The second international symposium on circumpolar health   /   Ronhovde, A.G.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 3-7
ASTIS record 10168

Following the successful 1967 Symposium on Circumpolar Health-Related Problems held at the University of Alaska under the joint auspices of the Arctic Institute and the University ..., plans were initiated for staging a second conference, and this was soon given strong support by the Scandinavian-North European group. Their initiative led to the organization of the Nordic Council for Arctic Medical Research, with representation from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. ... The Symposium was held from 21 to 24 June 1971 in the new, modern University of Oulu Medical School, the northernmost medical school on earth. The participants came from thirteen countries and included three representatives from the World Health Organization. The 276 registered active participants were accompanied by 79 non-participants, for a total of 355. The conference was thus nearly three times the size of the 1967 Alaska symposium of slightly above 100 participants. The most numerous national groups were from the U.S.A. (82), Finland (69), Sweden (67), Canada (44), and Denmark (38). Other countries represented were Australia, France, Iceland, Japan, Norway, U.S.S.R., the U.K., and West Germany. ... The four-day program at Oulu was followed by a post-conference session at Rovaniemi. The total program presented 95 main speakers, plus 88 "free" or contributed papers, for a grand total of 183 presentations. ... considerable attention was given to environmental problems and influences on health and morbidity in the polar regions. ... One of the major intervening developments which had produced new research and thrown new light on arctic health problems, physical and psychological, was the work done under the five-year International Biological Program (IBP). ... The range of subject matter discussed by the 96 main speakers and in the 88 contributed papers may be shown by a grouping under the following ten headings: 1. The arctic environment, including geographic, social, and economic problems which affect health, with emphasis on the effects of permafrost; 2. Community planning and development, with attention to housing, water supply, sewage disposal, pollution, and communications; 3. Human adaptability to arctic conditions, including reports on current research, particularly IBP studies, and genetic aspects of the native populations; 4. The effects of cold, including findings on cold physiology, physical capacity in cold, cold injuries, clothing, and other protective measures; 5. Infections in the Arctic, with special attention to bacterial diseases, viral diseases, and to parasites and zoonoses; 6. Odontology, including variations in dental morphologic traits, effects of diet, dental diseases, and other special dental problems among native arctic peoples; 7. Ophthalmology, discussed in several contributed papers from Scandinavia and Canada; 8. Nutrition, including reports on dietary surveys, on physiological and pathological effects of nutritional changes, as well as theoretical approaches to the evaluation of nutritional status through the use of multiple radioactive tracer techniques; 9. Public health in the Arctic, including reports of studies, experimentation, and research on relevant facets such as disease prevalence, psychological-psychiatric problems, the organization of health care, education of medical personnel, delivery of medical care under arctic conditions, and preventive health programs; 10. Lastly, consideration of medical problems in a changing arctic society, including such factors as changing settlement patterns, progress in immunization among remote populations, new aspects of mental health problems, and new strategies of medical treatment and health care. ...

Methods of maintaining settled agriculture in Finnish Lapland   /   Edwards, C.J.W.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 8-20, 1 ill., maps
ASTIS record 10169

The farming methods used to maintain settled agriculture along the northern limits of cultivation in Finnish Lapland have been studied in the village of Peltovuoma. Farming is an integration of reindeer rearing, adapted from traditional Lapp methods, with settled agriculture, based on subsistence dairy production and arable cropping. Maintenance is only made possible by the careful management of a complex system of land uses, precisely located to maximize production from a limited area of reclaimed land of variable quality, within a restrictive climatic environment.

Chemical composition of forage plants from the reindeer preserve, Northwest Territories   /   Scotter, G.W.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 21-27
ASTIS record 10170

Quantitative analyses of crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, calcium, phosphorus, and carotene were performed on 9 forage species, collected on 5 dates during a year. Crude protein levels were low in most forage species by mid-winter. Phosphorus levels were low in most plants throughout the year. Lichens, an important winter forage of reindeer, appear to be deficient in crude protein, calcium, phosphorus, and carotene.

Field measurement of light penetration through sea ice   /   Little, E.M.   Allen, M.B.   Wright, F.F.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 28-33, ill.
Institute of Marine Science contribution, no. 139
ASTIS record 10171

In connection with phytoplankton studies, a non-optical, non-electric instrument has been devised for the measurement of relative light intensity in sea-ice bore holes. When used with a sensitive photometer, absolute values for the ambient light field can be determined within and immediately under the ice. As anticipated, attenuation is greatest at the ice-air interface; values just below the ice surface were 3 to 20% of incident. Another 70 to 100 cm of ice was required to effect a further 50% decrease in illumination. Extinction values were also measured on the ice cores in the laboratory, but scattering greatly complicates the interpretation of laboratory results.

Sea ice pressures observed on the second "Manhattan" voyage   /   Bradford, D.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 34-39, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 10172

Sea-ice pressures encountered by the icebreaker Louis S. St. Laurent while escorting the tanker Manhattan in the Baffin Bay area in April-May 1970 were observed along with certain wind, ice and ship performance data. Pressure severity was estimated qualitatively. Most pressure episodes occurred during periods of onshore winds; and frequency of occurrence increased with higher wind speeds as did pressure severity. Pressure episodes were of short duration, but the overall inhibiting effect on vessel performance was substantial.

The sanitary landfill in the Subarctic   /   Straughn, R.O.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 40-48, ill., maps
ASTIS record 10173

A field study of two and a half years was conducted into the application of the sanitary landfill to the Subarctic. Temperatures and gas concentrations were observed in an experimental cell, and groundwater quality measured on the periphery. Carbon dioxide concentrations peaked during the warmer periods corresponding to minimum oxygen concentrations. No methane was ever detected nor were significant changes in groundwater quality observed. After the study period, the cell was opened for examination and showed that little decomposition had occurred. This indicates that serious consideration must be given to the use and location of landfills in cold climates.

Pleistocene deposits exposed along the Yukon coast   /   Naylor, D.   McIntyre, D.J.   McMillan, N.F.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 49-55, 1 ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 10174

Four measured sections of unconsolidated Pleistocene strata exposed on the Yukon coast between Shingle Point and Herschel Island are described. The sediments have suffered ice thrust deformation and are unconformably overlain by fluvio-glacial retreatal gravels. The results of palynological examination, study of mollusca and a new 14C determination are discussed. Deformation of the coastal strata probably occurred between 37 900 and 9510 years ago.

Report on the field work of the Polish Spitsbergen expedition, summer 1970   /   Baranowski, S.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 56-57
ASTIS record 53545

With the support of the Commission of Geophysical Expeditions of the Polish Academy of Sciences and in collaboration with the Geophysical Department of the Polish Academy of Sciences the Geographical Institute of the University of Wroclaw organized in 1970 a scientific summer expedition to Spitsbergen. It operated in the Hornsund Fiord region where previous Polish investigations (1957-1962) had been carried out. The expedition's principal aims were to make detailed glaciological and geomorphological studies in the Hornsund region in connection with previous research. At the same time the expedition members carried out repairs and maintenance work of the installation and equipment within the premises of the Polish Station in Hornsund. ... The main part of the expedition research was concerned with glaciological, geomorphological and to some extent geophysical work performed on the Werenskiold Glacier (which terminates on land) and on the Hans Glacier (which flows into the fiord) and in their immediate vicinity. ... The work included: climatological and glacio-meteorological research, glaciological investigations, hydrological and hydrographical measurements and observations, and glaciomorphological and geomorphological research. The principal purpose of the climatological and glacio-meteorological investigations was to establish how climatic conditions arise on the periglacial tundra in the Hornsund Base vicinity, and on the Werenskiold Glacier and vicinity. ... Because of the close link between the process of glacier ablation and the energetic processes in the atmosphere, special attention was given to the study of the course of the parameters of radiation and heat balances in the ground air layer. ... The quickly retreating Werenskiold Glacier snout creates particularly favourable conditions for glacio-morphological and geomorphological studies mainly because of the abundance of the freshly uncovered forms and due to a great diversity of geomorphic problems. The main aim of these investigations in the 1970 season was to mark the character of changes on the map of the marginal zone of the Werenskiold Glacier in the scale 1:7,500. ... At the Arie Glacier forefield detailed geomorphological and geological studies were undertaken which resulted in constructing a map of the region in the scale 1:10,000. Besides making several pits and exposures, ten rock and morainic samples were taken from the region for laboratory examination. The process of dead ice ablation under the morainic cover and without it and the process of melting-out and translocation of the rock surface material on the distal slopes of the Hans Glacier lateral moraine underwent careful observation and measurements. For comparison the ablation of the active part of the Hans Glacier near its end was measured. Five samples were taken for further analysis in Poland. Observations and measurements regarding the development and distribution of the block covers on the ridges of the Fugleberget. Ariekammen, Skodefjellet and Rotjesfiellet mountains were also made as well as observations of rock forms on raised sea beaches in the vicinity of the Hornsund Base. The geophysical investigations concerned glaciological problems to a considerable degree. The natural tremors of the Hans Glacier were studied on the basis of microseismographic recordings taken with the help of a vertical seismograph. ... Since this summary report was written, the Geographical Institute of the University of Wroclaw sent another expedition to Spitsbergen, in the summer of 1971. The report on that expedition with some preliminary results of the work done during the two summers will appear in a future issue of Arctic. ...

Note on the no-stress boundary condition at the edge of the ice pack   /   Solomon, H.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 57-59
ASTIS record 10175

The theoretical modelling of the large-scale motion of the arctic ice pack is receiving increasing attention as the economic importance of the region increases. One of the most widely used types of model is the so-called "viscous fluid" model. ... The boundary condition at the edge of the ice pack is an important feature of most such models. In some cases a no-slip condition seems appropriate, but in others, when the ice near the boundary has a low compactness (fraction of ice coverage) or the boundary occurs away from a coast, some other condition may be more appropriate. One that is often suggested is a no-stress condition, which is often assumed to imply that there is no velocity gradient perpendicular to the boundary. When the edge occurs away from a coast, the latter assumption is wrong. It suffices for present purposes to assume that we are dealing with an incompressible two-dimensional fluid. In this case the viscous force per unit of area (corresponding to volume in three dimensions) is del·(A del v), where A is an isotropic but possibly variable coefficient of eddy viscosity, and v, the large-scale averaged horizontal ice velocity, has components u and v in the x and y directions respectively. The notation del v ... is equivalent to the tensor [partial derivative of vi with respect to xj], where i and j vary independently over all coordinate directions, and (del·del v)i = Sum over the index j of (partial derivative with respect to xj of the partial derivative of vi with respect to xj). ... Since the viscous force is the divergence of the stress, the quantity A del v is often thought of as the eddy stress (or "internal ice stress"). That this is not true is easily seen by noting that the tensor A del v, to be referred to here as the "pseudo-stress" tensor, is not symmetrical. The non-diagonal elements of the stress tensor, which must be equal, are ½A(partial derivative of v with respect to x + partial derivative of u with respect to y). The distinction made here is irrelevant in determining the viscous forces, since the stress tensor and the pseudo-stress tensor differ by a tensor of zero divergence .... In large-scale ocean models which employ eddy viscosity, the stress itself is often required in connection with boundary conditions, particularly at the sea surface, or naviface .... Here, however, those who use the pseudo-stress are saved both by scale considerations and by the fact that w=0 (where w is the vertical or z-component of velocity), hence the (partial derivative of w with respect to x)=0 and the (partial derivative of w with respect to y)=0, at the naviface, so that the stress components there reduce to A(partial derivative of u with respect to z) and A(partial derivative of v with respect to z). In the "viscous liquid" model of an ice pack bounded by open water, we at last have a case in which the distinction between real stress and pseudo-stress assumes geophysical importance. ... Assuming (without loss of generality) that the edge is oriented with its outward normal in the first quadrant at an angle of theta to the x-axis, we have for the direction cosines: n1 = +cos(theta), n2 = +sin(theta), t1 = +sine(theta), t2= -cos(theta). The appropriate expression of the condition that there be no tangential stress at the boundary becomes: sin(2theta)(partial derivative of u with respect to x - partial derivative of v with respect to y) - cos(2theta)(partial derivative of v with respect to x - partial derivative of u with respect to y) = 0. ... If the boundary is oriented along a coordinate axis this reduces to (partial derivative of v with respect to x) + (partial derivative of u with respect to y) = 0, which qualitatively means that shears at the boundary are permitted, provided that they are part of a locally uniform rotation and do not produce deformation of the ice field. If one also wishes to assume zero normal stress at the boundary, there is an additional condition given by: (partial derivative of u with respect to x)cos² (theta) + (partial derivative of v with respect to y)sin²(theta) + ½(partial derivative of v with respect to x + partial derivative of u with respect to y)sin(2theta) = 0. These are purely mathematical deductions; the appropriateness of the physical conditions is a more difficult question which can only be answered experimentally. The physical condition of zero tangential stress qualitatively means that no deformation of the ice field can take place at the boundary. Techniques for measuring the deformation of the ice fields are now under development. It is suggested that it would be interesting to measure the deformation of ice fields near the boundary, even though a measurement of non-zero deformation (which the author suspects would be found, since external driving forces will in general tend to produce deformation) would not distinguish critically between the correctness of the boundary condition and the basic validity of the "viscous liquid" type of model.

Growth of spruce at Dubawnt Lake, Northwest Territories   /   Larsen, J.A.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 59
ASTIS record 10176

The interesting note by Hansell et al. on tree growth at Dubawnt Lake and on my statements concerning trees at Dubawnt, Ennadai, and Yathkyed Lakes requires comment. Let me briefly state a few points: 1) The concept "tree line" is confusing since a lone tree far beyond the forest border must be included within the "treed" zone; 2) Dwarfed and decumbent black spruce (occasionally white or "intermediate" forms) exist over a wide zone north of the forest border in Keewatin and Eastern Mackenzie; individuals in favoured sites attain "tree" size (>=3 inches in diameter breast height, dbh); 3) While reproduction is primarily by layering (in black spruce at least), seedlings are consistently seen ...; 4) Seedling mortality in all species in these areas is high, but species survival is most markedly conditioned by the frequency with which very severe seasons occur (i.e., a series of very cold summers); 5) Seedlings that survive a series of favourable years can then live and grow through a fairly long series of rather severe years; 6) At Ennadai and elsewhere, apparently anomalously successful young trees are in places found on exposed sites; they are not, however, a sure sign of a major climatic amelioration but of a few favourable years; 7) An extension of range of "trees" over a few miles, thus, does not in itself, to me at least, constitute indisputable evidence of an extension of the "tree line" especially if this has occurred within the existing range of spruce as a species; 8) The map as presented ... shows, in my view, the northward extent of the range of spruce, anywhere within which will be found the occasional "tree" on favoured sites, the result of some sequence of events permitting the individual to grow but not necessarily a general change in climatic conditions; 9) A much better indication of climatic change would be a shift in the position of the forest border, defined as the area where the (gently rolling) terrain is 50 per cent covered by forest and 50 per cent by tundra ...; 10) The comment that I say spruce has not re-established at Ennadai Lake is very misleading since I wrote that spruce is common at Ennadai Lake (part of which lies south of the forest border); my reference was to a grove of spruce (at the northern largely barren end of the lake) cut by natives many years ago which has not regenerated; 11) There is, in fact, a grove of spruce with individuals of dbh >=3 inches and basal diameter of >=8 inches near Yathkyed Lake (at 62°35'N, 98°52'W) which would put the "tree line" far out into the barrens on the map as presented; 12) There is also a grove of spruce near the outlet of the Kamilukuak River (south end of Dubawnt at 62°41'N, 101°33'W) larger and with larger individuals, if memory serves, than any mentioned in the literature. These points are not to be interpreted as disbelief in climatic change. I agree, in general, with the summary Hansell et al. present of recent climatic events. The topic invites speculation and, above all, more comprehensive field data from many places.

The Icefield Ranges Research Project, 1971   /   Ragle, R.H.   Houston, C.S.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 60-64
ASTIS record 53547

The 1971 Icefield Ranges Research Project (IRRP) field season again was something of a paradox and, as in past seasons, weather was the guilty agent. Projects that were carried out on the continental slope of the St. Elias Mountains enjoyed relatively good weather; those pursued under the direct influence of Pacific maritime air masses suffered through possibly the worst season weatherwise since the inauguration of IRRP in 1961. Research activity at Kluane Lake camp continued year-round during 1970-1971 for the first time in ten years of operation. ... Base camp is situated on the southern end of Kluane Lake (el. c. 780 m.) and was the hub from which two full-time and four short-term field camps were supported. Air support was provided by the Arctic Institute's versatile STOL supercharged Helio Courier aircraft equipped with ski-wheels aided substantially by a Canadian Forces DeHavilland Buffalo and by two fixed-wing and two rotary-wing aircraft which were chartered locally when necessity demanded. In early July the DeHavilland Buffalo dropped over 4 tons of supplies and equipment to the Mount Logan physiology laboratory (el. c. 5,335 m). Aircraft flew approximately 270 hours in support of IRRP programs in 1971. All base camp facilities were opened for summer field research parties mid-May and were closed 12 September. As in past summers, however, maximum utilization of facilities and research activity occurred between mid-June and mid-August. Principal investigators, senior scientists and graduate students plus their assistants numbered over 70 persons. ... In all more than 100 men and women representing 30 Canadian and American colleges, universities, and research institutions and agencies participated in IRRP field investigations in physical, biological, medical, and social sciences. ... A nominal [glacier studies] program was carried out from mid-July to mid-August on the Rusty Glacier and two neighbours the Backe and Trapridge glaciers, three small surge-type glaciers for which there is evidence of a history of surging. ... During the 1971 summer field season investigations continued into significant changes in the level of Kluane Lake and shifts in direction of drainage .... Active loess transport and deposition studies began 30 May on the wide, dry floor of the Slims River valley. ... Examination of climate continued on three scales of observation here defined as micro-, meso-, and synoptic. ... Research on Dall sheep with emphasis on its range relationship continued throughout the winter. The study area encompasses Sheep Mountain (e. 1,954 m). ... Phytogeographical studies in the Icefield Ranges, begun in 1965 on nunataks and in the alpine zone above the 1,500-m level, were continued in 1971. ... Field laboratory studies [high altitude physiology] were planned to build upon and expand work which had been done in previous years and were for the most part directed towards better understanding of the role of water and salts in acclimatization to hypoxia and in acute mountain sickness. ... The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and the Arctic Institute convened a workshop at Kluane Lake camp further to refine and amplify the contributions of energy and mass balance studies. The workshop was held from 23 to 28 August. ...

University of Colorado : 1971 summer field season in east Baffin Island   /   Andrews, J.T.   Barry, R.G.
Arctic, v. 25, no. 1, Mar. 1972, p. 64-65
ASTIS record 53548

Research was continued by University of Colorado faculty and graduate students in the area of Cumberland Peninsula. Baffin Island, Northwest Territories. The work was divided into four main phases: 1) studies on the glacial chronology of the Penny Ice Cap and local mountain ice caps; 2) the mass balance of the Boas Glacier; 3) air-sea interactions using ground stations, instrumented aircraft and satellite data; and 4) evaluation of climatic trends. ...

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