Late Wisconsin and recent history of the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska   /   Williams, J.R.   Ferrians, O.J.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 2, June 1961, p. 82-90, ill., figure, map
ASTIS record 9852

Reports studies of this glacier in the upper Matanuska valley in 1953, 1954, and 1957, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey terrain and permafrost investigations in Alaska. Advances and retreats of the glacier, indicated by moraines and marginal channels, were traced. The results are outlined amplifying the preliminary report, No. 56057.

Population dynamics of the Mackenzie Delta reindeer herd, 1938-1958   /   Krebs, C.J.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 2, June 1961, p. 91-100, ill.
ASTIS record 9853

Analyzes fluctuations in the size of both government- and Eskimo-owned herds of Rangifer tarandus in the Reindeer Grazing Preserve of northern Mackenzie District. Each of the six Eskimo-owned herds increased in numbers for a few years, then declined and ultimately, except one, was returned to the nucleus, government herd. Annual variation in herd size is examined in relation to the birth, death, and dispersal rates. The last which represents losses by straying, approx. 17,000 since 1938, usually yearlings, is the most important, birth rate the least. Effects of herd size and composition (tabulated by age and sex) on the birth and dispersal rates are deemed negligible. Dispersal is apparently caused by factors extrinsic to the herd itself, e.g. insects, weather, man, and their interactions.

Russian settlement and land rise in Nordaustlandet, Spitsbergen   /   Blake, W.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 2, June 1961, p. 101-111, ill., figure
ASTIS record 9854

Presents evidence of stable shoreline in the Murchisonfjorden region from 1957-1958 studies of a Russian hunting hut on Nordre Russoya. Age of the hut is determined as at least 100 years from settlement records and radiocarbon dating. It is located only 1.2 m above high-tide level and 0.8 m above the highest tides; hence the land has risen less than one meter in the past century. Any uplift that is occurring is probably balanced by the rise in sea level from glacier shrinkage.

The Russian settlement at Russekeila and land rise in Vestspitsbergen   /   Christiansson, H.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 2, June 1961, p. 112-118, ill., figures
ASTIS record 9855

Discusses the possibilities of postglacial land emergence, from observations at Russekeila on Isfjorden during inter-Nordic archeological-ethnographical expeditions in 1955 and 1960. Evidence from a kitchen midden 15-17 m from the sea and two meters above high-tide level, indicates that the land has not risen appreciably for over a hundred yrs. Similar evidence from Murchisonfjorden, presented by Blake, q.v., and the Amsterdamoya area in northwestern Vestspitsbergen (No. 39801) shows no land rise in those areas during the past 100-350 yrs.

Salmon investigations on the Whale River, Ungava in 1960 and the development of an Eskimo fishery for salmon in Ungava Bay   /   Power, G.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 2, June 1961, p. 119-120
ASTIS record 50875

A study of the Atlantic salmon populations breeding in the Ungava Bay watershed, which commenced in 1956 on the George River and in 1957 on the Koksoak River, was continued during the summer of 1960 on the Whale River. The two principal collecting stations were at the site of the old Hudson's Bay Company's post, in tidal waters, and in a rapid section of the river 15 miles above the post, in non-tidal waters. In spite of a very wet summer, which resulted in high water levels all season, a good sample of salmon was obtained. Almost 900 specimens were examined, of which 185 were adults that had entered the river to spawn, 32 were spent fish from the run of the previous year, and the rest were juvenile smolts and parr. Most of the large fish were captured in gill nets of 4-, 6-, and 8-inch mesh, about one-half of the juveniles were taken in 1.5-inch-mesh gill nets, and the remainder by angling. The spawning run in Whale River began about August 6 and continued until the end of the month, when catches at the post fell to almost nothing. The 1960 run in the Koksoak River followed a similar pattern. Whale River salmon were the same size as those examined from other Ungava rivers. The majority are between 9 and 13 lbs. in weight and have spent 2 years or longer feeding at sea. The grilse, after 1 or more years at sea, are between 3.5 and 6 lbs. in weight. Analysis of the data on the juveniles is not yet complete, but indicates a growth and age range similar to that found previously in the George and Koksoak rivers, that is, they migrate to the sea when they are 3 to 7 years old and between 18 and 26 cms. long. ... The information that has been accumulated during this series of investigations on Ungava salmon is now proving to be of practical importance. During the summer of 1961 the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources plans to initiate an experimental Eskimo fishery for salmon on the Koksoak River and possibly also on the Whale River. Fresh salmon are to be flown from Chimo to Montreal for sale. It has been possible to provide the Department with information on desirable mesh sizes for the nets and on the probable weight distribution of the catch. By continuing to collect data during the course of the fishing and following closely any changes in the composition of the catch it will be possible to find out whether the expected fishing pressure (removal of 10,000 lbs. of fish per river per year) is having any effect on the population. In this way it can be discovered whether the salmon inhabiting these northern waters can maintain themselves against both the physical handicap of their environment and the stress of fishing. The scanty and probably unreliable evidence from the records of the Hudson's Bay Company fishery started in the 1880's and abandoned in the 1930's indicates that catches may decline after a period of fishing. It is hoped that by employing university students to assist with the project accurate records can be obtained of the size and age composition of the catches and that a careful watch can be maintained on any effects of the planned fishery. ...

Two recently discovered glaciers, Antarctica   /   Weihaupt, J.G.
Arctic, v. 14, no. 2, June 1961, p. 120-123, ill., map
ASTIS record 50876

The purpose of this paper is to make available preliminary information on two recently discovered glaciers in Victoria Land, Antarctica. As a continuation of the International Geophysical Year scientific effort in Antarctica, two ground traverses were organized by the United States Antarctic Research Program and administered by the Arctic Institute of North America. The first of these traverses left Scott Base on October 16, 1959 in three tracked Sno-Cats, traversing parts of the Ross Ice Shelf, the Skelton Glacier, Victoria Land, and Wilkes Land. During the aerial evacuation of the traverse group, consisting of F. G. vander Hoeven, A. W. Stuart, A. J. Heine, W. M. Smith, L. J. Roberts, T. Baldwin, A. R. Taylor, W. A. Jackman, C. Lorius, and J. G. Weihaupt, early in 1960, an aerial photo reconnaissance was made from 7238.0'S-16131.8'E. to Rennick Bay on the Oates Coast of the Antarctic Continent. During the reconnaissance, a new and sizeable glacier was discovered that terminates in the vicinity of Rennick Bay. During an earlier photo reconnaissance a second and smaller glacier was discovered flowing east, terminating in the vicinity of Lady Newnes Ice Shelf in the Ross Sea. ...

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