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Behaviour and social organization of the wild bison of Wood Buffalo National Park, Canada   /   Fuller, W.A.
Arctic, v. 13, no. 1, Mar. 1960, p. 2-19, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 9848
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Reports observations made incidentally to a biological study of the herd in this preserve south of Great Slave Lake during 1950-1956. Senses, locomotion (including swimming), vocalization, as well as anatomical peculiarities influencing behavior are dealt with. Care-giving (grooming, nursing), agonistic and sexual behaviors are outlined. Social organization is illustrated by accounts of herd composition, intermingling of herds, interspecific relations (wolves), and reactions to man.


On the importance of the phonemic principle in the design of an orthography   /   Gagne, R.C.
Arctic, v. 13, no. 1, Mar. 1960, p. 20-31
ASTIS record 9837
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Analyzes the phonological structure of Eskimo spoken in Canada, to establish a basis for a simple and accurate spelling system.


Arctic ice island and ice shelf studies : part II   /   Crary, A.P.
Arctic, v. 13, no. 1, Mar. 1960, p. 32-50, ill., maps
ASTIS record 9838
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Discusses possible conditions north of 80 N. under which thick floating ice can form, and outlines the possible history of the Ward Hunt (Ellesmere) Ice Shelf and the ice island T-3. General surface features are explained, and the possible future of these ice masses is discussed. Factors conductive to growth and ablation of perennial ice are considered. Combinations of surface conditions and heat from the ocean waters that limit the ice thickness are determined theoretically. General ice conditions in the high Arctic indicate little surface change over many centuries. Evidence of several age determinations suggests that T-3 may be older than the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf. Most of the 80 ice islands located in the bays and inlets of the Canadian Arctic Islands, where many have grounded and melted. Two ice islands have continued drifting past the Pole and into the Greenland Sea, and two have circled the western Arctic Basin again. The arctic areas are believed to be as open and the ice as thin as at any time in the past three thousand years, and the ice shelves may become extinct.


The age of the metamorphic complex of northernmost Ellesmere Island   /   Blackadar, R.G.
Arctic, v. 13, no. 1, Mar. 1960, p. 51-52
ASTIS record 44580
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Among the geological results of the Nares Expedition of 1875-76 to northern Ellesmere Island was the mapping of an area of mica schists and other altered rocks between Stubbs Point and Markham Inlet, and in the same general area Peary noted the presence of igneous rocks. These observations led Schuchert to postulate a borderland of Archaean rocks, the supposed source of the sediments deposited in the Franklinian Geosyncline, to which he gave the name "Pearyea". Recently the Precambrian age of these rocks has been questioned and the view has been expressed that the metamorphic rocks of northern Ellesmere Island are merely highly metamorphosed Palaeozoic strata. Support for this view comes from north Greenland where it appears that Palaeozoic beds can be traced into regions of metamorphic strata. In 1953 the writer mapped a group of migmatites and gneisses between Cape Aldrich and Markham Inlet and named them the Cape Columbia group. Christie continued geological mapping in the area during the 1954 field season and extended the group to include all rocks of advanced metamorphic grade. He mapped outcrops of the Cape Columbia group between Cape Aldrich and Cape Albert Edward, on Ward Hunt Island, at the head of M'Clintock Inlet, and between Ayles Fiord and Phillips Inlet. He also found a conglomerate containing pebbles of Cape Columbia group rocks in what he named the M'Clintock group; on other evidence the M'Clintock group was shown to be older than the Middle Ordovician. Christie also found fragments of metamorphic rocks in a fossiliferous conglomerate in the Challenger group of Upper Ordovician age. Thus from geological evidence it was possible to state with some confidence that the age of the Cape Columbia group was preOrdovician. A specimen of biotite-rich gneiss was recently submitted by the writer to the Isotope and Nuclear Research Section of the Geological Survey of Canada for age determination using the potassium-argon method, which gave an age of 545 million years. The significance of this result in terms of geochronology is discussed in the remaining part of this note. ... If we accept the consensus of current thought, it appears probable that the last metamorphism to which Cape Columbia group rocks were subjected occurred in lowermost Palaeozoic time or uppermost Precambrian time; the rocks themselves may be much older as the method dates only the most recent metamorphism. The existence of metamorphosed strata in northern Ellesmere Island suggests that orogenic forces may have been involved and the resulting landmass may have been the source of the clastic sediments that Thorsteinsson and Tozer note in the Parry Islands and Ellesmere Island. By the close of the Palaeozoic era, the area occupied by the Cape Columbia group rocks had been lowered and limestone of Permian age was being deposited with angular unconformity on the gneissic and other metamorphic rocks of the Cape Columbia group.


Andrew Graham, Thomas Hutchins, and the first record of Peary's caribou   /   Glover, R.
Arctic, v. 13, no. 1, Mar. 1960, p. 52-54
ASTIS record 44606
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The eighteenth century naturalist Thomas Pennant published the following note in 1787: "Mr. Hutchins was presented, by the Weahipouk Indians, with a Deer four feet eight inches long and three feet two high. It was entirely white, except for the back which was mottled with brown. The fur was short and fine like that of the Ermine. The Indians, in their manner of expression, said it came from a place where there was little or no day." This description sounds extremely like Peary's caribou, but there are obvious difficulties in accepting it as the first record of that remote species of deer. Who, it must be asked, were the "Weahipouk" Indians? How were any Indians able to secure the skin of an animal that lived north of the range of most Eskimos? And how did they come to make a present of it to Dr. Thomas Hutchins who spent most of his time in America at Fort Albany on James Bay and was never at any time north of Fort York? Through the kindness of Miss Alice Johnson, archivist of the Hudson's Bay Company, it has become possible to answer these questions and also to assert that Pennant's note is indeed the earliest description of Peary's caribou, although an inaccurate one. ...


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