites. While the satellite and airborne remote sensing techniques are capable only of viewing the near-surface layer, they provided a much more detailed and synoptic coverage of this large area than was possible using a vessel alone. Together the three types of data provide a reasonably detailed picture of phytoplankton distribution which compares well with other physical oceanographic data. On average the chlorophyll standing crop was moderate (69 mg/m in the top 35 m, n=24) and comparable to that reported for other open-water arctic regions, but the phytoplankton were not evenly distributed vertically or geographically. In Jones Sound and Lancaster Sound where local ice melt reduced the surface water density, strong subsurface chlorophyll maxima (up to 18 mg/m in a 1 m thick layer) were observed in association with the pycnoline. At the mouths of these sounds and along the eastern coast of Devon, Bylot, and Baffin islands the phytoplankton distribution was more vertically homogeneous and closely linked to the physical structure of the Baffin Current. Highest pigment concentrations were associated with eddies or meanders in the current. It is possible that these localized pigment concentrations are one manifestation of "biological hotspots" which help feed the large populations of marine birds and mammals of the eastern Arctic.


The epontic algal community of the ice edge zone and its significance to the Davis Strait ecosystem   /   Booth, J.A.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 234-243, ill.
ASTIS record 16142
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The ice algae community in the dynamic outer edge zone of the Davis Strait pack ice was investigated in April-May 1978. Surveys of the epontic community were made using a remote camera system, a fibrescope, an ice corer, and in situ C14 incubation chambers. The undersurfaces of the floes were generally flat, containing slight undulations and small depressions of up to 10 cm. In the bottom few centimetres a transition was noted from hard ice to more fragile, but still firm, crystalline ice. Epontic flora was highly patchy and almost entirely restricted to the bottom few centimetres of the floes. Average concentrations in the bottom 6 cm of ice was 10.24 mg chl a/m. The pack ice bloom occurred in April and May with a peak occurring in May. The maximum primary production rates of 2.4 mg C/m/d occurred at a light intensity of 1.8 epsilon/m/s. Photosynthesis appeared to be inhibited at light levels above 20 epsilon/m/s. The dominant genera of the epontic flora were Navicula, Nitzschia, and Pleurosigma; species composition of the epontic algal community differed significantly from that of the plankton. Two other ice algae communities were noted; a "sandwich" community in the middle of an ice floe, dominated by Asteromphalus hookeri and Thalassiosira gravida; and a floe surface community which was on one occasion observed being seeded from the plankton. The total contribution of the epontic algae to the primary production of the Davis Strait was estimated to be approximately 7x10**7g C/y, or less than 1% that of the phytoplankton. The contribution may still be important, however, as it precedes the phytoplankton bloom and is the only algal concentration under heavy pack ice.


Satellite and oceanographic observations of the warm coastal current in the Chukchi Sea   /   Ahlns, K.   Garrison, G.R.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 244-254, ill., maps
ASTIS record 16143
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Selected infrared images obtained by the NOAA satellites have increased our understanding of the formation and extent of the Alaskan Coastal Current, a movement of relatively warm water from the vicinity of Bering Strait northward along the Alaskan coast past Point Barrow and eventually into the Arctic Ocean where it disperses. Oceanographic measurements made from an icebreaker during the same period give spot checks on the depth of the warm layer, as well as the outline of a downward trend of the current when it is blocked by the ice. A study of satellite and oceanographic observations over a seven-year period, 1974-1980, reveals many interesting features of the flow and shows the annual variability. The northward flow and the shape of the ice edge are interrelated in that the flow is partially blocked by the ice and the ice is melted by the oncoming warm water. The solar-heated waters in Kotzebue Sound, Norton Sound, and along the coast to the south are seen as a major source of the heat in the coastal current.


Magnetic observations at International Polar Year stations in Canada   /   Newitt, L.R.   Dawson, E.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 255-262, ill.
ASTIS record 16144
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During the First International Polar Year (1982-83) magnetic observatories were established in northern Canada at Fort Rae, Fort Conger, and Clearwater Fiord. Repeat magnetic observations made during the centenary of the First Polar Year enable a determination of the secular variation at each of these locations. During the last 100 years the declination has increased easterly by over 20 at Fort Conger and at Clearwater Fiord; however, it has decreased by only 9 at Fort Rae. The total intensity has decreased by over 1900 nT at Fort Rae, but at Clearwater Fiord and at Fort Conger the decrease has been about 1500 nT and 1000 nT respectively. This implies that the decrease in the non-dipole field evident over most of North America in recent times has not been as great in the high Arctic.


Effects of spring breakup on microscale air temperatures in the Mackenzie River delta   /   Hirst, S.M.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 263-269, ill.
ASTIS record 16145
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The effects of spring breakup on microscale air temperatures in the Mackenzie River delta were investigated by means of intervention analysis. Small but statistically significant increases in temperatures were detected for some areas within the delta and appeared to be related to ice breakup events in nearby channels and lake systems. The magnitude of the temperature increase appeared to be correlated with the severity of winter conditions preceding breakup and with the rate at which breakup progressed. The relative importance of changes in surface albedo and river heat input in causing air temperature rises is discussed. Temperature increases due to breakup are small in comparison to seasonal warming trends and diurnal temperature fluctuations.


Sampling of snow and ice on lakes   /   Adams, W.P.   Roulet, N.R.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 270-275, ill.
ASTIS record 16146
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Three years' data, based on unusually large random samples, are combined to characterize the late February snow, white ice, and black ice cover of Elizabeth Lake, Labrador. Similar spatial patterns were found to exist between years with central and marginal locations tending to exhibit consistently above- or below-average thickness for particular cover components. It is suggested that maps combining the three years' data and displaying the results in terms of means and standard deviations provide a useful basis for designing ice and snow surveys in medium-sized lakes in snowy environments.


Predator and scavenger modification of recent equid skeletal assemblages   /   D'Andrea, A.C.   Gotthardt, R.M.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 276-283, ill.
ASTIS record 16147
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This paper reports on the modification by carnivores of recent equid skeletal remains in the Ross River area, Yukon Territory. The objective of this study is to characterize carnivore modification of skeletal assemblages in terms of bone alteration, carnivore preference for certain bone elements or portions, and patterns of survivorship of elements at recent kill/scavenging sites. The most common types of carnivore alteration observed were tooth furrows, punctures, and curvilinear fracture on smaller elements. Chipping and polish occurred infrequently. Survival of skeletal elements depends on the degree of carcass utilization. Cranial and axial elements were present at all sites; scapulae, innominates, and limbs were absent or dispersed at well-utilized sites.


Phenotypic variation among Thick-billed Murres from colonies in Hudson Strait   /   Gaston, A.J.   Chapdelaine, G.   Noble, D.G.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 284-287, ill.
ASTIS record 16148
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Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia) breeding in the Canadian Arctic are restricted to a small number of colonies, all comprising more that 10,000 pairs. Five of these colonies are scattered through Hudson Strait. We collected adult breeders at three of the colonies - Digges Island, Hantzsch Island, and Akpatok Island - and compared wing and bill measurements and body weights to look for inter-colony differences. Significant inter-colony differences were present for all measurements and a discriminant function analysis showed that some individuals fall completely outside the range of variation for the other colonies. Because of the presence of the Laurentide ice-sheet over Hudson Strait, the present colony sites could not have been occupied for more than 10,000 years. If the observed differences reflect differences in genotype then their evolution must have occurred over this period.


First Canadian breeding record of the Dovekie (Alle alle)   /   Finley, K.J.   Evans, C.R.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 288-289, ill.
ASTIS record 16149
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The Dovekie (Alle alle) is the smallest and one of the most abundant alcids inhabiting the North Atlantic Ocean (Salomonsen, 1950; Brown et al., 1975; Roby et al., 1981). Until now there have been no documented breeding records of the Dovekie in the Canadian Arctic, though they are known to gather by the millions in northwest Baffin Bay during spring migration to breeding colonies in Northwest Greenland (Renaud et al., 1982). The Dovekie is well known to the Inuit of Baffin Island; it is called akpaliapik, in contradistinction to its larger relative, the akpa or Thick-billed Murre (uria lomvia). In August 1983, during a bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) study on the east coast of Baffin Island, Apak Qaqqasiq mentioned that Dovekies nested in at least two locations in Home Bay. With him and Josepi Tigullaraq, N.W.T. Wildlife Officer from Clyde, we visited one of these colonies by boat on 20 August. The colony was located on a small island (1 km long) called Abbajalik in Inuktitut (unnamed on maps), in northern Home Bay (69 02 N, 67 23 W) about 800 km south of the closest known Dovekie nesting locations in Northwest Greenland. ... The Dovekie colony appeared to be vacated and we were about to leave when Qaqqasiq detected a faint call from the moraine. After carefully moving a few boulders, we found two Dovekie eggs, and nearby an adult Dovekie. ...


Incidental sighting of a ribbon seal (Phoca fasciata) in the western Beaufort Sea   /   Moore, S.E.   Barrowclough, E.I.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 290, ill.
ASTIS record 16150
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On 29 August 1983, an adult ribbon seal (Phoca fasciata) was seen by one of us (EIB) resting on ice in the western Beaufort Sea (71 41 N, 152 41 W), during the course of an aerial survey. The seal did not move from the ice when over-flown at 200 m, and was positively identified by its distinctive pelage. Ribbon seals are commonly found along the ice front in the Bering Sea in winter and early spring, then disperse in late spring as the sea ice breaks up and presumably become solitary and pelagic with poorly known distribution in the summer (Wilke, 1954; Naito and Konno, 1979; Burns, 1970, 1981; Stewart and Everett, 1983). Ribbon seals are rarely seen or taken by Eskimo hunters from coastal villages north of the Bering Strait, and sightings at Wainwright and Point Barrow in the northern Chukchi Sea have been described as "most unusual" (Burns, 1981). ... The observed ribbon seal may have drifted north and east with the ice from the Chukchi Sea during the summer. To our knowledge, this report constitutes the northeasternmost record of a ribbon seal.


The earliest sound recordings among North American Inuit   /   Ross, W.G.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 291-292, ill.
ASTIS record 16151
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On 7 November 1903, Captain George Comer of the American whaling schooner Era recorded on a phonograph a few songs of the Aivilingmiut and Qaernermiut in northwestern Hudson Bay (Ross, 1984:73). These appear to have been the earliest sound recordings ever made among the Inuit of Canada and Alaska. The recordings made by Diamond Jenness among the Copper Eskimos (1914-1916) and those made by Christian Leden among the Padlimiut (1914-1916) have hitherto been considered as the earliest, but Comer's first recording preceded these by more than a decade and his pioneering work should be recognized.


Thanadelther (ca. 1700-1717)   /   Smith, J.G.E.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 296-297, ill.
ASTIS record 32600
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The Thanadelther of Chipewyan legend was one of the most important and enduring figures of northwestern Canada and perhaps the only woman to play a truly significant part in its early history. ... Serving as a guide and interpreter, she led employees of the Hudson's Bay Company to their first meeting with the Chipewyan in the Indians' home territory. As well, she was instrumental in establishing peace between the Cree and their traditional enemies, the Chipewyan, an absolute requisite before the Chipewyan could be brought into the trade with the Company. ... Thanadelther's story, as it is recited by Chipewyan elders, is remarkably similar to that recorded by Captain Knight in the daily post journal of York Fort in the period 1715-1717. ... In a society in which the status of women was extraordinarily low, the Slave Woman was the leader and the strength of the journey across the Barrens, the forceful orator, the one of indomitable courage [who forged ahead on her own to bring reconciliation between the Cree and Chipewyan]. Both Knight and Stewart recognized that the success of the mission was due to her as "the Chief promoter and Acter of it". On the day of her death, Knight wrote: "She was one of a Very high Spirit and of the Firmest Resolution that ever I see any Body in my Days and of great Courage & forecast."


John Ross (1777-1856)   /   Neatby, L.H.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 298-299, 1 port.
ASTIS record 32601
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The space accorded John Ross in the history of th Canadian Arctic is out of proportion to his achievement, circumstances arising from his invincible self-confidence and refusal to admit error. When convicted of blunders - obvious but excusable - he retorted on his critics with a repetitive bitterness that added much to his celebrity, although it did little for his reputation. His first unlucky arctic voyage at least restored the faded character of William Baffin; his second was a miracle of survival. In retrospect, its drama was a little dulled by Ross's tedious and wordy narrative, but it exemplified his leadership and undaunted courage. Ross's combativeness probably helped his popularity, and his futile voyage, at the age of 73, to the rescue of John Franklin won him admiration and respect. ...


James Clark Ross (1800-1862)   /   Neatby, L.H.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 300-301, 1 port.
ASTIS record 32602
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James Ross took part in more arctic voyages than any other officer of the period. He is less celebrated than some because the only northern expedition he commanded - a fruitless search for John Franklin - was unjustly damaging to his reputation. He was, nevertheless, a trusted officer on all the W.E. Parry expeditions to the Arctic. Under John Ross, he discovered the North Magnetic Pole and helped transform the seagoing polar traveller into an amphibian by using the Eskimo sledge for long land journey. He is remembered chiefly for his voyage to the Antarctic (1839-1843). ... Five of his six arctic voyages were made in a subordinate rank. His only published book concerns his Antarctic journey. Unlike his uncle, Ross was not given to self-advertisement or to wrangling with his critics. His services to Canadian geography are many, however, and not the least is his employment in the arctic service of the man destined to unravel the Franklin mystery, Leopold McClintock.


Frederick Schwatka (1849-1892)   /   Davis, R.C.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 302-303, ill., 1 port.
ASTIS record 32603
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... in spite of having gained recognition as a certified barrister, a trained medical doctor, and fighting cavalry officer, Frederick Schwatka will best be remembered as a superlative arctic traveller who brought the 30-year-long search for the missing Franklin expedition to a close. He not only made the longest sled journey on record at the time, but in gathering his nearly conclusive evidence that none of Franklin's official or scientific papers had survived, Schwatka made clear that white men could travel extensively in the Arctic without serious injury or illness if they adopted native methods, a "discovery" often attributed to Vilhjalmur Stefansson some three decades later. ... Schwatka's arctic interests were sparked in the 1860s, when neswpapers reported C.F. Hall's searches for Franklin's missing ships and crew. ... A search, sponsored by the American Geographical Society and financed by private backers, began to take shape, and Schwatka volunteered to lead it. ... Schwatka did find numerous relics of the missing expedition, including part of one of the ship's boats, a miscellaneous collection of buttons and remnants of cloth, and several graves and corpses. He gave decent burial to all mortal remains and positively identified the grave of Lt. John Irving, third officer of the Terror. As well, he made a number of minor geographical discoveries, .... Yet the genuine significance of "Schwatka's search" - as this exhaustive investigation of the region came to be popularly termed - is that it laid to rest any hope that the records of the Franklin party would ever be retrieved. Schwatka's incredible year-long sled journey opened new possibilities in arctic travel if scientific and exploratory parties would adopt native methods. ...


Donald B. MacMillan (1874-1970)   /   MacMillan, M.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 304-305, 1 port.
ASTIS record 32604
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... MacMillan joined Peary's polar expedition in 1908. His life was centered on the Arctic for the next 46 years, most of which he spent aboard the Bowdoin. In fact, Mac's last trip North aboard the Bowdoin came in 1954, when he was 80 years old. Between 1913 and 1917, while in North Greenland, Mac drew on his experience and observation to conceive the design for the 88-foot Bowdoin, a wooden schooner of incredible strength that took its name from Mac's alma mater. ... During 26 voyages between 1921 and 1954, MacMillan sailed her to and explored parts of North Greenland, Ellesmere Island, Bay Fjord, Eureka Sound, Labrador, Baffin Island, Iceland, and the east and west coasts of Greenland. Over the years, he mapped many previously uncharted northern waters. Owing to his unique and extensive knowledge of those areas, MacMillan was recalled to active duty by the U.S. Navy in her "home" waters. The contributions made by MacMillan and his crews to the knowledge and understanding of the North are too numerous to elaborate here. They include studies in the botany, ornithology, meteorology, oceanography, archaeology, glaciology, and anthropology of the regions explored. As well, Mac and his crews demonstrated that airplanes could be used effectively above the Arctic Circle and that short-wave radio could provide instant communication with the rest of the world. Those scientific and technical accomplishments - "firsts" in their time - were paralleled by Mac's interest in and love for the native people with whom he often lived, whose languages he mastered, and by whom he was deeply revered. ...


Philip P. Upton, 1919-1984   /   Williams, A.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 314-315, ill.
ASTIS record 32605
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... In 1960, [Phil Upton] ... was invited to join the Arctic Institute's Icefield Ranges Research Project as a pilot. It was an inspired choice, for Phil's contributions and loyalty to the Arctic Institute and the Kluane Research Station were immeasurable. He made the Saint Elias Mountains his "parish", and became the finest mountain and glacier pilot in North America. He explored countless landing sites throughout the range in support of Arctic Institute research projects and private mountaineering expeditions. ... Skill he had in abundance. Of greater importance, his judgment was superb, his intuition uncanny. For 24 years he operated without serious mishap, tempering courage with caution, understanding fully the limits of himself and his machine. In 1968 he made the first landing on Mount Logan, at an altitude of 5300 m asl. This and subsequent landings that season inaugurated and developed the Institute's capability to run the High Altitude Physiology Study. It was an astonishing feat, and we who followed had the enormous psychological advantage of knowing that it could be done, and the benefit of his advice and leadership. ... To the eternal credit of Philip and the Institute, the safety record of the HAPS project was without parallel. After 12 years of operations, and after passing a considerable number of research and support personnel through one of Earth's more inhospitable sites, not one serious injury was sustained. Crises there were, of course, and although I took a larger share of the flying in later years, it was always Phil who chose to plough the aircraft into deep powder snow after a storm, who made the quite dreadful approach over the Northwest Col when the wind demanded, who picked his way over the undercast to a sick climber. ...


Donald Snowden, 1928-1984   /   Iglauer, E.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 316-317, ill.
ASTIS record 50252
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... those who are old enough to remember how life was for the Inuit 30 years ago when they were caught by changing times in a spiral of unemployment, poverty, and slow starvation, will remember the big, laughing young man from the government who radiated joy and optimism and introduced them to the idea of cooperatives. And whether they remember him or not, every Inuit man, woman, and child who lives in the Northwest Territories, Labrador or Arctic Qubec today leads a better life because of Don Snowden's vision and singular determination. Snowden first came to the North in 1964 as an information officer for the Canadian government's then Department of Northern Affairs. Two years later, as the department's Chief of the Industrial Division, he was given the job of tackling the twin problems of poverty and unemployment in the North by providing some sort of economic system that would help to make the Inuit self-sufficient. He had a vision for the future of the North of an independent native population of Canadian citizens governing themselves. ... The tool that Snowden and his dedicated staff put into the Inuit hands was the cooperative, because it seemed to fit into the Inuit way of living and sharing. He also saw the co-ops as a training ground where Inuit would learn to speak up and assume responsibility. ... Snowden organized fisheries, the production and marketing of Inuit art, and the N.W.T. Tourist Office. Twenty-five years later he could look back on a proliferation of 43 co-ops involved in a variety of business operations across the North. Many of today's Inuit leaders received early training and confidence in running their own affairs in their local cooperatives. ... He is credited with doing much to transform the lives of the rural populations of Newfoundland, bringing the University's education programs to the outports and to Labrador for the first time, and creating a fisheries cooperative program that attracted students from 25 countries. In Newfoundland he devised (in association with the National Film Board) a new, unique method of communication called the Fogo Film Method, first used on Fogo Island. ... [When facing relocation, the Fogo Islanders made a videotape to be sent to the government expressing their views. The government responded in a similar fashion,] thus setting up a dialogue that led to greater understanding between the two groups. The Fogo Islanders were able to stay where they were, and formed fishing and boat building cooperatives that gave them a fresh economic base. ... Snowden took the Fogo Method to many parts of the world .... One of the projects of which he was proudest was the making of 33 tapes bringing together government biologists, Inuit, and Indians in the Keewatin, all of whom were concerned about the welfare of the Kaminuriak caribou herd but who disagreed on management methods. The result was face-to-face management meetings and a greatly improved level of understanding. ... In April 1961, Snowden and two of his staff met with a small group of Inuit who had formed the first Inuit cooperative, at the George River, 12 miles from Ungava Bay. ... Snowden kept the meetings going night and day until plans for a settlement, a fish freezer, a store, a handicraft industry and myriad other details were understood by all. At the end of the final meeting, George Annanack, the senior Inuit leader, said unexpectedly to Snowden in Inuktitut, "We will remember you forever and ever." This was followed by a spontaneous shout of "Nakommiik! Nakommiik!" (Thank you) from all the Inuit participants. ...


Kalvak, ca. 1902-1983   /   Bushman, L.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 3, Sept. 1984, p. 318, 3 ill.
ASTIS record 50253
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Anyone who has seen the Holman Island Inuit printmakers' work, on calendars, in museums, or in galleries, will recognize the unique style of Kalvak. She did not begin drawing until she was in her late fifties or early sixties, and it is fortunate for her admirers that Father Henry Tardy had the foresight to save many of Kalvak's early drawings. ... I counted over 900 pencil and marking-pen drawings by Kalvak in the early 1970s, many of which were later translated into prints. Kalvak's subjects were a mixture of her physical environment, animals, and shamanism; her vision captured the true nature of the far north. That vision will live on to enrich our enjoyment and understanding. Kalvak was awarded the Order of Canada in 1979. A film released in 1970 by the University of Calgary Communications Department shows many of her drawings as well as Kalvak herself in her prime.


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