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Observations on arctic and subarctic health   /   Albrecht, C.E.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 3, Sept. 1965, p. 150-157, ill.
ASTIS record 9962
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Comments on the problems of public health in northern regions of Canada and Alaska, particularly emphasizing the difficulties due to permafrost, poor sanitation and inadequate housing. The principal diseases affecting the native population are discussed, including typhoid, tuberculosis, parasitism and epidemics. The serious problem of accidents is mentioned (55% of all deaths over one yr in the Yukon). Statistics indicating rapid improvements in public health, particularly through control of tuberculosis, are given. The role of government and private organizations and future plans for increasing control of environment are discussed.


On the oceanography of the Nansen Sound fiord system   /   Ford, W.L.   Hattersley-Smith, G.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 3, Sept. 1965, p. 158-171, figures, map, tables
ASTIS record 9963
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Summarizes exploration of the fiord system of northwest Ellesmere and northeast Axel Heiberg Islands, from discovery in 1883 to 1962, and describes in detail results of oceanographic surveys in 1962. Temperature and salinity data are graphed and analyzed. Water warmer than -10C below 100 m is believed to be derived from the Atlantic water intermediate layer in the Arctic Ocean. A persistent inversion at 40 m in the Tanquary and other upper fiords is theorized as being due to trapping of direct solar insolation. Conditions conductive to this are discussed.


The squatters of Whitehorse : a study of the problems of new northern settlements   /   Lotz, J.R.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 3, Sept. 1965, p. 172-188, figures, map, tables
ASTIS record 9964
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Identifies two types of settlement in the Canadian North, the older centers of transportation, fur-trading and mining, and the post-1950 planned mining communities. Some of the former, such as Whitehorse,have an uncertain resource base and the problems arising are discussed. A social survey in 1960 of its ten squatter communities, 310 dwellings, is summarized (cf No 73605), and factors fostering them identified. Casual and uncertain employment, lack of capital and skills, and difficulties of adjustment to changing conditions, shared alike by Indians (12% of total) and others, initiate and maintain squatting. The analysis includes size of household, dwelling types (tabulated), ethnic composition, employment characteristics, etc. 31.7% of the households consisted of single men, 128 individuals. Attempts to evict and resettle the squatters are described in a conclusion and the uncertain future of such subarctic urban centers as Whitehorse discussed.


Ice-push ramparts in the George River basin, Labrador-Ungava   /   Peterson, J.A.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 3, Sept. 1965, p. 189-193, ill.
ASTIS record 9974
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Reports field work on ice-push ramparts in the Whitegull Lake area of Quebec Province (55 30 N, 64 15 W). Modes of formation of ramparts during the partial open water season are reviewed and examples illus. Raised shorelines described by Low (No 10377) are re-interpreted as possible ice-push ramparts. Comparison of the Labrador Peninsula lakes with proglacial lakes in Baffin Island may assist interpretation of these features.


Access to Meighen Island, N.W.T.   /   MacKay, D.K.   Arnold, K.C.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 3, Sept. 1965, p. 193-198, figures, tables
ASTIS record 9975
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Discusses the problem of access by light aircraft to the Polar Continental Shelf Project's icecap station on Meighen from Isachsen on Ellef Ringnes Island. Data are tabulated to show the incidence of poor visibility and other hazards at Meighen Island, and a calculation of probability indices for successful round-trip flights in different months and conditions is attempted. Warning is given that these low figures indicate that planning of work on Meighen should allow ample margin of time to cover delays due to unsuitable flying conditions.


An Eskimo graffito in eastern Greenland   /   Zavatti, S.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 3, Sept. 1965, p. 199, ill.
ASTIS record 9965
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Notes a find in 1963 of the likeness of a running dog scratched on rock on Kutdlek Island; the graffito is probably of the Sarqaq Culture.


Raymond Donovan Wood (1902-1964)   /   Porsild, A.E.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 3, Sept. 1965, p. 204
ASTIS record 55312
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Raymond Donovan Wood, a practising attorney in Mount Kisco, N.Y. for 32 years, and recently retired to Salt Lake City, Utah, died suddenly 30 November, 1964. Raymond Wood was born on 17 January, 1902 in Iowa, and came to New York in 1925. A graduate of the University of Nebraska, he received his M.A. at Northwestern University in Chicago, and became Juris Doctor from New York University following which he completed two years of post graduate work at Columbia University. He was an Associate Member of the Royal Photographic Society of Great Britain, and a Fellow of the Arctic Institute of North America. His principal hobby and recreation was photography, especially of wildflowers. For many years he spent whatever time he could spare from his law practice photographing rare wild flowers in the mountains of the northeastern States. It was natural, therefore, that later in search of new material he turned to the Arctic, and that for the planning of future field seasons he should come to the National Museum of Canada to acquaint himself with arctic plants and to seek the advice of its botanical staff in planning his itineraries. Between 1956 and 1962, Raymond Wood personally financed extended field trips to the American Arctic, from West Greenland to Alaska for the purpose of making colour photographs of arctic flowers. On all his expeditions Raymond Wood was accompanied by his wife Mildred whom he always acknowledged as the botanist of the "team", whereas he did "only" the photography and, at the end of the season, the processing of the hundreds of rolls of colour and black and white film that invariably resulted from his summer's activity. Meticulous and painstaking about all they did, the Woods always collected voucher specimens of the wild flowers they photographed. These specimens they presented to the National Herbarium of Canada at Ottawa together with one of the two or three original transparencies made of each plant object. During four summers in the Canadian Arctic, one in West Greenland, and two in Alaska, Raymond and Mildred Wood photographed 354 different species of arctic flowering plants and ferns, many of them never photographed before. One carefully labelled set of 775 colour transparencies all in 2.5" x 2.5" format, carefully mounted, labelled, and indexed are now in the National Herbarium of Canada at Ottawa. A set of 340 colour transparencies of Alaskan wild flowers they presented to the Arctic Research Laboratory, Barrow, Alaska in return for logistic support during two field seasons in Alaska. Due to their high technical skill and meticulous planning, these unique collections of plant portraits and plant habitats will long remain invaluable reference "tools" for present and future botanists engaged in the study of arctic plants. Following their retirement to Salt Lake City, Utah, the Woods had planned to photograph Rocky Mountain alpine flowers in Canada and in the United States. Although the main objective of their arctic trips was to make photographs, Raymond and Mildred Wood always took a keen personal interest in the Eskimo and white residents of the North, making lasting friends and contacts wherever they went. Their many friends not only in Mount Kisco, Salt Lake City and Ottawa, but also in many northern towns and villages from Greenland to Alaska will miss their welcome visits and lament the premature passing of their friend.


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