Joint Canada-U.S. survey in the Mount Kennedy region   /   Canada. Surveys and Mapping Branch
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 70-72, ill.
ASTIS record 9956

In 1935 a National Geographic Society glaciological expedition working in the St. Elias mountain range near the Alaska-Yukon Territory boundary described an unnamed mountain in the area as "magnificent, a granite peak sheathed in snow and ice on the south and west sides, and on the north and east sides has fantastic rock cliffs." Thirty years later this same peak was officially named Mount Kennedy in honour of the late President John F. Kennedy. A surge of activity in the area followed immediately. Senator Robert Kennedy climbed the mountain, an expedition sponsored by the National Geographic Society is engaged in producing a large scale map of the mountain and its environs, and a joint U.S.-Canadian party has just completed a survey through the area which will determine the precise geographic position of the mountain's summit and its elevation. The survey party was composed of six men from the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey and two men from the Surveys and Mapping Branch of the Canadian Department of Mines and Technical Surveys. The main purpose of the work was to connect existing surveys along the Alaska Highway with similar surveys along the Alaskan coast. The work will strengthen the control surveys throughout the area and provide new control points for mapping. The decision to include Mount Kennedy in the survey, while adding a touch of glamour to the operation, greatly increased the difficulties. The survey itself consists of five main stations, connected by traverse, with auxiliary points established at alternate stations to provide additional checks on field measurements. The lengths of the four traverse courses varied from eight to thirty-nine miles; the distances were measured by electronic distance measuring equipment, and the angles were measured with precise theodolites using signal lights and heliotropes for targets. ...

Insects and related terrestrial invertebrates of Ellef Ringnes Island   /   McAlpine, J.F.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 73-103, ill., figures, tables
Paper - Canada. Entomology Research Institute, no. 14
ASTIS record 9957

Reports results of collecting and observing arthropod fauna over a 25-day period in July-Aug. 1960 at the Polar Continental Shelf Project base at Isachsen, where the summers are unusually cold. Some 75 species are believed present in an environment closely approaching the limits of biotic tolerance, and detailed descriptions are given of most of these (Latin names), with their characteristic habitats and global distributions. They include spiders, mites, springtails and insects, particularly midges. The view is elaborated that only those species able to withstand frequent interruptions of development in various stages and a life cycle extending over several years are able to survive. Specimens at all stages of development were found simultaneously. Other adaptations to extremely severe environmental conditions were mentioned. The role occupied by the lemming Dicrostonyx groenlandicus is described, as the habits of a third of the arthropod species are linked with it. The very low flying habits of some species are noted. The age of the entire island biota is placed within the last 200 years, and the source area considered to be the islands to the east, principally Axel Heiberg, the means of dispersal being wind, ice rafts, mammals and birds.

Alaskan temperature fluctuations and trends : an analysis of recorded data   /   Hamilton, T.D.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 104-117, figures, tables
ASTIS record 9958

Relates recorded temperature data for Alaska to documented trends of annual world mean temperature, which show a warming trend from 1880 to 1940 followed by cooling (graphed). The records of the 20 Alaskan stations are described in detail and their reliability assessed. The state is divided into five regions, and the trends analyzed exhaustively by region, a composite mean being constructed for the state. Distinction is made between trend and fluctuation, utilizing 4 and 8 yr running means and 3 and 5 yr weighted means (8 yr means graphed). Fluctuation extremes at 7 yr intervals until 1948 are identified, with minor fluctuations subsequently. All regions show a pronounced warm maximum around 1940 with the interior region showing an unusually great warming 1910-1935 (approx 3 F). The 8 yr running means for the Alaska composite 1870-1960 (graphed) shows a close relationship to the world temperature trends for the same period, the warm peak occurring in 1941. The limited precipitation and freeze-thaw data available do not appear to correlate directly with temperature trends.

Chlorophyll in arctic sea ice   /   Apollonio, S.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 118-122, tables
ASTIS record 9959

Reviews investigations 1961-1963 into chlorophyll concentrations in sea ice in both arctic and antarctic regions. Results are compared with own researches off Devon Island, Canada, which are reported in detail. Chlorophyll a and c concentrations were obtained from underside of ice by a 7.5 cm diam ice corer and light penetration was measured by freezing a photometer into the ice; readings of both are tabulated. Chlorophyll values exceed concentrations in open sea water. The values were found to fall with increased light, and the high ratio of c to a is interpreted as a adaptation for maximum absorption of blue light through ice and snow. The algae are associated mainly with young ice peripheral to the Arctic Ocean. As a primary production resource, an estimated volume of 25 X 10*6 kg of chlorophyll a for a two-month for the arctic region is considered conservative.

Growth and decay of lake ice in the vicinity of Schefferville (Knob Lake), Quebec   /   Shaw, J.B.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 123-132, figures, table
ASTIS record 9960

Reports an investigation into the relative proportions and rates of growth and decay of white ice (snow ice) and black ice on lakes in this area. The mode of formation and conditions of weather, snow cover, prevalence of slush, etc favoring white ice growth are detailed, with graphs. The ice-building potential of a heavy snow cover is emphasized, and the combination of high temperature, snowfall and light winds is considered particularly favorable for white ice formation.

Paul F. Bruggemann retires from editorship   /   MacDonald, S.D.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 133-134, ill.
ASTIS record 55308

The contributors and readers of Arctic will join in wishing Mr. Paul F. Bruggemann every enjoyment of the leisure that has become his on his retirement from the editorship. He kept the standard high, and there are few contributors who do not feel a sense of debt for the careful attention paid to their work. Readers have been grateful for the wide range of interests to which he catered. He took the job on at an age when most scholars have been compulsively retired, and he has done work of a quality which gives the lie direct to the popular assumption that a man's usefulness ends when he reaches sixty-five. Mr. Bruggemann was born on 28 February 1890 at Gut Mindenerwald, Gemeinde Hille, Westphalia, Germany. He received his formal education in Germany, including a degree in engineering and in this field was captivated by the new world of airplanes and flight. By the time he was ten years old he was very much aware of the world around him and his desire to know it better led him along many paths in natural history. ... In the autumn of 1926 Mr. Bruggemann came to Canada and settled at Lloydminster, Alberta, where he established a small business repairing farm machinery. In his spare time he studied the natural history and ecology of the area around him and made a collection of Lepidoptera. Always an excellent field observer and an intelligent and selective collector, he gathered during the Forties several thousand beautifully prepared specimens of great scientific interest. Several specimens he recognized as being extremely rare. His identifications of Dodia albertae Dyar, Lycea rachelae Hlst., and Boloria frigga saga (Staudinger) were confirmed by authorities in the Department of Agriculture at Ottawa, and the extensive correspondence which followed resulted in the offer of a field position on the newly established Northern Insect Survey to collect insects in the Yukon during the summer of 1949. The result of his work was a large collection of perfectly prepared and much needed series of insects, and the offer of a full time position with the Department. The following year the Survey was continued at Repulse Bay. This time Mr. Bruggemann collected plants as well as insects and contributed new records and distributional data for Melville Peninsula. In 1951, he went to northern Ellesmere Island thus realizing one of his earliest ambitions. Here it was my good fortune to have spent that season and several others with him in the high arctic. He was always the best of companions and this association is the most cherished of my arctic experiences. At Alert, carrying everything for survival with us, we travelled extensively on foot covering much of the area traversed by Fielden. Wherever we went he collected and added several extensions of range for both plants and insects. In 1952, Survey work was continued at Mould Bay, Prince Patrick Island, and in 1953 and 1954 at Eureka, Ellesmere Island, where he undertook as well a two year survey of musk ox for the Canadian wildlife Service. Among the most notable of his plant discoveries was Geum rossii found at Eureka, the second record for the Canadian arctic. Previously it had been known only from eastern Melville Island. Puccinellia bruggemanni, a grass endemic to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, was named in recognition of its collector. Space does not permit description of the extent of his collections, or of his detailed and meticulously prepared field notes and records on insects, plants, birds and mammals of the arctic regions he studied. On returning to Ottawa, Mr. Bruggemann spent some time photographing type specimens of Lepidoptera for the International Union of Biological Sciences. It was in October, 1956, that he retired from government work to accept the post of Editor of Arctic. He moved to the Montreal Office of the Institute on 1 May, 1958, where he remained until his retirement on 1 July, 1964. ...

Effects of the 1964 Alaskan earthquake on glaciers and related features   /   Ragle, R.H.   Sater, J.E.   Field, W.O.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 135-137
ASTIS record 9961

Describes an aerial photographic reconnaissance in Apr and Sept 1964 of the approx 30,000 miČ area most seriously affected by the Mar 27 earthquake to assess the extent to which glacial features had been modified. Little change was apparent in glacial basins, lakes or tidewater calving, much less than after the 1899 and 1958 earthquakes of comparable violence. Some rock slides on to glaciers were impressive. The effects are related to the Tarr and Martin (No 17449) theory of earthquake avalanche supply, but it may be several years before evidence to test the applicability of the theory to the 1964 earthquake is apparent. 25 air photos with detailed descriptive notes illus the features described. Condensed version of the text was pub in Arctic 1965. v 18, no 2, p. 135-37.

James Buckland Mawdsley (1894-1964)   /   Byers, A.R.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 146-147
ASTIS record 55309

James Buckland Mawdsley, M.B.E., Ph.D., F.R.S.C., a Charter Associate of the Arctic Institute of North America, died very suddenly on 3 December 1964 at the age of 70. As Director of the Institute for Northern Studies, University of Saskatchewan, he played a major role in its organization and development and exerted a very great influence on research in northern Canada. He was born on 22 July 1894 near Siena, Italy, the son of British-American parents. In 1904 the Mawdsley family left Italy and settled in the village of Gainsborough, southeastern Saskatchewan. After receiving his public and high school training in Saskatchewan he entered McGill University in 1913. His career, like that of many of his contemporaries, was interrupted by the First World War. Twice wounded in France, first with the Princess Patricia Canadian Light Infantry and then as a pilot with the Royal Flying Corps, he was awarded the M.B.E. at the end of the war. In 1919 he returned to McGill and two years later graduated in Mining Engineering. He then went to Princeton University where he obtained his Doctor of Philosophy degree in Geology in 1924. That same year he joined the Geological Survey of Canada and for the next five years applied his scientific knowledge to the problems of the regional geology of northwestern Quebec. A new chapter in his life began in 1929 when he accepted the appointment of professor and head of the Department of Geology at the University of Saskatchewan, a position he held until he became Dean of Engineering in 1961 and also the Director of the Institute for Northern Studies. In 1963 he retired as Dean and was then able to devote all his time to the affairs of the Institute. In addition to his academic duties his professional activities included field work in northern Saskatchewan for the Geological Survey of Canada and the Saskatchewan Department of Mineral Resources, and private consulting assignments took him to other parts of northern Canada, to the United States and Great Britain. He was the author of 51 scientific papers and his honours were many. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1933 and was chairman of Section IV for the year 1954-55. He was president of the Geological Association of Canada during 1955-56 and of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy for 1961-62. In 1953 he was awarded the Institute's Barlow Memorial Medal in recognition of his paper entitled "Uraninite-bearing deposits, Charlebois Lake area, northeastern Saskatchewan". He was a Fellow and Director of the Royal Canadian Geographical Society, a Fellow of the Geological Society of America, a member of the Society of Economic Geologists, the Engineering Institute of Canada, and the Association of Professional Engineers of Saskatchewan. He had an eventful life, travelled widely, met and was a friend to many people. Such qualities as tact, kindliness, sincerity and respect for the thoughts of others enabled him to present his views without arousing undue antagonism, and to cooperate with others in reaching decisions. Recognized as an able administrator, scientist, and teacher, perhaps his greatest service will prove to be the influence he had on those who worked or studied under him. In them he not only instilled a feeling of scientific curiosity but also a keen interest and love of the North.

Ivar Skarland (1899-1965)   /   Irving, L.
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 147-148
ASTIS record 55310

Many people who mourn the loss of Ivar Skarland who died 1 January 1965, are grateful for his friendship and influence during the development of science and society in Alaska. Ivar Skarland was born in 1899 and grew up in Norway. After graduating from the School of Forestry at Steinkjer, Norway, he worked in the forests of Canada and reached Alaska in 1928. As an undergraduate at the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines (now the University of Alaska) he took part in the Biological Survey investigations into the food habits of large northern herbivores. While at the school, he met Otto Geist who induced him to join in excavations at Kukulik, St. Lawrence Island, which led to important archaeological discoveries and a lifelong friendship and association. After receiving his bachelor's degree from the University of Alaska he studied anthropology at Harvard, spending summers in the field in Alaska. He obtained his M.A. in 1942, and that year became associate professor at the University of Alaska. He was soon, however, diverted to Army service in the Aleutian Islands. In 1945 he returned to the University where he remained, except while studying at Harvard for his Ph.D. which he received in 1949. Before the War, Skarland was a powerful supporter of the able and venturesome expeditionary workers who developed the important sites of ancient cultures on Lawrence Island and at Point Hope. After the War these field studies in archaeology continued to progress during his collaboration with Otto Geist and J. L. Giddings and in the company of a sequence of distinguished visitors; important archaeological explorations along the Kobuk River, in the Brooks Range, and on the Arctic coast resulted. Skarland encouraged and supported scientists in their explorations, and although his name did not appear often on publications, he exerted a guiding influence through his firm friendship and wide acquaintance with the land and people of Alaska. As host to the scientists who were developing knowledge of Alaska he was at the focus of a score of investigations that have brought to light localities that are now famous in archaeology and biology, for example: Cape Denbigh, Anaktuvuk Pass, Onion Portage, and Kachemak Bay. He prompted the search in the Susitna Valley and along the Denali Highway that has shown traces of an unexpected ancient population south of the Alaska Range. Ivar Skarland was a charter associate and fellow of the Arctic Institute of North America. Many of its projects in the western arctic resulted from his stimulation and were sustained by his wise counsel. Because of his personal qualities and ability to interest men in scholarly exploration it is not surprising that Skarland was an inspiring teacher. Students liked and trusted him and a considerable number from his small classes published important anthropological papers as undergraduates. Those who became professional anthropologists continued to appreciate Ivar Skarland's encouragement and sincere and constructive criticism. His knowledge and understanding of people made his advice important in matters of public welfare and particularly in political and social considerations of Indian and Eskimo residents as their lands became settled and their ways changed. Looking upon his active life in Alaska we find that Ivar Skarland steadily exerted a powerful influence among scientists, students and his fellow citizens. Not only was he the firmest of friends but his friendship stimulated scholarship, and the progress of the various races as citizens in a northern society.

William A. Dotson
Arctic, v. 18, no. 2, June 1965, p. 148
ASTIS record 55311

Lieutenant William A. Dotson, USN, was killed on 27 November 1964 near Cape Newenham, Alaska, while conducting an aerial ice reconnaissance mission. An ll-year veteran of polar operations, Lt. Dotson was recognized for many outstanding contributions in the field of ice observing and forecasting. During tours of duty at the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office, he pioneered in establishing ice surveillance in both Arctic and Antarctic Regions. He was an early proponent of the use of radar as an ice observational tool. Representing the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office, he was instrumental in the success of the joint US-Canadian Project TIREC which was designed to exploit TIROS satellite sea ice photography for developing interpretation techniques. In June 1963, in view of his wide knowledge of pack ice he was selected as the first Naval Weather Service ice forecaster for the entire Alaskan area. Lt. Dotson's zeal and dedication will be remembered by the many ice scientists who have benefited from his endeavours in polar operations.

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