The South Pole fifty years after   /   Sullivan, W.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 1962, p. 174-178, ill.
ASTIS record 9877

"Great God! this is an awful place and terrible enough for us to have laboured to it without the reward of priority ..." That cry of anguish from the diary of Robert Falcon Scott rings loudly in our memories this anniversary year, for it was 50 years ago last January that he and his four companions found that the Norwegians had beaten them to the South Pole. The intervening half-century has been one of breathless change. We are separated from the "race" to the Pole by two world wars, by the transformation of empires, by technological advances that have revolutionized transport and communications. It is, in fact, difficult for the younger generation to appreciate the problems that confronted Scott and Amundsen. Yet, with another great adventure before us, it is fitting to look back, both admiringly and critically, on the rival efforts of five decades ago. There are sufficient parallels to current preparations for landing men on the moon to encourage us to assess the triumph and tragedy that occurred in the antarctic summer of 1911-12. ...

Observations on the distribution and ecology of some arctic fish   /   Ellis, D.V.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 1962, p. 179-189, figures
ASTIS record 9878

Reports on work during 1953-1955, mostly in the Coppermine River and delta of Mackenzie District, but extending east to Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island. The 27 species collected and two others observed are listed with notes on their distribution, ecology, and on the taxonomy when specific identification is uncertain. The number of specimens collected, dates, localities, and habitat are cited for each species. Methods are stated.

A preliminary study of acculturation among the Cree Indians of Winisk, Ontario   /   Liebow, E.   Trudeau, J.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 1962, p. 190-204, figures
ASTIS record 9879

Reports a study in summer 1958 of cultural changes resulting from establishment of a radar base in the Hudson Bay area of northern Ontario. The Indians' former life and contacts with whites as hunters and trappers are described, also their experiences as wage earners at the base. Among the changes are year-round residence in Winisk village, displacement of the family as the basic unit of production, and disappearance of hunting skills as the main factor in social prestige. Despite certain undesirable aspects, as substitution of canned food for fresh meat, loss of parental control over children, deterioration of public morality, etc., the new way of life is preferred by the Indians because of the greater economic security and the stimulation of community living.

Water balance and heat flow of the Arctic Ocean   /   Vowinckel, E.   Orvig, S.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 1962, p. 205-223, tables
ASTIS record 9880

Summarizes the literature on these two elements of the heat balance. Specific heat of water 1 cal/g degree, and density: 1 g/cm³ are used in the calculations, and a resulting inaccuracy of about 3% is expected. Method of calculation is described; energy in- and outflux values and the mean temperatures are discussed for the various ocean currents into and out of the Arctic. Runoff and precipitation are also considered. Ice export by the various currents is dealt with, and the heat gain by formation and export of sea ice is calculated, for the 14,090,000 km² area of the central basin and adjacent seas, also for the 9,906,000 km² "polar ocean" excluding the Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Water balance and heat flux estimates are tabulated and briefly evaluated.

Radio-wave and alternative communications in the Arctic   /   Gerson, N.C.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 1962, p. 224-228, figure, tables
ASTIS record 9881

Discusses communication circuits in this region: major recent North American Arctic networks; relative performance of six circuit types, problems, and possible future networks. Submarine cable and tropospheric scatter are the most effective methods of communication for the Arctic. A submarine cable linking North America and Europe via Thule, Greenland, is suggested.

Bryozoa from the arctic Alaskan coast   /   Hulsemann, K.   Soule, J.D.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 1962, p. 228-230, tables
ASTIS record 9882

Lists 11, mostly common species of bryozoans collected in Aug. 1953 between 145 14 and 155 48 W; manner of occurrence and general distribution are noted. Location of each of the 12 stations, depth and sediment type from which material was collected, also presence of kelp are indicated.

The geology of base Gabriel Gonzalez Videla, Antarctica   /   Halpern, M.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 1962, p. 231-237, ill., figures, table
ASTIS record 9883

The Chilean scientific base, Gabriel Gonzalez Videla, is located on the Danco Coast at the north end of the "Antarctic" Peninsula (Fig. 1). Isla Util, a small island in the Gerlache Strait, lies 7 miles north of the base. Field work was done during the 1960-61 austral summer, and 70 thin sections of the rocks collected were studied subsequently at the University of Wisconsin. The chief features of the geology of the area are shown in Fig. 6. The base is situated on two small islands (approx. 18,000 square metres), which are separated by a very narrow channel partly filled with morainal material. In this report the northern island is named Isla "Lomnitz" and the southern island, Isla "Dott". Between the islands and the mainland is a 90-metre channel, which is dry at low tide (Fig. 2). This channel and the eastern shores of the islands are covered by till. ...

Reply to the Commentary by Dr. John C. Reed   /   Pruitt, W.O.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 1962, p. 238-240
ASTIS record 55393

The Commentary by Reed in Arctic 15:1 expresses opinions not shared by many of those who are interested in the future of the North. The quotation from Robertson, with which Reed agrees, is virtually a touch-stone for those engaged in the exploitative and extractive industries, whether in the arctic, temperate, or tropical zones. It is also, in my opinion, quite outdated. For example, it was formerly believed that the extractive industries were the mainstay of the non-military Alaskan economy, yet Buckley clearly showed that the financial return from fisheries and wildlife is greater. ... Perhaps the greatest obstacle to a balanced program of research on northern resources are inappropriate temperate zone concepts. All permanent human occupancy of land (as Dr. Bader points out) is based on local use of renewable resources. In the temperate zone man can get away with such misuse of the land as strip-mining and burning forests so as to expose the country rock because vegetational succession is relatively rapid and the land can recover. In the Arctic and Subarctic all schemes for exploitation and use must be rigidly controlled because the consequences of misuse (through faulty application of traditional temperate zone procedures) are extreme and long-lasting. The temperate zone concept of laissez-faire in regard to everyday use of renewable resources is a dangerous concept for the Arctic and Subarctic. ...

Ukichiro Nakaya   /   Bender, J.A.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 1962, p. 242-243
ASTIS record 55394

Professor Ukichiro Nakaya was one of the best known and internationally prominent scientists in the field of snow and ice research. He died at Tokyo, Japan on April 11th, 1962 after a long illness. Dr. Nakaya was born on July 4th, 1900 at Katayamazu (now Kagashi), Ishikawa-ken, which is on the Sea of Japan. He received his Master of Science degree in 1925 from the Department of Physics of the University of Tokyo and then did additional graduate work in physics at Kings College, London, under Dr. O. W. Richardson from 1928 to 1929. He was granted a Doctor of Science degree in 1931 by Kyoto University. In 1930 he was appointed Professor of Physics at Hokkaido University at Hokkaido, Sapporo, and remained associated with that university during the rest of his life. At the time Dr. Nakaya took over the new department of physics there was a minimum of equipment and few funds available for research. But he did have a microscope and an unlimited number of natural snow crystals during the long winters. From over 3,000 photomicrographs he established a general classification of natural snow crystals. His next step was to try to duplicate nature in the laboratory and from these studies he developed the convective snow-making apparatus and the "Nakaya diagram" of growing conditions for snow crystals. From the shape of a snow crystal, he found, one could determine the meteorological conditions in the atmosphere in which the crystal was formed. In 1940 he was awarded the Japan Academy Prize for his research on snow. His beautifully illustrated book, "Snow Crystals", was published by Harvard University in 1954 and now serves as the classic reference on snow crystal shapes and classification to both artist and scientist. In 1941, through his efforts, the Institute of Low Temperature Science was established at Hokkaido University for studies on snow and ice. At the end of World War II he was instrumental in establishing the Institute of Agricultural Physics for the development ofagriculture in cold regions. A natural teacher, he has lifted many a beginning researcher over seemingly insurmountable obstacles by his patience, understanding, and ability to make the most difficult problem appear simple. In 1952 he was invited to conduct research at the U.S. Army Snow, Ice and Permafrost Research Establishment (since redesignated the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory). During the two-year period that followed he began his classic study of single crystals of ice, and later frequently visited the United States to continue his studies. He enjoyed field work as well as laboratory research and these studies took him to the top of Mt. Mauna Loa, Hawaii, to the Greenland Ice Cap for four seasons, and to Ice Island T-3. His pre-eminence in the field of snow and ice research was recognized by his election as a Vice-president of the Commission on Snow and Ice of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics. ... In 1960 he received recognition of his many talents when he was selected as one of the ten most distinguished men in Japan. He will long be remembered in the professional world through his classic research papers and through his inspiration to his students and colleagues. His many friends will remember him as a wonderful, interesting, and much beloved person who often wrote in his books and paintings, "snow crystals are the hieroglyphs sent from the sky."

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