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Circumpolar health-related problems   /   Albrecht, C.E.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 3-5
ASTIS record 10026
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Reports on the 1967 Symposium on Circumpolar Health-Related Problems, Univ of Alaska, 23-28 July, sponsored by the Arctic Institute of North America under a grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Speakers from Canada and the USA were joined by representatives from Denmark, Greenland, Finland, Norway, Sweden and the USSR. The papers presented related to pulmonary and virus diseases, zoonoses, environmental stresses on human behavior, physiology, anthropology, nutrition and hazardous contamination of the environment.


The Kolchan : delineation of a new northern Athapaskan Indian group   /   Hosley, E.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 6-11, ill.
ASTIS record 10027
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Proposes that a group of inhabitants of the upper Kuskokwim River in Alaska be designated the Kolchan. They are concentrated primarily in Nikolai Village with one extended family at Telida 50 mi north. Earlier considered a division of the Ingalik (cf No. 72242), archeological and ethnographic study shows them to be an independent geographical, cultural and linguistic entity. They differ markedly from the Ingalik on the Yukon River in their social organization, which most closely resembles the Athapaskan groups to the north and east, the Tanana and Tanaina. Their linguistics are not easily classified. Following the decimation of the caribou in the 1920s, the Kolchan subsistence base has focused more on fishing, trapping and wage labor. As a group they tend to be conservative and remain one of the least acculturated groups in interior Alaska.

Les Kolchan : définition d'un nouveau groupe d'Athapaskan septentrionaux. Des recherches archéologiques et ethnographiques dans la région de la haute Kuskokwim, dans l'Alaska intérieur, ont permis de définir le territoire et la culture d'un groupe Athapaskan de l'Alaska qui n'avait jamais été étudié auparavant. La reconstruction culturelle indique que les habitants de la région, considérés jusqu'ici comme un sous-groupe des Ingalik, forment une entité géographique, culturelle et linguistique indépendante.


Radiocarbon dating of lacustrine strands in arctic Alaska   /   Carson, C.E.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 12-26, ill., figures, table
ASTIS record 10028
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Reports on 1958-64 studies of lacustrine processes and basin sequences in the Pt Barrow region. Lakes developed in the ice-rich late Pleistocene Gubik Formation are surrounded by two to four exposed and revegetated wave-cut shelves which suggest regional correlative cycles of piracy due to minor shifts in climate and eustatic level. Shelves exposed when lakes are intersected by tundra streams and drained, require 10-20 yr for revegetation in the present climate. Radiocarbon dates of samples from abandoned strands show the majority to be <3500 yr old. The postglacial transgressive-regressive lacustrine cycle is described and diagrammed. The lacustrine maximum transgression probably occured near the end of the hypsithermal (3500-4000 BP) and the onset of the post-hypsithermal cooling phase was synchronous with the initial period of draining. More systematic investigation is required however, before clear time correlation of geomorphic surfaces and events can be established.

Radiodatations de plages soulevées dans l'Alaska arctique. C'est par capture et drainage que les cours d'eau de la toundra provoquent l'apparition des banquettes lacustres actuelles, à 10-12 milles (16-19,3 km) à l'intérieur de la côte arctique de l'Alaska. Près de Point Barrow, ces surfaces demandent, sous le climat actuel, de 10 à 20 ans pour se recouvrir de végétation. Les nombreux lacs-reliques de la région sont entourés par une séquence stabilisée de deux à quatre plages soulevées, ce qui suggère qu'aux époques précédentes, le phénomène de la capture régionale a pu être plus fréquent. Les trente échantillons radiodatés indiquent que la majorité des plages soulevées ont moins de 2500 ans; mais avec un nombre aussi limité de datations, ni les niveaux équivalents ni les séquences similaires ne peuvent indiquer une corrélation chronologique claire. Cependant, ces données suggèrent que l'expansion lacustre a atteint un maximum vers la fin de l'hypsithermal - environ 2500-4000 ans av.p. - et que le début de la phase de refroidissement post-hypsithermal correspond dans le temps avec le début de la période de drainage.


Currents in Long Strait, Arctic Ocean   /   Coachman, L.K.   Rankin, D.A.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 27-38, figures
ASTIS record 10029
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Reports and discusses current measurements made Aug 1966 from USS Burton Island (AGB-1) in the strait which separates Vrangelya Island from the Siberian mainland. A significant tidal oscillation of the currents is caused by the semidiurnal tide wave of the Arctic Ocean, propagating eastward through the strait. The oscillation varies in amplitude with the semimonthly tidal inequality. The long-term mean flow through the channel appears to be controlled by continuity requirements of the Chukchi Sea - East Siberian Sea systems as it responds to the regional winds. When regional atmospheric pressure gradients dictate winds E of Vrangelya and/or northerly-southerly winds to the west, the flow is west-bound through the strait, and vice versa. The surface layer and ice field respond more directly to local winds.

Les courants dans le détroit de Long, océan Arctique. Au cours de l'été de 1966, on a recueilli dans le détroit de Long, qui sépare l'île Wrangel de la Sibérie continentale, environ 440 mesures des courants. Cette suite de données actuelles est la plus complète dont on dispose pour la région et elle fournit une information très utile sur la nature et la genèse des courants. L'onde semi-quotidienne de marée de l'Arctique provoque, en se propageant vers l'Est à travers le détroit, une importante oscillation des courants, surtout dans l'axe du chenal. Cette oscillation varie en amplitude selon l'inégalité tidale semi-mensuelle. A long terme, le flux moyen dans le détroit est déterminé par la demande de continuité du système : mer de Tchoukotsk-mer de Sibérie orientale en correspondance avec les vents régionaux. Lorsque les différences régionales de la pression atmosphérique provoquent des vents du sud à l'Est de l'île Wrangel et/ou des vents du nord à l'Ouest de cette île, il se produit un flux vers l'ouest du détroit, et vice-versa. La couche d'eau de surface et le champ de glace sont plus directement sensibles aux vents locaux.


Soviet biological exploration in antarctic seas   /   Gruzov, E.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 39-40
ASTIS record 10030
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... The 11th Soviet Antarctic Expedition was the first in Soviet antarctic research to employ aqualungs in biological exploration. Such explorations were conducted from mid-December to March, during the antarctic summer 1966-67. The special methods we employed were determined by the peculiar nature of our hydrobiological research. Instead of exploring the expanses of the ocean bottom, as had been the practice of all foregoing expeditions, we confined our observations to a limited area of shallow sea between the Haswell Islands near the Mirny Observatory. Lightweight diving apparatus permitted us to observe animals in their natural environment, discover the nature of submarine communities, and collect specimens of the flora and fauna. All together, 144 dives were made. ... Three months' work yielded extensive collections which were brought to the Zoology Institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences in Leningrad. However, the main significance of the expedition was the opportunity afforded to study the communities of animals and the regularities of their distribution throughout the sea depths. Few such observations have been made in Antarctica. ...


Observations on the breeding behaviour of phalaropes   /   Höhn, E.O.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 40-41
ASTIS record 10031
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On 27 May 1967, I reached the settlement of Chesterfield Inlet (Igluliarjuk), Keewatin, Northwest Territories. No phalaropes were seen in the district until 13 June. On that day, red phalaropes (Phalaropus fulicarius) in considerable numbers and some northern phalaropes (P. lobatus) were seen at sea in the offing of, or flying over, one of the islets in the mouth of the inlet. During the next 10 days, phalaropes of both species used a mainland lagoon near the settlement, but their number here gradually declined and by the end of June they had deserted this locality completely. Some northern phalaropes nested on the mainland and others of this species at least attempted to nest on Promise Island (Nannuyuma), where 5 pairs of red phalaropes nested and a sixth pair made a nest (but apparently no eggs were laid). After the local spring passage, red phalaropes were seen only on Fairway (Pitiulaktok) and Promise islands. Breeding may well have taken place on Fairway, but a visit there at the appropriate time was not possible. The apparent definitive departure of the females from Promise Island after egg laying was observed on the night of 9-10 July. The newly hatched young of 1 pair still in the nest and guarded only by a male were found at this breeding station on 20 July. Three other males acted as if they had young hidden near the nests which were, by that time, empty. The eggs in the fifth nest had not hatched and this nest had evidently been deserted by the male. The 4 downy young found were weighed and banded. Confirming my earlier observations on Wilson's phalarope, no territorial behaviour was shown by red phalaropes on the mainland or on Promise Island. The association of red phalarope nesting with colonially breeding arctic terns (Sterna paradisaea), reported by Løvenskiold, as frequently observed in the Svalbard Archipelago (Spitsbergen), also applied to Promise Island. ... Local Eskimo bird and mammal names were collected in the Chesterfield Inlet area, and at Baker Lake a list restricted to bird names was made. The Eskimo names for prominent topographic features (on several of which the Canadian Army Survey markers were found) were recorded. General ornithological observations added 17 species to the local avifauna as it was known from previous published works. ... Proof of breeding of the following species, the local breeding status of which was either uncertain or unknown, was obtained: Canada goose (Branta canadensis), pintail (Anas acuta), sandhill crane, black guillemot (Cepphus grylle), savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). Specimens of some of the rodents of the area were also secured. ...


The Canadian Research Centre for Anthropology   /   Lotz, J.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 41-42
ASTIS record 60807
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The Centre (C.R.C.A.) was established in the early 1950s by Rev. Joseph E. Champagne, O.M.I. [Oblates of Mary Immaculate], Director of the Institute of Missiology at the University of Ottawa, with the help of the National Museum of Canada. It now forms part of St. Paul University, a small private Catholic university run by the Oblates of Mary Immaculate. The Oblates have a long history of missionary work in the Canadian North. St. Paul University is federated with the University of Ottawa. Until recently, the Centre functioned mainly as an informal clearing house for anthropological research in Canada. In the last two years, its research and publishing activities have been expanded. It has a particular interest in: social science and community development (socio-economic development and change) with specific emphasis on social, cultural, and applied anthropology; community development in large, sparsely populated frontier areas; and traditional peoples in situations of change and poverty. The geographic regions in which the Centre operates include the Canadian Middle North and Arctic, particularly the Yukon Territory and Northern Ontario. The northern research program is financed almost entirely by a grant from the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development under its program of assistance to northern institutes and expeditions. The Centre has a vigorous publications program. It started in 1955 with the publication of Anthropologica, a bilingual journal in the social sciences, and has received support in the past from the Canada Council. The journal has carried a number of papers on the North. ... In its monograph series, it has published: "Eskimo Townsmen", a study of Eskimo adaptation to town life at Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, by John and Irma Honigmann; "The Metis of the Mackenzie District", a study of people of Indian and White ancestry in the Northwest Territories by Richard Slobodin; and "Kabloona and Eskimo in the Central Keewatin", by Frank Vallee. ... The first of the Centre's Document series dealt with "Community Development in Canada" and included reference to activities in northern Canada; it was written by Antony Loyd, now with the School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia. The Centre's Handbook series was initiated with Aleksandrs Sprudzs' "Co-operatives: Notes for a Basic Information Course", which is a guide to establishing and running co-operatives, with particular reference to Eskimo co-operatives .... The Centre issues a small bilingual monthly newsletter called "Information," which describes its activities. ...


Research projects at Resolute   /   Hannell, F.G.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 42-44
ASTIS record 55096
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In April 1967, an Arctic Research Group was formed within McMaster University's Department of Geography, with the object of undertaking closely integrated studies in all aspects of physical geography. As an introductory venture, a party of 3 professors, 2 graduate students, a photographic technician, and a seventeen-year-old Hamilton schoolboy who had been awarded a summer scholarship at McMaster arrived at Resolute on 29 June to undertake a 5-week program of research in coastal geomorphology, pedology, and sub-surface microclimatology. ...


Devon Island programs, 1967   /   Barr, W.   Barrett, P.E.   Hussell, D.J.T.   King, R.H.   Koerner, R.M.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 44-50
ASTIS record 55097
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The Arctic Institute's facilities on Devon Island were again used during the summer of 1967 by field parties studying glaciology, glacio-isostatic geomorphology, periglacial geomorphology, ornithology, and botany. In addition, an expedition photographer recorded the summer's activities with still photographs and on 16 mm. colour film. Field camps were established at various locations and the studies were pursued from these as well as from the Base Camp close to Cape Sparbo. ...


The Icefield Ranges Research Project 1967   /   Wood, W.A.   Ragle, R.H.
Arctic, v. 21, no. 1, Mar. 1968, p. 50-51
ASTIS record 55098
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The Icefield Ranges Research Project conducted its seventh field program in the St. Elias Mountains between 15 May and 1 September 1967. Under the broad categories of Earth Sciences and Biological Sciences, studies in 18 disciplines were conducted by more than 38 investigators and their assistants. This figure does not include personnel of the supporting Kluane Lake Activity of the Arctic Institute of North America, nor does it include 8 visiting investigators who took the opportunity to conduct short-term studies or to observe field programs in operation. ...


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