The Alaska Highway : background to decision   /   Bucksar, R.G.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 4, Dec. 1968, p. 214-222, ill.
ASTIS record 10047

Construction of the Alaska Highway was considered as early as 1929. Interest was stimulated by Highway Associations at Fairbanks, and Dawson City; it increased after British Columbia and Alaskan officials began exchanges of information. Alaska adopted a memorial petitioning the US Congress to arrange conferences between representatives of the US and $12 million authorized by the US Congress functioned by their Canadian counterparts 1930-33. It recommended in 1935 construction with $2 mill from the US and $12 mill from Canada. Another joint commission was appointed in 1938 and a Permanent Joint Board on Defense established in 1940. In early 1942, $50 mill was authorized by the US Congress. In nine months and six days, the Alaska Highway was a reality at a cost of $139,794,567.

Paleoecology of a Late Pleistocene small mammal community from interior Alaska   /   Guthrie, R.D.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 4, Dec. 1968, p. 223-244, figures, table
ASTIS record 10048

The material was recovered from exposures, mostly mine cuts through the silt, to reach auriferous gravels at five localities near Fairbanks. The age range of the silts is mainly early Illinoian - present. The vole Microtus gregalis predominates in the fossil assemblage, indicating a habitat above tree line with welldrained soils. M. gregalis, Citellus undulatus and Dicrostonyx torquatus are not now found in the area however, and their extinction is attributed to a rapid reduction of a preferred habitat at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Evidence from large mammalian fossils indicates that tree line was lowered at least 300 m during the Wisconsin phase and that most of the mammals were grazers. This supports the small mammalian indications that welldrained alpine meadow expanded almost down to the river flats in interior Alaska during the last two glaciations. The distribution changes and extinction of the small mammals are discussed in relation to the intercontinental communities and interchanges within the Beringian refugium in eastern Siberia and Alaska.

Paléoécologie d'un Petit Groupe de Mammifières du Pléistocène Récent de l'Intérieur de l'Alaska. De petits mammifères fossiles des sédiments du Pléistocène récent de l'Alaska intérieur ont servi à l'étude de la paléoécologie de cette région. L'élément dominant de cet assemblage fossile était Microtus gregalis, ce qui indiquerait que la région se trouvait au nord de la limite de la zone forestière et que la faune et la flore qui l'occupaient préféraient les sols bien drainés. Trois espèces fossiles sont maintents absentes de la région : Microtus gregalis, Citellus undulatus et Dicrostonyx torquatus. Leur extinction dans l'Alaska intérieur semble due à une régression rapide de leur habitat préféré, vers la fin de la glaciation wisconsinienne. Cette interprétation écologique du paléogroupe et de son extinction concorde avec les interprétations que suggèrent les assemblages fossiles de grands mammifères de la même région.

Stratigraphic studies of the winter snow layer, Mount Logan, St. Elias Range   /   Alford, D.   Keeler, C.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 4, Dec. 1968, p. 245-254, ill.
Icefield Ranges Research Project, scientific results, v. 2, 1970, p. 37-42, ill., maps
ASTIS record 10049

A traverse of King Trench, which rises from Upper Ogilvie Glacier (2300 m) to King Col (4500 m) a distance of 16 km, Yukon Territory, was made for US Army CRREL, June 1965, to see if techniques of stratiographic analysis of snow and firn could be successfully applied to studies of the alpine climate, as they have been on the Greenland ice sheet, Data on near-surface snow accumulation, temperature and density from eight pits along the traverse provide a climatological model which relates the variations in snow properties to localized topographic obstruction or enhancement of katabatic air drainage. Limited conclusions suggest directions for future study rather than for application to other large ranges or even other parts of St. Elias Range: topography may be the most important control in determining the areal distribution of near-surface climatic elements in mountains; extrapolation of climatological parameters to mountain slopes from nearby valley stations or free-air soundings is not a valid approach: analysis of pertinent stratiographic parameters of the alpine snow pack may be a useful approach to study of local mountain climates.

Études stratigraphiques de la couche de neige hivernale, Mont Logan, chaîne de Saint-Élie. Les auteurs présentent les résultats d'une étude par cheminement des propriétés de la neige infra-superficielle, dans la zone de la King Trench, sur le mont Logan, chaîne de Saint-Élie. En supposant que ces propriétés de la neige sont liées aux processus thermodynamiques agissant pendant la période de déposition, les auteurs proposent un modèle climatologique de la King Trench qui relie les variations observées dans les propriétés de la neige le long du cheminement à une augmentation ou une rétention topographique localisée de l'écoulement catabatique de l'air. Les auteurs supposent qu'au voisinage de la surface des pentes couvertes de neige, le climat peut généralement être partiellement déduit de l'interaction entre la topographie locale et l'écoulement catabatique de l'air.

Growth rates of important reindeer forage lichens on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska   /   Pegau, R.E.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 4, Dec. 1968, p. 255-259, tables
ASTIS record 10050

Cladonia alpestris, C. rangiferina and C. sylvatica may comprise 75-90% of all lichens eaten by reindeer. Their growth rates must be known to determine the carrying capacity, rates of recovery and patterns for rotational grazing of reindeer rangelands. Data from two sites near Nome and a third near Koyuk show the annual linear rates of growth of these three species to be 5.0, 5.3 and 5.4 mm respectively. These averages exceed those of northern Canada and some areas in the USSR. C. rangiferina reaches the podetium renewal period in 5.9 yr, or in almost half the time required by the other two species.

Taux de croissance d'importants lichens fourragers du renne, dans la Péninsule de Seward, Alaska. Les taux linéaires moyens annuels de croissance de Cladonia alpestris, C. rangiferina et C. sylvatica dans la péninsule de Seward, Alaska, ont été établis respectivement à 5, 5.3 et 5.4 mm. Ces moyennes sont plus grandes que celles du nord du Canada et de quelques régions de l'U.R.S.S. Cladonia rangiferina atteint sa période de renouvellement du podétium en 5.9 années, ce qui est à peu près la moitié du temps requis par les deux autres espèces.

Muskox bone of possible Wisconsin age from Banks Island, Northwest Territories   /   Maher, W.J.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 4, Dec. 1968, p. 260-266, ill.
ASTIS record 10051

During a summer 1963 study of the terrestrial vertebrate fauna, a Bernard River locality was searched for fossils. The only specimen found was the right half of a left metacarpal of Ovibos moschatus with a radiocarbon age of >34,000 yr, suggesting that muskoxen were on Banks Island at the height of the Wisconsin glaciation or earlier. Conflicting views concerning the existence of a Wisconsin refugium on this island are discussed; the evidence suggests that such did exist isolated from Beringia and from any of the northern islands.

Ossement de bœuf musqué d'âge wisconsin (?) provenant de l'île de Banks, T. du N.-O., Canada. Un morceau de métacarpe d'Ovibos a été trouvé en 1963 sur l'île de Banks, T. du N.-O., Canada, près de 121°54'O. et 73°23'N. L'ossement n'était pas distinct de celui d'un Ovibos moschatus. L'auteur discute de l'existence possible d'un refuge wisconsinien sur l'île de Banks. En effet, il semble avoir existé là un refuge, isolé de la Béringia. En plus d'espèces botaniques, deux espèces de petits mammifères (lemmus sibiricus et Lepus arcticus) et, peut-être, le bœuf musqué auraient survécu dans le refuge de Banks

The East Greenland Current north of Denmark Strait : part II   /   Aagaard, K.   Coachman, L.K.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 4, Dec. 1968, p. 267-290, figures
Contribution - University of Washington. Dept. of Oceanography, no. 464
ASTIS record 10052

Deals primarily with data from cruises of the Edisto, summers 1964-65, and 1965 drift of Arlis II; supported by the Office of Naval Research through the Arctic Institute of North America. Pt 2 gives more detailed data on the temperature/salinity distributions and movements of the polar water, which represents only a minor part of the total flow, but constitutes the upper layer of the East Greenland Current and mainly controls the ice distribution; the Atlantic intermediate water, the major component of the total transport, warmer than the other waters, whose westward movement from the West Spitsbergen current begins just north of 75 N, occurs over a wide range of latitude, probably to 80 N, with the depth of the layer decreasing westward. At about 73 N, warm water moves eastward in a cyclonic movement presumably associated with that of the polar water in the Jan Mayen Polar Current; warm water not involved in this movement continues southward near the continental slope at >200 m depths. The deep water (below 1500 m) underlying the Norwegian Sea gyre (S and SE of Jan Mayen) and Greenland Sea gyre (NE of Jan Mayen) can be differentiated by temperature, the one always warmer than -1C, the other always colder. The deep water along the Greenland slope is either the Norwegian Sea or the transitional type; that of the Polar basin comes primarily from the Norwegian Sea.

Le courant de l'est du Groenland, au nord du Détroit de Danemark. Deuxième partie. Des mesures directes de courant et des études de distribution des températures dans la mer du Groenland indiquent que, si les eaux polaires du courant de l'Est du Groenland tirent leur origine de l'océan Arctique, la masse des eaux intermédiaires et profondes circule de façon cyclonique. Il y a des changements saisonniers systématiques dans la température et la salinité des eaux polaires. Ces changements sont liés au cycle annuel de formation et de fonte de la glace, et sont conditionnés par l'advection horizontale, la diffusion turbulente verticale et, en hiver, par la convection pénétrative. En été, il existe une tendance baroclinique prononcée qui devrait se manifester par une réduction de la vitesse du courant en fonction de la profondeur. Cependant, des mesures directes de courant au cours de l'hiver montrent que cette variation n'existe pas. La cause le plus probable de cette anomalie est que l'importance relative de la contribution baroclinique au gradient de pression varie selon la saison. On a observé à toutes les profondeurs du courant de l'Est du Groenland des déplacements latéraux des masses d'eau de 70 km ou plus en quelques jours, ce qui suggère comme cause première une perturbation barotropique à grande échelle.

Social science research and northern development   /   Lotz, J.R.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 4, Dec. 1968, p. 291-294
ASTIS record 10053

Notes that the northern Indians and Eskimos in Canada are still poor and depressed despite the money and effort invested in the North. Various types of scientific fieldwork and development activities, their negative efforts and some positive achievements are cited. Recommendations are made.

Overwintering birds observed along the Mackenzie-Great Slave Lake highways   /   Carbyn, L.N.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 4, Dec. 1968, p. 294-297, figure, table
ASTIS record 10054

The Rae and Heart Lake regions fall within the Hay River, Upper Mackenzie and northwestern transition sections of the transcontinental boreal forest region and mostly within the Canadian life zone. The subarctic climate is characterized by long cold winters, short warm summers and light precipitation. Of approx 105 bird species that breed in these areas, only 13 species overwinter. An annotated list of these species is given.

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