Observations on the bioclimate of some taiga mammals   /   Pruitt, W.O.
Arctic, v. 10, no. 3, 1957, p. 130-138, figures, table
ASTIS record 9800

Reports a study at Fairbanks, Alaska, 1954-56, on the thermal environment of the moss-covered forest floor, the habitat mainly of red-backed voles, shrews, weasels, and red squirrels. Thermistors recorded temperatures at the surface, 6 ft above, and 3, 6, and 9 in below. Findings during the snow-free and snow periods are discussed, including stable temperature comparatively warm in winter and cool in summer. Effects of various snow cover thickness on the range and fluctuations of subnivean temperatures are noted. Contrast between the under-and above-snow environments causes the mammals to abandon surface activity when the cover reaches 15-20 cm depth.

Variations of Blue, Hoh, and White Glaciers during recent centuries   /   Heusser, C.J.
Arctic, v. 10, no. 3, 1957, p. 139-150, ill.
ASTIS record 9801

Glaciers in the Olympic Mountains of western Washington, as elsewhere in North America, enlarged in late-postglacial time and attained positions from which they have receded conspicuously. Former locations of the ice are marked by moraines and overridden surfaces which the regional vegetation is slowly invading. An examination of aerial photographs of glaciers on Mt. Olympus taken in 1939 and 1952 clearly reveals the progress of recession. In 1952 Blue and Hoh glaciers appear rather inactive whereas a photograph of Blue Glacier taken about the turn of the century shows an actively discharging tongue, well in advance of its position in the early 1950's. About 1900 glacier termini were nevertheless well behind positions reached when the ice stood farther down the valleys in past centuries. No written accounts or measurements are available from this pre-1900 period, although the ages of trees growing on moraines and outwash offer the means for fixing positions of the glaciers during the time before the earliest observations. The minimum periods elapsed since glaciers may have been even farther advanced are established by the ages of the oldest trees in the forests beyond the recent outermost limits of the ice. A reconnaissance of Blue and Hoh glaciers and the vicinity of White Glacier was made during the 1955 summer, and the former limits of the ice were determined and dated. The purpose was to record the variations of Mt. Olympus glaciers so that the climate of this region during the last several centuries might be interpreted from these changes and compared with other localities where similar studies have been made. ...

Studies on seasonal changes in the temperature gradient of the active layer of soil at Fort Churchill, Manitoba   /   Brown Beckel, D.K.
Arctic, v. 10, no. 3, 1957, p. 151-183, ill.
ASTIS record 9802

Reports Canadian Defence Research Board's study, 1950-54. Experiments on rates of freeze and thaw of the active layer are described, showing the effects of surface cover, snow cover and characteristics determining the ability of the soil to conduct and absorb heat. Soil temperatures at varying depths were obtained at stations in swamp and high, dry areas of forested and non-forested localities by means of copper-constantan thermocouples and a portable potentiometer. Snow depth, water level measurements and snow temperatures were recorded for part of the time. Correlations between ambient air temperatures and soil temperatures at varying depths and with varying moisture content, ground and snow covers are presented in graphic and tabular form and discussed; also changes in snow temperature at different depths. Findings show a lag, increasing with depth and longest in relatively dry areas, of soil temperature behind ambient air temperatures; and variations in the effect of snow cover according to its hardness, moisture content and depth. The thermal gradient of the snow is affected by changes in temperature of the ambient air and of the soil, ice or water below it.

Richard Carleton Hubley - 1926-1957
Arctic, v. 10, no. 3, 1957, p. 187
ASTIS record 50896

On October 29, 1957, word was received by the Institute of the death of Richard Hubley while leading the International Geophysical Year glaciological program on McCall Glacier, Brooks Range, Alaska. Dr. Hubley's death has come at a time when he has assumed national - and even international - leadership in his chosen field. North American science has been slow in building a coterie of scientists in the field of glaciology. Of those we have, Richard Hubley was one of the most distinguished. Science can as ill afford his loss as can we who knew him as a companion in the office and among the high snows.

Archaeological investigations in the Arctic and Subarctic, 1957   /   MacNeish, R.S.
Arctic, v. 10, no. 3, 1957, p. 189-190
ASTIS record 61063

... I shall attempt to summarize the various archaeological activities that occurred in the Arctic and subarctic during the last summer. ... Members of a party called Operation Hazen organized by the Defence Research Board as part of the Canadian program for the International Geophysical Year worked on archaeological remains on Ellesmere Island, discovering four sites of aboriginal structures. One, about twenty miles north of Lake Hazen; one on the shores of Lake Hazen; and two along the Ruggles River. Few artifacts were uncovered since they did no digging. These sites, however, are of considerable significance for not only are they the northernmost sites in the Canadian Arctic but they are situated along the hypothetical route of migration from the Canadian Arctic to Greenland. ... Dr. Jorgen Meldgaard of the National Museum of Denmark, returned to the Alarnerk Site in the Igloolik area on the Melville Peninsula after two season's absence. ... Most of these early pre-Dorset remains appear to belong to an early and late period having burins, micro-blades, side-blades, small end-blades, and other artifacts indicating a close relationship with both the Cape Denbigh Flint Complex of Alaska as well as with Sarqaq of Greenland. The sequential changes in his artifact types from these pre-Dorset remains closely parallel change of types from the four middle cultural phases from the Firth River in the Canadian Yukon. ... Mr. William E. Taylor of the National Museum of Canada undertook preliminary excavation and survey in the interior as well as the coast and adjacent islands of the northern part of the Ungava Peninsula. His activities in the interior were at Payne Lake where he found about forty house remains, of which he excavated four. All of these were Dorset with one having a slight overlay of Eskimo remains. On the coast at the estuary of the Payne River, he uncovered another Dorset site as well as one Dorset burial. ... At Sugluk, seven sites were investigated and five of these appear to be Dorset villages with semi-subterranean rectangular houses. My endeavours were in the southern part of the Yukon Territory between Johnsons Crossing, Kluane Lake, Dawson City, and Mayo. Ninety-seven sites were discovered as well as about 1,000 artifacts. The sites seem to belong to at least six different artifact complexes, four of which were below the volcanic ash layers dated about 300 A.D. Twenty-eight of the sites are micro-blade sites. In Alaska, Dr. Ivar Skarland of the Department of Anthropology of the University of Alaska, during the last part of the summer, investigated interior sites on which "Puma" projectile points have been found. Mr. Gordon Lowther, of the McCord Museum of McGill University of Montreal, undertook archaeological survey in the Old Crow Flats in the Yukon Territory. He was most successful in finding fourteen archaeological sites as well as places at which mammoth bones occurred. As yet, his materials have not been analysed ....

Arctic Institute of North America. Records from this database may be used freely for research and educational purposes, but may not be used to create databases or publications for distribution outside your own organization without prior permission from ASTIS.