Anthropological observations on science in the North : the role of the scientist in human development in the Northwest Territories   /   Bielawski, E.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 1-6
ASTIS record 14070

The social context of research provides the background for assessing present and potential roles scientists may play in the Northwest Territories. This context includes diverse cultural and interest groups and an ever-quickening pace of social change. Increasing scholarly and ethical demands are being placed on the scientific community for academic accountability, public participation, education, and cross-cultural exchange of knowledge. These demands affect us, our disciplines, and our ability to carry on research. The Northern Cultural Heritage Project, an applied anthropology and archaeology program, serves as a case study illustrating the integration of research with the northern social context. Additional potential roles for researchers are discussed, including increasing information return, education through exposure to field science work, research ethics and social context awareness for novice professionals, and policy participation. It is concluded that the contemporary social context of the north has practical and perhaps theoretical implications for the conduct of science.

The buffalo of the North : caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and human developments   /   Bergerud, A.T.   Jakimchuk, R.D.   Carruthers, D.R.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 7-22, figures, tables
ASTIS record 14071

The demography, movement, and behaviour patterns of eight caribou populations (Kaminuriak, Nelchina, Central Arctic, Fortymile, Porcupine, British Columbia, Newfoundland, and Snohetta) exposed to industrial activities or transportation corridors are reviewed. Behaviour patterns of caribou encountering transportation corridors are explainable in terms of adaptive responses to natural environmental features. There is no evidence that disturbance activities or habitat alteration have affected productivity. Transportation corridors have adversely affected caribou numbers by facilitating access by hunters. There are no examples where physical features of corridors or associated disturbances have affected numbers or productivity. Caribou apparently have a high degree of resilience to human disturbance, and seasonal movement patterns and extent of range occupancy appear to be a function of population size rather than of extrinsic disturbance. The carrying capacity of the habitat is based on the space caribou need to interact successfully with their natural predators. Caribou must not be prevented from crossing transportation corridors by the construction of physical barriers, by firing lines created by hunting activity along a corridor, or by intense harassment - a loss in usable space will ultimately result in reduced abundance.

History, status, and taxonomic identity of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) in northwest Greenland   /   Roby, D.D.   Thing, H.   Brink, K.L.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 23-30, figures, table
ASTIS record 14072

Historical references indicate that caribou (Rangifer tarandus L.) numbers drastically declined throughout the Thule District during the early part of this century, and that the primary causes were: (1) the influx of polar explorers and their distribution of firearms to the Thule Eskimos which initiated extensive hunting pressure on caribou; and (2) a series of relatively mild, wet winters resulting in snow conditions which restricted access to forage and caused several catastrophic die-offs. No live caribou were seen during six hours of aerial surveys over Inglefield Land, Thule District, Northwest Greenland, during July 1978. No fresh caribou sign was found during five days of searching in the Rensselaer Bay area of Inglefield Land. Unless some individuals were not detected or subsequent emigration from Ellesmere Island has occurred, the Inglefield Land caribou population has been extirpated. The Thule District caribou population apparently originated from barren-ground caribou (R. t. groenlandicus Gmlin) which emigrated from Southwest Greenland, rather than from Peary caribou (R. t. pearyi Allen) from Ellesmere Island.

In vitro digestibilities of plants utilized by barren-ground caribou   /   Thomas, D.C.   Kroeger, P.   Hervieux, D.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 31-36, tables
ASTIS record 14073

Rumen fluids of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) were used with standard in vitro procedures in March 1981 to investigate the relative digestibilities of forages collected on caribou winter ranges in the southern Northwest Territories. In vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) of the three most abundant arboreal lichens, when fermented in test tubes for 60 h, averaged 67% compared with 43% for the seven most common terricolous lichens. The DMD of leaves of the most common shrubs, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Empetrum nigrum, Arctostaphylos spp., and Ledum spp. averaged 46% (37-51%). Eight bryophyte species averaged 17% (7-28%) DMD. The DMD of species of three lichen genera with low protein contents, Cladina, Cladonia, and Cetraria, continued to increase with increasing fermentation periods up to 180 h. Nine species of lichens averaged 49% DMD when fermented for 60 h in test tubes, 64% when fermented in Erlenmeyer flasks, and 76% when 60 mg of urea was added to flasks. DMDs of 22 plant species were significantly higher in March 1981 than in similar tests conducted one year earlier. This annual variation in the digestive capacities of ruminal fluids was associated with the physical condition of the caribou and may have been related to their nutritional history.

Vascular vegetation of Buldir Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, compared to another Aleutian Island   /   Byrd, G.V.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 37-48, figures, tables
ASTIS record 14074

The vegetation of Buldir Island, Alaska, was studied from 1974 to 1976. On this treeless volcanic island, two distinct vegetation complexes were conspicuous, one with relatively tall dominant plants which generally occurred below 300 m elevation (called the Lowland Tall-plant complex), and the other composed of much shorter plants about 300 m elevation (called the Upland Short-plant complex). The lowland complex contained eight plant communities, but over 90% of the complex consisted of three; Elymus-umbel, Elymus-umbel-fern, and Carex-fescue meadow. The upland complex was less diverse, containing only four communities of which the moss-willow tundra was the most widespread. At Buldir 119 species of vascular plants were identified, considerably fewer than at a nearby larger island, Amchitka.

Entombed plant communities released by a retreating glacier at central Ellesmere Island, Canada   /   Bergsma, B.M.   Svoboda, J.   Freedman, B.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 49-52, figures, tables
ASTIS record 14075

The release of a dead but well-preserved high arctic plant community, entombed for about 400 radiocarbon years (WAT-778 and 789) under glacial ice at Twin Glacier, central Ellesmere Island (7853'N, 7555'W) is reported. Remarkably intact plants have been emerging from under the ablating front of this polar glacier which has been retreating for several decades at an average rate of 4.1 m/y over the last 22 years. The vegetation can be readily recognized as a Cassiope tetragona-Dryas integrifolia-dominated community, similar in species composition and cover to an extant Cassiope-Dryas community 200 m below the ablation front. The excellent preservation of the plants supports the thesis that polar glaciers are frozen to their bases, and hence their movements are by internal deformation rather than by erosive basal sliding.

Norman Wells : the oil center of the Northwest Territories   /   Bone, R.M.   Mahnic, R.J.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 53-60, figures, table
ASTIS record 14076

In 1920, a drilling team funded by Imperial Oil discovered a petroleum deposit along the shore of the Mackenzie River north of the settlement of Fort Norman. This wilderness site later became the community of Norman Wells and its growth has been directly attributable to petroleum. The current expansion of production at Norman Wells is aimed at southern Canadian markets and a pipeline is being constructed from Norman Wells to existing pipelines in northern Alberta. As the focal point of this major resource expansion, the character, size, and functions of the community are changing. These changes are transforming Norman Wells into an important regional center.

Sightings of muskoxen in northern Scoresby Land, Greenland   /   Patterson, E.A.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 61-63, figures, tables
ASTIS record 14077

Observations of muskoxen in Northern Scoresby Land made by the 1982 Sheffield University North East Greenland Expedition during July and August 1982 are compared with observations by previous expeditions to the area. The total population of muskoxen in the area is estimated to be 450, the same as in 1974. The proportion of calves seen in 1982 was 8.1%; average herd size was 4.9.

Northern Canadian gardening : compost piles as a means of extending the growing range of northern crops   /   Revel, R.D.   McCracken, C.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 64, 1 ill.
ASTIS record 14078

... The use of compost piles for growing frost-sensitive crops with long growing seasons holds considerable promise as a technique for northern domestic gardening, incorporating the benefits of direct garden seeding with those of conventional hot beds. The owners of most of the 50 gardens examined in Dawson in 1980 (McCracken and Revel, 1982) composted organic wastes, though none of them used compost piles for crop production. The abundance of compost piles and the successful growth of the volunteer cucumbers we observed suggests that this technique could be widely used throughout the north by those who wish to grow warmer-climate crops without a greenhouse, and without the need for bedding-out plants.

William Edward Parry (1790-1855)   /   Parry, A.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 66-67, 1 port.
ASTIS record 32587

Through the influence of John Barrow, ships and men left idle by the end of the Napoleonic Wars were engaged to seek a commercially viable Northwest Passage - a quest already 300 years old. This first expedition in two small ships, Isabella and Alexander, was disappointing, for Ross returned home to report that Lancaster Sound was landlocked. Some of his officers disagreed, Barrow remained unconvinced, and in the following year Parry, still only a lieutenant, was given command of a further expedition with the same objective. This expedition of 1819-20 set the pattern for arctic exploration for a generation. Parry, in the sturdy bomb-vessel Hecla with a smaller Griper as consort, sailed through Lancaster Sound and westward as far as 112 51 W, thus winning the 5000 prize offered by Parliament for the first ship to pass 110 W within the Arctic Circle. He wintered at Melville Island, hoping to continue westward in the new season, but he was frustrated by pack ice. This was the first time ships of the Royal Navy had wintered in the Arctic, although whalers had sometimes spent the winter trapped in the ice of Davis Strait, and Parry's meticulous care of his men ensured that all came through safely. The expedition returned home with a mass of scientific data and aroused great popular enthusiasm. ... In Parry's three major arctic voyages, many problems of northern exploration - health, clothing, boredom in the long winter nights - were solved. ... In 1827, Parry made one more arctic voyage, over the ice from Spitsbergen in an attempt to reach the North Pole. He failed, of course, but his "farthest north" (82 43 32 N) stood for nearly 50 years. ...

Francis Crozier (1796-1848?)   /   Rahmani, G.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 68-69, 1 port.
ASTIS record 32588

... On 22 April 1848, the Erebus and Terror were abandoned and Captains Francis Crozier and James Fitzjames led the survivors down the west coast of King William Island in a desperate bid to reach the North American mainland. The rest is tragic history. Crozier's "failure", if indeed the failure is his, must be understood in the light of his past successes: because he was not inexperienced in polar matters, the reasons for the Franklin tragedy are even more mysterious and perplexing. [This profile describes Crozier's expedition's to the Arctic and Antarctic with James Ross, his successes and tragic failures.]

R.M. Ballantyne (1825-1894)   /   Cockburn, R.H.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 70-71, 1 port.
ASTIS record 32589

More than a few northern men of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries - particularly those raised in Scotland and England - have attested in their memoirs to the seductive tug they felt as boys when reading Ballantyne's books about the Canadian North. It is something of a happy irony, given his own uneasy and brief period of service with the Hudson's Bay Company, that Ballantyne's boys' novels 'The Young Fur Traders' (1855) and 'Ungava' (1857) and, more especially, his personal account of that service, 'Hudson's Bay; or Every-Day Life in the Wilds of North America' (1848), recruited so many able young men for both the HBC and Revillon Freres. As Ballantyne's six years in Rupert's Land and the King's Posts, and his narrative of that experience, are the cynosure of this profile, the balance of his life must be dealt with summarily. ... It is for Hudson's Bay that we still remember Ballantyne. Detailed and valuably informative, the account is enlivened by youthful intensity. As well as describing fur trade operations, it contains powerful evocations of terrain, waterways, and weather, and shrewd sketches of an assortment of personalities. ...

Otto Sverdrup (1854-1930)   /   Barr, W.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 72-73, 1 port.
ASTIS record 32590

The adventures and expeditions of Otto Sverdrup chronicled in this profile encompass the first attempted crossing of the Greenland Ice Cap on skis, his several expeditions to study ice drift in the ship Fram, which he supervised the building of, his extensive exploration of Bache Peninsula and other islands within the Sverdrup Islands group, and his command of the whaling ship Eclipse and search for the missing Rusanov and Brusilov expeditions in the Kara Sea and command of the icebreaker Svyatogor.

Henry Toke Munn (1864-1952)   /   White, G.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 74-75, 1 port.
ASTIS record 32591

[Munn] came to Canada at the age of 22 and was nearly killed in a shoot-up in the streets of Montreal on the very day of his landing. He became a farmer and then a horse-breeder in Manitoba, and by 1894 he was hunting muskoxen and wood buffalo in the far northwest. He subsequently prospected around Kootenay, joined the Yukon gold-rush as a storekeeper, and acquired the title of "Captain" while serving in the South African war. ... In 1914 Albert dropped off Munn and another man to trade and to search for gold just north of Baffin: that year was enough to convince Munn that there was no gold. Munn shifted his energies to trade. In 1916 he was left for a two-year stay on Southampton Island with six Eskimo families; in 1919 he visited his agents at several arctic posts but did not stay himself; and he spent the winter of 1920-1921 at Button Point, his original station north of Baffin Island. At the end of that stay, he found the Hudson's Bay Company moving north from Hudson Strait in such force that he could not compete, and Munn's backers soon convinced him to sell out .... In the summer of 1923 he sailed in the HBC steamer to turn his Syndicate's assets over to its new owners, and a series of incidents intensified his long-standing dislike of the Company to a deep resentment, mixed with remorse at having to commit "his" Eskimos to the mercy of those he could not trust. ... In the early years of his retirement Munn not only encouraged others to break the monopoly of the Hudson's Bay Company, but he waged a constant propaganda war against it. ...

Charles Camsell (1876-1958)   /   Shaw, M.M.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 76-77, 1 port.
ASTIS record 32592

[Camsell was born at Fort Liard, N.W.T.] ... After attending school and university in Winnipeg, he went home to Fort Simpson, .... A trip to Fort Providence in 1900 was the turning point in Camsell's life. He met James MacIntosh Bell of the Geological Survey, who was on his way to explore around Great Bear Lake and south to Great Slave Lake. When Bell learned that Camsell knew the region and could speak the Indian languages, he asked him to join the party, and thus began Camsell's career as a geologist. ... In 1920 Camsell was promoted to Deputy Minister of Mines and later, when several departments were merged, Deputy Minister of Mines and Resources. ... He retired in 1945 and died in Ottawa in 1958.

Lazaroosie Kyak (1919-1976)   /   Pilot, R.S.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 78-79, ill.
ASTIS record 32593

... Kyak was born in a small Inuit hunting camp near Button Point on Bylot Island, at a time when events in history would have a profound effect on the lives and culture of his people. ... Kyak was engaged by the RCMP to assist many patrols out of Pond Inlet during the early 1940s. Members of the RCMP who had the good fortune to travel with Kyak recognized his sense of justice and protection. His dedication to duty led eventually to his engagement as a Special Constable in September 1943. Being an ardent seaman, he patrolled hundreds of miles of Baffin and Ellesmere island coastline. Kyak realized the potential of the site for the existing community of Grise Fiord and was instrumental in its selection. ... Unwritten stories about the adventures and achievements of this exceptional man abound. He will be long remembered by those members of the RCMP who served with him. ... His one desire, as a member of the RCMP, was to provide a bridge between the old and the new. Many in today's Arctic owe a debt of gratitude for his patience and quiet understanding. ...

Charles Alan Kenneth Innes-Taylor, 1900-1983   /   Marshall, P.S.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 84-86, 1 ill.
ASTIS record 50249

... Though self-educated, Innes-Taylor understood the difficulties and challenges of scientific research, having so often critically supported it. He valued new scientific techniques and encouraged newcomers in their application. He was especially helpful in pointing out unforeseen problems. As one biologist from this period has remarked, Innes-Taylor was an inspiration in the practical solution of applied research problems. After 1956, Innes-Taylor applied his knowledge of polar survival as a consultant to international airline companies, especially Scandinavian Airlines which pioneered the transpolar air route in 1957. He trained many air crews for this mission, and wrote for SAS the highly acclaimed manual "This is the Arctic." He also introduced special survival gear such as exposure suits and circular, multi-person sleeping bags. ... [His vast knowledge was acquired through his experiences while living in Eagle, Alaska, and later in Dawson and Whitehorse, Yukon, running Yukon River trips.] ... It was this northern experience which uniquely qualified Innes-Taylor to journey south in 1929, providing fresh sled dogs to BAE I [the expedition on which] Admiral Byrd, piloted by Bernt Balchen, made the first flight over the South Pole. ... Innes-Taylor returned to Antarctica in 1933 as chief of field operations for BAE II. ... At the start of World War II, Innes-Taylor was commissioned, by Special Act of Congress, as a captain in the U.S. Army Air Force. His first assignment was to southeastern Greenland where he helped to rescue air crews downed on the ice sheet. After mid-1942 and for the remainder of the war, he trained arctic and mountain troops in Colorado and Canada. ... his most dispiriting experience, ... was his service as executive officer at Isachsen land, latitude 78 N on Ellef Ringnes Island in the Canadian Arctic. ... Innes-Taylor and his party of six spent almost a year at this station, which had been visited only once before - by Stefansson, thirty years earlier - and which was inaccessible during the summer. In addition to supervising daily weather observations, Innes-Taylor banded birds and observed tidal and sea ice fluctuation. But he lamented the loss of simplicity, almost of innocence, that this new, spiritless, mechanized exploration brought to the unchanged land. ... In 1950 he was recalled by the U.S. Air Force to command survival training schools for Korean War flight crews .... This work eventually brought him to ... Fairbanks, where in October 1953 he became a researcher in charge of the Environmental Protection Section of the USAF Arctic Aeromedical Lab. ... [In addition to his many accomplishments, he was awarded a medal for heroism, documented historical sites all along the Yukon's rivers, was instrumental in saving the Dawson archives when they were flooded in 1966, received the Order of Canada in 1977, and the Yukon Commissioner's Medal in 1982, and as a Fellow of the Arctic Institute acted as factotum for the Arctic Institute's field operations out of Whitehorse and later Kluane Lake.] ... Innes-Taylor [has been described as] a remarkable mixture of the practical and theoretical, domestic and exotic, realistic and romantic, old and new.

Empty boots - a whaling story : Alan Innes-Taylor   /   Marshall, P.S.
Arctic, v. 37, no. 1, Mar. 1984, p. 87-90
ASTIS record 50250

The following is a heretofore unpublished account of a small but significant part of the 1st Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1928-1930. It recounts one man's first journey to Antarctica. The author is the late Alan Innes-Taylor, polar survival expert, and the manuscript was recently made available by his family. Only minor grammatical changes have been made. ... [The account describes his time aboard a whaling ship enroute to the Antarctic.]

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