The autobiography of an Alaskan Eskimo   /   VanStone, J.W. [Editor]
Arctic, v. 10, no. 4, 1957, p. 194-210, ill.
ASTIS record 9803

Recollections of Attungoruk, a Point Hope Eskimo born in 1928, of his childhood and school days, early trapping and hunting adventures, adolescent courtships, various short-term jobs at Candle, Kotzebue, Alaska Railroad, Eielson Air Force Base, etc.; his return to Point Hope, marriage and birth of children. It is a life pattern of a typical North Alaska Eskimo who seeks summer employment outside his village to supplement income derived from winter hunting. Attungoruk's narrative is prefaced and annotated by VanStone who conducted areal community studies from Sept. 1955 to Aug. 1956.

The kill of wild geese by the natives of the Hudson-James Bay region   /   Hanson, H.C.   Currie, C.
Arctic, v. 10, no. 4, 1957, p. 211-229, ill., figures, tables
ASTIS record 9804

The economic plight of Indians and Eskimos in the Hudson-James Bay area is partly dependent on the numbers of wild geese nesting in or migrating through their territory. The information presented on kills indicates that the number taken by native hunters is within a safe limit of what the nesting populations of that area can withstand. Expansion of wintering grounds and inaccessibility of breeding grounds assure that wild geese will continue to be an important source of food for the northern natives.

Some problems in engineering geology caused by permafrost in the Arctic coastal plain, northern Alaska   /   Black, R.F.
Arctic, v. 10, no. 4, 1957, p. 230-240, ill.
ASTIS record 9805

Deals with permafrost as the controlling influence on certain engineering projects as observed during field studies, 1945-1951. Its direct and indirect effects on transportation, surface and underground exploration, construction and durability of structures, water supply, sewage disposal, drilling for and production of oil and gas are considered, but no attempt is made to present an overall survey. "Overland transportation is hampered most in the spring breakup and fall freeze-up periods; excavation can be made only in summer in the active layer unless special methods are used. Bench marks can be set properly only in adequately drained backfill to 10 m. depth. Foundation excavations must be kept nearly dry; construction material for roads is lacking except locally. Steel landing mats and concrete can be used safely on gravel beaches for landing strips; small airstrips can be built on sand dunes with little grading and little danger of affecting the permafrost. A frozen runway of pycrete or icecrete utilizing turf and surface soil as the foundation and permafrost as a cold reserve in a heat exchanger is recommended for areas lacking suitable materials."--SIPRE.

Geomorphological investigations in the Torngat Mountains of northeastern Labrador-Ungava   /   Ives, J.D.
Arctic, v. 10, no. 4, 1957, p. 243-244
ASTIS record 61064

... The central area of study lay athwart the Labrador-Quebec boundary on the watershed between Nakvak Brook, which drains into Saglek Fiord, and the Koroksoak (Korok) River, which flows westwards into Ungava Bay. ... Attention was concentrated on an extensive system of lateral moraines and kame terraces which slope eastwards from the watershed towards the head of Saglek Fiord. Similar systems were examined in the through-troughs to the south. The whole complex represents the late-Pleistocene limits of trunk glaciers flowing through the mountains towards the east and supplied by an ice cap of continental proportions west of the height of land. At this stage the higher summits stood as nunataks well above the level of the ice, and an extensive series of ice-dammed lakes was held against the western slopes of the highland finding outlets over ice-free cols into the Atlantic. Detailed studies in the watershed area provide a chronology of the final emergence of the area from the last ice sheet, and the draining of the ice-dammed lakes. A final stage was represented by a mass of ice in the lower valley of the Koroksoak which dammed a lake to the level of the col, at 1,050 feet, whence it drained into Nakvak Brook and ultimately into the Atlantic. Glacial erratics, found on summits up to 4,000 feet above sea level, corroborate the conclusions of the previous summer's work suggesting that at some stage the highest summits were inundated by ice flowing from the west. The data compiled from the two summers' work prompt the conclusion that during late-Pleistocene times the Torngat Mountains were influenced by two distinct glaciations, separated by an interglacial period of considerable intensity. The final glaciation, during which large areas remained ice-free, is tentatively correlated with the "classical" Wisconsin of central North America whereas the date of the preceding glacial period is uncertain. It may be the equivalent of the Illinoian Glaciation, or even be of post-Sangamon age, and in this case be comparable with a cold phase tentatively identified in central North America, which is older than the "classical" Wisconsin Glaciation, and is separated from the latter by a warmer period. Reconnaissance from the air during flights along the Labrador coast and some distance inland suggests that these general conclusions might well be applicable to the entire coastal zone of Labrador. ...

Arctic investigations by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 1956-57   /   Fisher, H.D.
Arctic, v. 10, no. 4, 1957, p. 244-245
ASTIS record 61066

... In 1956 fisheries studies were concentrated in the Mackenzie Delta region between Herschel Island and Tuktoyaktuk, where fishes are relatively varied and abundant. ... In addition to substantial beluga and ringed seal collections which were made for the mammal investigations, about 11,000 fish were sampled in all. ... a preliminary survey of fish stocks in Pelly and Garry lakes of the Back River system was undertaken .... The lakes, which are shallow (20-30 feet), were found to support sufficient stocks of whitefishes and lake trout to permit organized subsistence fishing should this be necessary. ... In 1957 one party carried out fisheries studies up the Mackenzie River from Aklavik to Fort Norman, and another surveyed fish stocks at Coppermine, N.W.T. An intensive study was made of the char run in Rowley River on Rowley Island, Foxe Basin by the M .V. Calanus and in northern Hudson Bay by whaleboat and by peterhead from Coral Harbour. Forty-five walrus were tagged in the latter area, and 20 were examined in detail. In Foxe Basin 60 walrus and 220 seals were sampled. The reproductive cycle, ages at maturity, and life expectancy have to a large extent been clarified by work on aging from growth layers in the cementum of molar teeth and in tusk development. ... In 1956 and 1957, a continued increase in the fishery for pilot whales in Newfoundland (1956 catch, about 10,000) led to emphasis on population studies. Investigations were begun as well on minke whales or lesser rorquals, with a small fishery at Dildo, Newfoundland as the source of material. ... During a 12-month period beginning in September 1955, collecting of plankton, benthos and hydrographic samples was carried out in northern Foxe Basin from the M.V. Calanus, based at Igloolik. Biological samples included net plankton, microplankton, bottom fauna and intertidal collections. Hydrographic sections were run across Fury and Hecla Strait, and between Jens Munk and Koch, Koch and Rowley, Koch and Baffin, Baffin and Bray, and Bray and Rowley Islands. Additional stations were occupied and water temperature, salinity, oxygen and phosphate values were determined. It thus has been possible to follow through a complete yearly cycle of hydrography and productivity in Foxe Basin. ...

Activities of the Geographical Branch in northern Canada, 1947-1957   /   Fraser, J.K.
Arctic, v. 10, no. 4, 1957, p. 246-250, map
ASTIS record 50897

The Geographical Branch of the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys was created in 1947. Under its terms of references, part of its responsibility is the collection and analysis of geographical information on northern Canada, in particular the territories under the jurisdiction of the federal government. In the decade since the Branch's inauguration, geographers have carried out various kinds of field surveys in the Canadian Arctic and subarctic, from the northern coast of Ellesmere Island to the Hudson Bay coastal plain in Ontario, and from the Alaska boundary to Labrador. These surveys have varied from parties formed entirely of geographers to individual shipboard observers or representatives on collaborative teams of scientists. The collection of basic information on the vast unknown expanses of the Arctic is peculiarly suited to the application of geographic methods. Utilizing the trimetrogon and vertical photography carried out since World War II, geographers have applied sampling techniques in interpreting larger areas, making intensive field studies of representative terrain types and expanding them by use of the air photos in delimiting, describing and analysing physiographic regions. Studies in physical geography have been the backbone of the work of the Branch in the Arctic. Air photo interpretation keys have been prepared for 14 areas: Alert, Eureka, Mould Bay, Resolute, Mackenzie Delta, Darnley Bay, Coppermine, Bathurst Inlet, Boothia Isthmus, Wager Bay, Southampton Island, Kaniapiskau-Koksoak Rivers in Ungava, the Hudson Bay Railway, and the Kenogami River. Reports on the human geography of various areas were included in the field reports and are mainly unpublished; several studies in historical geography also resulted from the field surveys. ...

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