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New look at the North   /   McNeill, R.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 215-216
ASTIS record 10124
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Reports Canadian Armed Forces activities planned with the new 35-man Northern Region Headquarters at Yellowknife Jan 1971, under Brig-Gen Ramsey Withers, who is familiar with the area, its people and its social codes. Bridge construction, airstrip improvement, search and rescue operations and surveillance of pollution limits are among planned activities, with efforts to train Eskimos and Indians for nontechnical jobs.


Bird-banding in Greenland   /   Mattox, W.G.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 217-228, ill., tables
ASTIS record 10125
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Reviews the ornithological studies and banding activities, the latter from 1890. Data are given on banding and recoveries in 1946-65 for 44 species cited by their English, Latin, Danish and Greenlandic names. The total number of birds banded in 1945-68 is >116,000. Author comments on human predation, the economic importance of birds to the natives, and on the system of paid banding by local population as fostering Greenlanders' interest in hunting laws and bird protection.

Baguage des oiseaux au Groënland. Au Groënland, le baguage des oiseaux, initiative danoise, a débuté en 1926 avec le Dr A. Bertelsen. Après la seconde guerre mondiale, le Dr Finn Salomonsen entreprit un programme officiel de baguage, qui éveilla l'intérêt des Groënlandais. Selon ce programme, les administrateurs du gouvernement danois choisissent des citoyens de chaque district pour baguer les oiseaux sur la base d'une rétribution. Au cours des récentes années cependant, l'intérêt a décliné parmi la population locale et pour maintenir le travail de baguage, il a fallu envoyer de Copenhague des expéditions spéciales. De 1946 à 1965, 89,258 oiseaux ont été bagués; de ceux-ci, 6,542 ont été retrouvés par la suite (5,947 au Groënland et 595 ailleurs). De 1966 à 1968, 26,758 nouveaux baguages ont été réalisés, pour un total de 116,016 en 23 ans.


Soil temperatures in the active layer, Beaufort Plain   /   French, H.M.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 229-239, ill.
ASTIS record 10126
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Reports on summer 1968 fieldwork in this region of northwest Banks Island, where the some 200-ft thick, probably late Tertiary Beaufort Formation outcrops as unconsolidated sands and gravel with shale units. This plain is gently undulating and fluvially dissected, with many asymmetric valleys having steeper slopes oriented to the southwest. The scant summer precipitation, temperature (T) and wind data are tabulated and discussed in connection with soil T measured on slopes of varying orientations. Absolute T values in the Beaufort materials are high relative to analogous arctic regions. The asymmetry of the valleys appears to be closely related to the distinctive microclimates on differently oriented slopes, as controlled by angle and azimuth of the sun and prevailing northwest winds.

Températures du mollisol dans la plaine de Beaufort. Ce texte décrit les températures mesurées dans le mollisol, sur des pentes d'orientations diverses, dans le nord-ouest de l'île de Banks, au cours de l'été de 1968. Des températures élevées, souvent supérieures à 60°F (16°C) à une profondeur d'un pouce (25 mm) ne sont pas rares dans les aires sises sur la formation de Beaufort et reflètent la forte conductivité et la faible rétention thermiques de ces matériaux. On étudie brièvement la relation entre les micro-climats des pentes d'orientations diverses et la nature asymétrique des vallées de la région.


Geographic variation in body size and weight of Willow Ptarmigan   /   West, G.C.   Weeden, R.B.   Irving, L.   Peyton, L.J.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 240-253, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 10127
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Reports results of multiple range test comparisons of wing, tail and net body weight measurements of 2600 specimens collected in Alaska and adjacent Yukon Territory. Populations from different geographic areas showed statistically significant differences but uniformity within recognizable subspecies. Lagopus lagopus alascensis has the largest range in Alaska and occurs at least to Old Crow in the Yukon. L.l.albus occurs from central Yukon Territory eastward and south to northern British Columbia and west into Alaska in the upper Tanana valley and south of the Alaska Range to the Susitna River. L.l. alexandrae occupies the Alaska and Kenai Peninsulas and a narrow margin of the Gulf of Alaska coast south into British Columbia. L.l. murei is distributed on Kodiak Island, the Shumagins and the Aleutians from Unimak westward. The present distribution of these subspecies may be explained in part by their distribution at the time of the Wisconsin glaciation and their subsequent dispersal.

Variations géographiques de la taille et du poids du Lagopède des saules. De multiples comparaisons de mesures des ailes, de la queue et du poids net de 2,600 spécimens de lagopède des saules (Lagopus lagopus) recueillis en Alaska et dans la partie adjacente du territoire du Yukon, ont démontré des différences statistiquement significatives entre les populations des différentes aires géographiques, mains ont aussi indiqué une surprenante uniformité parmi les populations désignées comme sous-espèces reconnaissables. Les précédentes distributions d'habitat, basées sur la couleur du plumage et la taille du bec, distinguaient L. l. alascensis de L. l. albus à la frontière Alaska-Yukon. Sur la base des nouvelles mesures, on croit que la population du L. l. alascensis plus gros s'étend vers l'Est dans le territoire du Yukon au moins jusqu'à Old Crow, tandis que le L. l. albus plus petit s'étend vers l'Ouest à travers l'Alaska, dans la haute vallée de la Tanana et au Sud de la chaîne alaskienne jusqu'à la Sustina. On suppose que la distribution présente des diverses sous-espèces du Logopède des saules en Alaska peut s'expliquer par leur distribution à l'époque de la glaciation wisconsienne et par leur dispersion subséquente.


Geomorphology and glacial geology of the Martin River Glacier, Alaska   /   Reid, J.R.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 254-267, ill.
ASTIS record 10128
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Divides the lower 17 km of this glacier and its periphery into four zones and discusses their land forms, water, plant and animal life as a dynamic system directly dependent on the glacier regime. The active zone is characterized by exposed and drift-covered ice, contorted and linear medial moraines, crevasses, superglacial streams and moulins and ice sinkhole lakes; its flow rate is 200-approx 100 m/yr. The intermediate zone is on flowing ice covered by drift up to 3 m thick and a dense vegetation cover. Many ice sinkhole lakes drain frequently via englacial or subglacial channels. The terminal zone which was active about 1650 AD is on dead ice, drift-covered and with Sitka spruce stands with more open areas than those in the intermediate zone. The glaciated zone is delineated by terminal moraine, moraine segments of probable late Wisconsin age and 21 successive lateral moraines, the seven lowest of which are of post-Wisconsin age.

Géomorphologie et géologie glaciaire du glacier de la rivière Martin, Alaska. Les derniers 17 km du glacier de la rivière Martin et leur voisinage offrent un aperçu unique sur un système dynamique groupant formes de terrain, eau, plantes et animaux, tous dépendants du régime du glacier. Des quatre zones : zone de glace active, zone intermédiaire, zone terminale et zone glaciée, la première est la plus étendue. Les deux suivantes se caractérisent par de la moraine de surface, d'une épaisseur variant de moins d'un mètre à plus de 3 mètres, couverte de forêt et de broussailles. Lacs et dépressions de fonte sont communs et plusieurs se drainent soudainement par des chenaux "englaciaires" et sous-glaciaires. Quelques lacs sont présents dans la zone terminale où la glace se trouve sous de 1 à 2 m seulement de moraine de surface, ce qui est suffisant pour protéger les eaux lacustres de la glace et permettre la propagation de la faune aquatique. Les arbres de la zone terminale indiquent que cette zone était glaciairement active vers l'an 1650. La moraine terminale extérieure et les nombreux segments de moraine de la zone englacée sont probablement d'âge fini-wisconsinien. On peut les relier aux 14 moraines latérales supérieures de la vallée du lobe Charlotte. Les sols des 7 moraines inférieures vont de "l'immature" à "l'azonal" et sont probablement d'âge néo-glaciaire.


Behavioural thermoregulation by High Arctic butterflies   /   Kevan, P.G.   Shorthouse, J.D.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 268-279, ill.
Paper - Canada. Entomology Research Institute, no. 44
ASTIS record 10129
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Reports summer 1967-68 observations and experimental temperature measurements made at Hazen and Gilman Camps, northern Ellesmere Island, on Colias helca, Boloria chariclea and B. polaris, Lycaena feildeni and Plebius aquilo. In order to utilize direct isolation to increase their body temperatures, they selected basking substrates and precisely oriented their wings with respect to the sun. High arctic butterflies are most often found in a warm, relatively windless, sheltered places where on sunny days they fly in the warmest air close to the ground. Their wing morphology, venation, color, hairiness and physiology are briefly discussed.

Comportement thermo-régulatoire des papillons du haut Arctique. Chez cinq espèces de papillons trouvés au lac Hazen (81°49'N, 71°18'W), île d'Ellesmere, Territoires du Nord-Ouest, le comportement thermo-régulatoire est une importante adaptation. Ces papillons arctiques se servent de l'insolation directe pour augmenter la température de leur corps : ils choisissent des sous-strates réchauffantes et orientent leurs ailes de façon précise par rapport au soleil. Quelques expériences ont confirmé l'importance de ce fait. On discute brièvement de la morphologie alaire, de la couleur, de la pilosité et de la physiologie de ces insectes.


Community and regional development in the north   /   Wonders, W.C.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 281-284
ASTIS record 10130
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... The problems of northern development are essentially the same regardless of the region involved, or indeed in many cases regardless of the country involved. Of these problems it is generally agreed that transportation ranks first. Transportation is the single most important key to northern development - in northern Manitoba, northern Canada, or northern U.S.S.R. ... northern communities, no less than communities elsewhere in Canada, find themselves in a rapidly changing world. No longer can they mark the passing years by the arrival of the annual or semi-annual supply boat or mail run. Aircraft, radio telephone, and even taped television programs are symbolic of the degree to which change has come to the North as well, and are increasingly taken for granted by northerners. There is a comparable change in the need for northern communities. Some of these, while useful in fur trade days have become as redundant as the small elevator hamlets along the railways on the Prairies. Like them it may be better for the long-term opportunities of the residents, to encourage a migration to larger centres within the North - though this is conceded to be a delicate and difficult task. There will always have to be communities in the North, but these probably will be fewer and larger centres, better situated to meet the transportation and development needs of the present and future. It is only in larger centres that the costly and permanent service facilities now expected by all Canadians can be justified. Quite possibly smaller "camps" of relatively short life expectancy may operate out from one major centre, with a variety of commuting developed between them, as was the case for example between Yellowknife and Discovery. With the increasing capital outlay involved in establishing a modern community in the North, it clearly will be more and more difficult to abandon or relocate it in later years. To an unprecedented degree northern communities now represent long-term commitments in the area, involving very large capital investment. Only a thorough, balanced assessment of the regional potential can provide the necessary background for such vital decisions. Community and region always have been inseparably linked in northern development, but never more critically than at present.


Frictional resistance to a ship's passage through converging ice   /   Keys, J.   Smith, S.D.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 284-285
ASTIS record 10131
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Presents formulae to estimate the pressure developed in a converging ice field and to calculate the resulting frictional resistance to a ship attempting to navigate through such ice. The icebreaker-tanker Manhattan is used as an example. It is shown that the power necessary to navigate in ice which is failing in compression would be prohibitive.


Oil spills in ice : some cleanup options   /   Barber, F.G.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 285-286, ill.
ASTIS record 10132
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Reports measures used to dispose of a 367,000-gal diesel oil and gasoline spill in Deception Bay, Quebec (western Hudson Strait) after a slide of snow and water through a tank farm. The oil was pumped on sea ice and burned at a location away from the tank farm and tundra.


Problems of a contemporary arctic village   /   Marshall, H.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 286-287
ASTIS record 10133
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Records the disastrous effects of a summer 1968 drought in the Old Crow area near the headwaters of the Porcupine River in Yukon Territory. Supply barge trips were curtailed; forest fires displaced the caribou migration route for decades to come. The summer fish catches were lowered; and supply of meat by government or hunting by members of the Vunta Kutchin people was required. Oil exploration on Crow Flats may be expected to interfere with traditional trapping grounds.


C.T. Elvey (1899-1970)   /   Mather, K.B.
Arctic, v. 23, no. 4, Dec. 1970, p. 292
ASTIS record 53544
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The death of Dr. C.T. Elvey occurred in Tucson, Arizona, on 25 March 1970. He was Director of the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska from 1952 to 1963, Vice-President for Research and Advanced Study from 1961 to 1963, and University Research Professor and Special Assistant to the President from 1963 until his retirement in 1967. ... Dr. Elvey moved to Alaska in 1952 to become Head of the Department of Geophysics and Director of the Geophysical Institute. He personally undertook a study of the morphology of the aurora, contributed to the design of an all-sky camera for the IGY, and formulated a unifying policy for the Institute based on the theme of 'particle bombardment of the atmosphere'. ... His research proposal of 1958 for conjugate point studies proved to be a far-sighted suggestion which gave the Institute a handsome lead in this field; such studies are still in progress at the Institute, though in more elaborate forms today than Chris originally envisioned. In 1961 he created the Advisory Committee which has been influential in determining broad (scientific and other) policies of the Institute over the years. ... The rise of the Geophysical Institute from a small and rather unsettled group early in the 1950's to its position of prominence in high latitude research in the 1960's is surely its own indisputable testimony to effective leadership and scientific direction during the intervening decade. He came to Alaska with a distinguished career already behind him, yet he carved a new career in the far North. Chris Elvey will be missed by his colleagues round the world, by the many friends he made in Alaska and especially by those of us who came to know him - and the integrity he stood for - so well.


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