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Television and the Eskimo people of Frobisher Bay   /   O'Connell, S.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 154-158, ill.
ASTIS record 10302
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In 1972, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) extended its Frontier Television Service to the people of Frobisher Bay in the Northwest Territories. Although certain other northern communities had been receiving the service for more than a year, no television programmes had ever before been transmitted to a predominantly Eskimo community lacking any previous experience of the medium. ... The reaction of the Eskimo people to the service was investigated after a year by means of a survey. A questionnaire was distributed to heads of households, not only in the area served, but also, for purposes of comparison, in the community of Fort Chimo, Quebec, which was without television. Commencing in February 1973, 131 out of a total of 200 Eskimo heads of household within the Frobisher Bay community were interviewed, and in mid-July 1973, 84 out of a total of 96 heads of household in the community of Fort Chimo were surveyed. ... Interviews were ... conducted by Eskimo people native to, and familiar with, the study area and the local dialects. ... It was possible to draw certain conclusions from the results of the survey, the most striking of them concerning social attitudes. After one year of television, the Frobisher Bay respondents were more inclined to put forward ideas for the employment of their children than were the respondents in Fort Chimo. It was apparent that the role of the daughter in relation to the mother had changed, and that there was increasing acceptance of the idea that a daughter could, if she wished, seek employment. In Frobisher Bay, there was more interest in opportunities for travel to locations outside the North, and respondents were more national than local in their preferences. They were more aware of international problems and could propose solutions to them. ... An unhappy fact that emerged from the investigation was that many participants felt their opinions were valueless. ... Some future study might serve to reveal whether the native peoples' fundamental understanding is being greatly enriched, and their horizons broadened, by visual information being presented to them over such considerably increased periods of time. ...


Late-Quaternary geomorphic processes : effects on the ancient Aleuts of Umnak Island in the Aleutians   /   Black, R.F.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 159-169, figures, table
ASTIS record 10303
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Glaciation, volcanic activity, marine processes and wind action affected in various ways the lives of the ancient Aleuts of Umnak Island, who first settled at Anangula about 8,400 BP following deglaciation some 3,000 years earlier. Expanding alpine glaciers reached the sea in places about 3,000 BP without the nearby peoples being much affected. A catastrophic eruption of Okmok Volcano about 8,250 BP is suggested as the cause of the abandonment of the oldest known site of Anangula, and subsequent migration westward into the central Aleutians. Cutting of strandflats between 8,250 and 3,000 BP led to the development of a very large, accessible, year-round food resource, and an apparent proliferation of settlements. In marked contrast to other parts of Beringia, Umnak Island became the site most favorable for human settlement.


Ringed seals in James Bay and Hudson Bay : population estimates and catch statistics   /   Smith, T.G.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 170-182, ill.
ASTIS record 10304
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The populations of ringed seals Phoca Hispida in Hudson Bay and James Bay are estimated on the basis of aerial counts to be 455,000 and 61,000 respectively. If the maximum number of seals, estimated at 21,000, needed to feed the polar bears of Hudson Bay is added to the catch of all trading centers there, estimated at 14,900, the total approximates very closely to the 8 per cent annual sustainable yield of ringed seals in Hudson Bay.


Problems in the design of a marine transportation system for the Arctic   /   Liddle, L.F.   Burrell, W.N.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 183-193, ill.
ASTIS record 10305
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During the past decade, the need to transport oil and other cargoes through the waters of the Arctic has resulted in an increase in knowledge and understanding of the operational problems involved. The techniques of transportation systems analysis as developed for open-water shipping, together with a careful economic analysis of the special problems of operation in icebound waters, may provide the key to the development of an economically-viable marine transportation system for the Arctic.


The whistling swan in James Bay and the southern region of Hudson Bay   /   Lumsden, H.G.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 194-200, figures, table
ASTIS record 10306
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The whistling swan bred and moulted in the vicinity of trading posts on the south shores of Hudson Bay during the early years of the fur trade. They were extirpated toward the end of the nineteenth century, but some are returning under conditions of protection. They may be seen regularly during migration in the spring and fall on the south shores of Hudson Bay and on the shores of James Bay. In recent years they have bred on Cape Churchill, and three broods have been seen near the Ontario coast of Hudson Bay. Breeding swans have also been observed in western Ungava. The species appears to be reoccupying its former range.


Land selection and development under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act   /   Haynes, J.B.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 201-208, figures
ASTIS record 10307
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In accordance with the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971, Alaskan Natives have begun through their corporations to make selections from certain U.S. federal lands in return for their relinquishment of claims to aboriginal rights. Since the selections must be made quickly, one corporation has cooperated with a geophysical institute in the application of satellite imagery to the survey of available lands and resources. The results have been beneficial to the Native interest.


The High Arctic wolf in the Jones Sound region of the Canadian High Arctic   /   Riewe, R.R.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 209-212, ill., 1 map
Devon Island IBP Project contribution, no. 30
ASTIS record 10308
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The high arctic wolf Canis lupus arctos, a white, medium-sized subspecies of the arctic wolf, and a considerable carnivore, ranges over the Queen Elizabeth Islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. ... With the object of adding to the meagre literature on the high arctic wolf, I present in this paper the results of observations I made on it over a total period of 425 days spent in the field in the Jones Sound region, collecting information on the local wildlife and Inuit. ... Little is actually known about the wolf's predatory behaviour in the eastern High Arctic, and much of what is attributed to the high arctic wolf is merely hearsay or speculation. For example, in the Jones Sound region muskox carcasses which bear signs of attention from wolves are usually referred to as wolf-kills. It is possible that some of these carcasses have simply been scavenged by wolves. ... Over the years, some of the residents of Grise Fiord have attributed the decline of Peary's caribou Rangifer tarandus pearyi in the region to the predatory habits of wolves, in spite of the absence of any proof that they have a controlling effect upon the size of caribou populations. It appears in actual fact that man has been blaming his competitor, the wolf, for the problems he himself has created. ... From data based on reports of members of the Grise Fiord Detachment of the R.C.M.P. I have been able to derive the following average numbers of wolves taken: 1956-57 to 1962-63: 1.7; 1963-64 to 1967-68: 4.4; 1968-69 to 1970-71: 9.6. The sharp increase from 1.7 to 4.4 was a result of the reintroduction in 1964 of bounty payments in the Northwest Territories for the capture of wolves. A hunter receives $40 for each animal captured, as well as the pelt which has a value ranging between $10 and $150. Some pelts are used locally for the trimming of parkas, for which they are however considered inferior to the pelts of dogs or imported wolverine. Most wolves taken up to 1968 were either poisoned, accidentally caught in fox traps, or shot as they approached hunters or their dogs out of curiosity. Since the coming into general use of snowmobiles in the area, however, hunters have usually followed any fresh wolf track in the hope of catching up with one of the animals. The fact that the average number caught over the three years ending in 1971 was as high as 9.6 per year was therefore the result of overhunting by snowmobile, and not of an increase in numbers of the animals. The overhunting which took place over the years 1968-71 is the presumable explanation of the fact that not one wolf was taken during the years 1971-72. ... Wolf carcasses are not eaten either by Inuit or their dogs.


Islands of grounded ice   /   Kovacs, A.   McKim, H.L.   Merry, C.J.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 213-216, ill.
ASTIS record 10309
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In August 1972, the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Burton Island confirmed the existence of a large ice formation located at about 160 km northwest of Point Barrow, which had first been observed by 1971 satellite imagery of the U.S. National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-1). Visual observations made from a distance indicated that the relief of the ice formation, which appeared to rise as much as nine meters above the sea, was highly irregular. Although it was at first described as a large hummock field of pressured sea ice, news quickly spread that it was a large piece of tabular shelf ice, i.e., an "ice island." ... With the launching into orbit of the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1) in July 1972, there became available for the first time multi-spectral imagery of sufficiently high resolution to allow detailed sea ice studies to be performed. Through the sequential imagery provided by the satellite during its passage over the High Arctic, measurements could be made of the deformation and drift of the ice pack and a continuous observation kept on the formation and break up of fast ice along the Alaska coast. The discovery of the "ice island," together with the availability of satellite imagery, thus provided a unique opportunity to locate and monitor the movement of a specific ice feature for an extended period of time. ... This report serve the demonstrate the usefulness of ERTS-1 imagery for the location of islands of grounded ice, and for observing the growth and decay of these features with time. Through the imagery there has also been revealed a possible error on bathymetric charts for the location of two shoals in the southern Chukchi Sea. ...


Soviet planning in the North   /   de la Barre, K.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 217-218
ASTIS record 10310
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It was decided at the 23rd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union held in 1966, that over the next ten years there should be a considerable increase in the exploitation of oil and gas reserves and of mineral and forest resources. Obviously, therefore, the importance of the North to the Soviet economy was to increase substantially. Although the industrial expansion was to be capital intensive, it was expected that there would be a substantial overall growth in the population of the North, and this would have to be complemented by vastly improved living standards and working conditions - in fact, it was recognized that only a strong bias in favour of the North in terms of greatly improved benefits would attract the stable work force required from the developed parts of the U.S.S.R. Against this background, the bulk of the volume here reviewed is concerned with the questions of industrial complexes in the North, the associated human problems of improving living standards and local services, and the development of consumer-oriented industries. ... This volume of Problems of the North is an interesting summary of a set of issues facing Soviet planners in the North. The main issue appears to be a failure to attract the badly-needed, stable work force for the large-scale developments planned. A secondary issue is the necessity to provide in the North, a supply of consumer goods and services above the national average, without disrupting the country's other social investment priorities. It is not evident from a reading of the present volume, that these critical development problems are really on their way to being solved.


Devon Island Research Station, 1975
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 226
ASTIS record 53531
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The Arctic Institute field station on the Truelove Lowlands of Devon Island was activated for a brief period during late July and August of this year, largely for the purposes of an inspection of the station buildings and equipment, and the performance of necessary maintenance operations. Researchers present during the season, and their projects, were: Dr. Carlyle Jordan and Mr. Robert Merrick, University of Guelph, Ontario: Biological fixation of nitrogen in arctic sedge-moss; Dr. G.M. Courtin and Mr. Peter Nosko, Laurentian University, Ontario: Water relations of Carex stans on Devon Island; Dr. D. Pearson, Laurentian University, Ontario: Palaeozoic sedimentary cover. In spite of several days of unusually heavy rain, Dr. Jordan and Mr. Merrick managed to complete almost every phase of their planned experiments in the study of the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. They estimated the fixation rates at several sites - on a mesic meadow, a beach ridge, an intermediate zone and a polar desert site - under aerobic, microaerophilic, light and dark conditions, and with microbial activity stimulated by glucose addition and blocked by a metabolic inhibitor. The biomass activity was determined at each site by carbon dioxide evolution from added glucose. Core samples were removed at two depths from each site and from additional sites on a hydric meadow and on a bog polygon. Other data included soil temperatures, pH and oxidation-reduction potential. In addition, Dr. Jordan took the opportunity to visually survey the area in the immediate vicinity of the base camp with a view to the better location of other sites for sampling in the near future. A collection of flowering plants from Devon Island was also made. Soil cores removed by Dr. Jordan and Mr. Merrick will be examined bacteriologically at the University of Guelph, while the polar desert material will be the subject of part of a study by the University's Department of Land Resource Science. In addition, intact moss blocks from Devon Island have been kept alive in a healthy state at the University, and Mr. Merrick will study the numbers, types and activities of the microorganisms associated with the moss surfaces. Such associated microorganisms, principally the blue-green algae, appear to dominate nitrogen fixation in the arctic ecosystem, and the relationships between their activities and the moss surfaces are of considerable importance. Dr. Courtin and his assistant made further sample collections to support their earlier studies carried on at Devon Island under the sponsorship of the Canadian Committee of the International Biological Program. Dr. Pearson was concerned with reconnaissance of the area with a view to possible future programmes of study of geological processes. Mr. Ward Elcock, camp manager, reported that all buildings were intact, and that intrusions bipolar bears had not occurred as in previous years. Maintenance work at the station included tidying-up operations around the station area, the erection of radio antenna masts, and a general inventory. The Institute acknowledges with thanks the cooperation and assistance of the Polar Continental Shelf Project in making this very short season a successful one.


Paul F. Bruggemann (1890-1974)   /   Corley, N.
Arctic, v. 28, no. 3, Sept. 1975, p. 228
ASTIS record 53532
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Mr. Paul F. Bruggemann, Fellow of the Arctic Institute of North America and a former Editor of Arctic, died in Ottawa on 18 August 1974 after a prolonged illness. He was born on 28 February 1890 in Germany, where he received his formal education and graduated in mechanical engineering. His lifelong devotion to natural history began during his early years before the First World War, a period when he also developed an enthusiasm for aeronautics (he flew one of the early Wright machines) and succeeded in becoming a champion figure skater. His capacity for individual initiative showed itself in exploits as a motorcycle despatch rider during his war service in the German army. In 1926, he emigrated to Canada. He lived for 25 years in Lloydminster, Alberta, where he set up a small business for the repair of automobiles and farm machinery. During these years he also formed an extensive collection of moths, butterflies and plants from the surrounding region. He spent one winter alone in a small cabin in the forest country of northern Saskatchewan making a special study of English and the Scandinavian languages. In the spring of 1949, Paul Bruggemann joined the staff of the Entomological Research Institute of the Canadian Department of Agriculture as a field worker with the Northern Insect Survey. He continued in that capacity until 1954, conducting insect and plant surveys in the Dawson region of the Yukon Territory, and in the Northwest Territories in the region of Repulse Bay, Melville Peninsula, Alert and Eureka on Ellesmere Island, and Mould Bay on Prince Patrick Island. While at the latter location he discovered a new species of grass which became known as Puccinella bruggemanni. During his winter breaks from field work he photographed type specimens of Lepidoptera for the International Union of Biological Sciences. Following his retirement from the service of the Canadian Government, he edited Arctic with distinction for the eight years 1956-64. He then broke new ground by becoming a free-lance translator into English, mainly of papers on biological subjects in German, French, Norwegian, Swedish and Portuguese - work which he continued until shortly before his death. Paul Bruggemann was a member of the Entomological Society of Canada and the Lepidopterists' Society, a contributor to an annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, the joint author of three publications on arctic botany and entomology, and the editor of a work on the flora of Alaska.


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