Arctic ice island and ice shelf studies : part I   /   Crary, A.P.
Arctic, v. 11, no. 1, 1958, p. 2-42, ill., maps
ASTIS record 9806

Summarizes some physical characteristics of ice island T-3 and its presumed source, the ice shelf off northern Ellesmere. Investigations since 1952 are described, results tabulated and graphed. The maximum ice thickness of the ice shelf was 60 m and that of T-3, 68 m (averaging 0.905 gm/cm in density from the surface to a depth of 16 m). Dust from dirt layers (collecting in small holes) on T-1 and T-3 appears to have originated from a land mass underlain partly by volcanic rock and partly by metamorphic and plutonic types and to have been wind-deposited. Deep cores on T-3 revealed a sequence of dirt layers to 28 m with clear ice below, the composition and grain size the same in all the layers; the heaviest were near the surface (amounting to 114-122 gm/m) and at depths of 25 and 28 m (80 gm/m). Four types of ice were observed on Ellesmere ice shelf and on T-3 in 1953 and 1954: iced firn, glacier, lake and sea ice; in 1955 only iced firn and lake ice were identified on the island. Temperatures recorded below the depth of annual change at the ice rise near Ward Hunt Island were -17.7 C at 12.2 m and -17.3 C at 18.0 m. Rocks, and plant and animal specimens found on T-3 are examined in relation to the possible origin of the island. Strand cracks at the junction between floating and grounded ice on the Ward Hunt ice shelf are also considered. From SIPRE [Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment].

Glaciation on the arctic slope of the Brooks Range, northern Alaska   /   Detterman, R.L.   Bowsher, A.L.   Dutro, J.T.
Arctic, v. 11, no. 1, 1958, p. 43-61, ill., figures, map
ASTIS record 9807

Reconstructs glacial history of the area (approx. 68-69 30 N, 147-162 W) on the basis of observations during 1944-1953 of the nature and extent of glacial deposits in the central part of the Range between Shainin and Itkillik Lakes and in the southern part of the Foothills Province from the Shaviovik River west to Etivluk River. Distribution is mapped and characteristics described of deposits from six glaciations for which a tentative chronological sequence is established: Anaktuvuk and Sagavanirktok of Pre-Wisconsin age; Itkillik and Echooka of Early Wisonsin; Alapah Mountain of Late Wisconsin; and Fan Mountain of Recent age. Terrace deposits and Pleistone alluviations are mentioned.

Salmon investigations on the Koksoak River, 1957   /   Power, G.
Arctic, v. 11, no. 1, 1958, p. 63-64
ASTIS record 60953

Continuing the investigations that were begun at the George River in 1956, the salmon population of the Koksoak River was examined during the summer of 1957. Sampling was by the use of nylon gill nets placed at various stations along the river and its two major tributaries, the Kaniapiskau and the Larch. A fairly large sample of juvenile salmon was obtained by angling. It was found that probably the majority of the Koksoak salmon travel up the Larch River to spawn. How far they can ascend is not known, but they do so for a minimum of 60 miles and probably can go much farther. Only the lower 20 miles of the Kaniapiskau River are accessible to salmon, beyond this they are stopped by the 60-foot Limestone Falls. On the basis of catches of adult salmon twenty times as many ascend the Larch than the Kaniapiskau; however, since only one salmon was taken in the Kaniapiskau in 30 net nights, this estimate is probably not reliable. The Eskimo salmon fishery at Fort Chimo was observed when it was in full swing and a good sample of the catch was examined. This fishery can hardly be described as intensive and undoubtedly the Eskimo could obtain far more salmon. The major obstacles are (1) the high cost of gear; (2) the difficulties of fishing the Koksoak River at Fort Chimo due to the large size of the stream and the strong tidal currents; (3) the coincidence of the fishing season and the time of seasonal employment in loading and unloading the ships. This occupation is very attractive because the Eskimo can earn $1.40 per hour, whereas fishing does not bring in cash, only a supply of dog food for the winter. ... In addition to collecting, physiological studies on the speckled trout [brook trout] and the Atlantic salmon were continued. These involved measurements of the basal oxygen consumption of these fish under different temperature regimes at different seasons. Results obtained for the speckled trout in previous years suggested that diurnal temperature fluctuations at low temperatures had an exaggerated effect on the oxygen consumption of the fish. To complement the hourly measurements of temperatures made in conjunction with the physiological experiments, a number of continuous recordings were obtained using a thermograph .... The results of these investigations, which were supported by a Banting Fund grant from the Arctic Institute of North America and a grant from the Department of Fisheries, Quebec, will be published in detail later.

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