Ecology and northern development   /   McTaggart-Cowan, I.
Arctic, v. 22, no. 1, Mar. 1969, p. 3-12
ASTIS record 10055

Technological man has introduced disturbances within the northern ecosystems in which the native peoples were a dynamic element, removing from the natural resources annually only what they could use. Establishment of permanent settlements in the Middle and Far North will depend on the effective management of the natural resources. The production of caribou, musk-oxen and moose as meat animals, the fur-bearers, and the North as a breeding ground for migratory birds, are discussed in terms of environment, as are pesticides and other pollutants, conservation for recreational purposes etc.

Importance of the radiocarbon standard deviation in determining relative sea levels and glacial chronology from east Baffin Island   /   Andrews, J.T.
Arctic, v. 22, no. 1, Mar. 1969, p. 13-24, ill.
ASTIS record 10056

Deals with the problem of error in estimating relative sea levels and glacial chronology in a small area where radiocarbon dates provide some chronological order, but where the precision of radiometric technique does not allow a clear-cut chronology to be developed on that basis alone. An equation is presented to predict postglacial uplift which is defined as the algebraic sum of the equation of the marine limit and the appropriate eustatic sea level correction. Using the head of Ekalugad Fiord as an example, author constructs postglacial uplift and emergence curves on the basis of the equation, and an equidistant diagram showing possible variation in relative sea level. Results indicate that glaciers lingered in the east and central Baffin Island valleys from 5700 to at least 4350 BP. Data for this study were gathered by Geographical Branch field parties during the Baffin Island Project, 1961-67.

Importance de la déviation standard du radiocarbone dans la détermination des niveaux marins relatifs et dans les chronologies glaciaires : un exemple pour l'est de l'île de Baffin. L'auteur donne des exemples de l'importance de la déviation standard du radiocarbone dans l'évaluation des niveaux marins relatifs, de même qu'une chronologie glaciaire locale. Il décrit les techniques d'évaluation des données. Dans la première étape de l'émergence postglaciaire, des incertitudes sur l'âge radiocarbone d'un échantillon, qu'on présume dater la limite marine, peuvent conduire à une erreur de vingt pour cent dans l'altitude estimée des niveaux marins inférieurs. Aussi récemment que 4.300 années-radiocarbone avant aujourd'hui, des langues glaciaires alimentées par la calotte intérieure de l'île de Baffin atteignaient le niveau de la mer, tout au moins dans la région étudiée ici.

A Late-Pleistocene glacial sequence from Prince of Wales Island, Alaska   /   Swanston, D.N.
Arctic, v. 22, no. 1, Mar. 1969, p. 25-33, ill., figures
ASTIS record 10057

Describes two tills exposed in the Maybeso Creek valley on the east coast of the island, differing in stratigraphic position and degree of weathering. The younger is blue-gray, compacted and weathered to 3 ft depth; the older is coarse, leached and with a particle of surface oxidation that suggests it is a remnant of the B horizon of a fossil till soil truncated by advance of the glacier that deposited the younger till. Such a twofold division of glacial deposits is found elsewhere in Southeast Alaska and may represent advances of the Wisconsin glaciation. Four recessional moraines of the younger till mark stillstands during the final retreat of the last glacier.

Séquence glaciaire fini-pléistocène sur l'île du Prince-de-Galles, Alaska. Des preuves de deux avancées glaciaires fini-pléistocènes apparaissent dans la vallée du ruisseau Maybeso. Un till cimenté "plus jeune", avec une mince zone météorisée, recouvre directement un till "plus vieux" complètement lessivé et partiellement oxidé. Le till plus jeune a été déposé par une glaciation d'extension régionale représentant la dernière avancée glaciaire majeure de l'âge Wisconsin classique dans le sud-est de l'Alaska. Le till plus vieux pourrait aussi correspondre à une glaciation régionale, que l'on pourrait relier à un âge Wisconsin intermédiaire ou fini-ancien. Dans la vallée, quatre moraines de récession marquent les dernières pulsations de la glaciation qui déposa le till plus jeune au cours de la première partie de l'interglaciaire précédant l'Hypsithermal.

Overwintering of small mammals near Great Slave Lake, northern Canada   /   Fuller, W.A.   Stebbins, L.L.   Dyke, G.R.
Arctic, v. 22, no. 1, Mar. 1969, p. 34-55, figures, tables
ASTIS record 10058

Deals with the ecology of mice and voles Peromyscus maniculatus, Clethrionomys gapperi and C. rutilus in the subnival environment, mainly on the Alberta plateau but with one plot and some traplines in the Mackenzie lowlands, both in the taiga zone where the snow cover is more uniform than in the tundra. Winters 1965-67 measurements of air and subnival (moss layer) temperatures, snow depths and densities, also changes in weight and numbers of species trapped are represented graphically. Mortality rates varied by species and year. The winter weight of all three species is less than in summer. Annual differences in mean body weight were small and not related to differences in population density.

Surhibernation des petits mammifères près du Grand lac des Esclaves, Canada. On a enregistré, au moyen de thermistors, la température de l'air et celle de la couche de mousse sous la neige; on a aussi mesuré l'épaisseur et la densité de la neige sur une parcelle voisine des sondes enregistreuses, comme sur d'autres parcelles éloignées de 3 à 60 milles (5 à 100 km). On a recueilli, à intervalle irrégulier, des spécimens de Clethrionomys gapperi, C. rutilus et Peromyscus maniculatus. On a observé les différences dans les températures subnivales, d'une année à l'autre et d'une parcelle à l'autre, de même que dans l'épaisseur de la neige et dans son taux d'accumulation. Les plus basses températures subnivales enregistrées ont été de -14°C en janvier 1966 et -9°C en janvier 1967. Les taux de mortalité ont varié selon les espèces et les années. Il y a eu un déclin marqué de C. rutilus à la suite d'une longue période froide dans le milieu subnival en 1965-66. Pour les trois espèces, le poids hivernal était considérablement inférieur au poids estival. Les différences annuelles du poids moyen étaient faibles et sans rapport avec les différences de densité des populations.

Geologic and geophysical observations in the northern Labrador Sea   /   Johnson, G.L.   Closuit, A.W.   Pew, J.A.
Arctic, v. 22, no. 1, Mar. 1969, p. 56-68, figures
ASTIS record 10059

Reports and discusses the results of a 3500 mi magnetic, bathymetric and seismic reflection reconnaissance survey concentrated in the area 61 - 64 N in Aug-Sept 1967 by the USCGC Mariposa in cooperation with the US Naval Oceanographic Office and the Univ of Wisconsin. The continental shelf off West Greenland is ~100 fathoms shallower than that off the east coast; the continental slope is precipitous and the continental rise poorly developed and irregular. The origin of the marginal trench at the base of the slope seaward of Godthaab is either tectonism, bottom current erosion or a combination. Depths of the Labrador continental shelf break range 250-300 f; its slope gradients are 1:20-1:40 and there is a well developed continental rise. A number of canyons are noted in the sea floor of the area, and Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Canyon is the dominent feature as far as 60 N. Seismic data suggest a continuous buried ridge near the geographic axis of the basin, the Mid-Labrador Sea Ridge, traced to the Davis Strait sill. It is suggested that this ridge is a relic of Mid-Oceanic Ridge which, as it developed, separated the continental blocks of Greenland and Canada. The bottom conditions of the sea indicate major sculpting by bottom currents.

Observations géologiques et géophysiques dans le nord de la mer du Labrador. Des recherches récentes ont fourni de précieuses informations sur la morphologie, la structure et l'origine de la partie nord de la mer du Labrador. Des preuves indirectes indiquent que les régimes des courants de fond pourraient bien déterminer les processus dynamiques de sédimentation. La crête enfouie au milieu de la mer du Labrador a été retracée jusqu'au seuil du détroit de Davis. On peut considérer que cette crête représente les restes d'une crête médi-océanique dont la croissance axiale a séparé les blocs continentaux du Groenland et du Canada.

A small research submarine in the Arctic   /   Milne, A.R.
Arctic, v. 22, no. 1, Mar. 1969, p. 69-70, figure
ASTIS record 10060

Describes the two-man undersea work boat, Pisces I, produced by International Hydrodynamics Co Ltd of Vancouver, B.C. The 15,000 lb vessel normally operates to depths of 1800 ft. With the CCGS Labrador as a mother ship in Canadian Arctic Islands waters Aug-Sept 1968, the submarine made dives in ice-covered seas with no problems in launching and retrieval by the Labrador when wave or swell height did not exceed 3 ft. Photos were made in the exceptionally clear water, but those of the underside of sea ice were disappointing, as were attempts to observe mammals in relation to their underwater sounds. Homing and communication devices must be so located on the submersible as to remain effective while it is pressed up under the sea ice.

Indians in Siberia   /   Katser, J.
Arctic, v. 22, no. 1, Mar. 1969, p. 70-72, ill.
ASTIS record 10061

The Evenki, a Tungus group, occupy the Evenki National District in Krasnoyarsk Province. Little is known of their pre-contact history. About 25 thousand in number, they have a hunting, reindeer-breeding, and fur-farming economy. Considerably acculturated, they have a modern literature and art. The facilities of Tura, the District center, are stated. The area has mineral resources, coal and hydro-electric power development.

Eskimo bird names at Chesterfield Inlet and Baker Lake, Keewatin, Northwest Territories   /   Höhn, E.O.
Arctic, v. 22, no. 1, Mar. 1969, p. 72-76
ASTIS record 10062

The list below was compiled during a stay of about two months, 27 May to 21 July 1967, at Chesterfield Inlet and during a few days spent at Baker Lake in the course of the homeward journey. At Chesterfield Inlet my principal native informants on bird names were Krakok, a man about forty-five years old who had lived part of his earlier life at Daly Bay (about 50 miles further north) and a twelve-year-old boy Koluar, who early in his childhood had been brought from Iglulik to Chesterfield by his father and who often accompanied me on bird-watching walks. Koluar, through his father, had learnt some Iglulik versions of bird names but also knew those in use locally. The Baker Lake names were collected from a man about fifty years old, Kchlaiyuk, with one of his sons acting as interpreter. According to Boas these people belong to the tribe he called the Kinepitu or Agutit. I conceive the principal virtue of the list here given to lie in the explanations of the basic meaning of the native names for which I am indebted to the scholarship of Father E. Fafard, O.M.I. [Oblates of Mary Immaculate] From the meanings of the bird names it will be evident that in the case of many only the context in which they are used would make it clear that a bird is referred to. ...

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