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Ophthalmology in the Canadian North   /   Adams, D.B.   Adams, S.T.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 90-94, ill.
ASTIS record 10259
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... Early medical care was provided in the North by missionaries, Hudson's Bay traders, and surgeons on whalers or exploration ships. ... Today most Eskimos are within reach of a nursing station, whence a patient may be evacuated to one of six modern hospitals in the Canadian North. If specialist care is necessary, the patient is flown south to a university hospital. ... The question arose in the late 1960s whether a central eye hospital was needed in the north, and a decision was taken to survey ophthalmological needs. In 1970 and 1971, with Canadian Government sponsorship, three Canadian universities took part in a widespread survey, sending teams to examine whole populations of selected settlements. A total of 4,450 people were examined, McGill being responsible for the East Baffin Zone. ... No eye hospital was deemed necessary .... In September 1970 the first "service" trip was made to the Baffin Zone. Teams of ophthalmologists from the McGill Hospitals now visit regularly the twelve settlements in this Zone. ... On these tours a variety of eye problems is found. Snow-blindness ... jumps to the layman's mind when there is mention of eye problems in the North. ... while this condition is of extreme discomfort to the patient, it is transitory. ... More serious eye problems found in the North are, in order of increasing importance: trauma ...; scarred cornea due to old tuberculosis, which is now on the wane; glaucoma, the blinding disease; and myopia. The Eskimo is found to be congenitally susceptible to angle closure glaucoma .... The disease is found more commonly is Eskimo women than men, and is forty times more prevalent in Eskimo women than in women of other races. The majority of all eye patients flown to Montreal for medical or surgical treatment are sent because of this type of glaucoma. ... An important aspect of northern medical service must be education of the people. If, for instance, they learn to recognize early symptoms of glaucoma (usually pain and temporarily diminished vision) and seek immediate help, the settlement nurse may control an attack with drugs for a few weeks, in most cases, until the patient can be flown out for surgery. ... the ophthalmologist's principal activity in the North is the prescribing of glasses. The most astonishing evidence to come out of the Ophthalmological Survey was the "epidemic" of myopia in the young. Thirty to thirty-five per cent of all young people between the ages of 15 and 25 were found to be short-sighted and to need glasses, as opposed to nine per cent in those over 25. Perplexing questions present themselves: Why the young? What is different in their life style compared to that of their parents? Has a protective factor been lost to the younger generation, or a virulent factor introduced? What is the influence of schooling, of the change to a white man's diet? ... In 1967 an international symposium on circumpolar health-related problems was held at the University of Alaska under the joint auspices of the University and the Arctic Institute of North America. ... The second Symposium was held in June 1971 in the new, modern Medical School of the University of Oulu, Finland .... In July 1974 the third International Symposium on Circumpolar Health will be held at Yellowknife, N.W.T., and ophthalmologists will be among others to continue discussions on health problems peculiar to the far North.


Seabird colonies and distributions around Devon Island and vicinity   /   Nettleship, D.N.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 95-103, 1 map
ASTIS record 10260
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Nineteen glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) colonies, two Thayer's gull (L. thayeri) colonies, and three fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) colonies were recorded during one intensive, and several short, aerial surveys around Devon Island in the summer of 1972. Observations were also made of distributions of seabirds at sea and at colonies on some adjacent islands (Dundas, Margaret, Baillie-Hamilton, and Cornwallis). Only 2 of the 29 colonies examined have been described previously. The great importance of Lancaster Sound to the present and future welfare of arctic seabirds is discussed.


The tide in eastern and western James Bay   /   Godin, G.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 104-110, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 10261
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The tide in eastern and western James Bay is reconstituted for the summers of 1947 and 1950, using recent cotidal charts, and the predictions are compared with some observations carried out during those years. The predictions and the observations are found to agree in general, thus confirming the validity of the cotidal charts.


An inferred sex differential in copper metabolism in Ross' geese (Anser rossii) : biogeochemical and physiological considerations   /   Hanson, H.C.   Jones, R.L.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 111-120, 1 map
ASTIS record 10262
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The geology and the levels of various minerals in the nutrient chain of the ecosystems of the breeding grounds of most populations of wild geese are distinctive. Hence minerals that become incorporated in the keratin of the primary feathers grown on the breeding grounds can be used as biological tracers to determine origins of migrants. Hormones indirectly affect the levels of some minerals in the feather keratin. Estrogen is presumed to account for higher levels of copper found in the primary feathers of adult female, as compared with adult male, Ross' geese (Anser rossii).


Statistical analysis of observed iceberg drift   /   Ettle, R.E.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 121-127, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 10263
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Eight iceberg trajectories observed by the U.S. Coast Guard during 1965, 1967, and 1968 have been subjected to preliminary analysis. The data were obtained by tracking the icebergs relative to fixed reference markers using visual bearings and radar ranges. Speed ratios and drift angles were calculated for each half hour of iceberg trajectory. It was found that at low wind speeds the effects of permanent currents, older wind-driven currents, and tidal currents predominate over wind drag and new wind-driven currents, whereas at wind speeds of over 10 knots the wind has a significant effect on the drift of an iceberg. The ratio of the drag coefficient for the iceberg's above-water portion to the drag coefficient for its submerged portion was found to range from 1.5 to approximately 7.


Evidence of neoglacial solifluction at Okstindan, north Norway   /   Worsley, P.   Harris, C.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 128-144, ill., maps
ASTIS record 10264
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A section excavated through two adjacent turf-banked solifluction lobes has revealed buried soils beneath each solifluction sheet. Five radiocarbon dates are reported from the buried soils and these reveal evidence of soil movement which probably extends over nearly 3,000 years until the present. The initiation of the movement appears to be linked to the late Sub-Boreal climatic deterioration and Neoglacial glacier expansion which induced the development of a late-lying snow patch at the study site. The first period of movement appears to have been faster than that during the later phase. It is suggested that this reduced rate is associated with a decrease in slope angle and to increased distance from the late-lying snow bank at the head of the slope, rather than to a less severe climatic environment.


Anna Monson   /   Dunbar, M.J.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 145, ill.
ASTIS record 53524
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For the past decade the editorial office of Arctic has been in the capable hands of a woman of varied experience, unusual achievement and quiet initiative. Anna Monson wears these qualities very modestly, so that it is proper, now that she is retiring from that post, to expose something of the light that she has been hiding. Born in Canada, Mrs. Monson went to St. Helen's School, Abingdon, England; from there to Macdonald College of McGill University and finally to the Secretariat Course at the Mother House in Montreal. Employed at first in the McGill University Library, she became Secretary to the Chairman of the Department of Chemistry who was at the time also Director of Chemical Warfare, Canadian Department of Defence. This started her off on a career of writing and editing of reports in a variety of diplomatic and international offices .... She began in the Canadian Embassy in Mexico (1945-47), and from there to the United Nations in New York, where from 1947 to 1951 she edited reports on cartography, standards of living, tropical housing and refugees. From 1951 to 1957, in the U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees, she became Liaison Officer with U.N. specialized agencies and several intergovernmental organizations, and finally Professional Assistant in the Public Information Section. From 1957 to 1963 she was Reports and Liaison Officer in the World Health Organization, Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office. ... With or without personal Arctic experience, there is no doubt that Anna's experience made her an ideal editor of a scientific journal, and the Arctic Institute was fortunate to be able to enlist her services for Arctic. In a very short time she managed to get the journal out on time, no mean achievement in the first place, and she has managed also to maintain the very high standards of content, language, and arrangement set by her predecessors, notably Diana Rowley and Paul Bruggemann. Speaking as a contributor, I can add that she also succeeded in keeping the peace between herself and her contributors, something that speaks for her diplomatic training - for friction can develop very rapidly between author and editor unless one at least of the parties has that rare combination of firmness and understanding that makes for effective publication. We express to Anna Monson our acknowledged gratitude, and our wishes that she will continue from strength to strength and at last find herself working in the North. Not the least of her qualities is an impressive determination and staying power in the face of discouragement and handicap. Some years ago she had an incipient reputation as a sculptor; perhaps this may furnish a passport to the North, for many artists have found happy hunting grounds there.


Noteworthy vascular plants collected in southwestern Banks Island, N.W.T.   /   Kuc, M.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 146-150, ill., maps
ASTIS record 10265
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During the summers of 1968 and 1969, while conducting a geobotanical survey in southwestern Banks Island ..., the author made an extensive collection of plants. This paper comprises a list of vascular plants new to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or to Banks Island, as well as comments on some rare species. ... Specimens have been deposited in the Phanerogamic Herbarium of the Canadian Department of Agriculture, Ottawa. ... Achillea nigrescens (E. Mey.) Rydb. Found in the Masik River valley .... ...Arctophila fulva (Trin.) Anders. Common over the whole area in ponds .... Arenaria sajanensis Willd. Common up to 1,000 ft. in mountains adjacent to the south of the Masik River valley .... Artemisia borealis Pall. Common on sunny, dry and elevated slopes, on coastal cliffs and on alluvium. Found up to 600 ft. in the Masik River valley. ... A. hyperborea Rydb. Common over the entire area. ... A. tilesii Ledeb. Common in the Sachs River valley and the Masik River valley, elsewhere rare. ... Aster pygmaeus Lindl. One flowering specimen (3 in. tall) found on alluvium in the middle of Kellett River, and several specimens in the delta of Masik River and on adjacent gravelly alluvial terraces .... Carex ursina Dew. Found on sandy and muddy shores between Lennie River and Sachs Harbour. Most abundant on Cape Kellett .... Crepis nana Richards. Found on top of the morainic hill between the mouths of Masik and Atitok Rivers .... Descurainia sophioides (Fisch.) O. E. Schultz. Common and abundant in Sachs Harbour village in anthropogenic habitats .... Dryas chamissonis Juz. Found at Swan Lake on bare soil, in dry parts of moss-bogs and in sheltered places .... Halimolobus mollis (Hook.) Rollins. Found in refuse heaps in Sachs Harbour village and in the Masik River valley in areas of former Eskimo camps. ... Melandrium ostenfeldii Porsild. Most commonly found on slopes with southern exposures in the Masik River valley. ... Melandrium triflorum (R. Br.) J. Vahl. Found at Sachs Harbour village on coastal cliffs. ... Parnassia kotzebuei Cham. & Schlecht. Found on alluvium in the Masik River area from the coast to the upper reaches of valleys, but most common in the middle part of the main valley .... Phlox richardsonii Hook. Common, but confined to coastal cliffs and alluvium .... Plantago septata Morris. Found at many localities at the mouth of Lennie River, along Kellett River and Sachs River, on coastal hills around Thesiger Bay, in abundance at Sachs Harbour village, and on sunny slopes up to 600 ft. in the Masik Valley. ... Pleuropogon sabinei R. Br. Very rare plant, found in several tundra ponds between Sachs Harbour Meteorological Station and Kellett River, and in the small pool in Sachs Harbour village. ... Potentilla nivea L.-s. s. Found in the Sachs Harbour area .... Pulsatilla ludoviciana (Nutt.) Heller. Rare in low and middle elevated, southern and dry exposures in the Masik River valley .... Pyrola secunda var. obtusata Turcz. Found between Carpenter Lake and Sachs River .... Rumex arcticus Trautv. Luxuriant specimens found on anthropogenic habitats in Sachs Harbour Village .... Salix alaxensis (Anderss.) Cov. ... common species in the interior of the island .... Salix richardsonii Hook. Common in the Masik River valley .... Stellaria edwardsii R. Br. Collected only twice ... though commonly observed in many other places. ...


Three-rooted mandibular first permanent molars in Greenland Eskimo skulls   /   Curzon, M.E.J.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 150-153, ill.
ASTIS record 10266
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The first permanent mandibular molar normally has two roots; however, in a number of individuals a third root develops. This anomaly with three roots (3RM1) occurs in between 0.9%1 and 3.4%2 of Caucasians. The anomaly is unknown in the Negro, but in Mongoloid races is of such a high prevalence as to be termed a racial characteristic. In Eskimos and Aleuts the percentage of individuals showing the anomaly has been variously reported as between 43.7% and 12.5%. The wide variation in reports based on studies of arctic peoples leads to the suspicion that the prevalence of 3RM1 may vary according to the different sub-groups of Eskimos in different geographic areas of the Arctic. Accordingly, as part of a continuing study of 3RM1 in man, a group of Eskimo skulls, all originally collected prior to 1900, were examined for the presence of this racial characteristic. ... Some 160 Eskimo skulls were identified in various museums of Great Britain. Forty of these skulls were found to be complete with mandibles and the presence of first mandibular molars or discernible tooth sockets. However, study of the museum catalogues revealed that the forty skulls originated from many parts of the North American Arctic and Greenland. Only one group, that from the west coast of Greenland, was big enough for study (29 skulls). Of the remaining specimens, 3 were from Alaska, 5 from Baffin Island, 2 from Labrador and 1 from the east coast of Greenland. ... Although the incidence of 3RM1 is given as a rate for skull, and hence individuals, the incidence as a percentage of teeth affected may be more valid. ... The determination of sex of a skull is always difficult and of doubtful reliability. ... 15 of the 29 skull were male, whilst 12 were female. The remaining two skulls were children. The sex ratio of 3RM1 was found to be 3:1 (female to male). However, with only four skulls affected, this sex ratio cannot be considered significant. ... The incidence of 12.7% by tooth count of3RM1 in this study of Greenland skulls is very close to the 12.5% reported by Pedersen from examination of skulls in Copenhagen. It would, therefore, appear that this incidence of about 12.5% was the prevailing one at the time this skull material was collected (1823-1900). However, in view of the great mixing of Caucasian genes by the introduction of Danes to Greenland, the present-day incidence of the anomaly is probably lower. Recent studies of miscegenation and 3RM1 have shown the incidence to be lower in offspring of mixed parentage. In comparison with the very high incidence of the anomaly as reported for the Aleut (43.7%) and the Alaskan Eskimo (26.7%) by Turner, the incidence in this study is closer to that for other Mongoloid races. ... Of even greater interest, however, is a comparison of this study with other reports in respect of Aleuts and Eskimos throughout the Arctic. ... there is a definite cline from west to east. The fact that this cline follows the probable migration route of the original Eskimo settlers may or may not be significant. There is an obvious need for a study on the anomaly in the Chukchi living on the Russian side of the Bering Strait. As Turner has pointed out, the 3RMI frequency variations may be explained on the basis of migrations from Asia of the three groups, Amerindian, Na-Dene and Aleut-Eskimo. He postulates a theoretical incidence of 60% in the "proto-Aleut- Eskimos". A complicating factor, which must be taken into account, particularly as regards the Greenland Eskimo, is the mixing of Caucasian genes. This commenced on the Greenland coast with the Viking settlements, and continued with the wintering over of whaling ships and fishing fleets, probably present in Davis Strait and even Baffin Bay before recorded explorations. With the continued interbreeding of the Eskimo with people of Caucasian origin, an increasingly lower incidence of the three-rooted mandibular first molar is to be expected.


Evidence for the temporal stability of Cree and Chipewyan Indian animal names   /   Hhn, E.O.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 153-154
ASTIS record 10267
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Following publication of my short paper on mammal and bird names in the Indian languages, Dr. C. Stuart Houston of Saskatoon kindly pointed out to me that a considerable number of Cree animal names are given in the Fauna Boreali Americana of Richardson and Swainson. As this publication is based on journeys made by Richardson in 1819-1821 and 1825-1827, whereas I collected Cree names in 1971, it is possible to compare names in use at two periods separated by an interval of approximately 150 years. Richardson travelled over most of the Cree country, from Hudson Bay to present day Alberta, while my informants were all from central or northern Alberta. Many differences in the two lists of names may therefore be due to regional, as opposed to temporal, differences; nevertheless a preponderant similarity between the old and the present-day names is evident on comparison. Richardson also listed a few Chipewyan animal names, so that a similar comparison, though on a small sample, can be made for this language as well. I have grouped the results of the comparison into three categories: names which are alike, and in many cases the same, allowing for the fact that there is often more than one way of writing the same sound for English readers; names which are cognate; and names which are different. Some examples, using Cree names only, are tabulated below. Of 23 mammals for which Cree names are given in the two sources compared, 18 were alike, 4 cognate and only one different. In the case of 42 bird names, 21 were alike, 7 cognate and 14 were different. For all 65 names the proportions are: 60% alike, 17% cognate and 23% different. The few Chipewyan names given in the Fauna Boreali-Americana make it possible to compare ten (six mammal and four bird) names with ones from my own material. Eight of these names are alike and two different. Irving, comparing Eskimo bird names in use in 1877 and 1960 in one locality, Cumberland Sound, Baffin Island, and thus eliminating the factor of regional differences, found that 92% were alike. Hisdata and that given above for two Indian languages indicate that animal names in these particular Amerindian languages are no less enduring in time than those used in languages which have writing.


A note on the Holocene history of a portion of northernmost Ellesmere Island   /   England, J.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 154-157
ASTIS record 10268
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Three points raised in Lyons and Mielke's paper on the "Holocene history of a portion of northernmost Ellesmere Island" warrant further discussion. ... The points to be discussed deal with: 1) the Holocene chronology, 2) the interpretation of postglacial uplift, and 3) the form of the postglacial uplift curve on northern Ellesmere Island. ... Lyons and Mielke place the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary on northern Ellesmere Island at 10,000-13,000 BP. This boundary is based on inference from the Greenland ice core, since the authors state that "there is no reliable information on northernmost Ellesmere Island which closely fixes the transition from the Pleistocene to the Holocene". ... It seems clear that the estimated time profile through the Greenland ice core is particularly subject to question and should not be assumed to be free of error or without the need of being clarified by the radiocarbon-dated terrestrial record (not vice versa). ... Terasmae has described the time-transgressive nature of the late glacial/postglacial boundary in southeastern Canada (ca. 10,000 BP), and hence, similar time-transgressive problems might be expected in the arctic events. ... The terrestrial record from northern Ellesmere Island, therefore, should be accepted on its own merit .... The present writer suggests, therefore, that the local Pleistocene/Holocene boundary on northern Ellesmere Island occurred between 7500-8100 BP rather than 10,000-13,000 BP. This is also the case indicated by the majority of radiocarbon dates from raised marine deposits in Archer Fiord/Lady Franklin Bay. ... Lyons and Mielke also infer that the observed postglacial uplift on Ward Hunt Island is a product of the maximum Pleistocene ice thicknesses in this area. ... There is, however, no stratigraphic evidence that the maximum Pleistocene ice thickness in this area caused this Holocene uplift (7755 150 BP ...). It is equally possible that this postglacial emergence on Ward Hunt Island (only 38 m. a.s.l.) could have been produced beyond a restricted inland ice margin entirely independent of this most extensive ice advance. The present author has modelled the postglacial uplift over northeastern Ellesmere Island and northwestern Greenland using relatively small ice advances during the last glaciation, and the resulting uplift is consistent with the observed isobases over this area. ... Hence, there is no apparent need for the maximum Pleistocene ice load in this area to produce this moderate amount of postglacial uplift - in fact, these are very possibly two discrete events separated by an unknown amount of time. Evidence from northwestern Greenland and from eastern Baffin Island suggests that the maximum Pleistocene glaciations in these areas are much older than the last glaciation. ... The postglacial uplift curve constructed by Lyons and Mielkel is quite steep showing >70 per cent of the postglacial uplift occurring in the first two thousand years following deglaciation. ... On the curve of Lyons and Mielke postglacial uplift has almost completely flattened-off by ca. 5000 BP. Whether this is an accurate representation of the postglacial uplift process in this area or whether it is a problem of stratigraphy is not clear. ... Before such steep curves are assumed to accurately represent post-glacial uplift on northern Ellesmere Island, many more stratigraphically-controlled shell and driftwood samples must be obtained and dated. Also it needs to be determined whether the north coast of the island is undergoing a renewed submergence which could distort the real form of the uplift curve, particularly in its lower elevations. It is clear that Lyons and Mielke have made a valuable contribution to the Holocene history of northern Ellesmere Island, particularly around the evolution of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf. However, the local data on the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary must be evaluated on their own merit, and caution should be exercised in making correlations with such data as the Greenland ice core which must, in return, be clarified by the land record provided by glacial geology.


On a polynya in Makinson Inlet   /   Sadler, H.E.
Arctic, v. 27, no. 2, June 1974, p. 157-159, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 10269
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A polynya was observed three kilometres south of Hook Glacier in the northwest arm of Makinson Inlet in May 1973 .... it was only possible to occupy four stations in the arm: Station I near the head, Station 2 in the basin just north of Hook Island, Station 3 about 200 m east of the polynya and Station 4 east of St. Laurent Point .... The results from Station 2 showed that the water was almost isothermal at -1.80 C, near the freezing point, with little salinity variation in the vertical column. The temperature at 125 m in Station 2 was nearly 0.5 C lower than the temperature at the same depth in Station 4 in the waters of the main section of the inlet. ... The resulting estimated volume of water in the inlet is 2.4 10**9 m which is considered accurate only to within a factor of three. ... The estimated cross-sectional area, 1.5 10**4 m is probably accurate to a factor of 2. ... The mean value adopted for the volume of the tidal prism, 1.2 10**8 m, is probably accurate to a factor of 2. The rate of loss of heat through the surface of the polynya can be estimated to be about 1000 langleys per day if the air temperature is taken as -30 C, the water temperature as -1 C and the mean wind velocity 5 m/sec. This gives a total heat loss during each flood tide over the 2 km of the polynya of 5 10**12 calories. It is assumed that more or less complete mixing of the incoming tidal flow and the waters of the arm takes place on each flood tide. This assumption is justified, as a first approximation at least, by the state of homogeneity revealed by temperature and salinity observations. The resulting degree of cooling of the water in the arm would then be 3.0 10**-3 C on each flood tide. If now it is assumed that the water in the arm had a similar temperature structure to that in the main inlet at the beginning of freeze-up, the difference between the average temperature in the deep basin and that in the main inlet in May must be due to additional cooling of the inflowing water as it passes through the polynya. By integration over the upper 150 m, this mean temperature difference is found to be about 0.2 C, and therefore under the assumed conditions about 70 tides would be required to give the observed cooling, or about 1000 degree-days. ... the observed temperature distribution could be expected to occur some time in December. Until this time the polynya would remain open because of the flow on both flood and ebb tides of water above the freezing point. Once the water in the basin reached an isothermal condition with the temperature at -1.7 C or lower, it might be expected that the very cold waters of the ebb tide would begin to freeze in the polynya. On each flood tide slightly warmer water mixed upwards from the deeper levels of the main inlet would pass through the polynya but the low temperatures of January and February and the large net heat loss due to radiation would probably be sufficient to keep the surface frozen over. With the return of the sun in April, the combination of solar heating and of ablation from below by the slightly warmer inflowing water would be expected to open the polynya sometime before the rest of the ice in the inlet broke up. When the observations were made in the middle of May the polynya was about 2 km long north to south and 1 km wide. The ice in that region of the arm even at some distance from the open water was about one third the thickness of that in the main inlet and about half the thickness of that in the basin .... ERTS satellite photographs taken in 1973 show that the polynya opened some time between 4 April and 22 April, at which latter date it had a diameter of about 1 km. The ice cover around it remained continuous until July. ... In summary, the water in the basin is well mixed right to the bottom, although the sill depth is less than 15 m. At the same time the polynya region appears to remain open for most of the year. The conclusion is that the two phenomena are complementary and that the homogeneity of the water is a result of the downward mixing of water cooled in its passage through the polynya. Whether the water behind the sill becomes stratified during the summer and consequently becomes partly deoxygenated at depth remains to be determined. However, it seems probable that even if this happens there is complete regeneration of the deep basin water at least every winter. ...


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