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The international study of Eskimos   /   Milan, F.A.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 3, Sept. 1968, p. 122-126, ill.
ASTIS record 10039
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Describes a five-yr program beginning 1968 as part of the International Biological Programme. Multi-disciplinary teams from Canada, Denmark, France and the US are to study Eskimo citizens at Wainwright in Alaska, Igloolik in Canada, and Upernavik and Angmagssalik in Greenland. The US program is mainly concerned with the mechanisms of human adaptation to environmental extremes and to urbanization. General research categories set up by planning conferences in 1967 are: general health and performance, child growth, genetics, behavior, ecology and prehistory. Financial and logistic support and personnel for the American, Canadian and Danish programs are noted.


Glaciological studies on Mount Wrangell, Alaska, 1961   /   Benson, C.S.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 3, Sept. 1968, p. 127-152, ill., figures, tables
ASTIS record 10040
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Measurements of temperature,density, hardnesss and stratigraphic profiles were made in the upper 10 m of the snow cover in the caldera and an adjacent snow-filled crater. Facies parameters calculated for the summit area, 4000-4300 m at 62° N, compare well with the same parameters near the dry-snow line on the Greenland ice sheet. This comparison is part of the purpose of the Mt Wrangell study within the framework of the "hypothetical North Polar Ice Sheet", based on a concept that the Greenland ice sheet behaves as though it belonged to a much larger ice sheet, which is symmetrical about the North Pole. The mean annual temperature, based on the measurements at 10 m depth in the caldera and inactive craters, is -20C. The mean annual value of accumulation in smooth central areas of the caldera is >100 cm water equivalent. Velocity of surface movement in the caldera averages about 5 cm/day or ~20 m/yr.

Études glaciologiques sur le mont Wrangell, Alaska, 1961. En cinq points de la caldéra et du cratère voisin rempli de neige, on a mené des études sur la neige, au moyen de trous profonds de 3 à 4 m prolongés par des carottes jusqu'à 10 m.: les études ont porté sur la température, la densité, la dureté et les profils stratigraphiques de la neige. Les paramètres de faciès calculés pour le sommet du mont Wrangell (4,000 à 4,300 m., 62°N.) se comparent très bien aux mêmes paramètres calculés près de la limite de la neige sèche sur la calotte groenlandaise. À 10 m. sous la surface au centre de la caldéra et au centre des cratères inactifs, la température moyenne annuelle est et - 20°C. Près du bord de la caldéra, on a observé des effets de réchauffement volcanique. Au cours de l'été de 1961, l'accumulation nivale a été anormalement élevée. Elle varie de façon marquée selon le relief et sa valeur annuelle moyenne dépasse 100 cm en équivalent d'eau dans les parties centrales de la caldéra et des cratères. On a mesuré le mouvement de la surface par triangulation d'un réseau de pieux, à partir de points de contrôle situés à la bordure de la caldéra; dans la caldéra, la valeur moyenne était de 5 cm/jour, soit environ 20 m/an.


The upper marine limit in the Little Whale River area, New Quebec   /   Archer, D.R.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 3, Sept. 1968, p. 153-160, ill., figures, table
ASTIS record 10041
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The relatively high land in places near the east coast of Hudson Bay in this area enables a more accurate estimate of direction and tilt of the upper marine limit plane to be made and thus to throw light on the emergence of this area after the last glaciation. The lower limit of perched boulders was used to indicate the height of the marine limit, for they represent the limit of wave action, whereas evidence given by the highest marine shells was inconclusive. The method of altimeter measurements and instrumental errors are stated. Analysis of data from 21 sites shows that the upper marine limit plane is tilted up toward 232° ± 36°(toward Hudson Bay); data from two points in the Richmond Bay area gave a tilt up toward 227° ± 24°. The varied isostatic readjustment indicates a major center of ice dispersal in the southern Hudson Bay/northern James Bay region during the Wisconsin glaciation.

La limite supérieure de la transgression marine dans la région de la Petite rivière de la Baleine, Nouveau-Québec. À l'aide d'un altimètre, on a mesuré en 21 sites l'altitude de la limite supérieure de la transgression marine, indiquée par la limite inférieure des blocs perchés. L'analyse de ces cotes d'altitude indique que le plan de la limite supérieure est relevé vers 232° ± 36°. En ajoutant deux mesures géodésiques obtenues par Stanley en 1939, on arrive à un relèvement dirigé vers 277° ± 24°. On peut croire que ce rajustement isostatique variable indique la présence d'un centre majeur de dispersion glaciaire wisconsinienne au voisinage du sud de la mer d'Hudson et du nord de la baie de James.


Summer climatic gradients and vegetation near Barrow, Alaska   /   Clebsch, E.E.C.   Shanks, R.E.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 3, Sept. 1968, p. 161-171, figures, table
Contribution - Tennessee. University. Botanical Laboratory, 213
ASTIS record 10042
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Reports a June-Sept 1956 study of rainfall, evaporation evapotranspiration and vegetation at four sites: Nuwuk, the old Eskimo village site on the Pt Barrow spit, a beach ridge six mi SW of Nuwuk, a site near South Barrow test well no3, about 11 mi S of the beach ridge, and Meade River 28 mi from the ocean. Another site at Inaru River was used only for vegetation studies. Simple instruments gave periodic values for the three elements. Deviations of precipitation from US Weather Bureau records are tabulated. Distinctive changes in vegetation within a few miles with increase in shrubby and decrease in grassy components accompanied a general amelioration of climate inland. Sod block evapotranspirometers, weighed at intervals, showed more than a third increase in evapotranspiration rates between the ocean and 28 mi inland.

Gradients du climat et de la végétation en été, près de Barrow, Alaska. À l'extrême pointe du nord de l'Alaska, on constate une amélioration générale du climat vers l'intérieur des terres, qui s'accompagne de changements visibles de la végétation en quelques milles seulement, dont une augmentation de l'élément broussailleux et une diminution d'importance de l'élément graminacé. Des instruments très simples ont permis de recueillir des données périodiques sur la pluie, l'évaporation et l'évapotranspiration. Le pesage à intervalles réguliers d'évapotranspiromètres à motte de gazon a donné des estimations raisonnables des taux d'évapotranspiration, qui augmentent de plus du tiers entre l'océan et des lieux situés à 28 milles (45 km) à l'intérieur.


Relict populations of Drepanopus bungei and Limnocalanus macrurus grimaldii (Copepoda: Calanoida) from Ellesmere Island, Northwest Territories   /   Bowman, T.E.   Long, A.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 3, Sept. 1968, p. 172-180, figures, tables
ASTIS record 10043
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Reports the occurrence of these two brackish-water copepods in the freshwater layer of Tuborg Lake, at the head of Antoinette Bay, one of the eastern extensions of the Nansen Sound-Greely Fiord system. Drepanopus bungei has been known previously only from the arctic coast of Siberia; it was also found in Disraeli Fiord on the north coast of Ellesmere Island. Tuborg Lake has been cut off from the Arctic Ocean for 3000 yr, hence these species are relict from a time when they were more widespread in the Arctic, probably owing to a generally lower salinity. The Tuborg Lake population of Limnocalanus macrurus grimaldii fits into Linquist's "non-extreme grimaldii" category has evolved only slightly, if at all, toward the macrurus form (with highly vaulted forehead). Remarks on the meromict layering and temperature/salinity profiles of the lake are included.

Reliquats de populations de Drepanopus bungei et de Limnocalanus macrurus grimaldii (Copepoda : Calanoida) de l'île d'Ellesmere, T. du N.-O. L. m. grimaldii et D. bungei vivent dans la couche d'eau douce d'un lac méromictique du nord de l'île d'Ellesmere, dont la couche inférieure (> 60 m) est formée d'eau de mer. Des mesures au C-14 indiquent que ce lac n'a pas communiqué avec la pleine mer depuis 3,000 ans. One retrouve aussi D. bungei dans la couche d'eau douce du fjord de Disraeli. Il s'agit ici de la première mention de ce copépode en dehors de l'Arctique sibérien. L. m. grimaldii, rare aussi dans l'Arctique canadien, apparaît généralement près des embouchures des grandes rivières, mais on l'a trouvé dans quelques lacs arctiques et lagunes côtières. L'actuelle distribution dispersée de ces espèces est la preuve de leur ancienne dispersion plus générale par tout l'Arctique, aux époques où l'eau saumâtre était beaucoup plus répandue. Bien qu'isolée depuis 3,000 ans, cette population lacustre n'a que très peu évolué vers la forme d'eau douce avec un front plus voûté : L. m. macrurus.


The East Greenland Current north of Denmark Strait : part I   /   Aagaard, K.   Coachman, L.K.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 3, Sept. 1968, p. 181-200, figures, tables
Contribution - University of Washington. Dept. of Oceanography, no. 401
ASTIS record 10044
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Deals primarily with data from cruises of the Edisto, summers 1964-65, and 1965 drift of Arlis II; supported by the Office of Naval Research through the Arctic Institute of North America. Pt 1 summarizes previously published papers on the East Greenland Current, notes some bathymetric features of the western Greenland Sea and its water masses, and discusses general features of the velocity field, mean velocities and volume transports of the current.

Le courant du Groenland oriental au nord du détroit de Danemark. Au cours de l'hiver de 1965, des mesures effectuées dans le courant du Groenland oriental ont montré que sur le talus continental, la circulation comporte d'importantes composantes dirigées vers le rivage, ce qui représente probablement un flux vers l'ouest selon le mouvement d'Ekman. La vitesse ne diminue pas beaucoup avec la profondeur, ce qui indique que le mode barotropique domine la circulation. Les vitesses typiques du courant sont de 10 à 15 cm/s. Au cours de l'hiver, le débit du courant dépasse 35 x 10**6 m³/s. Cet ordre de grandeur dépasse les anciennes estimations et, malgré les fluctuations saisonnières possibles, il semble que le courant du Groenland oriental correspond surtout à une circulation interne des mers du Groenland et de Norvège, plutôt qu'à un émissaire du bassin polaire central.


Soviet studies in the northward movement of birds   /   Slessers, M.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 3, Sept. 1968, p. 201-204, 1 ill.
ASTIS record 10045
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The warming of the Arctic, especially in the Eurasian sector, has been pronounced since the 1920s. The tundra moves into the arctic desert, the taiga into the tundra, and along with this the mammals, birds and plants extend northward. Study of these changes in zoogeographical boundaries by Soviet scientists shows that some birds have extended their ranges up to 130 mi northward, the willow warbler, meadow pipit, fieldfare and willow ptarmigan to 69° 50' N on Vaygach Island, 74° N Novaya Zemlya. From more southerly ranges the house sparrow has extended from 61° to 70° N, the chaffinch and rook 700 km from Krasnoyarsk to Komsa, the black woodpecker, coal tit, whooper swan and merganser 200-400 km in the Yenisey taiga. The fieldfare, eastern hermit thrush and robin are now established in Greenland, the gadwall in southern Alaska.


Russians in the Antarctic   /   Nepomnyashchi, A.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 3, Sept. 1968, p. 204-205
ASTIS record 10046
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During 1966 the Eleventh Antarctic Expedition carried out an extensive complex of scientific research as part of the program of the International Years of the Quiet Sun. The Expedition worked in Mirny and at the scientific stations of Vostok, Molodezhnaya and Novolazarevskaya. Observations were also conducted at the two poles of Antarctica - the southern magnetic pole and the "cold pole". At the Vostok station, meteorologists explored the climate, the state of the ionosphere, northern lights, cosmic rays, the geomagnetic field and the source of radio waves. Deep in the mainland south of the Davis Sea coast, research was conducted to ascertain the thickness of the ice sheet by the radio location method. One of the main tasks of the Expedition was to inform Soviet whaling flotillas of the weather in southern latitudes. Geological and geographical research was carried out in the mountains of Enderby Land, and glaciological and hydrographic research was undertaken in Alaskeyev Bay. The program of the Expedition included medical observations of man's acclimatization to conditions in Antarctica. Oceanographic research was carried out from aboard the Ob in the waters of Antarctica between Pravda Coast and Queen Maud Land. The results of the research and discoveries made by the Twelfth Soviet Antarctic Expedition were summed up at a recent session of the Learned Council of the Leningrad Research Institute of the Arctic and Antarctic, which is the Soviet Union's centre of polar exploration. The scientists pointed out that during the expedition of a tractor-sleigh train to the Pole of Relative Inaccessibility a new method was used for the first time for the measuring by radar of the thickness of the ice cap of Antarctica. ... Soviet glaciologists have covered 260 km. in the area of Mirny observatory, and have measured the thickness of the glacier, from a plane, on a route 1,500 km. long. It has been established as the result of investigations that the central part of the glacial cap within Eastern Antarctica is the world's biggest and almost ideal elevated plain. ... Geologists have made some other remarkable discoveries in the Antarctic. They investigated a large part of the coast of Eastern Antarctica (about 800 km.) and carried out a small-scale geological survey of Queen Maud Land and Enderby Land, and discovered there rich deposits of coal and iron ore. Also discovered were traces of manganese, titanium, molybdenum, lead, zinc, silver and tin. ... At the end of November, 1967, the Ob sailed from Leningrad for Antarctica with the members of the Thirteenth Expedition who will remain there for the whole of 1968.


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