The marine nature of Nuwuk Lake and small ponds of the peninsula of Point Barrow Alaska   /   Mohr, J.L.   Reish, D.J.   Barnard, J.L.   Lewis, R.W.   Geiger, S.R.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 210-223, ill., figures, tables
ASTIS record 9860

Discusses a score or more ponds, some transient, some persistent, on this narrow gravel spit, their location, nature, salinity and temperature; their biotas, marine and fresh-water, are outlined. Nuwuk Lake, the largest water body of the locality, approx. 600 ft long, max. depth 18.5 ft, is treated in some detail: its bottom, its formation by converging currents of the Bering and Chukchi Seas, ice conditions, temperature, salinity and O2-content. The biotas: euryhaline, reduced shallow-sea fauna are dealt with and the organisms collected during 1952-1960 are tabulated. Comparison is made with the few halocline lakes known in northern Russia and Scandinavia, notably Mogil'noye on Kil'din Island.

Arctic and subarctic examples of intertidal zonation   /   Ellis, D.V.   Wilce, R.T.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 224-235, ill., figure, map
ASTIS record 9861

Analysis based on extensive observations of shores on Baffin Island, at Coppermine, and other localities on the north mainland coast and arctic islands of Canada. Populations on rocky shores were found to exist only where shore ice was thinner than tidal amplitude; in the Arctic proper, they are rare and limited to low levels as exemplified from Coronation Gulf - Boothia Peninsula, Admiralty Inlet, etc. In the sub-Arctic they have a mid-littoral zone dominated by Balanus balanoides and fucoids, bordered by infralittoral and supralittoral fringes. Sedimentary shores in the subarctic localities showed dense populations only near low-water level; in the Arctic they are almost barren.

Meteorological research at Lake Hazen, 1961   /   Jackson, C.I.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 236
ASTIS record 60950

During the International Geophysical Year observations of the surface weather were made at Lake Hazen, Ellesmere Island, N.W.T., Canada; they indicate that considerable differences exist between conditions at this inland site and the nearest coastal weather stations Alert and Eureka. In particular, there is an unusual prevalence of calms and an almost complete absence of winds over 20 m.p.h. To investigate this phenomenon in more detail a series of pilot balloon observations was made at Lake Hazen during the summer of 1961. The writer, assisted by David Feather of Cambridge University, was enabled to join the 1961 phase of "Operation Hazen" through the courtesy of the Defence Research Board of Canada. Financial assistance was obtained from the Banting Fund through the Arctic Institute of North America, and instruments were lent by the meteorological services of the United States and Canada. Helium-filled balloons were tracked visually by the single-theodolite method to provide data on winds up to 25,000 feet. Cloud conditions were not ideal, but adequate data were obtained for the critical layer below 6,000 feet. Balloons were released at 6-hourly intervals from May 16 until August 18. During the first half of August ten balloons were released each day and the value of this detailed series was increased by almost cloudless conditions during much of the period. Preliminary results indicate that the quiescent surface conditions normally extend to a height of several thousand feet. To provide comparison with IGY data regular surface weather observations were made during the entire period. Other work included collection of plankton samples from Lake Hazen (for Dr. I. A. McLaren of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada), and of specimens of Salix arctica for growth ring studies. Physiological experiments were also carried out at the request of Dr. M. Lobban (U.K. Medical Research Council). The writer desires to express his gratitude to the sponsors of the expedition and also to his field assistant, whose help was invaluable. A detailed analysis of the results will be published later.

University of Alaska Gulkana Glacier Expedition 1961   /   Pw, T.L.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 236-237
ASTIS record 60951

Glaciological studies initiated during the summer of 1960 on Gulkana Glacier in the central Alaska Range by members of the Department of Geology, University of Alaska, were continued during the summer of 1961. ... The two-man field parties, each led by a graduate student of the University of Alaska, were in the field from June 1 to September 1. The two field parties made, respectively, a detailed ablation study and a study of the surface motion. ... Larry Mayo led the party that concentrated on detailed mapping of ablation and accumulation, and recording local weather and net total radiation. Seventy-nine ablation poles and twenty-five snow pits were used to measure ablation and accumulation on the 3.5-mile-long glacier. Continuous weather observations were made for 3 months. The main weather station was located near the centre line of the glacier at an altitude of 4,800 feet. Every 12 hours measurements were made of wind, precipitation, and ablation on snow, ice, and morainal surfaces. Continuous records were made of temperature, humidity, and net total radiation. ... A second weather station for continuous temperature measurements was at an altitude of 5,600 feet on the glacier. ... Seventy-five of the ablation stakes were used in the surface motion study. This part of the program was led by Eugene Moores and consisted of the following: (1) an overall program of locating weekly, monthly, and bimonthly the position of all 75 stakes, (2) short-interval studies consisting of daily observations of seven stakes and 2-day observations of 32 stakes, (3) resurvey of the transverse profiles established in 1960, (4) extension of the triangulation net, and (5) locating stakes in the tributaries feeding the main ice streams. The short-interval studies concentrated on an area below the ice fall extending across the width of the glacier, including two stakes on different blocks at the top of the ice fall. Differential motion between ice streams was also investigated. ... Gravity measurements were made along one longitudinal and three transverse lines on the glacier. ...

Hourly air and near-surface soil temperatures at Resolute, N.W.T.   /   Cook, F.A.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 237-241, ill.
ASTIS record 50878

Since 1959 the Geographical Branch of the Canada Department of Mines and Technical Surveys has been pursuing a program of enquiry into problems of periglacial geomorphology at Resolute, N.W.T. (7443'N., 9559'W.). This area was considered suitable because it is in an active periglacial region, where geomorphological processes are reduced to as near a mechanical process as can be found in nature, since there is an almost complete absence of vegetation. The study of soil temperature in the active layer of permafrost has formed a significant part of the program. In the past freeze-thaw cycles have received special consideration as continued freezing and thawing of the mantle has been considered instrumental in its disintegration. The Resolute program also included the study of freeze-thaw cycles and in the course of this study temperature data were collected at five levels at 4-minute intervals during the period from October 1959 to September 1960 inclusive. In this paper hourly air and near-surface soil data are being analysed as a preliminary to a larger study to be published later. It is realized that a 1-year record does not provide a stable frequency distribution, but as no similar set of data exists for a high arctic area, it is presented here. ...

Maximum postglacial marine submergence in southern Melville Peninsula, N.W.T.   /   Sim, V.W.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 241-244, map
ASTIS record 50879

In a recent article the author discussed the limit of postglacial marine submergence in the northern part of Melville Peninsula. It was suggested that the marine limit in the area, as determined by a number of observations using four different criteria, varied between 450 and 500 feet. Of these four criteria only two, the lowest altitude at which undisturbed ground moraine and perched boulders occurred, were found to be particularly useful. Similar techniques were used during the summer of 1959 to determine the limit of postglacial submergence in the southern part of the peninsula. The observations there are limited to four altitudes in the Prince Albert Hills east of Lefroy Bay and to seven altitudes on the shores of the peninsula between Haviland Bay and Gore Bay. Two additional altitudes, one obtained by Burns near the mouth of Jenness River (the only observation on the east coast south of 68N.) and the other by Mathiassen between Gore and Haviland bays, comprise all the available information. The location and altitude of each observation is plotted on the map, Fig. 1. ...

Chukotsk or Chukchi : Some thoughts on the transposition of Soviet geographical names   /   Sinclair, D.A.   Topchy, V.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 244-246
ASTIS record 50880

... To some cartographers and gazetteer writers the transposition of Russian geographical names into English may seem a subject well suited for an arbitrary rule of thumb; but is it? ... The reason for the current trend towards indiscriminate transliteration of Soviet geographical names is not far to seek. It is the simplest way to avoid the problems of adaptation, and at the same time enables all those who may now have a need to know the Russian version of the names to avoid learning the 32 letters of the Cyrillic alphabet - at the price of a minor distortion and some uncertainty in spelling and pronunciation. By the same token it is also the crudest manner of transposition. It literally deprives the English language of a galaxy of geographical names for a vast and increasingly important part of the earth. It is a way of dodging an issue instead of facing it. ...

A compendium of errors: a note on the lowest official temperature for North America, 1910-1947   /   Cooke, A.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 247-248
ASTIS record 50881

For 37 years the lowest temperature officially accepted for North America was that of -79F. recorded by Father Gaston Houssais, O.M.I, at Fort Good Hope, N.W.T., Canada on December 31, 1910. This was not equalled until 1947, when a corrected reading of -81F. on February 3 at Snag, Y.T., Canada was officially accepted. An analysis of the Fort Good Hope weather records from December 29, 1910 to January 1, 1911 raises serious doubts that a temperature of -79F. occurred during that period. ...

The Devon Island Expedition   /   Apollonio, S.   Cowie, J.W.   Voegtli, K.   Koerner, R.M.   Cress, P.   Wyness, R.   Greenhouse, J.P.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 252-265, ill.
ASTIS record 50882

In 1959 the Arctic Institute of North America undertook an integrated program of long term research on Devon Island in the Queen Elizabeth Islands of arctic Canada. The co-ordinated studies were designed to help understand the interrelationships between the glacier ice of Devon Island, the ocean in Jones Sound, and the encompassing atmosphere. They are being carried out over a 3-year period under the leadership of Spencer Apollonio. The main effort is concentrated on attempts to evaluate such factors as physical, chemical, and biological variations in the arctic waters of Jones Sound caused by discharging glaciers; evaporation and transfer of moisture between the ocean waters and the ice-cap and glaciers; and the overall influences of solar radiation energy on the mass balance of the ice-cap, the biological production in the sea, and the growth and decay of sea-ice. Some supplementary studies in archaeology and geology are included in the expedition's work because of the marked deficiency of knowledge in those subjects for Devon Island. In the late summer of 1960 a main base was established on the north shore of Devon Island near Cape Skogn by an advance party of eight men taken in with their materials by the Canada Department of Transport icebreaker "d'Iberville". During a 3-week period buildings were erected and routes inland and to the ice-cap explored and marked, while an archaeological reconnaissance of the Cape Sparbo area was made by a small party under Mr. Gordon Lowther of McGill University. Everything was installed for a beginning of the 3-year program in April 1961. During the months of April to September 1961 21 men worked on extensive programs in geophysics, glaciology, marine biology and oceanography, meteorology, and surveying. Intensive work was also completed in archaeology and geology. ...

R. M. Anderson (1877-1961)   /   Jenness, D.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 4, Dec. 1961, p. 268
ASTIS record 50883

Dr. Rudolf Martin Anderson, an Honorary Member of the Arctic Institute and for many years Chief of the Division of Biology in the National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, died on June 22, 1961 at the age of 84. A reserved man, rather diffident, he was never more happy than when he was sitting at the door of a tent, legs outstretched, skinning a mixed bag of shrews, marmots, sandpipers, and perhaps one or two eiders, the while keeping both ears attuned to the murmur of wind and water, and the twittering of the birds. Indians and Eskimos alike trusted and admired him, because he shared so fully their own love of nature and its wild life. In the University of Iowa he had been a prominent athlete, and his physical strength and endurance served him well during his arduous journeys in arctic Alaska and Canada between 1908 and 1916. The writer travelled with him up the Coppermine River during the winter of 1914-15, cracked with him the marrowbones of the caribou that were shot, and roared with laughter at his humorous adventures, recounted in an unwavering monotone while his whole frame shook with suppressed mirth - doubtless at his success in stealthily demolishing three-fourths of the marrow-bones. He was too individualistic, too absorbed in his own biological work, to be a forceful expedition-leader or a dynamic administrator in a museum; but he gave his subordinates every facility at his command and allowed them untrammeled freedom in carrying out their duties. In the field he was a splendid companion who cheerfully carried his share of the load and lent a helping hand whenever it was needed. Anderson published many scientific papers in various journals, but, being an anthropologist, I am not competent to pass judgement on his biological achievements. I like best to remember him as the indefatigable traveller, cheerfully marching through the snow at the head of his weary dog-team in the waning twilight of an arctic day.

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