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Alaska purchase centennial : 1867-1967   /   Rasche, H.H.
Arctic, v. 20, no. 2, June 1967, p. 63-76, ill., maps
ASTIS record 10024
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Reviews the historical background of the purchase and sketches the main developments during the next century, viz: establishment of the boundaries, exploitation of minerals and fisheries, changes induced by World War II, and statehood.


Migration of Willow Ptarmigan in Arctic Alaska   /   Irving, L.   West, G.C.   Peyton, L.J.   Paneak, S.
Arctic, v. 20, no. 2, June 1967, p. 77-85, ill.
Publication - University of Alaska. Laboratory of Zoophysiology, no. 42
ASTIS record 10007
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Studies the movements of Lagopus lagopus through the narrow valley of Anaktuvuk Pass in the Brooks Range, recorded since 1948. Migration from the breeding grounds in the Colville and other river valleys in the Arctic Slope begins in late Sept; movement northward from as far south as the Koyukuk River occurs in mid Jan-early Feb and again in early Apr. In winter adult males predominate in the northern range, juvenile males in the Pass, and females in the southern range.

Migration du lagopède des saules dans l'Alaska arctique. À l'automne, le lagopède des saules (Lagopus lagopus) migre vers le sud par la passe d'Anaktuvuk, dans la chaîne de Brooks, Alaska; à la fin de l'hiver, il revient vers le nord jusqu'à ses principaux terrains de nichée situés sur le versant arctique. Dans une population morphologiquement homogène, on a distingué, mois par mois, en trois localités différentes, quatre catégories d'individus - mâles adultes, mâles juvéniles, femelles adultes et femelles juvéniles. En hiver, les mâles adultes l'emportent en novembre dans le nord de l'aire de migration : une grande proportion des mâles juvéniles hivernent à Anaktuvuk : les femelles l'emportent dans le sud de l'aire d'hivernage. Chacune de ces catégories d'âge et de sexe se déplace selon son propre programme et la composition des bandes évolue en conséquence.


Shoreline processes near Barrow, Alaska : a comparison of the normal and the catastrophic   /   Hume, J.D.   Schalk, M.
Arctic, v. 20, no. 2, June 1967, p. 86-103, ill.
ASTIS record 10008
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The normal average yearly net transport of sediment along the Alaska coast west of Pt Barrow to the NE is 10,000 yd³, to the east of Barrow, 9,500 yd³. An Oct 1963 storm with gusts of up to 75 mi/hr, over an ice-free ocean, produced 10-ft waves and a storm surge of 11-12 ft; it moved >200,000 yd³ sediment, caused coastal flooding and >$3 million damage. If climate is warming, such storms can be expected more frequently. The normal daily tide at Barrow is about 6 in (except in storm) and an additional monthly variation of about 5 in. Storm tides of several feet are caused by rise of sea level under a low pressure area and by onshore wind. Ice damps waves and wave-generated currents. Freeze-up occurs 2 Sept- 19 Dec, breakup 17-23 July. Even when considered open and navigable, the water may have scattered ice near Barrow and sea ice a few mi offshore, which would act as a damper of waves. The northern Alaska coast is one of transgression, with the recent dominant action of coastal submergence. The gravel along beaches cannot be replaced by natural processes without a large amount of erosion. It should be left in place as protection.

Évolution du rivage près de Barrow, Alaska : comparaison entre le normal et le catastrophique. Entre 1948 et 1952, des études sur le mouvement des sédiments le long de la côte de l'Alaska, à l'ouest de Point Barrow, ont indiqué un transport annuel moyen normal vers le nord-est de 10,000 yards cubes (7645 m³). Des études analogues entreprises en 1958 indiquaient un mouvement vers le sud-est de 9,500 yards cubes (7263 m³). Le 3 octobre 1963, une tempête, accompagnée de rafales atteignant 75 milles à l'heure (120 km/h) souffla sur l'océan libre de glace et vint frapper la côte. Des vagues estimées à 10 pieds (2,05 m), renforcées d'une vague de fond causée par la tempête et haute de 11 à 12 pieds (3,35-3,65 m), inondèrent les régions côtières et causèrent pour plus de millions de dollars de dégâts. Cette tempête - probablement une tempête de "deux siècles" - déplaça plus de 200,000 yards cubes (152,900 m³) de sédiments, soit le transport normal de vingt années. Si le climat est véritablement en train de se réchauffer, il faut s'attendre à ce que de telles tempêtes se produisent plus fréquemment. Les constructions voisines de la côte devront donc être prévues en conséquence.


Soil and water bacteria in the Alaskan subarctic tundra   /   Fournelle, H.J.
Arctic, v. 20, no. 2, June 1967, p. 104-113, tables
ASTIS record 10009
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Sampling of tundra soils and ponds within a 6-mi radius of Napaiskak village, on the Kuskokwim River, showed far greater numbers but fewer kinds of bacteria in soil than in water. Mesophiles predominated both in numbers and kind, followed by psychrophiles and thermophiles, in that order. On the basis of frequency, comparable numbers of Gram-negative rods and sporeformers were isolated from soils, while considerably more Gram-negative rods were found in water. Of the eleven bacterial genera or species identified, there were eight Gram-negative and three Gram-positive forms.

Bactéries du sol et de l'eau dans la toundra subarctique de l'Alaska. Une étude entreprise dans une région de toundra dans le sud-ouest de l'Alaska a montré qu'on y trouve un nombre considérablement plus grand de bactéries dans le sol que dans l'eau. Le plus haut comptage sur plaque pour un échantillon de sol fut de 05,000,000 par gm alors qu'il n'était que de 4,400, par ml pour l'eau. Ces comptages furent effectués sur des échantillons incubés à 0°C. On obtint des comptages progressivement plus bas à 37°, 3°-5°, 35° et 55°. Le nombre d'espèces de bactéries était un peu plus bas pour le sol que pour l'eau. On a noté que les mésophiles prédominaient aussi bien en nombre qu'en espèces, suivis dans l'ordre par les psychrophiles et les termophiles. Dans les échantillons de sol, on a isolé des nombres comparables de bâtonnets Gram-négatifs et de sporogènes : par contre, on a trouvé beaucoup plus de bâtonnets Gram-négatifs dans l'eau. Dans les 11 genres ou espèces de bactéries identifiés, il y avait 8 bâtonnets Gram-négatifs, viz., Achromabacter, Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, et 3 coliformes (Aerobacter aerogenes, A. cloacae, Escherichia freundii et E. intermedia). Les trois formes Gram-positives identifiées étaient Bacillus, Micrococcus et Streptococcus faecalis.


Ice flora (bottom type) : a mechanism of primary production in polar seas and the growth of diatoms in sea ice   /   Meguro, H.   Ito, K.   Fukushima, H.
Arctic, v. 20, no. 2, June 1967, p. 114-133, ill., figures, tables
ASTIS record 10010
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A yellowish-brown layer at the bottom of summer sea ice, upturned by an icebreaker, off the coast at Point Barrow, Alaska, extended up to 30 cm from the bottom. It consisted of large diatom colonies which were found to have been formed in brine included in fissures between vertically oriented ice crystals. Grazing by zooplankton was highly restricted because the structure of the ice microhabitat prevented their entry. The chlorophyll content of the layer studied was 100 times greater than that of sea water under the ice. This suggests that the most important primary production of the Arctic is in the sea ice. The biological environment of the colored layer at the bottom of the sea ice is summarized, viz: relatively stable temperature (-3 to 0 C), sufficient nutrient supply, variable osmotic pressure, stronger light conditions than in sea water below, limited grazing by zooplankton, and probable abundance of organic matter.

Flore de la glace (type basal) : mécanisme de production première dans les mers polaires et croissance des diatomées dans la glace de mer. Durant l'été de 1964, une étude effectuée au large de Barrow a révélé que, dans l'Arctique, la glace de mer présente une structure stratifiée par la croissance de diatomées. Ces diatomées se multiplient dans les solutions salines des microfissures entre les fins cristaux de la glace et forment une couche brune près de la surface inférieure. Le contenu chlorophyllien de la couche étudiée était de 120 µg par litre, c'est-à-dire cent fois plus grand que celui de l'eau de mer sous la glace, ce qui permet d'émettre l'hypothèse que, dans l'Arctique, la production première se fait dans la glace de mer, surtout au printemps et au début de l'été. Des études ont aussi été menées sur la flore des diatomées et le mécanisme de dégradation de la glace lié aux effets biologiques; on a finalement comparé les conditions arctiques et antarctiques.


The Fairbanks economic community   /   Eels, F.R.
Arctic, v. 20, no. 2, June 1967, p. 134-137
ASTIS record 10011
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Fairbanks, the unofficial capital of interior Alaska, has grown to become the second largest city in the state, despite a boom and bust economic history, its geographic isolation, and the most severe temperature variance for a community its size in the United States. The city is the urban focus of Alaska's vast interior region and is the trade and transportation centre for communities scattered over 227,000 square miles. ...


The college orientation program for Alaska natives (COPAN)   /   Lotz, J.R.
Arctic, v. 20, no. 2, June 1967, p. 137-139
ASTIS record 10012
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Considers the 1966 COPAN program during its third year, under the direction of Prof. Lee Salisbury, University of Alaska. Lectures, seminars, discussions, visits, and individual experiences to 14 volunteer high school students, most from rural areas, are noted. The program will continue until 1968.


Lloyd V. Berkner (1905-1967)   /   Reed, J.C.
Arctic, v. 20, no. 2, June 1967, p. 144
ASTIS record 55205
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Lloyd V. Berkner, a Fellow of the Arctic Institute and one of the outstanding American scientists of modern time, suffered a fatal heart attack in Washington on 4 June 1967 while attending a meeting of the National Academy of Sciences. On 7 June he was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Dr. Berkner was known widely as the "Father of the International Geophysical Year" and more than anyone else in North America developed the idea and gave early impetus to that worldwide effort that did much to promote and improve scientific co-operation throughout the world. He was born in 1905 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. At the time of his death his legal residence was in Florida. After graduating in 1927 with a B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering, he really had three careers: one as a research scientist, one as a research administrator, and one as a naval officer. He excelled in all three. Early in his career he supervised the installation of the first radio range system. A little later he became a member of the first Byrd Antarctic Expedition and played an important part in designing and installing the communications system for that expedition. Part of that time he spent in New Zealand and established the relay system for antarctic communications. He made constructive studies of long-range radio propagation, and also designed and constructed the first sweep frequency ionospheric sounder. Berkner was appointed the first Executive Secretary of the Research and Development Board of the newly created Department of Defence, and strongly influenced the coordination of the research and development programs of the three armed services. In 1950, at the request of the Secretary of State, he carried out a study of the relationships of science and foreign policy. In his report, Berkner recommended the establishment of the post of Science Adviser to the Secretary of State, as well as the appointment of science attaches in the principal embassies of the United States. These recommendations now have been put into effect. In 1951 he became head of Associated Universities, Inc., and in that capacity for ten years supervised the operation of the Brookhaven National Observatory for the Atomic Energy Commission. Next he accepted the invitation of a group of southwestern businessmen to organize the Graduate Research Centre of the Southwest, with headquarters in Texas. The purpose was to stimulate graduate education and advanced training in that region. In 1927 Berkner was commissioned an Ensign in the U.S. Naval Reserve and designated a Naval Aviator. From 1941 to February 1946 he served in the active naval service. He worked in electronics in the Bureau of Aeronautics and rose to the rank of Captain in 1945. Early that year he was assigned to the Pacific Fleet and served aboard the U.S.S. Enterprise in the Okinawa campaign. Although he was returned to inactive duty in February 1946, he kept up his Naval Reserve status and in 1955 was promoted to Rear Admiral. Doctor Berkner was awarded many honours during his active and productive career. He held at least eight honorary degrees from universities in the United States and from the universities of Calcutta, Uppsala, and Edinburgh. Among his military and civilian awards were: Commendation Ribbon of the Secretary of the Navy; Legion of Merit; Honorary Officer, Order of the British Empire; Special Congressional Gold Medal; Gold Medal of the City of New York; and Silver Medal of the Aeronautical Institute.


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