ASTIS - Arctic Science and Technology Information System


The ASTIS database contains the following 213 records describing publications from Simon Ommanney's References to Antarctic Work by Authors Affiliated with Canada. Records are sorted by first author and Canadian authors are shown in bold.


Variation of Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) underwater vocalizations over mesogeographic ranges   /   Abgrall, P.   Terhune, J.M. [Supervisor]
Fredericton, N.B. : University of New Brunswick, 2002.
xi, 199, [1] p. : ill., 1 map ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MQ82507)
ISBN 0-612-82507-8
Thesis (M.Sc.) - University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B., 2002.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 56979.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk4/etd/MQ82507.PDF
Libraries: OONL

The goal of this study was to determine if Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) underwater vocalizations exhibit regional differences over mesogeographic ranges (600-2000 km). Recordings were made on the Eastern Antarctic coastline at three Australian Antarctic stations: Mawson, Davis and Casey. Differences in vocalizations were examined on three levels: 1) Presence of unique call types/categories; 2) Frequency of occurrence of call types/categories; and 3) Call features (number of call elements, start frequency, frequency shift, and duration). A total of 33 different call types within 13 categories were identified. Two call types were unique to Davis and one to each of Mawson and Casey. One category was unique to Davis, an alternating ascending whistle and grunt call (WAG). Ascending whistles were absent at Casey. Both ascending whistles and grunts were present at Mawson, but the seals there did not use them in a combined call. Significant differences in proportion of call usage between the three stations were found for 23 of the 26 shared call types and all 11 of the shared call categories. Basic call features varied between stations when compared simultaneously or individually. Temporal variations in call usage and call feature variation were also observed, suggesting that unique call types/categories are the best indicators of reproductive isolation between these Weddell seal populations. (Au)

I, L
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal reproduction; Animal vocalizations; Communication; Equipment and supplies; Logistics; Measurement; Noise; Seals (Animals); Sound recordings; Temporal variations; Theses; Underwater acoustics

G15
Holme Bay, Antarctic regions; Prydz Bay, Antarctic regions; Vincennes Bay, Antarctic regions


A top-down, multidisciplinary study of the structure and function of the pack-ice ecosystem in the eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica   /   Ackley, S.F.   Bengtson, J.L.   Boveng, P.   Castellini, M.   Daly, K.L.   Jacobs, S.   Kooyman, G.L.   Laake, J.   Quentin, L.   Ross, R.   Siniff, D.B.   Stewart, B.S.   Stirling, I.   Torres, J.   Yochem, P.K.
(Polar record, v. 39, no. 3, July 2003, p. 219-230, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 54704.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247403003115
Libraries: ACU

We used a top-down, multidisciplinary approach to examine the physical and biological environment of the pack ice of the eastern Ross Sea (approximately 125-170°W) during the austral summer of 1999/2000 from RVIB Nathaniel B. Palmer and its ship-based helicopters. The approach focused on pack-ice seals while incorporating studies of biotic and abiotic factors that may influence the distribution and abundances of these apex predators in the Ross Sea to yield a holistic understanding of the structure and function of this complex, large marine ecosystem. This research represented the US component of the international Antarctic Pack Ice Seal (APIS) program, which was designed to document the circumpolar distribution and abundance of Antarctic pack-ice seals. The eastern Ross Sea is one of the two major areas in the Southern Ocean where substantial pack ice exists throughout summer. We found that vast multi-year ice floes (>20 km diameter) and smaller floes north of the shore-fast ice front provide a unique habitat for seals and penguins (apex predators) to forage and haul out while molting in late summer. Farther north, more Ross seals were observed than in any previous surveys in the circumpolar pack ice, perhaps because they are attracted to the area in summer to molt on large stable first-year ice floes. Extensive fast ice along the coastline and drifting pack ice in the shelf-slope boundary zone provided haul-out areas for seals and penguins with access to feeding in the coastal shelf region. Distributions of potential prey for seals and penguins varied over the study area, as determined by nets, acoustics, and diving surveys. Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) were found throughout the survey region, overlapping the distributions of two smaller species, Thysanoëssa macrura (primarily off-shelf) and E. crystallorophias (primarily found on-shelf). In some locations, E. superba occurred at high densities underneath ice floes, where they foraged on the sea-ice microbial community. Two general fish communities, oceanic and shelf, were distinguished. Off-shelf fishes were members of the classic oceanic midwater fish fauna, whereas on-shelf fishes were Antarctic endemics. The abundance of pelagic fishes was relatively low throughout the study area compared with other Southern Ocean ecosystems. In contrast, benthic fish biomass and diversity on-shelf were high (41 species, 6 families). Hydroacoustic analyses indicated that densities of potential prey were highest in the coastal shelf region where large aggregations of euphausiids (primarily E. crystallorophias) and individual juvenile Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) occurred. (Au)

J, G, I, D, H
Aerial photography; Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Animal vocalizations; Benthos; Biomass; Euphausiacea; Fast ice; Fishes; Helicopters; Marine ecology; Oceanography; Pack ice; Penguins; Polynyas; Predation; Primary production (Biology); Satellite photography; Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Seals (Animals)

G15
Ross Sea, Antarctic regions


The Arctic Council, Antarctica and northern studies in Canada   /   Adams, P.
(Arctic, v. 53, no. 3, Sept. 2000, p. 334-338, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47004.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic53-3-334.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic864
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

This is a time of great debate about the future of Northern Studies in Canada. Most of those engaged in the debate believe that we need a new, rejuvenated vision for Northern Studies. One major change has already occurred: the establishment of the Arctic Council in 1996 gave new impetus to cooperation among the eight circumpolar nations involved. This cooperation has already changed the way in which we perceive and manage Northern Studies in Canada. I would suggest that membership in the Council is leading us inexorably towards another change in Northern Studies: formal recognition that modern Northern Studies are Polar Studies. One of the strong commonalties in science and technology among the Arctic Council nations is an interest in Antarctica - specifically in comparison to the roles of other Arctic Council nations. It concludes with recommendations on Canada and the Antarctic Treaty and on the way we should view Northern Studies in Canada. The paper is based on a recent report on a visit to the Ross Sea (New Zealand) sector of Antarctica (Adams, 2000). That report includes the text of the Antarctic Treaty and other related documentation. (Au)

R, J, L, N
Antarctic treaties; Arctic Council; Cold weather performance; Design and construction; Economic development; Environmental protection; Euphausiacea; Fisheries; Geopolitics; Research; Science; Technology; Tourist trade

G15, G08
Antarctic regions; Canada; Polar regions


Canada, the Arctic Council and Antarctica   /   Adams, P.
(Different lives, common threads : Proceedings of Circumpolar Women's Conference, Whitehorse, Yukon, 18-20 November 1999 & The North Colloquium, Edmonton, Alberta, May 2000. Northern review (Whitehorse), no. 22, Winter 2000, p. 149-155)
References.
ASTIS record 48799.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This paper was prepared for the International Colloquium: The North at the University of Alberta, May 2000. The conference was designed to bring together circumpolar countries to compare notes on northern science policies and practices. The establishment of the Arctic Council, in 1996, gave fresh impetus to cooperation among the eight high-latitude member nations based on their common interests, notably in cold-environment science and technology. The Council and its work have already changed Northern Studies in Canada. One of the strong commonalities in science and technology among Arctic Council nations is an interest in Antarctica, a region of importance for all nations but particularly north circumpolar nations as they derive direct benefits from scientific activity there. The paper deals with Canada's roles in Antarctica, specifically in comparison to the roles of other north polar nations. It is based on a recent report (Adams, 2000) on a visit to the Ross Sea (New Zealand) sector of Antarctica. That report includes the text of the Antarctic Treaty and other related documentation. ... [This article also lists four recommendations from the 2000 report.] (Au)

R, J
Antarctic treaties; Arctic Council; Businesses; Canadian Polar Commission; Cold weather performance; Environmental law; Environmental protection; Fishing; Foreign relations; Government; Research; Science; Technology

G01, G02, G08, G10, G13, G14, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Canada; Denmark; Finland; Greenland; Iceland; New Zealand; Norway; Polar regions; Russian Federation; Sweden; United States


Canada, the Antarctic and the Madrid Protocol   /   Adams, P.
(Arctic, v. 56, no. 4, Dec. 2003, p. iii-iv)
ASTIS record 52862.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic56-4-iii.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic628
Libraries: ACU

The House of Commons of Canada passed Bill C-42, An Act respecting the protection of the Antarctic Environment, in June 2003. By it, Canada ratifies the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (the "Madrid Protocol"), which designates Antarctica as a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science. Through this legislation, Canada will have the legal instruments to manage and monitor its citizens and others on Canadian projects in the Antarctic with respect to the environmental codes of conduct established by the Madrid Protocol. Canadians have been involved in Antarctica since the first overwintering at the turn of the 19th century. The level of activity, over the years and today, is much greater than most people think. The Arctic Institute of North America, established in the 1940s, has always had an interest in both polar regions; its Act of Parliament refers to both hemispheres. ... The Antarctic Treaty of 1961 establishes that Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only. It prohibits military activity, nuclear tests, and radioactive waste disposal. It promotes international cooperation in research and suspends all sovereignty claims. The Antarctic Treaty System includes the Antarctic Treaty itself, the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (CCAS, 1972), the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR, 1980), and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (1991), also known as the Madrid Protocol. ... Canada acceded to the Antarctic Treaty and the CCAMLR in 1988 and to the CCAS in 1990. The Madrid Protocol entered into force in 1998, ratified by 29 nations. Canada signed it (agreed to it in principle) in 1991, but did not ratify it. Bill C-42 ... is summarized as follows: The purpose of this enactment is to protect the Antarctic environment, particularly by implementing the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. This enactment provides a permitting regime that gives the Minister the necessary powers to ensure that the activities undertaken by Canadian expeditions, Canadian vessels and Canadian aircraft in the Antarctic are subject to an environmental impact assessment prior to their occurrence. This enactment creates prohibitions to protect the Antarctic marine environment, specially protected areas and historic sites and monuments in the Antarctic, and species that are native to the Antarctic. The provisions of the legislation, including regulations adopted pursuant to the bill, apply to all, regardless of nationality, on Canadian expeditions (that is, expeditions organized in or proceeding from Canada) to the Antarctic. They apply to all Canadians, Canadian vessels, and aircraft in the Antarctic and to anyone at a Canadian station there. There will be a permit system for people and activities covered by the legislation. This will encompass such things as environmental impact assessment, specially protected areas, waste management, and emergency plans. ... There are monitoring, reporting, and inspection provisions to allow enforcement. In Canada, the enforcement provisions are in line with the Fisheries Act, the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), and the Species at Risk Act (SARA). ... formal ratification of the Madrid Protocol shows our willingness as a nation to enforce these standards. ... (Au)

R, J, M, N, L, I
Airplanes; Animal ecology; Antarctic treaties; Arctic Institute of North America; Emergency planning; Environmental impact assessment; Environmental law; Environmental protection; Environmentally significant areas; Expeditions; Government; Government regulations; Marine ecology; Research; Research stations; Science; Ships; Specifications; Waste management; Wildlife law; Wildlife management

G01
Antarctic regions


Canada and polar science [Le Canada et la science polaire]   /   Adams, W.P.   Burnet, P.F.   Gordon, M.R.   Roots, E.F.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, Circumpolar and Scientific Affairs Directorate, 1987.
117, [12] p. ; 28 cm.
ISBN 0-662-15414-2
Appendices.
Also available in French.
ASTIS record 20405.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

The document, presented to the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs in March 1987, reports on the feasibility and advisability of establishing a national polar institute in Canada in response to the request of the previous Minister. The question is addressed in the context of a general assessment of the state of polar research in this country. The report traces the history of polar research, studies current problems and assesses future needs in the evolution of northern Canada and the rapidly changing nature of polar and global science. The report concludes that a national polar institute is not required, but recommends other actions including the creation of a polar research commission and a polar information system. (ASTIS)

X, B, C, D, E, F, G, I, J, R
Government; Research; Science

G08, G081
Canada; Canadian Arctic


Aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from soil near Scott Base, Antarctica   /   Aislabie, J.   Foght, J.   Saul, D.
(Polar biology, v. 23, no. 3, Feb. 2000, p. 183-188, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 48690.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s003000050025
Libraries: ACU

Hydrocarbons persist in Antarctic soils when fuel oils such as JP8 jet fuel are spilled. For clean-up of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in Antarctica, bio-remediation has been proposed using hydrocarbon-degrading microbes indigenous to Antarctic soils. A number of alkane-degrading bacteria have been isolated previously from Antarctic soils. In this paper we describe the direct isolation of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from oil-contaminated Antarctic soil. Isolates that grew on JP8 jet fuel were characterised for their ability to degrade aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and for growth at a range of temperatures. All isolates were gram-negative, oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. Representative strains were identified using 16S rDNA sequence analysis as either Sphingomonas spp. or Pseudomonas spp. Aromatic-degrading bacteria from Antarctic soils were psychrotolerant and appear similar to those found worldwide. (Au)

Q, J, C
Bacteria; Biodegradation; Hydrocarbons; Oil spill cleanup; Pollution; Soils

G15
Antarctic regions


The scope of science for the International Polar Year 2007-2008   /   Allison, I.   Béland, M.   Alverson, K.   Bell, R.   Carlson, D.   Danell, K.   Ellis-Evans, C.   Fahrbach, E.   Fanta, E.   Fujii, Y.   Glaser, G.   Goldfarb, L.   Hovelsrud, G.   Huber, J.   Kotlyakov, V.   Krupnik, I.   Lopez-Martinez, J.   Mohr, T.   Qin, D.   Rachold, V.   Rapley, C.   Rogne, O.   Sarukhanian, E.   Summerhayes, C.   Xiao, C.
Geneva : WMO, 2007.
79 p. : ill., maps ; 30 cm.
(Technical document - World Meteorological Organization, no. 1364)
Appendices.
Produced by the International Council for Science and the World Meteorological Organization Joint Committee for IPY 2007-2008.
ASTIS record 64481.
Languages: English
Web: http://216.70.123.96/images/uploads/LR*PolarBrochureScientific_IN.pdf
Libraries: ACU

The International Polar Year 2007-2008 will be the largest internationally coordinated research programme in 50 years. ... The polar regions are especially important for the following reasons: [1] They are presently changing faster than any other regions of the Earth .... [2] Processes in polar regions have a profound influence on the global environment, and particularly on the weather and climate system. ... [3] The Arctic is home to more than 4 million people, and these communities face changes in their natural environment and in their natural resources and food systems .... [4] Within the polar regions lie important scientific challenges yet to be investigated and unique vantage points for science. ... IPY 2007-2008 research activities were assembled from the ideas of researchers in more than 60 countries. A total of 228 projects have been endorsed by the ICSU/WMO Joint Committee for IPY 2007-2008. These projects have a strong interdisciplinary emphasis and address the six themes as well as education and outreach objectives. IPY projects will exploit new technological and logistical capabilities and strengthen international coordination of research. They aim to attract, engage and develop a new generation of researchers and raise the awareness, interest and understanding of polar residents, educators, students, the general public and decision makers worldwide. IPY projects will collect a broad-ranging set of samples, data and information which will be made available to an unprecedented degree. IPY 2007-2008 aims to leave a legacy of enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure. The observational networks to be established during IPY include integrated ocean observing systems in both the Arctic and Southern Oceans, coordinated acquisition of satellite data products from multiple space agencies and observational systems for astronomy, sun-earth physics, atmospheric chemistry, meteorology, ecosystems, permafrost, glaciers and geophysics. Many observing systems within IPY will be developed within the framework of existing international global observing systems. The period from 1 March 2007 to 1 March 2009 will be exciting and historic. The International Polar Year 2007-2008 should significantly advance our ability to meet the major science challenges of the polar regions and generate a rich legacy, notably in a new understanding of polar processes and their global linkages at this critical time - for it is becoming ever clearer that we humans have to recognize and respond to the planetary limits of our behaviour. The polar regions provide a litmus test and the insight to help us do so. (Au)

E, J, Y, G, F, D, C, B, I, R, T, K
Astronomy; Atmosphere; Biology; Climate change; Climatology; Databases; Diseases; Ecology; Education; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Geology; Geophysics; Glaciology; Health; IPY 2007-08 Research publications; Marine mammals; Meteorology; Native peoples; Oceanography; Palaeoecology; Permafrost; Remote sensing; Research; Satellites; Scientists; Sea ice; Snow; Socio-economic effects; Thawing; Weather stations

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Calcium phosphate coatings on the Yalour Islands, Antarctica : formation and geomorphic implications   /   Arocena, J.M.   Hall, K.
(Arctic, antarctic, and alpine research, v. 35, no. 2, May 2003, p. 233-241, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 53654.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1657/1523-0430(2003)035[0233:CPCOTY]2.0.CO;2
Libraries: ACU

The formation of calcium phosphate rock coating and its influence in geomorphic processes were investigated on the Yalour Islands (Antarctica). Samples of coating on the metamorphosed andesitic rock are composed of a ~25 µm-thick, white, shiny, relatively hard layer of hydroxylapatite (Hp) with traces of calcite and quartz. Scanning electron micrographs, X-ray diffractograms, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra, and in situ analysis of the chemical composition of the coatings suggest that the calcium phosphate coating is formed mainly through the decomposition of penguin excrement from nearby penguin rookeries and subsequent precipitation of Hp in micropits on the surface of the rock from solutions containing high amounts of calcium and phosphorus. These coatings undergo abiotic and biotic weathering processes that lead to the accumulation of secondary Hp as "flakes" and infillings in microcracks. The coatings give the dark, metamorphosed andesitic rock a shiny, light-colored surface. The coatings can decrease the permeability and increase the albedo of the rock, thereby limiting moisture infiltration (into the rock) and changing the rock's temperature. Based on theoretical estimates, a change of albedo from 0.2 to 0.3 significantly decreases the radiative heating of the rock during the summer months. These changes to rock properties will influence geomorphic processes such as freeze-thaw, thus affecting rock weathering and hence the evolution of the local landscape. (Au)

B, A, I, H, F
Albedo; Andesite; Animal waste products; Apatite; Calcite; Calcium; Coatings; Composition; Erosion; Formation; Frost action; Fungi; Geomorphology; Heat transmission; Infrared radiation; Landforms; Lichens; Logistics; Measurement; Microscopes; Minerals; Penguins; Phosphorus; Physical properties; Quartz; Runoff; Solar radiation; Spectroscopy; Strength; Surface properties; Surface temperature; Thermal regimes; Weathering; X-rays

G15
Yalour Islands, Antarctic regions


Cold glaciers erode and deposit : evidence from Allan Hills, Antarctica   /   Atkins, C.B.   Barrett, P.J.   Hicock, S.R.
(Geology, v. 30, no. 7, July 2002, p. 659-662, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 51809.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2002)030<0659:CGEADE>2.0.CO;2
Libraries: ACU

Here we report previously undescribed features of erosion and deposition by a cold (polar) glacier. A recent study challenged the assumption that cold glaciers neither slide nor abrade their beds, but no geological evidence was offered. The features we describe include abrasion marks, subglacial deposits, glaciotectonically deformed substrate, isolated blocks, ice-cored debris mounds, and boulder trains, all products of a recent cold ice advance and retreat. Mapping these features elsewhere in Antarctica will document recent shifts in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet margin, providing new insight on regional mass-balance changes. (Au)

F, A, B
Ablation; Breccia; Deformation; Deglaciation; Erosion; Geology; Glacial deposits; Glacial epoch; Glacial erosion; Glacial transport; Glaciation; Glacier variations; Ice sheets; Mass balance; Movement; Pleistocene epoch; Sandstone; Temperature

G15
Allan Hills, Antarctic regions


CDAW 9 analysis of magnetospheric events on May 3, 1986 : event C   /   Baker, D.N.   Pulkkinen, T.I.   McPherron, R.L.   Craven, J.D.   Frank, L.A.   Elphinstone, R.D.   Murphree, J.S.   Fennell, J.F.   Lopez, R.E.   Nagai, T.
(Journal of geophysical research, v. 98, no. A 3, Mar. 1, 1993, p.3815-3834, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 53696.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/92JA02475
Libraries: ACU

The ninth Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW 9) focused upon several intervals within the PROMIS period (March-June 1986). Event interval C comprised the period 0000-1200 UT on May 3, 1986, which was a highly disturbed time near the end of a geomagnetic storm interval. A very large substorm early in the period commenced at 0111 UT and had a peak AE index value of ~1500 nT. Subsequent activity was lower, but at least three other substorms occurred at 2-3 hour intervals. The substorms on May 3 were well observed by a variety of satellites including ISEE 1, 2, and IMP 8 in the magnetotail plus SCATHA, GOES, GMS, and LANL spacecraft at or near geostationary orbit. A particularly important feature of the 0111 UT substorm was the simultaneous imaging of the southern auroral oval by DE 1 and of the northern auroral oval by Viking. The excellent constellation of spacecraft near local midnight in the radial range 5-9 RE made it possible to study the strong cross-tail current development during the substorm growth phase and the current disruption and current wedge development during the expansion phase. We use a time-evolving magnetic field model to map observed auroral features out into the magnetospheric equatorial plane. There was both a dominant eastward and a weaker westward progression of activity following the expansion phase. A clear latitudinal separation (>~10°) of the initial region of auroral brightening and the region of intense westward electrojet current was identified. The combined ground, near-tail, and imaging data for this event provided an unprecedented opportunity to investigate tail current development, field 1ine mapping, and substorm onset mechanisms. We find evidence for strong current diversion within the near-tail plasma sheet during the late growth phase and strong current disruption and field-aligned current formation from deeper in the tail at substorm onset. We conclude that these results are consistent with a model of magnetic neutral line formation in the late growth phase which causes plasma sheet current diversion before the substorm onset. The expansion phase onset occurs considerably later due to reconnection of lobelike magnetic field lines and roughly concurrent cross-tail disruption in the inner plasma sheet region. (Au)

B, E
Auroras; Geomagnetism; Instruments; Ionosphere; Magnetosphere; Mapping; Measurement; Radar; Remote sensing; Satellites; Solar wind

G0826, G0824, G0813, G06, G10, G15
Antarctic regions; Baker Lake (Hamlet), Nunavut; Barrow, Alaska; Cambridge Bay (Settlement), Nunavut; Fort Churchill, Manitoba; Kuujjuarapik, Québec; Mould Bay (Weather Station), N.W.T.; Narsarsuaq, Greenland; Qaanaaq, Greenland; Resolute, Nunavut; Yellowknife, N.W.T.


SPARC and the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008   /   Baldwin, M.P.   Neu, J.L.   Drobot, S.   Canziani, P.   Yoden, S.   McFarlane, N.
(SPARC newsletter, no. 25, July 2005, p. 3-5, ill.)
"Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate" (SPARC) is one of four core projects of the World Climate Research Programme.
ASTIS record 62763.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/SPARC/Newsletter25.pdf

... Today, nations around the world are planning for a new International Polar Year in 2007-2008. ... IPY 2007-2008 will provide a framework and impetus to undertake projects that normally could not be achieved by any single nation. ... Although IPY 2007-2008 is oriented toward the polar surface environment, it also emphasizes connections to other regions as well as the solid Earth below and the atmosphere above. ... There is a strong dynamical connection between the circulation of the high-latitude stratosphere, and surface weather and climate. In particular, stratospheric wind anomalies tend to progress downward to the lowermost stratosphere (near 10 km), and then induce changes to the Arctic Oscillation (AO) pattern, which is similar to the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation). Our understanding of the mechanisms is advancing, but it is still incomplete. ... Because IPY will occur over a short time period, SPARC will focus on details of the polar stratosphere in a programme called "The structure and evolution of the stratospheric polar vortices during IPY and its links to the troposphere." The Antarctic ozone hole is one of the most recognized environmental issues of the 20th century. Ozone changes in the Arctic, though lesser in magnitude, are equally important. ... The IPY programme offers a unique opportunity for SPARC to assemble a range of scientific expertise to study the Antarctic and Arctic Polar Vortices, the loci of key processes associated with ozone depletion and its eventual recovery, as well as contribute towards a better understanding of the coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the stratosphere. SPARC-IPY will co-ordinate the activities of the international SPARC community in relation to IPY. This co-ordination will be directed toward both satellite and groundbased experimental campaigns, as well as specific initiatives promoted by SPARC to increase understanding of the polar atmosphere. The services of the SPARC Data Center will be made available to facilitate acquisition and archiving of key data that will be used for projects or generated by them during the IPY period. In addition to coordinating and facilitating IPY projects within the SPARC community, SPARC-IPY will promote specific initiatives directed toward the understanding of major features and processes in the polar middle atmosphere during the IPY period. ... The dynamics, transport and chemistry of the polar vortices, as well as of properties relevant to microphysical processes, such as the formation of polar stratospheric clouds, will be documented as completely as possible. ... Observations of a range of variables within the stratospheric polar vortex will be used, together with data assimilation, models and other analysis techniques to create a coherent and comprehensive picture of the current state of the stratosphere in the Arctic and Antarctic, and to elucidate further the interaction of the polar stratosphere with the underlying troposphere. The project will involve the multi-national SPARC community and its affiliates, e.g. other WCRP [World Climate Research Programme] research projects. ... (Au)

E, J, A, R
Atmosphere; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric pressure; Atmospheric temperature; Carbon dioxide; Climate change; Climatology; Clouds; Databases; Detection; Environmental impacts; Formation; Gases; International Polar Year 2007-08; Management; Mathematical models; Measurement; Meteorology; Methane; Nitrogen oxides; Ozone; Ozone depleting compounds; Planning; Remote sensing; Satellites; Seasonal variations; Stratosphere; Temporal variations; Upper atmosphere; Velocity; Water vapour; Winds

G01
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Characterization of Sphingomonas paucimobilis ANT 17, an oil-degrading bacterial isolate from Antarctica   /   Baraniecki, C.A.P.   Foght, J. [Supervisor]
Edmonton, Alta. : University of Alberta, 2000.
[15], 178 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MQ60091)
ISBN 0-612-60091-2
Appendices.
References.
Thesis (M.Sc.) - University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., 2000.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 54928.
Languages: English
Web: http://hdl.handle.net/10402/era.5286
Libraries: OONL

The Antarctic bacterial isolate Sphingomonas paucimobilis ANT 17 has the ability to degrade crude oil in cold and growth-limiting environments. ANT 17 grows at temperatures from 1°C to 35°C. The optimum pH for growth of ANT 17 is near 6.4 at 22°C, but at colder temperatures the optimum pH is less defined. Seventy-five aromatic and non-aromatic substrates were incubated with ANT 17, and the majority served as growth or cometabolic substrates. For example, phenanthrene was mineralized to CO2, but fluoranthene and pyrene were partially oxidized. ANT 17 grew on and degraded the aromatic fraction of several crude oils and a refined oil product under cold and nutrient-limiting conditions, but did not grow on the saturate fraction. Molecular studies revealed that ANT 17 was phenotypically stable and plasmidless, suggesting that the genes required for aromatic degradation are chromosomal. ANT 17 may be a good model for studying cold climate bioremediation, due to its broad aromatic substrate range and ability to grow at cold temperatures. (Au)

I, H, J, Q, C
Animal growth; Animal taxonomy; Bacteria; Biochemistry; Biodegradation; Carbon dioxide; Chemical properties; Chromatography; Cold adaptation; Crude oil; Enzymes; Genetics; Heavy metals; Hydrocarbons; Logistics; Measurement; Metabolism; Oil spill cleanup; Plant growth; Plant taxonomy; Pollution; Proteins; Radionuclides; Salinity; Soil fungi; Soil microorganisms; Soil pH; Soil temperature; Soils; Temperature; Theses; Ultraviolet radiation

G15
Scott Base, Antarctic regions


The role of sea ice in Arctic and Antarctic polynyas   /   Barber, D.G.   Massom, R.A.
(Polynyas : windows to the world / Edited by W.O. Smith and D.G. Barber. Elsevier oceanography series, v. 74, 2007, ch. 1, p. 1-54, ill., maps)
References.
Available in paper and through the Internet.
ASTIS record 63893.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/S0422-9894(06)74001-6
Libraries: ACU

Polynyas are persistent and recurrent regions of open water and/or thin ice or reduced ice concentration, tens to tens of thousands of square kilometers in areal extent, that occur within the sea ice zones of both hemispheres at locations where a more consolidated and thicker ice cover would be climatologically expected. Rather than simply constituting recurrent “windows” in the sea ice, polynyas are profoundly affected by, and intimately linked to, local and even regional ice conditions (i.e., the "icescape"). They respond sensitively to thermodynamic and dynamic forcing by the ocean and atmosphere and entail ecologically important "oases" that enable birds and mammals to overwinter at high latitudes and encourage enhanced primary production in the spring. In this review, we introduce the concept of polynyas from the perspective of the sea ice conditions/processes that define them. We discuss the unique characteristics of polynyas in both polar regions, and assess their possible response/contribution to climate variability and change. An inventory of Northern Hemisphere polynyas is presented, based primarily of satellite data analysis but also on information from the literature and aboriginal peoples. Summary statistics on polynya opening and closing dates are also provided, along with information on the availability of light relative to the seasonal cycles of sea ice. In the Southern Hemisphere, we present an update of an inventory of Antarctic polynyas and discuss how coastal, glacial and deep-ocean processes affect their and distribution. Two important polynyas are examined in more detail, i.e., the North Water (NOW) polynya in the north and the Mertz Glacier polynya in the south. These case studies focus on details of the different physical processes driving their creation, maintenance and dissolution. Each of these polynyas has been the focus of dedicated in situ research programmes in recent years. (Au)

G, D, E, F
Albedo; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric pressure; Atmospheric temperature; Breakup; Classification; Clouds; Continental shelves; Density; Fast ice; Formation; Glaciers; Growth; Heat budgets; Heat transmission; Ice leads; Ice shelves; Icebergs; Infrared remote sensing; Melting; Ocean currents; Ocean temperature; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Pack ice; Passive microwave remote sensing; Polynyas; Salinity; SAR; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Size; Solar radiation; Spatial distribution; Thickness; Tides; Velocity; Water masses; Water vapour; Winds

G081, G02, G15, G09
Antarctic waters; Arctic waters; Canadian Arctic waters; North Water Polynya, Baffin Bay; Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Projet Ant-Arctique - a classroom approach to polar research   /   Barber, L.   Collin, P.   Malo, L.   Snape, N.   Roy, S.
In: Arctic change 2008 : conference programme and abstracts, Québec (Qc), 9-12 December, 2008 = Arctic change 2008 : programme et résumés de la conference, Québec (Qc), 9-12 décembre 2008. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2008, p. 176
Abstract of a poster.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 67089.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arctic-change2008.com/pdf/ac-programme.pdf
Libraries: ACU

In the fall of 2006, two teachers from le Collège Jeanne Sauvé (Winnipeg, MB) collaborated with Schools on Board in a project that examined their grade 10 science curriculum to explore the links between classroom science education and polar climate change research. Meetings with teachers revealed areas in the science program where connections could be made between science concepts learned in the classrooms, and the same concepts being used in scientific research. From September to December, these two teachers committed to including a polar theme to their science program. Scientists onboard two very different vessels, the CCGS Amundsen in the Arctic and the Sedna IV in the Antarctic interacted by email with two grade 10 classrooms on a weekly basis, addressing questions linked to their science class, as well as questions related to life at sea. The email interactions were complemented by classroom visits by scientists from the Centre for Earth Observation Sciences (University of Manitoba). This project led to the school sending a student on the 2008 International Schools on Board Field Program, and hosting their first Climate Change Expo. This poster describes the process used to connect these two classrooms to polar research and the lessons that were learned by both educators and Schools on Board on the bridges between science education and scientific research (Au)

R, E
Climate change; Curricula; Internet; Research; Scientists; Secondary education; Teachers; Youth

G0824, G07, G0815, G15
Antarctic regions; Canadian Arctic waters; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Winnipeg, Manitoba


Projet Ant-Arctique - a classroom approach to polar research   /   Barber, L.M.J.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. PS2-C.84, [1] p.
Abstract of a poster presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71741.
Languages: English

In the fall of 2006, in anticipation to the education and outreach initiatives of IPY, two teachers from le Collège Jeanne Sauvé (Winnipeg, MB Canada) collaborated with Schools on Board in a project that examined their grade 10 science curriculum to explore the links between classroom science education and polar climate change research. Meetings with teachers revealed areas in the science program where connections could be made between science concepts learned in the classrooms, and the same concepts being used in two scientific research program, one in the Arctic and another in the Antarctic. From September to December, these two teachers committed to including a polar theme to their science program. Scientists onboard two very different vessels, the CCGS Amundsen in the Arctic and the Sedna IV in the Antarctic interacted by email with two grade 10 classrooms on a weekly basis, addressing questions linked to their science class, as well as questions related to life at sea. The email interactions were complemented by classroom visits by scientists from the Centre for Earth Observation Sciences (University of Manitoba). This project led to two IPY initiatives of the school: 1) sending a student on the 2008 International Schools on Board Field Program of the IPY-Circumpolar Flaw Lead system study, and 2) hosting their first Climate Change Expo. This poster describes the process used to connect these two classrooms to polar research and the lessons that were learned by both educators and Schools on Board on the bridges between science education and scientific research. Keywords: polar education, outreach, science education, Schools on Board. (Au)

R, E
Amundsen (Ship); ArcticNet Inc.; Climate change; Curricula; Icebreakers; Internet; Public education campaigns; Research; Schools; Science; Scientists; Secondary education; Sedna IV (Ship); Teachers

G0815, G07, G15, G0824
Antarctic regions; Canadian Arctic Islands waters; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Polar regions; Winnipeg, Manitoba


Mercury (micro)biogeochemistry in polar environments   /   Barkay, T.   Poulain, A.J.
(Microorganisms in cold environments / Edited by R. Margesin and M.M. Häggblom. FEMS microbiology, ecology, v. 59, no. 2, Feb. 2007, p. 232-241, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 65262.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00246.x
Libraries: ACU

The contamination of polar regions with mercury that is transported as inorganic mercury from lower latitudes has resulted in the accumulation of methylmercury in the food chain of polar environments, risking the health of humans and wildlife. This problem is likely to be particularly severe in coastal marine environments where active cycling occurs. Little is currently known about how mercury is methylated in polar environments. Relating observations on mercury deposition and transport through polar regions to knowledge of the microbiology of cold environments and considering the principles of mercury transformations as have been elucidated in temperate aquatic environments, we propose that in polar regions (1) variable pathways for mercury methylation may exist, (2) mercury bioavailability to microbial transformations may be enhanced, and (3) microbial niches within sea ice are sites where active microorganisms are localized in proximity to high concentrations of mercury. Thus, microbial transformations, and consequently mercury biogeochemistry, in the Arctic and Antarctic are both unique and common to these processes in lower latitudes, and understanding their dynamics is needed for the management of mercury-contaminated polar environments. (Au)

J, E, I, D, T, K
Animal health; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric circulation; Bioaccumulation; Biochemistry; Biodegradation; Blood; Fats; Food chain; Health; Inuit; Marine ecology; Mercury; Microbial ecology; Microorganisms; Pollution; Pollution control; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Snow; Toxicity

G081, G15
Antarctic regions; Canadian Arctic


First landings on Zavodovski Island, South Sandwich Islands, 1819   /   Barr, W.
(Polar record, v. 36, no.199, Oct. 2000, p. 317-322, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 50264.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247400016806
Libraries: ACU

On 24 December 1819 landing parties from each of Thaddeus Bellingshausen's ships, Vostok and Mirnyy, went ashore on Zavodovski Island, the most northerly of the South Sandwich group. Bellinghausen's second-hand account of these landings has long been available in English. This article presents (in translation) first-hand accounts of these landings by Professor Ivan Mikhaylovich Simonov, the expedition astronomer (from Vostok), and by Midshipman Pavel M. Novosil'skiy (from Mirnyy). Both writers comment on the vast numbers of macaroni and chinstrap penguins nesting on the island; these are still the two dominant penguin species there. (Au)

V, W, I, B
Animal behaviour; Bird nesting; Birds; Expeditions; Exploration; Explorers; Penguins; Travels; Volcanism

G15
South Atlantic Ocean; Zavodovski Island, Antarctic regions


Chukchi Sea, Southern Ocean, Kara Sea : the polar voyages of Captain Eduard Dallmann, whaler, trader, explorer, 1830-96   /   Barr, W.   Krause, R.   Pawlik, P.-M.
(Polar record, v. 40, no. 1, Jan. 2004, p. 1-18, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 58375.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247403003139
Libraries: ACU

Eduard Dallmann, of Blumenthal on the lower Weser, went to sea at the age of 15 in 1845. He took command of his first ship, the whaling vessel Planet, in 1859 on a whaling voyage to the sperm whaling grounds in the Pacific and to the Sea of Okhotsk. Over the period 1864-66 he commanded the Hawaiian vessel W.C. Talbot on trading voyages to the Alaskan and Chukotka shores of the Bering and Chukchi seas. On 17 August 1866 he sighted and landed on Ostrov Vrangelya (Wrangel Island), a year prior to its sighting by Thomas Long, credited by many with the first sighting. For the following three years he commanded the whaling ship Count Bismarck on a whaling cruise to the tropics, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Bering and Chukchi seas. In 1873-74 he made the first Antarctic whaling voyage aboard Groenland, and discovered and charted the west coasts of Anvers, Brabant, and Liège islands, as well as many smaller islands and straits including Bismarck Strait. He spent the 1875 whaling season as expert consultant, still aboard Groenland, on the Davis Strait and Baffin Bay whaling grounds. Then, to complete his career in polar waters, from 1877 to 1883 he made annual attempts to haul freight to the mouth of the Yenisey River, to be exchanged for grain cargoes brought down that river by barge. Of the seven attempts, only four were successful, the rest being foiled by ice conditions in the Kara Sea, and on the basis of this record, Baron von Knoop, the Russian entrepreneur who was financing the operation, decided to cut his losses. This ended Dallmann's career in polar waters. (Au)

V, I, N, G, D, F
Animal distribution; Animal migration; Archival material; Barges; Biographies; Bowhead whales; Dallmann, Eduard, 1830-1896; Exploration; Explorers; Fur trade; History; Inland water navigation; Ivory; Marine navigation; Meteorology; Muskoxen; Public opinion; Right whales; River ice; Sea ice; Sealing; Seasonal variations; Ships; Sperm whales; Trade and barter; Whaling

G15, G04, G141, G142, G09, G14, G0812
Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters; Anvers Island, Antarctic regions; Baffin Bay-Davis Strait; Barents Sea; Bering Sea; Brabant Island, N.W.T.; Chukchi Sea; Karskoye More; Novaya Zemlya, Russian Federation; Okhotsk, Sea of; Sibir', Russian Federation; Vrangelya, Ostrov, Russian Federation; Yenisey River, Russian Federation


Pioneer whalers in the Ross Sea, 1923-33   /   Barr, W.   Watt, J.P.C.
(Polar record, v. 41, no. 4, Oct. 2005, p. 281-304, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 58376.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247405004638
Libraries: ACU

On Christmas Eve 1923, the whaling factory ship Sir James Clark Ross, commanded by Captain Carl Anton Larsen and accompanied by five catchers, reached the front of the Ross Ice Shelf; these were the first whaling vessels to operate in the Ross Sea. They had been dispatched by the Norwegian whaling company Hvalfangeraktienselskapet Rosshavet, which had obtained a licence from the British government. For most of the 1923-24 season, Sir James Clark Ross occupied an uneasy anchorage in the deep waters of Discovery Inlet, a narrow embayment in the front of the Ross Ice Shelf, while her catchers pursued whales widely in the Ross Sea. During that first season they killed and processed 221 whales (211 blue whales and 10 fin whales), which yielded 17,300 barrels of oil. During the next decade, with the exception of the 1931-32 season, Sir James Clark Ross and two other factory ships operated by Rosshavet, C.A. Larsen and Sir James Clark Ross II, operated in the Ross Sea. From the 1926-27 season onwards these ships were joined by up to three other factory ships and their catchers, operated by other companies. During the decade 1923-33 the Rosshavet ships killed and processed 9122 whales in the Ross Sea sector, mainly in the open waters of the Ross Sea south of the pack-ice belt. Total harvest for all factory ships from the Ross Sea sector for the period was 18,238 whales (mainly blue whales) producing 1,490,948 barrels of oil. From 1924 onwards the Rosshavet catchers wintered in Paterson Inlet on Stewart Island, New Zealand, and from 1925 onwards a well-equipped shipyard, Kaipipi Shipyard, operated on Price Peninsula in Paterson Inlet to service the Rosshavet ships. (Au)

V, N, L, I, W, E, G, D
Animal collections; Animal distribution; Animal mortality; Archival material; Aurora (Ship); Birds; Crabs; Design and construction; Domestic sheep; Equipment and supplies; Expeditions; Exploration; History; Icebergs; Icebreaking; Licences; Meteorology; Ocean temperature; Penguins; Rocks; Royalties; Sea ice; Sea lions; Seals (Animals); Search and rescue; Ships; Sir James Clark Ross (Ship); Storms; Survival; Whales; Whaling

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; England; Macquarie Island, Tasmania; McMurdo Sound, Antarctic regions; New Zealand; Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions; Ross Sea, Antarctic regions; South Georgia, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Through Arctic eyes : Canada and Antarctica, 1945-62   /   Beck, P.J.
(Arctic, v. 48, no. 2, June 1995, p. 136-146)
References.
ASTIS record 35746.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic48-2-136.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1235
Libraries: ACU

This archival study investigates the nature and development of Canadian attitudes and policy towards Antarctica between 1945 and 1962. Throughout this period, the key continuity was the tendency to view Antarctic affairs from an arctic perspective. Canada, though becoming more preoccupied with the Arctic and avoiding active involvement in Antarctica, found it difficult to ignore the more remote and distant southern polar region. Although the Arctic and Antarctic are distinct regions in geographical, political, legal and other terms, they are both polar regions subject to a range of seemingly analogous controversies. As a result, certain post-1945 developments affecting Antarctica were deemed of potential relevance to its northern counterpart, thereby encouraging the Canadian government to consider the nature of its political, legal, scientific and other interests in Antarctica. Canada's effort to remain on the sidelines were qualified by the fact that Antarctica was treated as a significant policy interest by other states - most notably, Australia, Britain and the United States - which not only kept the Canadian government well informed about developments but also asked frequently for its views. In 1959 the conclusion of the Antarctic Treaty forced the Canadian government to consider whether or not to accede to the treaty. In the event, the government, guided by a series of interdepartmental exchanges, decided against accession, which did not take place until 1988. (Au)

R
Antarctic treaties; Foreign relations; Geopolitics; Government; International Geophysical Year 1957-58; Public opinion; Sovereignty

G01, G15, G08, G081
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Canada; Canadian Arctic


Origin and fate of Lake Vostok water frozen to the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet   /   Bell, R.E.   Studinger, M.   Tikku, A.A.   Clarke, G.K.C.   Gutner, M.M.   Meertens, C.
(Nature, v.416, no.6878, 21 Mar. 2002, p. 307-310, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 51864.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1038/416307a
Libraries: ACU

The subglacial Lake Vostok may be a unique reservoir of genetic material and it may contain organisms with distinct adaptations, but it has yet to be explored directly. The lake and the overlying ice sheet are closely linked, as the ice sheet thickness drives the lake circulation, while melting and freezing at the ice sheet base will control the flux of water, biota and sediment through the lake. Here we present a reconstruction of the ice flow trajectories for the Vostok core site, using ice-penetrating radar data and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of surface ice velocity. We find that the ice sheet has a significant along-lake flow component, persistent since the Last Glacial Maximum. The rates at which ice is frozen (accreted) to the base of the ice sheet are greatest at the shorelines, and the accreted ice layer is subsequently transported out of the lake. Using these new flow field and velocity measurements, we estimate the time for ice to traverse Lake Vostok to be 16,000 - 20,000 years. We infer that most Vostok ice analysed to date was accreted to the ice sheet close to the western shoreline, and is therefore not representative of open lake conditions. From the amount of accreted lake water we estimate to be exported along the southern shoreline, the lake water residence time is about 13,300 years. (Au)

F, A, B
Accumulation; Aerial surveys; Chemical properties; Composition; Electrical properties; Flow; Geographical positioning systems; Geological time; Glacial epoch; Glacial melt waters; Glacial stratigraphy; Glacial transport; Glacier lakes; Ice sheets; Impurities; Physical properties; Radar; Recent epoch; Shorelines; Thickness; Topography; Velocity

G15
East Antarctica; Vostok, Lake, Antarctic regions


Polar Continental Shelf Project : 50 years of supporting Arctic science   /   Bergmann, M.   Tomkins, J.
In: Arctic change 2008 : conference programme and abstracts, Québec (Qc), 9-12 December, 2008 = Arctic change 2008 : programme et résumés de la conference, Québec (Qc), 9-12 décembre 2008. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2008, p. 181
Abstract of a poster.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 67097.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arctic-change2008.com/pdf/ac-programme.pdf
Libraries: ACU

This year marks the 50th anniversary of Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP), a federal government agency that provides essential logistical support to Canadian Arctic researchers from national and international universities, and government and non-government agencies. PCSP has undergone much development over the years, but safe, cost-effective and efficient logistical support has remained its primary objective. Currently, PCSP provides support to ~130 research projects each year that involve ~1100 people in total. Support is provided through: 1. air transport for researchers to and from remote field camps located across the Canadian Arctic, 2. accommodation at the PCSP facilities in Resolute, Nunavut, prior to and following the field season, and 3. field equipment loans and daily information and advice on arctic logistics. To celebrate 50 years of Polar Shelf operations, two major events were held that involved northern residents, researchers, government officials and high-school and university students. On May 14th, 2008, a science workshop was held at the Canadian Museum of Civilization in Gatineau, Quebec. Presentations were given on topics such as the early days of PCSP field work, the evolution of the organization, current research being conducted by PCSP-supported scientists, and ideas about the proposed High Arctic Research Station. A panel discussion also allowed participants to discuss the important issue of how to engage northern communities and involve Northerners in research. Additionally, students from an Ottawa high school visited the workshop and interacted via videoconferencing with a class at the school in Resolute, Nunavut. Polar Shelf also held an Open House at the PCSP facilities in Resolute on July 12th, 2008. Residents of Resolute, scientists and business and government officials had the opportunity to tour PCSP's facilities, watch a throat singing demonstration, see presentations on current scientific research, and visit the CCGS Louis S. St. Laurent, which was anchored in Resolute Bay. These two events were resounding successes and PCSP will continue to build on these important outreach initiatives that engage Northerners, scientists and government officials alike in PCSP's operations and supported science. During the past year, Polar Shelf has been discussing plans for rejuvenation as the agency moves forward in delivering logistical support to researchers for decades to come. No new funds have yet been identified to date for these plans; however, components being considered are: 1. expanding the operations network in the Arctic to include operations centres in Eureka and a western arctic location, 2. designing a longer operational season, beginning in February and ending in late September, 3. developing closer interactions with research agencies and granting councils to improve logistical capacity for arctic researchers, and 4. building on international linkages to support exchange programs, such as PCSP's Canadian Arctic-Antarctic Exchange Program. These developments will strengthen PCSP's ability to provide logistical support to researchers across the Canadian Arctic and improve connections with national and international groups who have a vested interest in continued enhancement of polar research. (Au)

L, R
Air transportation; Costs; Equipment and supplies; Government; Hotels; Logistics; Polar Continental Shelf Project (Canada); Research; Research organizations; Research personnel; Research stations; Scientists; Universities; Youth

G0813, G081
Canadian Arctic; Resolute, Nunavut


Polychlorinated naphthalenes in polar environments - a review   /   Bidleman, T.F.   Helm, P.A.   Braune, B.M.   Gabrielsen, G.W.
(Levels, trends and effects of legacy and new persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic : an AMAP Assessment / Edited by D. Muir and C. de Wit. Science of the total environment, v.408, no. 15, 1 July 2010, p.2919-2935, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 70534.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.013
Libraries: ACU

Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) consist of naphthalene substituted with 1-8 chlorines, yielding 75 possible congeners. They were formerly used in industry, occur at trace levels in commercial PCB mixtures, and have current sources in combustion processes. PCNs are widespread in arctic air with higher levels in the European Arctic. Concentrations were higher during the cold months in arctic Canada and Russia, but no seasonality was noted in subarctic Canada and Greenland. "Marker" congeners indicative of combustion were evident at some sites. Total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in air due to PCNs + dioxin-like PCBs were dominated by PCNs in arctic Canada and Russia, but not in subarctic Canada. Deposition of PCNs in snow was measured in northern Norway and Svalbard. Surveys of PCNs in the lower food web are limited to the northern Baltic Sea and lakes/rivers of northern Scandinavia. PCNs showed little or no biomagnification in lower food webs of the northern Baltic and discrimination among congeners suggested preferential metabolism. There are no reports of PCNs in fish and invertebrates from the Arctic Ocean, and only one from Antarctica. Total PCNs in marine mammals followed the order: harbour seal ~ pilot whale >= polar bear > beluga > ringed seal ~ Weddell seal. Total PCNs in seabirds varied over 100-fold, with higher concentrations in glaucous gull eggs and plasma from Bear Island, and livers of northern fulmar from the eastern Canadian Arctic. Lower concentrations occurred in eggs of glaucous gull from Svalbard and black-backed gull from the Faroe Islands. PCNs accounted for <1% of total TEQ in ringed seal, Weddell seal, seabirds and polar bear, but up to 6-15% in beluga and pilot whale. TEQ due to PCNs were generally low in harbour seal, but up to 9% of total TEQ in some animals. (Au)

J, E, F, B, C, I
Air pollution; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric circulation; Biomagnification; Bottom sediments; Chemical properties; Chromatography; Fishes; Food chain; Identification; Incinerators; Invertebrates; Lakes; Marine mammals; Metabolism; Organochlorines; PCBs; Physical properties; Pollution; Rivers; Sea birds; Seasonal variations; Snow; Soils; Spatial distribution; Toxicity; Trophic levels

G02
Arctic regions; Arctic waters


Microclimate impacts of passive warming methods in Antarctica : implications for climate change studies   /   Bokhorst, S.   Huiskes, A.   Convey, P.   Sinclair, B.J.   Lebouvier, M.   Van de Vijver, B.   Wall, D.H.
(Polar biology, v. 34, no. 10, Oct. 2011, p.1421-1435, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 76987.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s00300-011-0997-y
Libraries: ACU

Passive chambers are used to examine the impacts of summer warming in Antarctica but, so far, impacts occurring outside the growing season, or related to extreme temperatures, have not been reported, despite their potentially large biological significance. In this review, we synthesise and discuss the microclimate impacts of passive warming chambers (closed, ventilated and Open Top Chamber - OTC) commonly used in Antarctic terrestrial habitats, paying special attention to seasonal warming, during the growing season and outside, extreme temperatures and freeze-thaw events. Both temperature increases and decreases were recorded throughout the year. Closed chambers caused earlier spring soil thaw (8-28 days) while OTCs delayed soil thaw (3-13 days). Smaller closed chamber types recorded the largest temperature extremes (up to 20°C higher than ambient) and longest periods (up to 11 h) of above ambient extreme temperatures, and even OTCs had above ambient temperature extremes over up to 5 consecutive hours. The frequency of freeze–thaw events was reduced by ~25%. All chamber types experienced extreme temperature ranges that could negatively affect biological responses, while warming during winter could result in depletion of limited metabolic resources. The effects outside the growing season could be as important in driving biological responses as the mean summer warming. We make suggestions for improving season-specific warming simulations and propose that seasonal and changed temperature patterns achieved under climate manipulations should be recognised explicitly in descriptions of treatment effects. (Au)

E, H, C, F
Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Diurnal variations; Effects of temperature on plants; Equipment and supplies; Frozen ground; Growing season; Measurement; Microclimatology; Photosynthesis; Plant growth; Plant-soil relationships; Plant-water relationships; Seasonal variations; Snow; Soil moisture; Soil temperature; Solar radiation; Testing; Thawing

G15, G0813
Anchorage Island, Antarctic regions; Antarctic regions; Falkland Islands; Ross Island, Nunavut; Signy Island, Antarctic regions


The ice pilot : polar voices   /   Boychuk, R.
(Canadian geographic, v.127, no. 5, Sept./Oct. 2007, p. 28, 30, ill.)
ASTIS record 62506.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Patrick Toomey made 23 voyages to the Arctic as an icebreaker captain during his 27 years with the Coast Guard and is one of Canada's most experienced ice pilots. He retired from the Coast Guard in 1991 and now lives in Kingston, Ont., but still pilots cruise ships for Holland America Line in Antarctica and occasionally Russian icebreakers in the Arctic. As part of our continuing series in recognition of International Polar Year, Canadian Geographic asked Toomey about Prime Minister Stephen Harper's July 9 announcement that his government will commission up to eight Class 5 Arctic Offshore Patrol Ships. Harper has described these vessels as icebreakers, while critics have labelled them "slushbreakers." (Au)

L, G, R
Canadian Coast Guard; Government; Icebreakers; Icebreaking; Marine transportation; Pressure ridges; Sea ice; Ships; Tourist trade

G081, G02, G15
Antarctic waters; Arctic waters; Canadian Arctic waters


Holocene history of the Larsen-A Ice Shelf constrained by geomagnetic paleointensity dating   /   Brachfeld, S.   Domack, E.   Kissel, C.   Laj, C.   Leventer, A.   Ishman, S.   Gilbert, R.   Camerlenghi, A.   Eglinton, L.B.
(Geology, v. 31, no. 9, Sept. 2003, p. 749-752, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 53643.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1130/G19643.1
Libraries: ACU

A sedimentary record collected from beneath the former Larsen-A Ice Shelf reveals the Holocene history of the Larsen-A region. The record begins with the transition from grounded ice to a floating ice shelf, completed by 10.7 ±0.5 ka, and ends with the modern recession. The record contains several late Holocene diatomaceous ooze layers that suggest proximity to productive open-water events. Radiocarbon ages obtained from these sediments were complicated by the presence of detrital and reworked carbon. We have eliminated these complications and constructed a chronology for the Larsen-A Ice Shelf history via tuning of the geomagnetic field paleointensity record with a reference curve. This approach provides chronological control to sediment sequences that lack appropriate material for radiocarbon dating. Geomagnetic paleointensity features with wavelengths of 2-3 k.y. can be recognized and interhemispherically correlated, illustrating the potential to use geomagnetic paleointensity variations as a global correlation and dating tool at sub-Milankovitch time scales. (Au)

B, F, D, H, I
Bathymetry; Benthos; Biological productivity; Bottom sediments; Breakup; Calving (Ice); Carbon; Cores; Diatoms; Foraminifera; Geological time; Geomagnetism; Ice shelves; Magnetic properties; Mass spectrometry; Measurement; Melting; Plankton; Radiocarbon dating; Recent epoch; Size; Stratigraphy

G15
Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions


The thermal state of permafrost : the IPY-IPA snapshot (2007-2009)   /   Brown, J.   Kholodov, A.   Romanovsky, V.   Yoshikawa, K.   Smith, S.L.   Christiansen, H.H.   Vieira, G.   Noetzli, J.
In: GEO2010 : 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference & 6th Canadian Permafrost Conference = 63e conférence géotechnique canadienne et 6e conférence canadienne sur le pergélisol, [Sept. 12-16, 2010]. - [Richmond, B.C.] : Canadian Geotechnical Society, 2010, p.1228-1234, ill., maps
References.
Proceedings distributed on a USB flash drive entitled: GEO2010 in the New West, Calgary, Alberta.
ASTIS record 73066.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/cpc/CPC6-1228.pdf
Libraries: OONL

During the International Polar Year (IPY) the International Permafrost Association (IPA) coordinated the acquisition of standardized permafrost temperatures data (snapshot) under the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) Project. The current network consists of more than 860 boreholes in both hemispheres with more than 25 participating countries. The vast majority of sites are equipped for long-term permafrost temperature observations. A borehole inventory including mean annual ground temperatures for 600 boreholes (snapshot) is available online. (Au)

C, E, Q
Active layer; Alaska Highway Oil Pipeline Project; Boreholes; Climate change; Effects monitoring; Effects of climate on permafrost; Instruments; Internet; Mapping; Measurement; Numeric databases; Permafrost; Permafrost surveys; Petroleum pipelines; Research; Research funding; Soil temperature; Temporal variations; Thermal regimes

G01, G0813, G0811, G02
Alaska; Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Asia; China; Europe; Mongolia; North American Arctic; Nunavut; Polar regions; Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, China; South America; Yukon


With the Students on Ice Antarctic University Expedition = L'expérience de l'expédition universitaire antarctique de Students on Ice   /   Budd, C.
(Newsletter for the Canadian Antarctic Research Network = Bulletin pour le Réseau canadien de recherches antarctiques, v. 27, Nov. 2009, p. 6-8, ill.)
English and French text on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English and French PDF files.
ASTIS record 70172.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/CARN%2027.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/RCRA%2027.pdf
Libraries: ACU

With a new semester of school underway, it's hard to believe that only seven months ago I was in the Antarctic. From 12 to 28 February 2009, 71 students (including 18 from high schools and four international) and an education staff of 17 joined together to form the first ever Students on Ice (SOI) Antarctic University Expedition. This trip was a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for all of its student participants, most of whom were enrolled in a university course. Not only did it supply us with our first taste of the isolated seventh continent, but it did so with an approach that allowed us to learn experientially. We were not just tourists on a ship, but instead members of the international scientific community. Although we did take enough pictures to make even the most seasoned tourists proud, photography was far from our only activity in the south. A wealth of first hand field experience was gained - something made possible by the three accredited courses offered on the expedition. ... (Au)

R, L, J, E, F, G, D
Atmosphere; Climate change; Coring; Curricula; Environmental impacts; Expeditions; Glaciers; Glaciology; Higher education; Icebergs; Icebreakers; Marine ecology; Ocean currents; Oceanography; Research; Research personnel; Science; Scientists; Secondary education; Socio-economic effects; Students on Ice; Students on Ice; Teachers; Tourist trade; Universities; Youth

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters


Monitoring the Antarctic mesopause region for signatures of climate change   /   Burns, G.B.   French, W.J.R.   Greet, P.A.   Williams, P.F.B.   Finlayson, K.   Lowe, R.P.
(Papers from the International Symposium on Antarctica and Global Change : Interactions and Impacts, held at Hobart, Australia, 13-18 July 1997 / Edited by W.F. Budd. Annals of glaciology, v. 27, 1998, p. 669-673, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47192.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The polar mesopause region (80-100 km) is the coldest region of the Earth's atmosphere and is expected to be sensitive to global change. Reported increases in observations of polar mesospheric clouds over the last 100 years have been postulated to be related to decreased temperatures (associated with tropospheric warming) and increased water vapour at mesospheric altitudes (a result of increased methane concentrations in the troposphere). The temperature of this region can be monitored by spectroscopic techniques utilising hydroxyl (OH) emissions which originate near 87 km. The Australian Antarctic Division, Atmospheric and Space Physics group has been analyzing OH (6-2) band spectra recorded with a Czerny-Turner scanning spectrometer at Davis Station, Antarctica (68.6° S, 78.0° E) to optimise temperature determinations for climate change studies. A number of difficulties were encountered, some of which have been overcome and all of which can be overcome. The mid-winter average temperature of the OH layer for May-July 1990 has been measured as 224 ±2 K. The equivalent value for 1996 is 215 ±2 K. Possible reasons for the difference are discussed. (Au)

E
Atmosphere; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Clouds; Measurement; Mesosphere; Methane; Ozone; Spectroscopy; Water vapour

G15
Antarctic regions


International Polar Year Day : ice sheets   /   Canadian IPY Secretariat
[Edmonton, Alta.] : Canadian IPY Secretariat, 2007.
[7] p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Date: December 13, 2007.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 63101.
Languages: English

An ice sheet is very thick, permanent cover of ice covering more than 50,000 km² over a continent, island or landmass. Annual snowfall, compacted and compressed over millions of years, builds the ice sheets, which can grow to a thickness of 5 km, completely covering most underlying landforms, including mountain ranges. As the weight of the ice increases, it starts to deform and is forced outwards through large glaciers (also known as ice streams) that spill over coastlines and out to sea as floating ice shelves or ice tongues. Ice sheets advance and retreat in response to the Earth's average temperature and glacial cycles. Today the Earth has three great ice sheets: The East and West Antarctic ice sheets, and the Greenland ice sheet. Studying ice sheets - structure, dynamics, stability and contribution to sea level - is crucial within the context of a warming planet. Ice cores, which reveal information on past climate by analyzing the tiny air bubbles and deposited particles that are trapped and preserved by successive layers of accumulation, have already demonstrated a clear cyclical link between the earth's temperature and the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The more we know, the better we will be able to predict the response of ice sheets and global climate to the current rapid rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration. ... [In addition to background information on ice sheets, this publication has links to images and video, suggestions for educational and community activities, plus information about and links to research and researchers involved with Canadian and International IPY projects on ice sheets.] (Au)

F, E, J, B, R, D
Accumulation; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Cores; Curricula; Education; Effects of climate on ice; Environmental impacts; Flow; Formation; Glacier lakes; Glaciers; Glaciology; Growth; Ice sheets; Ice shelves; Melting; Palaeoclimatology; Remote sensing; Satellites; Sea level; Snow; Thickness

G01, G10, G0813
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Belcher Glacier, Nunavut; Greenland


International Polar Year Day : sea ice   /   Canadian IPY Secretariat
[Edmonton, Alta.] : Canadian IPY Secretariat, 2007.
[6] p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Date: September 21, 2007.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 63104.
Languages: English

A thin layer of ice covering most of the Arctic Ocean and surrounding most of the Antarctic continent, sea ice is a distinctive feature of our planet. [1] It spreads and retreats seasonally [2] It drifts and packs under the influence of wind and currents and restricts movement of ships [3] It isolates the atmosphere from the ocean and produces the coldest saltiest ocean waters [4] It supports unique organisms above (polar bears) and below (plankton) the ice [5] It is very sensitive to changes in temperature - an increase of less than 1°C can convert ice to water. Its disappearance from any region, at any season, will represent a profound planetary change. Understanding sea ice and predicting its future represents a crucial challenge for IPY. ... [In addition to background information on ice sheets, this publication has links to images and video, suggestions for educational and community activities, plus information about and links to research and researchers involved with Canadian and International IPY projects on sea ice.] (Au)

G, D, E, J
Carbon cycling; Climate change; Curricula; Density; Education; Formation; Ice cover; Ice leads; Marine ecology; Melting; Ocean currents; Ocean temperature; Polynyas; Salinity; Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Seasonal variations; Temporal variations; Winds

G0815, G07, G03, G04
Arctic Ocean; Beaufort Sea; Canadian Arctic waters; Chukchi Sea


Canadians in Antarctica : report of a workshop held in Ottawa, 20-21 February 1993 = Les Canadiens dans l'Antarctique   /   Canadian Polar Commission [Sponsor]
[Ottawa] : Canadian Polar Commission, 1993.
11, 11 ; 28 cm.
(Polaris papers, v. 1, no. 2, Dec. 1993)
Cover title.
ASTIS record 34453.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

... To gain a better understanding of the activities and priorities of Canadian scientists involved in research in the Antarctic, the Commission organized the workshop "Canadians in Antarctica". A great deal of organization and design went into the workshop and we thank the Steering Committee: Gerald Lock, Chairperson, Polar International Affairs Committee, Canadian Polar Commission; Fred Roots, Environment Canada; Peter Suedfeld, University of British Columbia; and Warwick Vincent, Laval University, for their time and effort. The meeting included leading experts from universities and government bodies and tried to set some direction both for the community and for the country with regard to science in the Antarctic. The workshop resulted in intense and informative discussions that led to a series of recommendations, including membership in SCAR. It also offered suggestions for ways in which the scientific community and the Canadian Polar Commission could assist with the progress of Antarctic research and with the dissemination and implementation of knowledge. The Commission remains committed to working closely with Canada's polar research communities to make polar science an integral part of Canada's national vision. (Au)

X
Canadian Polar Commission; Research; Science; Scientists; Technology

G15
Antarctic regions


Developing indicators on Canadian polar knowledge : establishing the 1998 baseline = Élaboration d'indicateurs sur les connaissances polaires au Canada : établissement de données de référence pour 1998   /   Canadian Polar Commission
Ottawa : Canadian Polar Commission, 2000.
6, 6 p. ; 28 cm.
(Arctic and Antarctic research in Canada)
ASTIS record 46712.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

This report describes initial work undertaken by the Canadian Polar Commission in the development of indicators on the state of Canadian polar knowledge. Using 1998 as a base year for all indicators, the Commission sought to identify sources and types of data that could serve as reliable indicators when tracked on a year-over-year basis. For the purpose of this project, "polar knowledge" is broadly defined and includes both the Arctic and Antarctic regions. The report contains a brief overview of the work conducted to date and recommendations on future courses of action. Although not contained in this report the information/data collected is stored at, and available from, the Commission's Ottawa office. (Au)

X, R, T
Canadian Polar Commission; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Government; Higher education; Licences; Northern Scientific Training Program (Canada); Publishing; Research; Research funding; Research organizations; Research personnel; Theses; Traditional knowledge; Universities

G01, G081
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Polar regions


Indicators of Canadian polar knowledge 1999 = Indicateurs de la connaissance polaire au Canada 1999   /   Canadian Polar Commission
Ottawa : Canadian Polar Commission, 2001.
15, 16 p. ; 28 cm.
(Arctic and Antarctic research in Canada)
ASTIS record 49973.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

This report presents findings from the second year of our indicators project. It contains a short statement on research methods, a brief description of each indicator, and a breakdown of findings, followed by conclusions. Findings include data from the 1998 baseline of last year and new data for 1999. Because research methods are being refined, some 1998 figures have been adjusted. Indicators can provide tools for tracking tendencies and changes over time. Our intention is to monitor trends in various fields to obtain a general picture of the state of Canadian Polar knowledge in order to report and advise governments and other agencies on decision-making and policy. To appreciate the scope of this report it must be seen in a larger context. Indicators are generally regarded as useful only after data have been collected for a considerable time, and even a full time-series will not give a complete picture. This report contains data for only two years. These indicators do however highlight key areas of Canadian polar knowledge; they also present considerable information that proved useful as we refined our research methods. (Au)

X, R, T
Canadian Polar Commission; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Government; Higher education; Licences; Northern Scientific Training Program (Canada); Publishing; Research; Research funding; Research organizations; Research personnel; Theses; Traditional knowledge; Universities

G01, G081
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Polar regions


Indicators of Canadian polar knowledge 2000 = Indicateurs de la connaissance polaire au Canada 2000   /   Canadian Polar Commission
Ottawa : Canadian Polar Commission, 2002.
12, 12 p. ; 28 cm.
(Arctic and Antarctic research in Canada)
ASTIS record 49974.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

This report presents findings from the third year of our indicators project. It contains a short statement on research methods, a brief description of each indicator, and a breakdown of findings, followed by some general conclusions. Findings include data from 1998, 1999, and 2000. Because research methods are being refined, some figures from 1998 and 1999 have been adjusted. Indicators can be useful tools for tracking tendencies and changes over time. Our intention is to monitor trends in various fields to obtain a general picture of the state of Canadian Polar knowledge in order to provide governments and other agencies with information they need to make informed decisions and develop effective policy. To appreciate the scope of this report it must be seen in a larger context. Indicators are generally regarded as useful only after data have been collected for a considerable period of time, and even a long time-series will not give a complete picture. This report contains data for three years only. These indicators do, however, highlight key areas of Canadian polar knowledge, and they also provide information that is useful as we continue to refine our research methods. (Au)

X, R, T
Canadian Polar Commission; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Government; Higher education; Licences; Northern Scientific Training Program (Canada); Publishing; Research; Research funding; Research organizations; Research personnel; Theses; Traditional knowledge; Universities

G01, G081
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Polar regions


Indicators of Canadian polar knowledge 2001   /   Canadian Polar Commission
Ottawa : Canadian Polar Commission, 2003.
12 p. ; 28 cm.
(Arctic and Antarctic research in Canada)
ASTIS record 53305.
Languages: English

This report presents findings from the third [fourth] year of our indicators project. It contains a short statement on research methods, a brief description of each indicator, and a breakdown of findings, followed by some general conclusions. Findings include data from 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001. Because research methods are being refined, some figures from 1998, 1999 [and 2000] have been adjusted. Indicators can be useful tools for tracking tendencies and changes over time. Our intention is to monitor trends in various fields to obtain a general picture of the state of Canadian Polar knowledge in order to provide governments and other agencies with information they need to make informed decisions and develop effective policy. To appreciate the scope of this report it must be seen in a larger context. Indicators are generally regarded as useful only after data have been collected for a considerable period of time, and even a long time-series will not give a complete picture. This report contains data for four years only. These indicators do, however, highlight key areas of Canadian polar knowledge, and they also provide information that is useful as we continue to refine our research methods. (Au)

X, R, T
Canadian Polar Commission; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Government; Higher education; Licences; Northern Scientific Training Program (Canada); Publishing; Research; Research funding; Research organizations; Research personnel; Theses; Traditional knowledge; Universities

G01, G081
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Polar regions


Indicators of Canadian polar knowledge 2002   /   Canadian Polar Commission
Ottawa : Canadian Polar Commission, 2004.
12 p. ; 28 cm.
(Arctic and Antarctic research in Canada)
Cover title.
ASTIS record 57885.
Languages: English

This report presents findings from the fifth year of our indicators project. It contains a short statement on research methods, a brief description of each indicator, and a breakdown of findings, followed by some general conclusions. Findings include data from 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002. Indicators can be useful tools for tracking tendencies and changes over time. Our intention is to monitor trends in various fields to obtain a general picture of the state of Canadian Polar knowledge in order to provide governments and other agencies with information they need to make informed decisions and develop effective policy. To appreciate the scope of this report it must be seen in a larger context. Indicators are generally regarded as useful only after data have been collected for a considerable period of time, and even a long time-series will not give a complete picture. This report contains data for five years only. These indicators do, however, highlight key areas of Canadian polar knowledge, and they also provide information that is useful as we continue to refine our research methods. (Au)

X, R, T
Canadian Polar Commission; Co-management; Effects monitoring; Government; Higher education; Licences; Northern Scientific Training Program (Canada); Publishing; Research; Research funding; Research organizations; Research personnel; Theses; Traditional knowledge; Universities

G01, G081
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Polar regions


Canadian Polar Commission, annual report 2008-2009 = Commission canadienne des affaires polaires, rapport annuel 2008-2009   /   Canadian Polar Commission
Ottawa : Canadian Polar Commission, 2009.
32 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Available in paper and from the Web.
Parallel columns of English and French text.
Cover title.
"Examples of the legacy of International Polar Year 2007-2008 are featured throughout this report."
ASTIS record 71214.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/media.php?mid=3571
Libraries: ACU

... Key accomplishments: 1) International Polar Year 2007-2008 officially ended on March 31, 2009. It was a resounding success, especially in Canada. The Canadian Polar Commission took the lead in encouraging Canada to become involved in this event, held consultations across the north to help shape the Canadian approach to it, and administrated federal funds for the Canadian National Committee and Secretariat for International Polar Year. 2) Northern Research Infrastructure Study Report: The first phase of the northern research infrastructure consultation concluded this year with publication of the study report Beacons of the North: Research Infrastructure in Canada's Arctic and Subarctic. The report presents an analysis of the ability of current infrastructure to meet the needs of research now and over the next 25 years, and goes on to recommend establishment of a pan-northern network of research infrastructure. The Northern Research Infrastructure Study is part of the Commission's contribution to the IPY legacy. 3) A Canadian Antarctic Research Program: The Commission and the Canadian Committee for Antarctic Research (CCAR) have developed a Canadian Antarctic Research Program to provide a framework for Canada's future research in Antarctica. This will enable Canada to better fulfill its obligations to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and will assist Canada in becoming a full consultative member of the Antarctic Treaty. (Au)

X, R, T, J, L, E
Arctic Council; Canadian Polar Commission; Climate change; Communication; Effects monitoring; Finance; Government; International Arctic Science Committee; International Polar Year 2007-08; Logistics; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Research; Research funding; Research organizations; Research stations; Science; Social sciences; University of the Arctic

G081, G01
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic


Canadian Polar Commission, annual report 2009-2010 = Commission canadienne des affaires polaires, rapport annuel 2009-2010   /   Canadian Polar Commission
Ottawa : Canadian Polar Commission, 2010.
31 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Cover title.
Available in paper and from the Web.
Parallel columns of English and French text.
"Examples of the legacy of International Polar Year 2007-2008 are featured throughout this report."
ASTIS record 73824.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2010/ccap-cpc/R100-2010.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Key Accomplishments: International Polar Year 2007-2008 Legacy: International Polar Year 2007-2008 ended in March 2009, but its effect on our understanding of the polar regions is only beginning to be felt. This year the Canadian Polar Commission continued its efforts to ensure that Canadians benefit from the IPY legacy, which includes a new generation of researchers attracted to polar studies, better public knowledge of polar issues, enhanced polar observation systems and research support facilities, and better scientific understanding of the Arctic and Antarctic. Northern Research Infrastructure Cost Estimate: In 2008 the Commission published Beacons of the North: Research Infrastructure in Canada's Arctic and Subarctic, the report of its two-year consultative study of Canada's northern research infrastructure. The study recommended creating a pan-northern integrated network of research facilities. This year, in consultation with the operators and managers of northern research facilities, the Commission produced a cost estimate of the proposed infrastructure, which was published as an appendix to Beacons of the North. Network of Research Facility Operators and Managers: At their request the Commission agreed to facilitate the formation of a national network of northern research station operators and managers. This network will enable better communication and coordination among its members and bring greater efficiency to field logistics and support in Canadian polar research. Canadian-Argentine Polar Science Links: As part of their efforts to increase links between Arctic and Antarctic researchers, the Polar Commission and the Canadian Committee for Antarctic Research (CCAR) brought together polar scientists from Canada and from the Argentine Antarctic Institute, which has several Antarctic research bases, to discuss areas of mutual interest and explore possible exchanges and collaborations. (Au)

X, R, T, J, L, E
Arctic Council; Canadian Polar Commission; Climate change; Communication; Effects monitoring; Finance; Government; International Arctic Science Committee; International Polar Year 2007-08; Logistics; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Research; Research funding; Research organizations; Research stations; Science; Social sciences; University of the Arctic

G081, G01
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Argentina; Canadian Arctic; Polar regions


Measuring climate-active gases in early spring Antarctic sea ice, the SIMBA project = Mesure des gaz à effet climatique dans les glaces marines de l'Antarctique au début du printemps, le projet SIMBA   /   Carnat, G.   Brabant, F.   Miller, L.   Geilfus, N.-X.   Johnson, W.K.   de Jong, J.   Masson, F.   Dumont, I.   Vancopenolle, M.   Delille, B.   Tison, J.-L.   Ackley, S.   Fritsen C.   Papakyriakou, T.
(Newsletter for the Canadian Antarctic Research Network = Bulletin pour le Réseau canadien de recherches antarctiques, v. 29, Nov. 2010, p. 5-10, ill., map)
References.
English and French text on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English and French PDF files.
M. Vancoppenolle's name is misspelled "Vancopenolle".
ASTIS record 73576.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/CARN%20vol%2029%20Nov%202010.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/Bulletin%20du%20RCRA%20vol%2029%20nov%202010.pdf
Libraries: ACU

In early spring 2007, the R/V "Nathaniel B. Palmer" left Punta Arenas (Chile) with some 20 scientists aboard (including two Canadians), for a 2-month research cruise in the Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica, as part of the IPY Sea Ice Mass Balance in Antarctica (SIMBA) project. ... The research foci of the Canadian teams were air-sea-ice CO2 exchange (Tim Papakyriakou and Gauthier Carnat, Centre for Earth Observation Science, University of Manitoba), and sea-ice carbon dynamics (Lisa Miller and Keith Johnson, Centre for Ocean Climate Chemistry, Institute of Ocean Sciences). ... In addition to its role as an active participant in air-ocean carbon exchange, sea ice has been identified as an important source of dimethylsulphide (DMS) for the atmosphere .... Two sampling sites in the pack ice of the Bellingshausen Sea, with contrasting characteristics, were selected for a 4-week experiment. ... The Brussels site was characterized by a relatively thin ice cover (50-70 cm) and a relatively low snow cover (7-25 cm), whereas the Liège site was defined by a thicker ice cover (100-120 cm) and a higher snow cover (28-38 cm). Snow is an important parameter in sea-ice biogeochemistry because it impacts sea-ice thermodynamics and growth, light availability for ice alga and ice permeability .... Each site was sampled every four days for about a month in order to obtain a time-series dataset. Ice cores, sea-water, snow and brine samples were collected and brought back to the ship for analysis. A set of samples was dedicated to the measurements of basic biogeochemical variables, including temperature and salinity, ice microstructure, nutrients and chlorophyll a (chla). Another set of samples was used to determine DMS, DMSP and DMSO concentrations. ... An in-depth analysis of the DMS, P, O profiles obtained at both stations revealed concentrations in interior and bottom ice corresponding to two additional ice depths where ice-algae communities were important .... Observations indicate that sea ice can play an important role in the regional polar marine sulphur cycle. The temporal evolution of the DMS, P, O profiles was clearly dictated by the thermodynamics of the ice, and therefore indirectly by the surface heat budget. ... [sea ice pCO2] values typically ranged from 77-377 ppm, i.e., undersaturated relative to atmospheric levels. ... CO2 fluxes were measured at between approx. -5 and 5 µmol/m²/s using eddy covariance .... The results indicate that sea ice is actively exchanging CO2 with the atmosphere. ... (Au)

E, G, D, H
Algae; Atmospheric temperature; Biochemistry; Carbon cycling; Carbon dioxide; Carbonates; Chlorophyll; Chromatography; Cores; Gases; Heat budgets; Heat transmission; Mass balance; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Pack ice; Plant nutrition; Salinity; Sea ice; Sea water; Snow; Sulphides; Sulphur; Temperature; Thermodynamics; Thickness

G15
Antarctic waters; Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctic regions


A comparative study of DMS/P dynamics in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice   /   Carnat, G.   Brabant, F.   Tison, J.-L.   Delille, B.   Geilfus, N.-X.   Gilson, G.   Levasseur, M.   Papakyriakou, T.
In: International Symposium on Sea Ice in the Physical and Biogeochemical System, 31 May-4 June 2010, Tromsø, Norway / International Glaciological Society. - [Cambridge : IGS, 2011], 57A204
Abstact of poster presentation no. 57A204.
Indexed an HTML file from the Web.
ASTIS record 75388.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.igs2010.org/Abstracts/57A204.html

Dimethylsulphide (DMS) is a volatile sulphur compound produced among others through the degradation of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), a metabolite synthesized by some phytoplanktonic and ice algae species to act as a cryoprotectant and osmoregulator. It is also a main component of the biogeochemical sulphur cycle and the primary source of marine-derived sulphate aerosols which play an important role in the Earth-atmosphere radiation balance. So far, very few studies have investigated the dynamics of DMS and DMSP in sea ice despite the fact that sea ice has been shown to contain considerably higher DMS and DMSP concentrations than the water column. Furthermore, sea ice is usually not considered in models as a potential source of DMS for the atmosphere which may lead to underestimations of global natural sulphur emissions. This study presents the results gathered from two cruises in both hemispheres (ARISE in the East Antarctic cruise, Australian Sector, September-October 2003 and IPY Canadian CFL study in the Beaufort Sea area, November 2007-June 2008). We measured high-resolution profiles of DMS and DMSP in ice-core samples for more than 30 stations exhibiting contrasted ice and snow conditions. We used a low temperature dry-crushing technique to extract the DMS from the ice matrix which has been proven to avoid bias related to the partial and artificial transformation of DMSP into DMS on melting. DMS concentrations were then measured using the standard purge and trap method and a GC-FPD. DMSP concentrations were also determined using the same technique through the addition of NaOH to the samples. In order to investigate the factors driving the dynamics of these compounds during both cruises, we also collected a large set of sea-ice biogeochemical properties. Together these results gave us the opportunity to depict and compare the production and behaviour of these important sulphur compounds in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice. (Au)

E, G, D, H
Aerosols; Algae; Biodegradation; Chemical properties; Cores; Measurement; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Phytoplankton; Radiation budgets; Sea ice; Snow; Sulphates; Sulphur

G15, G07
Antarctic waters; Canadian Beaufort Sea


Sediment trap records of deposition in Lallemand Fjord adjacent to Müller Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula   /   Chong, G.Å.   Gilbert, R. [Supervisor]
Kingston, Ont. : Queen's University, 2000.
x, 105 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MQ52887)
ISBN 0-612-52887-1
References.
Thesis (M.Sc.) - Queen's University, Kingston, Ont., 2000.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 54944.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk2/ftp01/MQ52887.pdf
Libraries: OONL

The Müller Ice Shelf is situated in Lallemand Fjord on the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula. It has an area of about 80 km² but is currently retreating and has reached its minimum recorded extent. The disintegration of this ice shelf and other ice shelves in the area has been attributed to the 2.5°C warming trend recorded in the area over the past 50 years. This research seeks to understand the sedimentary record in proximity to the Müller Ice Shelf. Such records relate to the historical fluctuations of ice shelves in general, and the significance of the present changes in relation to natural variations. As part of the sedimentological studies in Lallemand Fjord, sediment traps were deployed for more than a year in front of the Müller Ice Shelf. The purpose of the study was to determine: 1) the origin of the sediment, 2) how the sediment sources change with climate, 3) how sediment is distributed throughout the fjord, 4) the relationship between trapped sediment and the depositional processes as inferred from sediment cores. Sediment in traps consisted mostly of dark gray to black clay and silt. Sand was present in all traps with small peaks in top and/or bottom of proximal sites that could reflect seasonal deposition. Biogenic content was low compared to sediment from fjords to the north but also showed peaks that could indicate seasonal productivity. Ice rafting occurred throughout the period of deployment. The measured annual flux in all traps except the mid-water distal trap agrees with the sedimentation rate of 1-2 mm/a calculated from sediment cores. Sediment deposited at the Müller Ice Shelf comes from aeolian debris, basal melt of the ice shelf, ice rafted debris, and biogenic products. Some of this sediment is transported away from the source by mid-water currents. Colder conditions at this site would reduce the amount of biogenic production in the water column during spring, as it is dependent on ice melt. It would also reduce the amount of ice rafted debris because less calving would occur. More aeolian debris might be transported due to increased wind activity in colder conditions. However, the flux of aeolian debris to the water column could decrease due to permanent sea ice or decreased calving. (Au)

F, G, B, D, E, J, H
Atmospheric temperature; Bacteria; Bathymetry; Biological productivity; Bottom sediments; Calving (Ice); Carbon; Clay; Climate change; Cores; Current scouring; Density; Diatoms; Dust; Geochemistry; Glacial melt waters; Glacier variations; Glaciers; Ice scouring; Ice shelves; Icebergs; Isotopes; Logistics; Magnetic properties; Mass wasting; Measurement; Melting; Mooring systems; Movement; Nitrogen; Ocean currents; Physical properties; Salinity; Sediment transport; Sedimentation; Silica; Silt; Size; Sonar; Spatial distribution; Temporal variations; Theses; Tides; Water masses; Winds; X-rays

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Lallemand Fjord, Antarctic regions; Müller Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions


IPY 2007-2008 : an unfolding legacy = L'API 2007-2008 : un héritage qui se concrétise   /   Church, I.
(Meridian = Méridien, Fall/Winter 2009, p. 16-21)
References as footnotes.
Text in English and French on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English or French PDF files.
ASTIS record 69148.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/Meridian%20Fall-Winter%202009.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/Meridien%20Automne-hiver%202009.pdf
Libraries: ACU

International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) has officially ended, but in a very real sense it is still going on. Some research projects are multi-year investigations, and will be producing new data for the next few years. Like previous International Polar Years, IPY 2007-2008 will no doubt influence polar research, government policy, and public perceptions of the polar regions for decades. ... International Polar Year comprised over 220 programs. Over 170 were science programs, while the others involved education and outreach, or data management. Canada's leadership in the human dimension of polar science resulted in projects that spanned the breadth of disciplines .... One of the most exciting developments was the participation of northern-based scientists and northern communities. ... In Canada the largest single financial contribution was the special $150 million federal IPY allocation. Many other organizations also contributed .... A founding principle of the International Polar Years has been open access to data. ... Linked national and international searchable metadata systems were established that described the data repositories set up by the program teams. Other publications, data collections, and specimen collections have been established and the entire record of the IPY as recorded on the International Program Office web site is being archived. In Canada unique collections have been established in repositories such as the Arctic Institute of North America and the Yukon Government Archives to give future users access to the IPY legacy. ... Education and outreach to the public, northerners and school children, and attracting and developing the next generation of polar scientists were major objectives of IPY, and each research program was required to address these objectives. ... IPY engaged the arts. The Arctic Institute of North America along with Calgary Opera celebrated the launch of the IPY by unveiling a new opera, Frobisher. Major art exhibitions of northern works have been featuring the environments, the peoples, and the science of the polar regions, as have television and film specials, and IPY film festivals. ... IPY set out to improve polar research capacity by championing new and upgraded research and education infrastructure and new or enhanced polar monitoring programs. ... Improved awareness of the polar regions and the "citizenship" that all peoples hold for Earth's high latitude regions was probably the highlight of the IPY. ... As the IPY science programs wrap up over the next year or two we will probably see more media attention to the findings. ... There is no doubt that political agendas will continue to be shaped as new research results emerge. ... (Au)

X, R, E, J, Y, T, L
Bibliographic databases; Capacity building; Climate change; Colleges; Communication; Databases; Education; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Government; International Polar Year 2007-08; Native peoples; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Research; Research funding; Research stations; Science; Socio-economic effects; Universities

G081, G01
Canadian Arctic; Polar regions


Subglacial processes   /   Clarke, G.K.C.
(Annual review of earth and planetary sciences, v. 33, Jan. 2005, p. 247-276, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 62176.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122621
Libraries: ACU

Processes operating beneath glaciers can have a greater influence on flow dynamics than those operating within them. The variety and complexity of these processes, which involve interactions among ice, water, and geological solids, resist efforts to establish simple truths and can lead to surprising outcomes. Thermal conditions at the ice-bed interface (melting or nonmelting) and the mechanical properties of the glacier substrate (soft or hard) determine which processes can be activated. The warm-soft case supports the greatest variety of processes and is the most important for fast-flow dynamics and for the mobilization of subglacial sediment. Process interactions can lead to oscillations and spatio-temporal switching behavior in glaciers and ice sheets as well as to the generation of subglacial landforms. (Au)

F, A, B, C
Boreholes; Cores; Creep; Deformation; Drainage; Drumlins; Flow; Friction; Frost heaving; Glacial deposits; Glacial geology; Glacial landforms; Glacial melt waters; Glacier surges; Glaciers; Glaciology; Hydrology; Instruments; Interstitial water; Measurement; Melting; Moraines; Physical properties; Plasticity; Sediments (Geology); Slopes; Soil consolidation; Soil mechanics; Soils; Spatial distribution; Strain; Strength; Stress; Temperature; Temporal variations; Thermal properties; Thermal regimes; Thickness; Velocity; Viscosity; Water

G15, G13, G0811, G06
Alaska; Antarctic Peninsula; Sweden; Trapridge Glacier, Yukon


Serendipity and where it might lead : opportunities for studying the Arctic and Antarctic = Les événements fortuits et leur aboutissement : possibilités d'étudier l'Arctique et l'Antarctique   /   Conlan, K.
(Meridian = Méridien, Fall/Winter 2003, p. 17-18, 1 ill.)
Text in English and French on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English or French PDF files.
Reprinted with the permission of Science's "Next Wave": nextwave.sciencemag.org/ca. Copyright 2002, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
ASTIS record 60523.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/meri_03_fall_en.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/MeridienAutomne_03.pdf
Libraries: ACU

... There is a certain draw to the Arctic and Antarctic that causes people to return again and again. It may be the immense feeling of wilderness and wide-open space. It may be the chance to be part of a different culture. It may be the unique research opportunities that the polar regions provide. It is a life-changing experience that you should seize if the opportunity arises. You have to work hard and take the initiative yourself, but sometimes you need a helping hand. I hope I've shown some ways to make that a reality for you. Look for, and listen to the John Olivers of the world, set a goal, and "think big". (Au)

R, D, I, H, G, M, L
Benthos; Communication; Costs; Diving; Environmental impacts; Higher education; Ice scouring; Marine biology; Pollution control; Public education campaigns; Research; Research funding; Research personnel; Research stations; Sewage disposal

G0813, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic; McMurdo Station, Antarctic regions


IPY Antarctic University Expedition : February 2009 = Expédition universitaire antarctique de l'API : février 2009   /   Copland, L.
(Newsletter for the Canadian Antarctic Research Network = Bulletin pour le Réseau canadien de recherches antarctiques, v. 26, Nov. 2008, p. 1-2, ill.)
English and French text on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English and French PDF files.
ASTIS record 68337.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/CARN26.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/RCRA26.pdf
Libraries: ACU

In early 2009, Students on Ice (SOI) will run the first ever ship-based university expedition dedicated to Antarctica. It will provide an incredible opportunity for students to earn course credits in one of the remotest and most exceptional places on Earth. Officially endorsed by the International Polar Year (IPY), the expedition represents one of its largest education and outreach initiatives. It will comprise approximately 70 university students, together with 19 faculty, scientists, experts and educators. Most of the students are undergraduates from Canadian universities, although several international and graduate students will also participate. The theme is 'Environmental Leadership' and the program will explore the history, science and politics of Antarctica. One of the main objectives is to provide students an opportunity to bridge the gap between theory and practice by providing experiential learning and field experience, and a firsthand experience of the effects of climate change. ... (Au)

R, L, V, J, I, E, F, G, B, D
Antarctic treaties; Atmosphere; Climate change; Curricula; Ecology; Environmental impacts; Expeditions; Glaciology; Government; Higher education; History; Ice sheets; Ice shelves; Icebreakers; International Polar Year 2007-08; Ocean currents; Oceanography; Penguins; Plate tectonics; Research; Research personnel; Research stations; Science; Scientists; Sea ice; Seals (Animals); Socio-economic effects; Students on Ice; Teachers; Tourist trade; Youth

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic waters; South Shetland Islands, Antarctic regions


Non-indigenous microorganisms in the Antarctic : assessing the risks   /   Cowan, D.A.   Chown, S.L.   Convey, P.   Tuffin, M.   Hughes, K.   Pointing, S.   Vincent, W.F.
(Trends in microbiology, v. 19, no. 11, Nov. 2011, p. 540-548, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 75520.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.tim.2011.07.008
Libraries: ACU

The Antarctic continent is frequently cited as the last pristine continent on Earth. However, this view is misleading for several reasons. First, there has been a rapid increase in visitors to Antarctica, with large increases at research bases and their environs and to sites of major tourist interest (e.g. historical sites and concentrations of megafauna). Second, although substantial efforts are made to avoid physical disturbance and contamination by chemical, human and other wastes at these sites, little has been done to prevent the introduction of non-indigenous microorganisms. Here, we analyse the extent and significance of anthropogenic introduction of microbial 'contaminants' to the Antarctic continent. We conclude that such processes are unlikely to have any immediate gross impact on microbiological community structure or function, but that increased efforts are required to protect the unique ecosystems of Antarctica from microbial and genetic contamination and homogenisation. (Au)

H, I, J, C, F, E, R
Aerosols; Animal diseases; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric temperature; Bacteria; Birds; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Fungi ; Genetics; Lakes; Microbial ecology; Microorganisms; Mosses; Plant diseases; Pollution; Research stations; Risk assessment; Soils; Tourist trade; Velocity; Viruses; Waste management; Water pollution; Wildlife habitat; Winds

G15
Antarctic regions; Vostok, Lake, Antarctic regions


Dependence of the transport in channel models of the ACC [Antarctic Circumpolar Current] on the Rossby radius of deformation   /   Crevier, L.-P.   Straub, D.N. [Supervisor]
Montreal : McGill University, 1998.
xi, 81 p. : ill., 1 map ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MQ50744)
ISBN 0-612-50744-0
Thesis (M.Sc.) - McGill University, Montréal, Québec, 1998.
References.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 53995.
Languages: English
Web: http://digitool.library.mcgill.ca/R/?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=21532&local_base=GEN01-MCG02
Libraries: OONL

It has been suggested that the transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is set, essentially, by the southward Sverdrup flux at latitudes just north of Drake Passage. Although this idea is consistent with observations, it has been criticized in that Sverdrup dynamics fail at Drake Passage latitudes. Here, we think of the total transport as ... [comprising] two components: one associated with the basin-like dynamics to the north of Drake Passage and the other associated with the dynamics of the Drake Passage latitude band itself. The Drake Passage latitudes are often simulated using channel models with bottom topography. For a two-layer channel, large topography effectively blocks geostrophic contours at depth and allows zonally-reconnecting contours in the upper layer. This concentrates the through-channel transport in the model's upper layer. Furthermore, it is argued that the statistical steady state for wind-driven channel flow (that is not too viscous) should be baroclinically unstable. Assuming marginal instability then leads to an estimate of the through-channel transport. A two-layer primitive-equation channel model with bottom topography and wind forcing is used to test this relationship. Model integrations are made to obtain statistical steady states for a range of parameters. The Rossby radius and the wind strength are varied as the theory predicts that transport should go like the square of the former and be relatively insensitive to the latter. Integrations to test the robustness of these results to model resolution are also conducted. (Au)

D, E, A
Atmospheric pressure; Deformation; Flow; Mathematical models; Ocean currents; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Physical properties; Strength; Stress; Submarine topography; Temporal variations; Theses; Velocity; Water masses; Winds

G15
Antarctic waters


IPY-STG SAR coordination group synopsis and lessons learned   /   Crevier, Y.   Drinkwater, M.   Jezek, K.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. EM8.5-5.2, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71596.
Languages: English

The International Polar Year (IPY) WMO/ICSU Joint Committee set up the Space Task Group (STG), composed of space agencies to provide coordinated synoptic remote sensing data from space sensors in support of IPY scientific research. The STG in turn created the SAR (synthetic aperture radar) Coordination Group to coordinate acquisition, processing and dissemination of radar data imagery. The SAR Coordination Group was composed of the space agencies possessing civilian SAR sensors and related assets, and representative scientists to guide the agencies. This group collected a huge dataset of multi-frequency, multi-temporal SAR imagery of polar regions, responding to the science needs as stated in the GIIPSY (Global Inter-agency IPY Polar Snapshot Year) Science Requirements Document. The data were then processed in a coordinated way to generate products of maximum utility for the science community. This paper describes the processes that were developed, the main scientific achievements of this legacy data, and the lessons learned that can be applied to future coordinated efforts between scientists and space agencies. Keywords: satellite, earth observation, Space Task Group, GIIPSY. (Au)

X, G, F, D, E, A
Databases; Glaciology; Ice; Measurement; Oceanography; Radar; Research; Research personnel; SAR; Snow; Synoptic climatology

G01
Polar regions


A RADARSAT-2 snapshot of Antarctica during the 2007-08 IPY   /   Crevier, Y.   Rigby, G.   Werle, D.   Jezed, K.   Ball, D.
(Newsletter for the Canadian Antarctic Research Network = Bulletin pour le Réseau canadien de recherches antarctiques, v. 28, May 2010, p. 1-5, ill.)
References.
English and French text on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English and French PDF files.
ASTIS record 77213.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Antarctic%20Publications/CARN28.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/RCRA28.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Antarctica remains one of the least known regions of Earth. A new image map of the southern continent (Fig. 1) now provides scientists with an opportunity to study Antarctic geology and glaciology in exceptional detail, and with a new suite of imaging tools. The map, constructed by MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. of Vancouver, B.C., is a composite of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scenes captured during the 2007-08 International Polar Year (IPY) by Canada's RADAR - SAT-2 (R2) satellite. For the first time, data capture included high-resolution polarization information over much of the continent. The image map is a Canadian contribution to the IPY. Strategic planning for this Antarctic mapping was coordinated by the IPY Space Task Group (STG; 2010); a group that includes representatives from the national space agencies of Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, the United States, and both the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites; the latter two alone representing 26 nations. The STG was established in response to a request from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and ICSU (the International Council of Scientific Unions) for space agencies to provide coordinated synoptic remote-sensing data from spacebased sensors (IGOS, 2007). The operating strategy for the group was to satisfy IPY science requirements by distributing the acquisition burden across the various space agencies while respecting the operational mandates governing their activities. The STG was guided by the scientific objectives and requirements of the Global Interagency IPY Polar Snapshot Year (GIIPSY), an IPY flagship project. GIIPSY developed high-priority science requirements for consideration by the STG, which then adopted the following four primary goals: (1) Pole-to-coast multi-frequency InSAR measurements for ice-sheet surface velocity; (2) repeated fine-resolution SAR mapping of the entire Southern Ocean sea-ice cover for sea-ice motion; (3) one complete high-resolution visible and thermal infrared snapshot of circumpolar permafrost; and (4) pan-Arctic high and moderate-resolution snapshots of freshwater (lake and river) freeze-up and break-up in the visible and infrared spectrums (Jezek and Drinkwater, 2010). ... (Au)

A, G, F, D, E, B, E
Breakup; Climatology; Effects monitoring; Formation; Glaciers; Glaciology; Hydrology; Ice cover; Infrared remote sensing; Instruments; Lake ice; Mapping; Maps; Movement; Ocean currents; Permafrost surveys; Remote sensing; River ice; SAR; Satellites; Sea ice; Velocity

G15, G03, G081, G10
Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters; Arctic Ocean; Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Greenland


IPY legacy of satellite radar data in polar regions   /   DB Geoservices Inc.   Ball, D.   AERDE Environmental Research   Werle, D.   Canadian Space Agency [Sponsor]
[S.l. : IPY Space Task Group, 2010].
12 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Available in paper and on the Web.
ASTIS record 70986.
Languages: English
Web: http://bprc.osu.edu/rsl/GIIPSY/documents/IPY-STG-Sar%20Coordinaton%20Group%20final.pdf

One of the major successes of the International Polar Year (IPY) in 2007-2008 was the unprecedented amount of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery collected over the polar regions and the high quality data products that have since been generated. This outstanding accomplishment relied on a well-coordinated effort on the part of several space agencies, satellite operators and the science community. The work continues a tradition of coordinating space-related Earth observation activities, as initially fostered by the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites and practiced, for example, by the International Ocean Colour Coordination Group. It began with a request in December 2006 from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and International Council for Science (ICSU) to provide coordinated synoptic remote sensing data from space-based sensors. In response, the international space agencies convened the IPY Space Task Group to support IPY science requirements, and a SAR Coordination Group was subsequently formed to address the unique challenges of assembling satellite radar data and data products. The following is an account of the overall coordination effort, the unique circumstances that have lead to the provision of processed data and information products, and the lessons that can be learned for future campaigns. ... (Au)

X, E, F, G, A
Climate change; Communication; Databases; Glaciers; Ice cover; Information services; International Polar Year 2007-08; IPY Space Task Group; Management; Mapping; Numeric databases; Remote sensing; Research; SAR; Satellites; Scientists; Sea ice; Synoptic climatology; Temporal variations

G01, G03
Antarctic regions; Arctic Ocean; Arctic regions


Zooplankton processes in Arctic and Antarctic polynyas   /   Deibel, D.   Daly, K.L.
(Polynyas : windows to the world / Edited by W.O. Smith and D.G. Barber. Elsevier oceanography series, v. 74, 2007, ch. 9, p. 271-322, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 63899.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/S0422-9894(06)74009-0
Libraries: ACU

There are various similarities and differences in zooplankton processes between Arctic Ocean (AO) and Southern Ocean (SO) polynyas, many of which are due to fundamental differences in their respective ecosystem properties. The composition of zooplankton communities in AO and SO polynyas is largely dependent upon advection from local, ice-covered waters, with little evidence of an endemic, polynya zooplankton fauna. While copepods are common in both systems, a major difference is the predominance of euphausiids in the SO and appendicularian tunicates in the AO. The same genera of small copepods occur in both the AO and SO and appear to derive little benefit from the higher primary productivity and extended growing season of polynyas. In contrast, larger calanoid copepods appear to derive recruitment and life cycle benefits from the diatom production and heat in polynyas, with higher egg production rates and shorter generation times. Most large calanoid copepods overwinter in diapause in AO polynyas, while some proportion of SO populations remain in surface waters. Grazing impact by copepods in AO polynyas accounts for about 20% of primary productivity/d, with appendicularian tunicates accounting for another 20%/d. The few estimates of community impact in the SO are variable. In both regions, individual zooplankton feeding rates are high and equivalent to boreal ocean values; thus, grazing impact depends primarily on the biomass of zooplankton and phytoplankton. SO zooplankton contribute to the vertical particulate flux through faecal pellets from euphausiids, copepods and pteropods, while the contribution in AO polynyas is primarily through appendicularian tunicate faecal pellets and shed houses and copepod faeces. Maximum pellet flux in both the AO and SO occurs at times of high biomass of diatoms. The primary benefits of polar polynyas to zooplankton processes results from the greater production of diatoms and extended productive period, with few differences in individual daily rations or food web transfer efficiencies relative to temperate and boreal systems. (Au)

J, I, H, G, D
Amphipoda; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Animal waste products; Appendicularia; Biological productivity; Biomass; Carbon; Chaetognatha ; Chlorophyll; Coelenterata; Copepoda; Ctenophora; Decapoda; Diatoms; Euphausiacea; Fatty acids; Food chain; Invertebrate larvae; Lipids; Mollusks; Nitrogen; Ostracoda; Phytoplankton; Polychaeta; Polynyas; Primary production (Biology); Seasonal variations; Sedimentation; Trophic levels; Tunicates; Zooplankton

G02, G15, G09, G0815, G03, G12
Antarctic waters; Arctic waters; Barrow Strait, Nunavut; Greenland Sea; Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean; North Water Polynya, Baffin Bay; Prydz Bay, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Effect of nutrient enrichments on the bacterial assemblage of Antarctic soils contaminated by diesel or crude oil   /   Delille, D.   Pelletier, E.   Delille, B.   Coulon, F.
(Polar record, v. 39, no. 4, Oct. 2003, p. 309-318, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 54705.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247402002863
Libraries: ACU

There is an urgent need to develop new technologies to address the problem of soil remediation in high-latitude regions. A field study was initiated in January 1997 in two contaminated soils in Terre Adélie (Antarctica) with the objective of determining the long-term effectiveness of two bioremediation agents on total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial assemblages under severe Antarctic conditions. This study was conducted in two steps, from January to July 1997 and from February to November 1999 in the Géologie Archipelago (Terre Adélie, 66°40' S, 140°01' E). Changes in bacterial communities were monitored in situ after crude oil or diesel addition in a series of 600 cm² soil sectors (20×30 cm). Four contaminated sectors were used for each experiment: diesel oil (10 ml), diesel oil (10 ml) + fertilizer (1 ml), Arabian light crude oil (10 ml), and crude oil (10 ml) + fertilizer (1 ml). Two different bioremediation agents were used: a slow release fertilizer Inipol EAP-22 (Elf Atochem) in 1997 and a fish compost in 1999. Plots were sampled on a regular basis during a three-year period. All samples were analysed for total, saprophytic psychrophilic, and hydrocarbon-utilising bacteria. A one order of magnitude increase of saprophytic and hydrocarbon-utilising micro-organisms occurred during the first month of the experiment in most of the contaminated enclosures, but no clear differences appeared between fertilized and unfertilized plots. Diesel-oil contamination induced a significant increase of all bacterial parameters in all contaminated soils. Crude-oil contamination had no clear effects on microbial assemblages. It was clear that the microbial response could be rapid and efficient in spite of the severe weather conditions. However, microbial growth was not clearly improved in the presence of bioremediation agents. (Au)

Q, J, C, H
Bacteria; Biodegradation; Crude oil; Diesel fuels; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Fertilizers; Microbial ecology; Oil spill cleanup; Oil spills on land; Reclamation; Soil microorganisms; Soils; Toxicity

G15
Antarctic regions


Effects of temperature warming during a bioremediation study of natural and nutrient-amended hydrocarbon-contaminated sub-Antarctic soils   /   Delille, D.   Coulon, F.   Pelletier, E.
(Cold regions science and technology, v. 40, no. 1-2, Nov. 2004, p. 61-70, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 57401.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.coldregions.2004.05.005
Libraries: ACU

Although petroleum contamination is recognized as a significant threat to polar environments, documented research on the environmental consequences of terrestrial spills in cold regions is still scarce. Full-scale in situ remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils has not yet been used in Antarctica, partly because it has long been assumed that air and soil temperatures are too low for an effective biodegradation. To test this assumption, the effects of temperature on the hydrocarbon mineralization rate have been quantified during a field pilot study carried out on artificially contaminated sub-Antarctic soils. The field study was initiated in December 2000 on two selected soils of the Grande Terre (Kerguelen Archipelago, 69°42'E - 49°19'S). The first site supported an abundant vegetal cover, while the second one was a desert soil exempt of plant material. Two series of five experimental plots (0.75 × 0.75 m) were settled firmly into each of the studied soils. Each plot received 500 ml of diesel fuel or Arabian light crude oil, and half of them were covered with a black plastic sheet. All the plots were sampled on a regular basis over a 2-year period. Under natural sub-Antarctic conditions, the field tests revealed that up to 95% of total hydrocarbons were degraded within 1 year, indicating that low temperatures (0-7 °C) can still allow oil biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms. Soil coverage induced a small but permanent increase of the temperature in the surface soil of 2 °C (annual mean) and favored the degradation of alkanes over aromatics. The present observations increase the number of possible scenarios involving controlled temperature design and effects in future in situ bioremediation strategies in sub-Antarctic soils. (Au)

Q, J, C, H
Bacteria; Biodegradation; Carbon; Chromatography; Cold adaptation; Crude oil; Diesel fuels; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Fertilizers; Logistics; Mass spectrometry; Measurement; Metabolism; Microbial ecology; Nitrogen; Oil spill cleanup; Oil spills on land; PAHs; Plant cover; Plant distribution; Reclamation; Soil microorganisms; Soil pH; Soil temperature; Soils; Surface temperature

G15
Kerguelen Archipelago, Antarctic regions


Effects of weather on activity and sleep in brooding King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus)   /   Dewasmes, G.   Côté, S.D.   Le Maho, Y.   Groscolas, R.   Robin, J.P.   Vardon, G.   Libert, J.P.
(Polar biology, v. 24, no. 7, July 2001, p. 508-511, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 50273.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s003000100249
Libraries: ACU

Avian sleep is sensitive to thermal challenges. Brooding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) defending a territory are exposed to wide daily fluctuations in ambient temperature and wind conditions. We studied the daytime behavioural time budget of 89 groups of territorial adults brooding a 1- to 5-week-old chick on Crozet Island during summer 1998. Scans were performed every 10 min and each bird was categorized as either active, resting or sleeping. Three ranges of ambient temperatures (T1=5-9°C, T2=10-13°C, T3=14-19°C) and wind conditions (calm-light, moderate, strong) were distinguished. Wind conditions did not affect the behavioural time budget of king penguins during summer. Resting, which represented about half of the daytime behavioural time budget, increased by 17% when ambient temperature increased from T1 to T3, mostly at the expense of active behaviours. The percentage of time spent sleeping was low, but was reduced by 66% when ambient temperature increased over 10°C. Thus, behavioural sleep was mainly observed in a range of temperatures within which resting metabolic rate of adult king penguins is minimal, i.e. between -1 and 11°C. It is also interesting to note that the range of ambient temperatures in which sleeping was high coincides with the most common microclimatology prevailing at the colony during summer, i.e. ambient temperatures between 5 and 10°C. (Au)

I, E
Animal behaviour; Animal physiology; Atmospheric temperature; Cold adaptation; Cold physiology; Penguins; Sleep; Thermoregulation

G15
Possession Island, Antarctic regions


Environmental protection and stewardship of subglacial aquatic environments   /   Doran, P.T.   Vincent, W.F.
(Antarctic subglacial aquatic environments / Edited by M.J. Siegert, M.C. Kennicutt, and R.A. Bindschadler. Geophysical monograph, no.192, 2011, p. 149-157, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 75546.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/9781118670354.ch9
Libraries: ACU

Environmental stewardship is a guiding principle of the Antarctic Treaty System. Efforts began in the 1990s to generate specific guidelines for stewardship of many terrestrial environments, including surface lakes and rivers. The relatively recent documentation of widespread subglacial aquatic environments, and planning for acquiring samples from them, has generated a need for stewardship guidelines for these environments. In response to a request from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the National Research Council of the National Academies of Sciences (NAS) created the Committee on the Principles of Environmental and Scientific Stewardship for the Exploration and Study of Subglacial Environments. The committee made 13 recommendations and a decision tree as a framework and flow chart for environmental management decisions. The committee report was also largely the basis of a Code of Conduct (CoC) for the exploration of subglacial environments formulated by a Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research Action Group. Both the NAS report and CoC have been used as guidance, to varying degrees, by subglacial research currently in progress. (Au)

F, J, H, I, R
Antarctic treaties; Bacteria; Benthos; Cyanophyceae; Drilling; Environmental law; Environmental protection; Equipment and supplies; Fresh-water ecology; Glacier lakes; Hydrology; International law; Invertebrates; Lake ice; Lakes; Management; Microorganisms; Planning; Pollution; Remote sensing; Research stations; Rivers; Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research; Specifications; Watersheds; Wildlife habitat

G15
Antarctic regions; Vostok, Lake, Antarctic regions


Professors' account of Students on Ice IPY Antarctic University Expedition = Compte-rendu des professeurs de l'éxpédition universitaire en Antarctique de l'API de Students on Ice   /   Douglas, M.   Copland, L.   Maher, P.
(Newsletter for the Canadian Antarctic Research Network = Bulletin pour le Réseau canadien de recherches antarctiques, v. 27, Nov. 2009, p. 3-5, ill.)
English and French text on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English and French PDF files.
ASTIS record 70171.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/CARN%2027.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/RCRA%2027.pdf
Libraries: ACU

In February 2009, three Canadian universities joined forces with the polar educational outreach group Students on Ice (SOI) for the first ever Canadian university expedition to Antarctica. The universities of Alberta, Ottawa and Northern British Columbia offered three field courses aboard the ship MV Ushuaia. University students from across Canada, as well as from international schools, were able to enrol in these accredited courses as part of their own undergraduate degrees and, in a few instances, graduate students also participated. The MV Ushuaia served as a floating classroom, and home, that sailed around the Antarctic Peninsula, allowing students to explore and experience first-hand the diverse habitats and landscapes of the Antarctic. The three courses offered on this expedition included a cold regions geosciences course (UAlberta 4th year undergraduate, taught by Prof. Marianne Douglas [UAlberta] and Dr Eric Galbraith [postdoctoral fellow at Princeton University, now on faculty at McGill University]), glaciology (UOttawa 4th year undergraduate, taught by Prof. Luke Copland [UOttawa] and Dr David Burgess [Geological Survey of Canada]) and Antarctic tourism (UNBC 4th year undergraduate, taught by Prof. Patrick Maher [UNBC] and Dr Hans Gelter [Luleå University of Technology, Sweden]). Apart from these instructors, numerous other educators accompanied the expedition. ... (Au)

R, L, J, I, E, F, G, B, D
Atmosphere; Biology; Climate change; Curricula; Environmental impacts; Expeditions; Geology; Glaciology; Higher education; Icebreakers; Marine ecology; Meteorology; Ocean currents; Oceanography; Ozone; Penguins; Research; Research stations; Scientists; Sea ice; Socio-economic effects; Students on Ice; Students on Ice; Teachers; Tourist trade; Universities; Youth

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic waters; South Shetland Islands, Antarctic regions


Polar oceans   /   Dunbar, M.J. [Editor]   Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research [Sponsor]   Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research [Sponsor]
Calgary, Alta. : Arctic Institute of North America, 1977.
x, 682 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
ISBN 0-919034-92-6
Proceedings of the Polar Oceans Conference held at McGill University, Montreal, May 1974.
References.
ASTIS record 34879.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The SCOR/SCAR Polar Oceans Conference came to final realization after several years of pre-thinking and planning: It was the first fully bi-polar conference on oceanography, and its purpose was to bring together physical, biological and geological oceanographers, and students of climatic change, to discuss "the relation between the special physical conditions both past and present in the polar oceans and their consequences for life in the sea", to quote the terms of reference used in the Conference program. This purpose was achieved. The papers published here constitute a synthesis of present knowledge the chief value of which, it is anticipated, will be threefold: (1) as an up-to-date statement of the knowledge in special fields of research ... (2) as information for peoples working in fields other than those of the authors' specializations, and (3) as a global picture of the working of the polar oceans, the effects of ice on life, the history of climatic change, and the relation between polar and tropical oceanographic and biological phenomena. (Au)

D, B, H, I, G, E, J
Benthos; Climate change; Cold adaptation; Glaciers; Hydrology; Marine ecology; Mass balance; Ocean currents; Palaeogeography; Plate tectonics; Poikilotherms; Primary production (Biology); Quaternary period; Recent epoch; Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Water masses

G01
Polar regions


Validation of ozone measurements from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)   /   Dupuy, E.   Walker, K.A.   Kar, J.   Boone, C.D.   McElroy, C.T.   Bernath, P.F.   Drummond, J.R.   Skelton, R.   McLeod, S.D.   Hughes, R.C.   Nowlan, C.R.   Dufour, D.G.   Zou, J.   Nichitiu, F.   Strong, K.   Baron, P.   Bevilacqua, R.M.   Blumenstock, T.   Bodeker, G.E.   Borsdorff, T.
(Validation results for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) / Edited by A. Richter and T. Wagner. Atmospheric chemistry and physics, v. 9, no. 2, Jan. 2009, p. 287-343, ill.)
References.
There are 91 additional authors on the paper.
ASTIS record 73113.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/9/287/2009/acp-9-287-2009.pdf
Web: doi:10.5194/acp-9-287-2009
Libraries: ACU

This paper presents extensive bias determination analyses of ozone observations from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite instruments: the ACE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instrument. Here we compare the latest ozone data products from ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO with coincident observations from nearly 20 satellite-borne, airborne, balloon-borne and ground-based instruments, by analysing volume mixing ratio profiles and partial column densities. The ACE-FTS version 2.2 Ozone Update product reports more ozone than most correlative measurements from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. At altitude levels from 16 to 44 km, the average values of the mean relative differences are nearly all within +1 to +8%. At higher altitudes (45-60 km), the ACE-FTS ozone amounts are significantly larger than those of the comparison instruments, with mean relative differences of up to +40% (about +20% on average). For the ACE-MAESTRO version 1.2 ozone data product, mean relative differences are within ±10% (average values within ±6%) between 18 and 40 km for both the sunrise and sunset measurements. At higher altitudes (~35-55 km), systematic biases of opposite sign are found between the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise and sunset observations. While ozone amounts derived from the ACE-MAESTRO sunrise occultation data are often smaller than the coincident observations (with mean relative differences down to -10%), the sunset occultation profiles for ACE-MAESTRO show results that are qualitatively similar to ACE-FTS, indicating a large positive bias (mean relative differences within +10 to +30%) in the 45-55 km altitude range. In contrast, there is no significant systematic difference in bias found for the ACE-FTS sunrise and sunset measurements. (Au)

E, A
Aerial surveys; Aerosols; Atmosphere; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric pressure; Atmospheric temperature; Balloons; Density; Diurnal variations; Gases; Infrared remote sensing; Instruments; Laser remote sensing; Logistics; Measurement; Ozone; Passive microwave remote sensing; Satellites; Solar radiation; Spatial distribution; Spectroscopy; Stratosphere; Water vapour

G01, G0813
Eureka, Nunavut; Polar regions


Update : Sander Geophysics explores the Antarctic = Nouvelles : Sander Geophysics explore l'Antarctique   /   Elieff, S.
(Newsletter for the Canadian Antarctic Research Network = Bulletin pour le Réseau canadien de recherches antarctiques, v. 27, Nov. 2009, p. 9)
Editorial note added at the end of the article.
English and French text on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English and French PDF files.
ASTIS record 70173.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/CARN%2027.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/RCRA%2027.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Sander Geophysics (SGL) successfully completed its participation in the data-acquisition phase of Antarctica's Gamburtsev Province Project (AGAP) which was part of the International Polar Year. During December and January, over 50,000 line kilometres of high-resolution airborne gravity data were collected by the AIRGrav system mounted on board a US Antarctic Program Twin Otter aircraft. Installation and testing of the AGAP instruments, including the AIRGrav system, took place at Williams Field near McMurdo station in November and December. SGL data processing manager Dr Martin Bates, senior geophysicist Stefan Elieff, and technician Daniel Geue, worked alongside the international AGAP science team, led by Dr Robin Bell and Dr Michael Studinger, from Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, who were installing ice-penetrating radar, laser scanner, and magnetometer systems in the same Twin Otter aircraft. Once the installation was complete and logistics were in place, Dr Martin Bates returned to Canada while Stefan Elieff and Daniel Geue mobilized with the rest of the science team to the remote field camp, AGAPSouth. A similar British Antarctic Survey Twin Otter aircraft operated from a second field camp named AGAP-North. The journey into East Antarctica included a stopover at Amundsen-Scott South Pole station for altitude acclimatization before heading higher up the ice sheet to the field camps. The first survey flight by the AIRGrav system began at Amundsen-Scott station, which meant accurately aligning the gravity system while parked only a few hundred metres from the geographic South Pole. This unique capability was one of several improvements made to the AIRGrav system in preparation for this challenging project. Despite unpredictable weather, freezing temperatures, thin air, and other difficulties associated with operating from an isolated camp situated 3500 m high on the East Antarctic ice sheet, the AIRGrav system functioned flawlessly and the planned flight program was completed in mid-January. A detailed view of the rugged Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, hidden beneath kilometres of ice, emerged, including the detailed gravity map generated by the AIRGrav system. Preliminary results will be published by the AGAP science team in the months ahead. ... (Au)

B, F, A
Acclimatization; Aerial surveys; Airplanes; Geographical positioning systems; Geology; Geophysical exploration; Gravity measurement; Ice sheets; Instruments; Laser profilometry; Logistics; Magnetic surveys; Plate tectonics; Quality assurance; Research personnel; SAR; Testing; Thickness; Topography

G15
Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctic regions; East Anatarctic Ice Sheet, Antarctic regions; Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, Antarctic regions; McMurdo Station, Antarctic regions


The structure and evolution of the polar stratosphere and mesosphere and links to the troposphere during IPY - SPARC-IPY data assimilation component   /   Farahani, E.
In: 2008 Congress, Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, May 25-29, 2008, Kelowna, B.C. : water, weather, and climate : science informing decisions = Congrés 2008, la Société canadienne de météorologie et d'océanographie, 25-29 mai, 2008, Kelowna, C.-B. : eau, météo, et climat : la science comme outil de décision. - Ottawa : CMOS, 2008, [2] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation in Session 3C1.4, ID:2388.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
The paper version of this abstract book has the title: 42nd Congress / 42ième Congrès, Kelowna 2008, 25-29 May / mai, 2008 : water, weather and climate : science informing decisions = Eau, météo et climat : la science comme outil de décision : abstracts / résumés.
ASTIS record 75733.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cmos.ca/CongressAbstracts/cong4208.pdf
Libraries: ACU

To achieve a detailed picture of the polar middle atmosphere, where key processes associated with ozone depletion and its eventual recovery occur, the IPY has provided a unique opportunity for SPARC. The SPARC-IPY project is facilitating analysis of available research and operational satellite data while encouraging work on data assimilation and inter-comparison of assimilated data sets. One of the key outcomes of the SPARC-IPY project will be a collection of analysis products from several operational and research centers, which will be archived at the SPARC Data Center. The analysis products will cover the period of IPY (March 2007 to March 2009) and will represent the best available self-consistent representations of the state of the atmosphere during this period. The SPARC-IPY data assimilation component is focusing on studying the large-scale circulation associated with the polar vortex during IPY and associated physical and chemical features. Here we present an analysis of the dynamics and chemistry associated with Stratospheric Sudden Warmings (SSWs) in the Arctic Polar atmosphere. In this study, the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model, which extends from the ground to above the mesopause and includes comprehensive and coupled chemistry, radiation and dynamics, is used together with a 3D-Var data assimilation scheme. Also the links of the SPARC-IPY project with other closely related IPY activities both in the Arctic and Antarctica will be furthered discussed in this presentation. (Au)

E
Atmosphere; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Laser remote sensing; Mesosphere; Numeric databases; Ozone; Passive microwave remote sensing; Satellites; Solar radiation; Stratosphere

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Observations of ice sheets with TerraSAR-X during the IPY   /   Floricioiu, D.   Jezek, K.   Crevier, Y.   Gottwald, M.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. LM8.5-5.1, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71453.
Languages: English

Spaceborne observations of cryospheric processes are a major component of the International Polar Year. Since 2007 the IPY Space Task Group (STG) has been coordinating activities of various Earth Observation missions in support of IPY projects. Among high resolution missions the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instruments play an important role in polar areas because they are capable of making observations through clouds and during either the day or night. As member of STG, DLR contributes to coordinated SAR acquisitions with its TerraSAR-X mission in operations since January 2008. Unique attributes of TerraSAR-X (fine spatial resolution, short repeat cycle) are contributing toward fulfilling the scientific requirements provided to STG from the Global International IPY Polar Snapshot Year (GIIPSY) project. These are ranging from specific supersites to large scale objectives such as pole-to-coast InSAR mapping of Antarctica. The TerraSAR-X acquisitions were carried out with three main objectives. In Greenland the termini of 22 outlet glaciers were monitored during 2009. This data set enables a continuation of long term series of fast moving Greenland glaciers started with ERS SAR, as well as measurements of seasonal changes of the ice velocity along the Greenland coast. A second objective of the IPY activities with TerraSAR-X is monitoring the Antarctic ice shelves at selected locations. The collapse of the Wilkins ice shelf in April 2009 was an opportunity to demonstrate how high resolution TerraSAR-X data complement larger coverage at lower resolution provided by Envisat ASAR and ALOS PALSAR. For the Antarctic ice sheet the capability of TerraSAR-X to switch to the left side of the satellite ground track has been used to image areas south of 80°S. The left looking acquisitions started late 2008 over a tributary ice stream feeding into the Recovery Glacier and are ongoing over glacier basins in the Transantarctic Mountains. Examples of derivation of high level TerraSAR-X geophysical products (surface ice velocity maps) according to the SAR data processing strategy established within STG are shown. Keywords: SAR, Antarctica, Greenland. (Au)

F, A
Glacier surges; Glacier variations; Glaciers; Ice shelves; Melting; SAR; Seasonal variations; Velocity

G10, G15
Antarctic regions; Greenland


Polar coasts   /   Forbes, D.L.   Hansom, J.D.
In: Treatise on estuarine and coastal science : volume 3, Estuarine and coastal geology and geomorphology / Edited by B.W. Flemming and J.D. Hansom. - Amsterdam : Academic Press, 2011, ch. 3.10, p. 245-283, ill., maps
Indexed a PDF file.
References.
This is contribution no. 20100368 of the Earth Sciences Sector (Geological Survey of Canada), Natural Resources Canada.
In: Treatise on estuarine and coastal science / Editors in chief: E. Wolanski and D. McLusky.
Available in paper and online.
Volume 3 of 12.
ASTIS record 76830.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Polar and subpolar coasts are distinctive because of extreme seasonality and the presence of ice (predominantly tidewater glaciers, ice shelves, sea ice, and ground ice). Sea ice plays a protective role but may be either erosional or constructive when mobile. Wave activity, though effective mainly during the short summer, imposes a strong morphological signature on most sedimentary coasts. Unlithified coasts in permafrost are widespread on the Arctic Coastal Plain, where combined thermal and mechanical processes promote rapid erosion in ice-rich deposits. Antarctic and sub-Antarctic coasts are mainly dominated by rock or ice, as are part of the Arctic coast. (Au)

A, G, C, F, D, B
Beach erosion; Coast changes; Erosion; Estuaries; Fast ice; Frost action; Geomorphology; Glaciers; Ground ice; Ice cover; Ice ride-up; Ice scouring; Ice shelves; Icings; Intertidal zones; Moisture content of frozen ground; Ocean waves; Permafrost; River deltas; Salt marshes; Sea ice; Sea level; Sedimentation; Sediments (Geology); Thawing; Thickness

G01, G081, G07
Antarctic regions; Beaufort Sea; Canadian Arctic; Inuvialuit Settlement Region, N.W.T./Yukon; Mackenzie Delta, N.W.T.; Polar regions; Russian Arctic; Svalbard; Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula, N.W.T.; Yukon, Northern


Glaciated coasts   /   Forbes, D.L.
In: Treatise on estuarine and coastal science : volume 3, Estuarine and coastal geology and geomorphology / Edited by B.W. Flemming and J.D. Hansom. - Amsterdam : Academic Press, 2011, ch. 3.09, p. 223-243, ill., maps
Indexed a PDf file.
References.
Available in paper and electronic formats.
This is contribution no. 20090425 of the Earth Sciences Sector, Natural Resources Canada.
In: Treatise on estuarine and coastal science / Editors in chief E. Wolanski and D. McLusky.
Volume 3 of 12.
ASTIS record 76887.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Glaciated coasts encompass all those that are now affected by glacial ice or have been at some time since the Last Glacial Maximum. Glacial coasts are the tidewater ice margins of ice sheets, ice shelves, and outlet glaciers. Proglacial coasts are those that are actively receiving outwash sediment. Paraglacial coasts are those in which the coastal evolution is strongly influenced by the effects of past glaciation, most importantly through the dominance of sediment supply from glacigenic deposits by fluvial or coastal reworking. The coastal geomorphology in paraglacial settings may be strongly influenced by the topographic imprint of glacial erosion, and by the distribution and availability of glacigenic deposits. (Au)

A, F, B, D, G, H, I, J, E
Beach erosion; Climate change; Coast changes; Coasts; Drumlins; Effects of climate on ice; Environmental protection; Fjords; Glacial deposits; Glacial erosion; Glacial landforms; Glaciation; Gravel; Hydrology; Ice erosion; Ice scouring; Ice shelves; Icebergs; Intertidal zones; Salt marshes; Sea level; Sediment transport; Water level

G01, G0827, G0828, G11
Nova Scotia; Polar regions; St. George's Bay, Newfoundland; St. Lawrence, Gulf of, region, Canada


Evolution of cryoconite holes and their contribution to meltwater runoff from glaciers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica   /   Fountain, A.G.   Tranter, M.   Nylen, T.H.   Lewis, K.J.   Mueller, D.R.
(Journal of glaciology, v. 50, no.168, Jan. 2004, p. 35-45, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 58814.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756504781830312
Libraries: ACU

Cryoconite holes are water-filled holes in the surface of a glacier caused by enhanced ice melt around trapped sediment. Measurements on the ablation zones of four glaciers in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, show that cryoconite holes cover about 4-6% of the ice surface. They typically vary in diameter from 5 to 145 cm, with depths ranging from 4 to 56 cm. In some cases, huge holes form with 5 m depths and 30 m diameters. Unlike cryoconite holes elsewhere, these have ice lids up to 36 cm thick and melt from within each spring. About one-half of the holes are connected to the near-surface hydrologic system and the remainder are isolated. The duration of isolation, estimated from the chloride accumulation in hole waters, commonly shows ages of several years, with one hole of 10 years. The cryoconite holes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys create a near-surface hydrologic system tens of cm below the ice surface. The glacier surface itself is generally frozen and dry. Comparison of water levels between holes a few meters apart shows independent cycles of water storage and release. Most likely, local freeze-thaw effects control water passage and therefore temporary storage. Rough calculations indicate that the holes generate at least 13% of the observed runoff on the one glacier measured. This hydrologic system represents the transition between a melting ice cover with supraglacial streams and one entirely frozen and absent of water. (Au)

F, B, E
Ablation; Age; Albedo; Glacial melt waters; Glaciers; Hydrology; Measurement; Melting; Runoff; Sediments (Geology)

G15
Taylor Valley, Antarctic regions


The development of periglacial geomorphology : 1 - up to 1965   /   French, H.
(Permafrost and periglacial processes, v. 14, no. 1, Jan./Mar. 2003, p. 29-60, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 54985.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/ppp.438
Libraries: ACU

The earliest observations upon cold, non-glacial processes and phenomena were made in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by the European explorers of the vast sub-arctic regions of North America and Eurasia. The initial beginnings of periglacial geomorphology can be traced to Lozinski and the participants of the XI International Geological Congress excursion to Spitzbergen in 1910-11. The real growth in periglacial geomorphology occurred in the two decades after the Second World War. By the mid-1960s periglacial geomorphology was recognized as a descriptive branch of climatic geomorphology. There were two broad sub-categories: (i) Pleistocene and Quaternary studies dealing largely with the mid-latitudes, and (ii) present-day process studies conducted in the sub-arctic and arctic regions of North America and Scandinavia. Permafrost studies were being conducted in relative isolation in North America and the Soviet Union, not only to each other, but also to mainstream periglacial geomorphology. The merging of all these interests and the development of quantitative, process-oriented studies aimed at understanding periglacial landforms did not come about for several more decades. (Au)

A, C, V, P, E, R, F
Blowing snow; Creep; Dredging; Erosion; Excavation; Expeditions; Explorers; Frost action; Frozen ground; Geologists; Geology; Geomorphology; History; Hydraulic mining; Klondike Gold Rush, 1898; Military operations; Palaeogeography; Periglacial landforms; Permafrost; Pleistocene epoch; Quaternary period; Research; Scientists; Thawing; Thermokarst; Winds; World War II

G01
Arctic regions; Baffin Island, Nunavut; Cornwallis Island, Nunavut; Mackenzie River region, N.W.T.; North American Arctic; Polar regions; Yukon


Observations on the ice-marginal, periglacial geomorpholoy of Terra Nova Bay, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica   /   French, H.M.   Guglielmin, M.
(Permafrost and periglacial processes, v. 10, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1999, p. 331-347, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 47559.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1530(199910/12)10:4<331::AID-PPP328>3.0.CO;2-A
Libraries: ACU

The ice-free areas of the Northern Foothills, Antarctica, represent an ice-marginal, high-latitude periglacia1 environment. In addition to extreme cold and aridity, they are characterized by exceptionally strong winds. The effectiveness of traditional freeze-thaw and mass-wasting (solifluction) processes are limited because of the lack of moisture and the shallow active layer. Mass wasting mainly occurs through in situ rock disintegration and associated gravity processes. Rare rectilinear bedrock slopes are the result and reflect a balance between debris production and debris removal. The most active landscape-modifying processes appear to be (1) wind erosion and (2) taffoni and honeycomb weathering. Ventifacts are used to suggest a very tentative rate of wind abrasion of approximate1y 0.10-0.30 cm per 1000 years. Rates of taffoni and honeycomb weathering appear to be an order of magnitude greater, estimated to be between 2-3 and 8-10 cm per 1000 years. (Au)

A, E
Active layer; Creep; Frozen ground; Geomorphology; Mass wasting; Periglacial landforms; Slopes; Soil moisture; Weathering; Winds

G15
Victoria Land, Antarctic regions


Cryogenic weathering of granite, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica   /   French, H.M.   Guglielmin, M.
(Permafrost and periglacial processes, v. 11, no. 4, Oct.-Dec. 2000, p. 305-314, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 48832.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/1099-1530(200012)11:4<305::AID-PPP362>3.0.CO;2-T
Libraries: ACU

Cavernous weathering phenomena ('tafoni') are well developed on the granitic and gneissic metasedimentary rock of the Northern Foothills region of Antarctica. Thin sections of weathered bedrock indicate that physical disintegration is associated with the preferential micro-fracturing of quartz minerals. The enhanced susceptibility of quartz to fracture under cryogenic conditions, especially when salts lower the freezing temperature, is thought to explain why this unusual type of granite weathering is especially well developed in extremely cold and arid polar deserts. (Au)

B
Cold weather performance; Cryogenics; Fracturing; Gneiss; Granite; Polar deserts; Quartz; Weathering

G15
Victoria Land, Antarctic regions


Observations on granite weathering phenomena, Mount Keinath, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica   /   French, H.M.   Guglielmin, M.
(Permafrost and periglacial processes, v. 13, no. 3, July/Sept. 2002, p. 231-236, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 51855.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/ppp.423
Libraries: ACU

Rock varnish, erosional grooves, and well-developed cavernous weathering phenomena occur in close association on a small biotite-monzogranite nunatak in the Northern Foothills region, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The grooves, similar in appearance to the 'rinnenkarren' described in the karst literature, are developed on steeply inclined (>35°) bedrock surfaces while the rock varnish occurs on adjacent, more gently sloping (<15°) bedrock surfaces. The varnish forms a resistant carapace through which small weathering pits have developed and below which are large cavernously weathered hollows (taffoni). We argue that the intimate association between the grooves and the rock varnish indicate the nunatak has been exposed to a long period of subaerial weathering. The preservation of both phenomena supports (a) the idea that landscape modification in this exceptionally cold and arid region of Antarctica is very slow and (b) the long-term stability of the Antarctic ice sheet. (Au)

B, E
Climatology; Cryogenics; Granite; Minerals; Nunataks; Surface temperature; Weathering

G15
Victoria Land, Antarctic regions


Antarctic tourist experience - a comparison of SOI students with cruse tourists   /   Gelter, H.   Lamers, M.   Maher, P.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. PS1-C.89, [1] p.
Abstract of a poster presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71622.
Languages: English

In Antarctica tourism has increased drastically over the last decades with the numbers of shipborne tourists increasing by 430% and land-based tourists by 757% in the last 10-15 years. This drastic increase and its future predicted increase has evoked concerns among stakeholders about negative environmental impacts by the tourism industry in these fragile environments. This development has called for long term tourism policies as well as a request for research in polar tourism to understand its nature and its management and regulation. Much effort in polar tourism research has been allocated to define polar tourism as a legitimate area of scholarly inquiry. Despite the emerging polar tourism research we still know very little about the phenomenon of polar tourism. Most of polar tourism research has focused on patterns of tourism, tourist demands and tourist behaviour such as number of tourists, motivation, demographics, their routes, destinations, activities, attitudes, knowledge, skills and compositions of the travel groups. Since the creation of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) in 1991 there has been a reliable recording of tourist data in Antarctica. However, little information is available on the nature and quality of polar tourist experiences, knowledge (pre- and post visit), on-site experience and the tourists personal experiences of their impact on the environment. Particularly interesting is the effect of polar travel on the tourists' post visit ambassadorial activities and the costs and benefits to polar travel associated with changing global climate patterns. This paper reports a pre-, onsite, and post visit questionnaire among Student-on-the-ice University Antarctica students in February 2009 and Antarctica cruse tourist in March 2009 visiting the Antarctica Peninsula. The aim of the survey was to see if there are any differences between the ways tourists and students perceive their Antarctica experience, their environmental impact, and post trip activities. Keywords: Antarctic tourism, polar experience, environmental impact, polar travel impact. (Au)

R, J, L
Climate change; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Icebreakers; Management; Nordicity; Psychology; Public education campaigns; Public opinion; Research; Social surveys; Socio-economic effects; Students on Ice; Temporal variations; Tourist trade

G15
Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters


On the occurrence of males and production of ephippial eggs in populations of Daphniopsis studeri (Cladocera) in lakes of the Vestfold and Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica   /   Gibson, J.A.E.   Dartnall, H.J.G.   Swadling, K.M.
(Polar biology, v. 19, no. 2, Jan. 1998, p. 148-150, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 47632.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s003000050227
Libraries: ACU

Populations of the cladoceran, Daphniopsis studeri Rühe in freshwater and brackish lakes of eastern Antarctica have been thought to consist solely of females that reproduce parthenogenetically by the production of ameiotic subitaneous eggs. This note reports the presence of male D. studeri and the production of ephippial (sexual) eggs in a number of lakes of the Vestfold and Larsemann Hills, which indicate the possibility of sexual reproduction within these populations. (Au)

I, F, J
Animal distribution; Animal ecology; Animal food; Animal population; Animal reproduction; Cladocera; Fish spawning; Fresh-water ecology; Lakes; Microorganisms; Salinity

G15
Larsemann Hills, Antarctic regions; Vestfold Hills, Antarctic regions


The meromictic lakes and stratified marine basins of the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica   /   Gibson, J.A.E.
(Antarctic science, v. 11, no. 2, June 1999, p. 175-191, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 47201.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0954102099000243
Libraries: ACU

Thirty-four permanently stratified water bodies were identified in a survey of the Vestfold Hills. Of these, 21 were lakes, six were seasonally isolated marine basins (SIMBs), and seven were marine basins with year round connection to the open ocean. The basins varied marked in salinity (4 g/l to 235 g/l), temperature (-14°C to 24°C), depth 5 m to 110 m), area (3.6 ha to 146 ha) and surface level (-30 m to 29 m above sea level). The stratification in all the basins was maintained by increases in salinity. During winter, a thermohaline convection cell was present in all lakes and SIMBs beneath the ice cover. These cells were the result of brine exclusion from the forming ice, and increased in density throughout winter, penetrating progressively deeper into the lake. Minimum stability, and therefore the maximum likelihood of turnover, occurred at the time of maximum ice formation in spring. At the end of the period of ice formation, the convection cell broke down, and stratification of the surface water occurred. When the ice melted completely, lenses of relatively fresh water capped the lakes, which reduced the effect of wind mixing. Net meltwater input increased the stability of the meromictic basins, while periods of lower water level resulted in deeper penetration of the thermohaline convection cell, increasing the possibility of turnover and destratification. (Au)

F, G, D
Bathymetry; Climate change; Density; Electrical properties; Fjords; Formation; Lake ice; Lakes; Melting; Ocean temperature; Salinity; Sea ice; Snow; Temperature; Water masses

G15
Ellis Fjord, Antarctic waters; Ellis Fjord, Antarctic waters; Taynaya Bay, Antarctic waters; Vestfold Hills, Antarctic regions


The role of ice in determining mixing intensity in Ellis Fjord, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica   /   Gibson, J.A.E.
(Antarctic science, v. 11, no. 4, Dec. 1999, p. 419-426, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 47202.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S095410209900053X
Libraries: ACU

Mixing in Ellis Fjord, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, is controlled by processes which are influenced by the extent of ice formation. A study of water temperature and salinity at a site near the middle of the fjord was undertaken from May 1994 to February 1995 after a summer (1993-94) in which the ice cover of the fjord was largely retained. Vertical mixing resulting from the exclusion of salt during the limited winter formation of ice was insufficient to mix completely the non-meromictic basins of the fjord. In contrast, a previous study during a winter with far more ice production recorded much stronger vertical mixing throughout the fjord. Warming and freshening of the fjord during the 1994-95 summer, when the ice again did not melt significantly, was attributable to the flow of warmer, less saline water along the fjord. This process was probably related to the formation of tidal jets at the narrow and shallow entrance to the fjord, and was thus influenced by the ice conditions around the entrance. These jets would also have introduced insignificant amounts of extra-fjord water (along with any resident biota) into the fjord. (Au)

D, G
Bathymetry; Chemical oceanography; Fjords; Formation; Melting; Ocean temperature; Salinity; Sea ice; Thickness; Water masses

G15
Ellis Fjord, Antarctic waters


Sediment trap records of glacimarine sedimentation at Müller Ice Shelf, Lallemand Fjord, Antarctic Peninsula   /   Gilbert, R.   Chong, Å.   Dunbar, R.B.   Domack, E.W.
(Arctic, antarctic, and alpine research, v. 35, no. 1, Feb. 2003, p. 24-33, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 55455.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1657/1523-0430(2003)035[0024:STROGS]2.0.CO;2
Libraries: ACU

Three arrays, each containing four funnel-shaped sediment traps, were deployed near the front of the Müller Ice Shelf, Lallemand Fjord, western Antarctic Peninsula, in late austral summer 1998. Although the upper traps in each array were damaged or lost, eight others were recovered intact about 13 mo later. The mean flux of sediment was 1.4 to 2.9 mm/a (1.67 to 3.5 kg/m²/a) and showed little trend with respect to distance from the ice shelf or depth of water. Mean organic carbon and biogenic silica concentrations are 0.6 to 1.1% and 3.4 to 5.0%, respectively. Up to 50 microlaminae visible in x-radiographs probably indicate storm surges or the effect of spring tidal cycles. The sand content in most traps is 2 to 5 times lower in winter, reflecting reduced melt from icebergs and their limited mobility as they are held by sea ice. However, a secondary winter peak in very coarse sand is probably associated with eolian input during winter storms. Nitrogen is greater by 2 to 3 times in summer sediment, and organic carbon is up to 4 times greater. Biogenic silica shows less summer to winter difference, although the spring diatom bloom is represented by somewhat greater values in most traps. Summer values of isotopic organic carbon delta 13C and total nitrogen delta 15N are lower than winter values in response to heterotrophic removal of the lighter isotopes. (Au)

F, B, H, D, I, G
Bathymetry; Carbon; Cores; Diatoms; Ice divides; Ice shelves; Icebergs; Isotopes; Melting; Nitrogen; Oceanography; Sand; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Sedimentation; Shorelines; Storm surges; Temporal variations; Trophic levels; Zooplankton

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Lallemand Fjord, Antarctic regions; Müller Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions


Sediment content in Antarctic iceberg fragments sufficient to sink the ice   /   Gilbert, R.   Domack, E.W.   Tewksbury, D.
(Géographie physique et quaternaire, v. 58, no 1, 2004, p. 147-149, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 60084.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.7202/013115ar
Libraries: ACU

Iceberg fragments recovered from the sea floor near Swift Glacier, Antarctica, contained sufficient sediment to sink the ice. Sediment concentrations in the samples would have caused them to settle at 0.13 to 0.35 m/s through the water column. Impact with the sea floor would significantly turbate soft sediments. Unlike sediment dumped from icebergs, the stratigraphy of the frozen sediments created by glacial processes may be preserved in the marine sedimentary record after melting of the ice. Negatively buoyant berg fragments may be common in polar regions, and when driven by currents may scour the sea floor up and down slopes unlike floating ice. (Au)

B, G, F, D
Bottom sediments; Density; Erosion; Fast ice; Frazil ice; Glacial transport; Glaciers; Ice loads; Ice scouring; Icebergs; Ocean temperature; Salinity; Sea ice; Sea water; Sediment transport; Sedimentary structures; Sedimentation; Sediments (Geology); Water masses

G15
Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Simulation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change   /   Gillett, N.P.   Thompson, D.W.J.
(Science, v.301, no.5643, 10 Oct. 2003, p. 273-275, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 55797.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.1087440
Libraries: ACU

Recent observations indicate that climate change over the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere is dominated by a strengthening of the circumpolar westerly flow that extends from the surface to the stratosphere. Here we demonstrate that the seasonality, structure, and amplitude of the observed climate trends are simulated in a state-of-the-art atmospheric model run with high vertical resolution that is forced solely by prescribed stratospheric ozone depletion. The results provide evidence that anthropogenic emissions of ozone-depleting gases have had a distinct impact on climate not only at stratospheric levels but at Earth's surface as well. (Au)

E, D, G, J
Air pollution; Atmosphere; Atmospheric pressure; Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Environmental impacts; Mathematical models; Ocean temperature; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Ozone; Ozone depleting compounds; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Solar radiation; Stratosphere; Surface temperature; Thermodynamics; Velocity; Water masses; Winds

G15
Antarctic regions


Comparison of mass-transfer and isotopic dilution methods for estimating milk intake in Antarctic fur seal pups   /   Goldsworthy, S.D.   Lea, M.-A.   Guinet, C.
(Polar biology, v. 27, no. 12, Nov. 2004, p. 801-809)
References.
ASTIS record 57360.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s00300-004-0648-7
Libraries: ACU

The efficacy of a new mass-transfer method for estimating milk intake was examined in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Iles Kerguelen. Our method differed from previous mass-transfer approaches in that we estimated milk-mass transfer as the maternal mass lost (MML; kg) during an attendance bout, less the mass lost to metabolic maintenance (MMLE) over that time. MML was significantly related to pup mass-gain (PMG) and attendance bout duration (d days) as follows: MML=1.106PMG+1.002d (r²=0.998). Based on this and previous studies, we estimated that the MMLE was 0.0285 kg/kg/day for lactating females; and we developed the following milk-mass transfer equation: MMLM=1.106PMG+1.002d-0.0285MM d (where MM is maternal mass). Milk-mass intake was also estimated in an additional 21 pups, using the isotopic dilution method. These values were then compared with estimates based on the milk mass-transfer equation for the same individual pups. A pair-wise comparison indicated that milk-mass transfer estimated using tritium dilution methods were significantly lower than those based on mass-transfer (MMLM). Furthermore, the absolute PMG exceeded tritium dilution estimates of milk-mass transfer in 35% of cases. In contrast, all milk-mass transfer estimates using the mass transfer method were greater than PMG. Overestimation of metabolic water production (MWP), leading to a smaller proportion of the total water intake being attributed to milk ingestion, is believed to be the most likely cause for significant underestimation of milk-mass transfer using the tritium dilution method. Consumption of exogenous water by pups is the most likely reason for the overestimation of MWP, although errors in estimated milk water content may have also contributed to underestimates. We conclude that, in our study, the mass-transfer method provided a more reliable estimate of milk-mass transfer than the isotopic dilution method; and we argue that, under certain conditions, it providesa practical alternative method where the assumptions of isotopic dilution methodology (e.g., all exogenous water from maternal milk) and quantitative parameters (e.g., maternal milk water content) may either be violated or impractical to measure. (Au)

I
Animal behaviour; Animal food; Animal growth; Animal physiology; Forecasting; Mathematical models; Measurement; Metabolism; Milk; Seals (Animals); Size

G15
Antarctic regions; Indian Ocean; Kerguelen Archipelago, Antarctic regions


RADARSAT interferometry for Antarctic grounding-zone mapping   /   Gray, L.   Short, N.   Bindschadler, R.   Joughin, I.   Padman, L.   Vornberger, P.   Khananian, A.
(Papers from the International Symposium on Remote Sensing in Glaciology, held in Maryland, U.S.A., 4-8 June 2001 / Edited by J.-G. Winter and R. Solberg. Annals of glaciology, v. 34, 2002, p. 269-276, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 51955.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756402781817879
Libraries: ACU

Satellite radar interferometry (SRI) is used to provide new information on grounding zones in areas of the eastern Ross Ice Shelf and the Filchner Ice Shelf, Antarctica. At the times of the RADARSAT SRI passes, separated by 24 days, a tidal model predicts a change in vertical displacement of the freely floating ice of >1 m in both areas. The change in vertical position occurs over a 5-10 km flexure zone adjacent to the grounding line and would lead to a relatively high interferometric phase fringe rate. This was observed in some areas, and suitable imagery has been used to map the grounding-zone position to an estimated accuracy of 1-2 km. Results for the "ice-plain" area upstream of the Crary Ice Rise are consistent with the tidal model and improve the previous grounding-line estimates based on field surveys and Système Probatoire pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) data. The results support the suggestion of increased ice grounding in this area, and show that a sub-ice-shelf water channel around the southern end of the Crary Ice Rise is unlikely. Results for the Filchner Ice Shelf also show that existing maps of the grounding zone can be refined. In particular, we identify a large ice rise close to the mouth of the Bailey Ice Stream. (Au)

F, G, D, A
Calving (Ice); Ice scouring; Ice shelves; Icebergs; Mapping; Measurement; Radar; SAR; Satellites; Spatial distribution; Thickness; Tides; Topography

G15
Antarctic regions; Filchner Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions; Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions


Passing the torch - engaging youth in global issues through experiential learning   /   Green, G.
In: Arctic change 2008 : conference programme and abstracts, Québec (Qc), 9-12 December, 2008 = Arctic change 2008 : programme et résumés de la conference, Québec (Qc), 9-12 décembre 2008. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2008, p. 85-86
In: Arctic change 2008 : conference programme and abstracts, Québec (Qc), 9-12 December, 2008 = Arctic change 2008 : programme et résumés de la conference, Québec (Qc), 9-12 décembre 2008. - [Québec, Québec] : ArcticNet, 2008, p. 225
Abstract of both a Topical Session presentation and a poster. The poster has the title "Passing the torch - engaging and inspiring youth through experiential learning at the poles".
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
ASTIS record 66886.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arctic-change2008.com/pdf/ac-programme.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Through the award-winning 'Students on Ice' (SOI) program, more than one thousand students, scientists and educators have gained a new understanding and respect for the planet. 'Students on Ice' provides the extraordinary opportunity for today's youth (and tomorrow's leaders) to better understand the Poles, the Planet, the implications of environmental issues, and teaches them how to get involved and active in local, national and global solutions. These unique, educational ship-based expeditions give youth the rare opportunity to mentor with world-class scientists, researchers, experts, teachers, artists and young leaders. The program encourages youth and young adults to pursue careers in polar research, applied sciences, environmental studies and more. In his role as Students on Ice founder & executive director, and as a member of Canada's National Committee for the IPY, Geoff passionately addresses the environmental issues facing the Pole Regions today - and by extension, the interconnectedness of the entire global ecosystem. Having led more than 100 expeditions to both the Polar Regions over the past 20 years, Geoff's presentation will take the audience on an inspiring journey from one end of the Earth to the other. He will also address some of the upcoming SOI expeditions which include a pioneering Antarctic University Expedition, another important contribution to the IPY legacy of engaging youth and young adults in understanding the importance and urgency of protecting the Poles and the Planet. The Students on Ice - IPY Arctic & Antarctic Expeditions 2007-2009 are the most comprehensive educational expeditions for youth of their kind. They serve as powerful and unique international platforms to create change, inspire, educate, give cause for hope, and raise awareness globally. The IPY expeditions to date have involved over 130 international students, aged 14-19, including 35 northern aboriginal youth from the Yukon to Nunatsiavut. The students traveled on these transformative adventures together with a team of 30 scientists, environmentalists, artists and polar educators. Geoff will talk about his most recent experiences as expedition leader of the ship-based journeys and the unique and powerful experiences lived by the youth and educators who have participated in the Student on Ice International Polar Year expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic thus far. Students on Ice (www.studentsonice.com) is empowering youth through experiential learning and fostering opportunities for them to live their creativity and inspire change in their lives, their communities, and the Planet. Geoff's presentation will speak about the success of Students on Ice and share stories of youth that have returned home as ambassadors and leaders for our planet's environment, with new levels of inspiration and motivation for the future. There has never been a more important time for the world to have active and motivated youth who can help change the way societies manage themselves for a more sustainable future. (Au)

R, T, E, J
ArcticNet Inc.; Biology; Career aspirations; Children; Climate change; Curricula; Ecology; Education; Environmental impacts; Expeditions; Icebreakers; International Polar Year 2007-08; Inuit; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Research; Research personnel; Science; Students on Ice; Sustainable economic development; Teachers; Youth

G01
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


To the ends of the earth : youth, education & science in the polar regions   /   Green, G.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. LM9.6-2.3, [1] p.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. LM11.6-3.3, [1] p.
Abstract of two oral presentations, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71584.
Languages: English

Geoff's presentation will take the audience on a fascinating and inspiring journey from pole to pole, where over the last 17 years he has led over 100 expeditions to Antarctica and the Arctic. As cornerstones of the global ecosystem, last frontiers, and windows to the world, the polar regions are profound and powerful places which Geoff knows intimately. Geoff will share incredible personal experiences, adventures, challenges and impressions from the polar regions, including his observations of important environmental issues and the interconnectedness of the global ecosystem. One of these stories will touch on the day in January 1998, while standing amongst hundreds of thousands of penguins in Antarctica, Geoff had an idea from which a vision emerged. At the time, Geoff had been witnessing how profoundly people's perspectives on the planet were being challenged and changed by their experiences visiting the polar regions. "Imagine," he thought, "if we could give those same experiences to the world's youth at the beginning of their lives, and how this could inspire, motivate and define their futures!" Geoff's idea led to the creation of the award-winning program Students on Ice (SOI), which now in its 10th year, has taken over 1,500 students, educators and scientists from more than 40 countries on educational expeditions to the Arctic and the Antarctic. During the IPY, Students on Ice engaged the hearts and minds of hundreds of young scientists and helped the public to realize and understand how much the polar regions matter. Geoff will highlight IPY successes and discuss many exciting scientific, educational and outreach initiatives being planned by SOI and partners for students, scientists, and educators around the world. He will also underscore legacy outcomes from SOI's most recent 6 IPY Youth Expeditions (2007-2010; IPY Project 343) and coordination of the IPY Polar Perspectives Series. Keywords: education, science, youth, polar. (Au)

R
Education; Expeditions; Public opinion; Science; Scientists; Students on Ice; Teachers; Youth

G01
Polar regions


Imiqutailaq - Path of the Arctic Tern   /   Green, G.   Straka, T.   Trudeau, N.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. LM12.6-5.3, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71662.
Languages: English

Imiqutailaq - Path of the Arctic Tern is about a life-altering journey from one end of the Earth to the other, by two Inuit teens (Terry Noah and Jason Qaapiq) from Grise Fiord, Nunavut, Canada's northernmost Arctic community, to the bottom of the world, Antarctica. The journey was the dream of the late Dr. Fritz Koerner (1932-2008), the irreverent and legendary glaciologist whom the people of Grise Fiord named Imiqutailaq (Arctic Tern), after the little seabird that flies from the Arctic to the Antarctic and back each year. The documentary touches on Fritz's 50 years traveling Pole to Pole studying the ice, and how he wanted these Inuit youth to better understand the impacts of climate change, and inspire everyone to do something about protecting the Poles and the Planet. Supported by the Government of Canada Program for the International Polar Year. Directed by Geoff Green and Michel Valiquette. Executive Producer Geoff Green, Students on Ice. Length - 55 minutes. Keywords: Grise Fiord, Antarctica, International Polar Year (IPY), Dr. Roy 'Fritz' Koerner, PhD. (Au)

T, R, E, L, F, G
Biographies; Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Environmental protection; Expeditions; Glaciology; Inuit; Koerner, Roy "Fritz", 1932-2008; Motion pictures; Students on Ice; Youth

G0813, G15
Antarctic regions; Grise Fiord (Settlement), Nunavut; Polar regions


Students on Ice : Antarctic activities = Students on Ice : activités en Antarctique   /   Green, G.D.
(Newsletter for the Canadian Antarctic Research Network = Bulletin pour le Réseau canadien de recherches antarctiques, v. 27, Nov. 2009, p. 1-3, ill.)
English and French text on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English and French PDF files.
ASTIS record 70170.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/CARN%2027.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/RCRA%2027.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Students on Ice (SOI) is an award-winning organization offering unique educational expeditions to the Antarctic and the Arctic. Its mandate is to provide students, educators and scientists from around the world with inspiring educational opportunities at the ends of the Earth and, in doing so, help them foster a new understanding and respect for the planet. Since the year 2000, Students on Ice has taken over 1200 students from more than 40 countries to both the polar regions. SOI was proud to have its SOI-IPY Youth Expeditions 2007-2009 fully endorsed by the International Polar Year (IPY) Joint Committee as a prominent and valued part of the current IPY. SOI's expeditions and related educational activities represented one of the largest IPY outreach, training and communications events in the world (Fig. 1). Now entering its tenth year, SOI has grown in scale, scope and depth. Since conducting the first youth-specific expedition to Antarctica in the world, the organization now leads 2-4 youth expeditions every year for both high-school and university students. Just one of the unique features of the program is how the expeditions reach thousands via an exciting and educational expedition website, allowing people from around the world to track the students on the expeditions and share their personal growth and experiences. ... (Au)

R, L, J, E, F, T
Carbon dioxide; Climate change; Communication; Environmental protection; Expeditions; Higher education; International Polar Year 2007-08; Inuit; Koerner, Roy "Fritz", 1932-2008; Motion pictures; Pollution control; Reclamation; Scientists; Secondary education; Students on Ice; Students on Ice; Tourist trade; World Wide Web; Youth

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic waters


Ground ice in the northern foothills, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica   /   Guglielmin, M.   French, H.M.
(Papers from the Seventh International Symposium on Antarctic Glaciology held in Milan, Italy, 25-29 August 2003 / Edited by Jo Jacka. Annals of glaciology, v. 39, no. 1, June 2004, p. 495-500, ill., 2 maps)
References.
ASTIS record 58819.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756404781814726
Libraries: ACU

This progress report classifies the different types of ground-ice bodies that occur in the Northern Foothills, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Oxygen isotope variations are presented, but interpretation is kept to a minimum pending further investigations. Surface ice, as distinct from moving glacier ice, occurs in the form of widespread buried ('dead') glacier ice lying beneath ablation (sublimation) till, together with perennial lake ice, snow banks and icing-blister ice. 'Dry' permafrost is uncommon, and interstitial ice is usually present at the base of the active layer and in the near-surface permafrost. This probably reflects the supply of moisture from the Ross Sea and limited sublimation under today's climate. Intrusive ice occurs as layers within perennial lake-ice covers and gives rise to small icing blisters. Small ice wedges found beneath the furrows of high-centered polygons appear to agree with the model of sublimation-till development proposed by Marchant and others (2002). (Au)

C, F, G, A
Ablation; Active layer; Classification; Effects of climate on permafrost; Frost mounds; Glacial deposits; Glacier ice; Ground ice; Ice wedges; Interstitial water; Isotopes; Lake ice; Patterned ground; Periglacial landforms; Permafrost; Rock glaciers; Snowpatches; Sublimation

G15
Victoria Land, Antarctic regions


Engaging youth - the Green I.C.E. Project   /   Gustafson, J.   Tacoma, S.
In: Understanding Circumpolar Ecosystems in a Changing World : Outcomes of the International Polar Year, 3-6 November 2010 : conference program and abstracts. - Edmonton, Alta. : University of Alberta, 2010, p. 27
Abstract of an oral presentation.
ASTIS record 73418.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.eas.ualberta.ca/ipy/abstract.pdf

My name is Jodi Gustafson and I am a second year undergraduate student from Whitehorse, Yukon. I am currently studying in the BSc Global Resource System through UBC. My project partner, Sytse Tacoma is a third year mechanical engineering student at Canterbury University in New Zealand. Together, we have just started an environmental humanitarian project called The Green Innovative Climate Engineering Project (The Green I.C.E. Project). The goal of our project is to construct an environmental device to be used in polar regions. As I am from an Arctic gateway city, and Sytse is from an Antarctic gateway city, we see this opportunity as quite fitting. We will be combining each of our very different skill sets to build this device. Currently, we are in the stage of interviewing professionals with experience in the polar regions to determine a cause that is linked to both the Arctic and Antarctic to focus our efforts on. Our project mandate and further details can be found at our website: thegreeniceproject.wordpress.com. We would really appreciate any opportunity to tell the circumpolar community at the IPY conference about our project, both to demonstrate the interest and concern youth have for polar regions, as well as to gain advice and suggestions from the knowledgeable presenters there. (Au)

E, J, M, R
Climate change; Design and construction; Effects monitoring; Environmental protection; Higher education; Instruments; Mechanical engineering; Political action; Public participation; Youth

G01
Polar regions


Rock temperatures and implications for cold region weathering. II : New data from Rothera, Adelaide Island, Antarctica   /   Hall, K.
(Permafrost and periglacial processes, v. 9, no. 1, Jan.-Mar. 1998, p. 47-55, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 47550.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1530(199801/03)9:1<47::AID-PPP273>3.3.CO;2-E
Libraries: ACU

Rock temperature data collected at one-minute intervals from both the horizontal surface and the four cardinal directions of a rock outcrop show the influence of record interval and aspect on the thermal regime of bedrock as it applies to cryogenic weathering. High frequency data are necessary to identify components of thermal stress fatigue and thermal shock events that play a significant role in rock breakdown. The northern aspect exhibits the lowest temperatures despite its apparent preferential orientation. At the 2 cm depth, temperatures on the northern and horizontal surfaces sometimes stayed above those for the rock surface despite the daytime energy input from solar radiation. Short-term wind fluctuations are considered as a possible explanation. Because the rock temperatures are quite different from those of the air the latter can, in no way, be used as a surrogate for rock thermal conditions. The argument is made that one-minute record intervals are required for thermal data if use is to be made of this information to help explain and understand the weathering regime. (Au)

B, E
Atmospheric temperature; Cryogenics; Rocks; Solar radiation; Surface temperature; Thermal regimes; Weathering; Winds

G15
Adelaide Island, Antarctic regions; Rothera region, Antarctic regions


Andvord drift : a new type of inner shelf, glacial marine deposystem from the Antarctic Peninsula   /   Harris, P.T.   Domack, E.   Manley, P.L.   Gilbert, R.   Leventer, A.
(Geology, v. 27, no. 8, Aug. 1999, p. 683-686, 3 maps)
References.
ASTIS record 47498.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0683:ADANTO>2.3.CO;2
Libraries: ACU

Hemipelagic, sediment drift deposits have been discovered and mapped on the Antarctic Peninsula shelf in 300-500 m water depth. The drift located adjacent to Andvord Bay covers 44.5 km² and exhibits continuous and discontinuous parallel reflections that conform to peaks and valleys in the acoustic basement as observed in deep-tow boomer and sparker seismic records. This style of drift deposit is a common feature of deep oceanic sediments, but is not normally found in continental shelf environments. Measured sedimentation rates of 1-3 mm/yr on the Andvord drift indicate that the total 40 m drift thickness observed in the seismic records is probably postglacial. The drift contrasts with the basin-fill style of sedimentation that is normally associated with the Antarctic continental shelf and may play an important role in the carbon cycle. On the basis of an isopach map of drift sediments and previously published core information, the rate of carbon accumulation in the Andvord drift is estimated to be about 1.7 g/cm²/k.y., which is comparable to the highest rates reported for the southwestern Ross Sea. (Au)

B, F, D, J, E
Bathymetry; Bottom sediments; Carbon; Carbon cycling; Climatology; Drainage; Glaciers; Melting; Sedimentation; Seismic surveys

G15
Andvord Bay, Antarctic waters; Antarctic Peninsula; Gerlache Strait, Antarctic waters


Some Canadians in the Antarctic   /   Hattersley-Smith, G.
(Arctic, v. 39, no. 4, Dec. 1986, p. 368-369, 2 ill.)
ASTIS record 50261.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic39-4-368.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic2099
Libraries: ACU

The note shows that individual Canadians have been involved in every phase of Antarctic exploration and research from 1898 to the present time. (Au)

V
Expeditions; Exploration; History; Research; Research personnel

G15, G081, G08
Antarctic regions; Canada; Canadian Arctic


Fragment of an ancient outlet glacier system near the top of the Transantarctic Mountains   /   Hicock, S.R.   Barrett, P.J.   Holme, P.J.
(Geology, v. 31, no. 9, Sept. 2003, p. 821-824, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 53644.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1130/G19686.1
Libraries: ACU

Sirius Group tillite near the summit of Mount Feather, Transantarctic Mountains, is critically located for reconstructing past behavior of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. New ice-direction indicators and tillite geometry show that the tillite accumulated beneath wet-based ice on a transverse paleovalley floor - a hanging remnant of a landscape largely removed by erosion. We conclude that the Mount Feather tillite formed primarily by lodgment as part of an ancient, wet-based, outlet glacier system when the Transantarctic Mountains were at least 1500 m lower than today. Till deposition took place before 20 Ma on the basis of estimated past uplift rates. (Au)

B, F, A, D, H
Clay; Cretaceous period; Deformation; Drainage; Flow; Geological time; Glacial deposits; Glacial erosion; Glacial transport; Ice sheets; Palaeogeography; Palynology; Sand; Sea level; Sedimentation; Silt; Tertiary period; Thickness; Valleys

G15
Feather, Mount, Antarctic regions; Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctic regions


Canadian preparations for the International Polar Year 2007-2008   /   Hik, D.S.   Edwards, K.E.
(2006 AGU Fall Meeting, 11-15 December 2006, San Francisco. Eos (Washington, D.C.), v. 87, no. 52, suppl., 2006, abstract ED14A-02)
Abstract of a poster presentation (ED14A-02).
Abstracts can be found online through the AGU Meeting Abstract Database: www.agu.org/meetings/abstract_db.shtml.
ASTIS record 77215.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The launch of the International Polar Year on March 1, 2007 will not only mark the beginning of data collection of innovative scientific programs but it will also unleash a series of innovative education and outreach opportunities to increase public awareness of the polar regions and their global impact. IPY education and outreach programs intend to enhance new methods of communication amongst international scientific partners and organizations; inspire the growth and engagement of the next generation of polar researchers; demystify scientific outcomes of IPY into relevant everyday impacts for the public; and express the wonder and significance of the polar regions through medium of art, exhibits, and writing. Canadian researchers, artists, educators and youth are providing significant leadership in the development of such IPY programming and are involved in almost half of the IPO endorsed EOC proposals. Recognizing that Canada has a critical role to play in IPY as host, leader and participant, preparations in Canada have been extensive. A network of national, territorial, and regional organizing bodies has been established to coordinate the development of the national IPY programs; to support the financial and logistical planning; as well as to facilitate the advancement of international partnerships. The success of the Canadian IPY program, measured as either capacity building, strength of partnerships, or efficiency of logistics and operations, will depend upon having committed partners who are specifically part of the Canadian IPY effort. As the Canadian IPY education and outreach program evolves it is being built firmly on partnerships with existing scientific and education organizations in Canada such as youth organizations, national media corporations, and polar science based programs. By building on existing national strengths we are able to capture the existing energy and activity from IPY 2007-2008 to create a longer term sustainable polar education program rooted in the legacy of IPY 2007-2008. (Au)

X, E, L, R
Artists; Canadian IPY Secretariat; Capacity building; Communication; Education; International Polar Year 2007-08; Logistics; Nordicity; Occupational training; Planning; Public education campaigns; Research; Research funding; Research organizations; Research personnel; Science; Social sciences; Youth

G08, G01
Canada; Polar regions


High-latitude paleolimnology   /   Hodgson, D.A.   Smol, J.P.
In: Polar lakes and rivers : limnology of Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems / Edited by W.F. Vincent and J. Laybourn-Parry. - Oxford, U.K. : Oxford University Press, 2008, ch. 3, p. 43-64, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 66528.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This chapter provides an overview of high-latitude paleolimnology. First, we describe the role that paleolimnological studies have played in reconstructing the geomorphological origin and development of high-latitude lakes and the establishment and succession of their biota. Second, we describe how both organic and inorganic components incorporated into lake sediments record changes both within lakes and in the surrounding environment. We illustrate this using examples of studies that have tracked past changes in climate, hydrology, vegetation, sea level, human impacts on fish and wildlife populations, ultraviolet radiation, and atmospheric and terrestrial pollutants. Third, we describe some synthesis studies that have combined paleolimnological data from multiple lakes across the Arctic and Antarctic to identify the magnitude and direction of environmental changes at regional to continental scales. Finally, we discuss some future prospects in high-latitude paleolimnology. The geographic scope of the chapter includes the Arctic north of the tree line (tundra or polar desert catchments), the Antarctic Peninsula region, with occasional reference to the warmer sub-Arctic and sub-Antarctic regions. (Au)

F, B, A, G, J, I, H, E
Algae; Animal distribution; Atmospheric temperature; Benthos; Bioclimatology; Biological productivity; Bottom sediments; Carbon; Chlorophyll; Climate change; Cores; Deglaciation; Diatoms; Environmental impacts; Fishes; Foraminifera; Formation; Fresh-water biology; Geomorphology; Glacial epoch; Glacier lakes; Lake ice; Lakes; Palaeontology; Palynology; Plankton; Plants (Biology); Pollution; Quaternary period; Radiocarbon dating; Refugia; Sea level; Sedimentation; Snow; Temporal variations; Tundra ponds; Ultraviolet radiation; Water level

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Populations of Antarctic hairgrass (Deschampsia antarctica) show low genetic diversity   /   Holderegger, R.   Stehlik, I.   Lewis-Smith, R.I.   Abbott, R.J.
(Arctic, antarctic, and alpine research, v. 35, no. 2, May 2003, p. 214-217, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 53651.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1657/1523-0430(2003)035[0214:POAHDA]2.0.CO;2
Libraries: ACU

Populations of the only two flowering plants native to the Antarctic have recently increased in number and size possibly due to climate warming. We have undertaken a preliminary study of the population genetics of one of these species by surveying variation in amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) within the Antarctic Hairgrass, Deschampsia antarctica. Populations of D. antarctica from two widely separated regions of the maritime Antarctic, namely Signy Island in the north and Léonie Islands 1350 km farther south, were characterized by low genetic diversity (only 15.95% of total genetic variation found within populations). Populations from the northern and southern maritime Antarctic were genetically distinct from each other (FCT = 37.10%), and low levels of historical gene flow occurred among them (Nm = 0.05). This genetic structure suggests that new populations of D. antarctica are founded by one or few individuals, which mainly reproduce by self-fertilization and/or vegetative propagation. Vegetative reproduction and selfing are, therefore, likely to have been key factors in the establishment of D. antarctica at new sites in the Antarctic during recent years. (Au)

H, E
Atmospheric temperature; Bioclimatology; Biological sampling; Climate change; Effects of climate on plants; Genetics; Hairgrasses; Logistics; Plant distribution; Plant growth; Plant reproduction; Seeds; Ultraviolet radiation

G15
Anchorage Island, Antarctic regions; Lagoon Island, Antarctic regions; Léonie Island, Antarctic regions; Signy Island, Antarctic regions


Iceberg calving from floating glaciers by a vibrating mechanism   /   Holdsworth, G.   Glynn, J.E.
(Nature, v.274, no.5670, 3 Aug. 1978, p. 464-466, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 16190.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1038/274464a0
Libraries: ACU NFSMO

Observations of Antarctic super tabular icebergs, which can exceed 100 km on a side, have shown that their origin can frequently be traced to previously existing super ice tongues, which are a class of massive seawards-extending ice shelves. ... Because the calvings do not generally occur along a line coincident with the grounding line, where, under normal tidal flexure the stresses are greatest, and because multiple fracturing is observed we have sought a nontidal theory for ice-tongue fracture. A mechanism for generating significant bending stresses at locations along an ice tongue far from the grounding zone is by vibration of the glacier in a mode higher than the fundamental. In this report, we outline an approximate analysis of the modes of free vibration of a buoyant, elastic, tapering ice tongue floating in shallow water of variable depth. ... (Au)

F, G, D
Calving (Ice); Elastic plates; Ice shelves; Icebergs; Ocean waves; Vibration

G15, G01
Antarctic regions; Polar regions


A mechanism for the formation of large icebergs   /   Holdsworth, G.   Glynn, J.E.
(Journal of geophysical research, v. 86, no. C 4, Apr. 20, 1981, p.3210-3222, ill.)
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 6742.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/JC086iC04p03210
Libraries: ACU NFSMO

The calving of floating glaciers to form icebergs is a major form of ice loss from the Antarctic ice sheet. Disintegration of massive, unconfined, seaward extending ice shelves or glacier tongues gives rise to the largest type of iceberg, some of which have horizontal dimensions exceeding 100 km. Several ice tongues are known to exhibit a quasi-cyclic pattern of calving and subsequent regrowth. A mechanism that would seem to explain this type of calving behavior is based on the vibrational characteristics of the system of a buoyant ice plate floating in shallow water. ... For relatively high modes of oscillation, low level, but sustained cyclic bending stresses may lead to crack propagation and subsequent fatigue failure in the ice. The contribution of other mechanisms which induce tensile stresses in the ice are considered to be very important in an overall view of the calving problem, and some of these mechanisms are discussed in relation to the vibration mechanism. It is possible to view the proposed vibration mechanisms as a trigger which raises the resultant stresses in the ice to the point where fracture will occur. (Au)

G
Calving (Ice); Glacier variations; Glaciers; Icebergs; Mathematical models; Stress; Vibration

G15
Antarctic regions


Poles apart : the "bipolar" pteropod species, Limacina helicina, is genetically distinct between the Arctic and Antarctic oceans   /   Hunt, B.   Strugnell, J.   Bednarsek, N.   Linse, K.   Nelson, R.J.   Pakhomov, E.   Seibel, B.   Steinke, D.   Würzberg, L.
(PloS one, v. 5, no. 3, e9835, Mar. 2010, 4 p., ill.)
References.
CAML (Census of Antarctic Marine Life) publication number 27.
ASTIS record 75065.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0009835
Web: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009835
Libraries: ACU

The shelled pteropod (sea butterfly) Limacina helicina is currently recognised as a species complex comprising two sub-species and at least five "forma". However, at the species level it is considered to be bipolar, occurring in both the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. Due to its aragonite shell and polar distribution L. helicina is particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. As a key indicator of the acidification process, and a major component of polar ecosystems, L. helicina has become a focus for acidification research. New observations that taxonomic groups may respond quite differently to acidification prompted us to reassess the taxonomic status of this important species. We found a 33.56% (±0.09) difference in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences between L. helicina collected from the Arctic and Antarctic oceans. This degree of separation is sufficient for ordinal level taxonomic separation in other organisms and provides strong evidence for the Arctic and Antarctic populations of L. helicina differing at least at the species level. Recent research has highlighted substantial physiological differences between the poles for another supposedly bipolar pteropod species, Clione limacina. Given the large genetic divergence between Arctic and Antarctic L. helicina populations shown here, similarly large physiological differences may exist between the poles for the L. helicina species group. Therefore, in addition to indicating that L. helicina is in fact not bipolar, our study demonstrates the need for acidification research to take into account the possibility that the L. helicina species group may not respond in the same way to ocean acidification in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems. (Au)

D, I, H, J
Animal physiology; Animal population; Animal taxonomy; Aragonite; Biological sampling; Calcium carbonate; Carbon cycling; Chemical oceanography; Food chain; Gastropoda; Genetics; Grazing; Marine ecology; Phytoplankton; Water pH

G07, G15
Amundsen Sea, Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters; Canadian Beaufort Sea


Glacial isostatic stress shadowing by the Antarctic ice sheet   /   Ivins, E.R.   James, T.S.   Klemann, V.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.108, no. B12, 10 Dec. 2003, p.ETG 4-1 - 4-21, ill., maps)
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 55798.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/2002JB002182
Libraries: ACU

Numerous examples of fault slip that offset late Quaternary glacial deposits and bedrock polish support the idea that the glacial loading cycle causes earthquakes in the upper crust. A semianalytical scheme is presented for quantifying glacial and postglacial lithospheric fault reactivation using contemporary rock fracture prediction methods. It extends previous studies by considering differential Mogi-von Mises stresses, in addition to those resulting from a Coulomb analysis. The approach utilizes gravitational viscoelastodynamic theory and explores the relationships between ice mass history and regional seismicity and faulting in a segment of East Antarctica containing the great Antarctic Plate (Balleny Island) earthquake of 25 March 1998 (Mw 8.1). Predictions of the failure stress fields within the seismogenic crust are generated for differing assumptions about background stress orientation, mantle viscosity, lithospheric thickness, and possible late Holocene deglaciation for the D91 Antarctic ice sheet history. Similar stress fracture fields are predicted by Mogi-von Mises and Coulomb theory, thus validating previous rebound Coulomb analysis. A thick lithosphere, of the order of 150-240 km, augments stress shadowing by a late melting (middle-late Holocene) coastal East Antarctic ice complex and could cause present-day earthquakes many hundreds of kilometers seaward of the former Last Glacial Maximum grounding line. (Au)

B, F, A
Deformation; Deglaciation; Earthquakes; Elasticity; Faults (Geology); Forecasting; Fracturing; Glacial deposits; Glacial epoch; Glaciation; Ice loads; Ice sheets; Mathematical models; Physical properties; Quaternary period; Rocks; Seismology; Stress; Structural geology; Thickness; Viscosity

G15
Antarctic regions; Balleny Islands, Antarctic regions; Dumont d'Urville Station, Antarctic regions; George V Coast, Antarctic regions; McMurdo Sound region, Antarctic regions; McMurdo Station, Antarctic regions; Oates Coast, Antarctic regions; Victoria Land, Antarctic regions; Wilkes Land, Antarctic regions


Predictions of Antarctic crustal motions driven by present-day ice sheet evolution and by isostatic memory of the last glacial maximum   /   James, T.S.   Ivins, E.R.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.103, no. B 3, Mar. 10, 1998, p.4993-5017, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 47539.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/97JB03539
Libraries: ACU

Detectable crustal motion and secular rate of change of solid-surface gravity may be produced by the Earth's response to present-day and past ice mass changes in Antarctica. Scenarios of present-day ice mass balance, previously utilized to explore the global geodetic signatures of the Antarctic ice sheet, produce elastic crustal responses that are typically bounded by uplift rates <= 5 mm/yr, horizontal motion <= 1 mm/yr, and solid-surface gravity change rates <= 1 µGal/yr. In a restricted locality, one scenario produces uplift rates slightly in excess of 10 mm/yr and correspondingly enhanced horizontal and gravity rates. In contrast, the viscoelastic response to ice mass changes occurring since Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exceeds 5 mm/yr (uplift) over substantial portions of West Antarctica for a wide range of plausible choices of timing and magnitude of deglaciation and mantle viscosity. Similarly, viscoelastic gravity rate predictions exceed 1 µGal/yr (decrease) over large regions, confirming suggestions that a Global Positioning System (GPS) and absolute gravity-based program of crustal monitoring in Antarctica could potentially detect postglacial rebound. A published revision to the CLIMAP model of the Antarctic ice sheet at LGM, herein called the D91 model, features a substantially altered West Antarctic ice sheet reconstruction. This revision predicts a spatial pattern of present-day crustal motion and surface gravity change that diverges strikingly from CLIMAP-based models. Peak D91 crustal rates, assuming deglaciation begins at 12 kyr and ends at 5 kyr, are around 16 mm/yr (uplift), 2 mm/yr (horizontal), and -2.5 µGal/yr (gravity). Tabulated crustal response predictions for selected Antarctic bedrock sites indicate critical localities in the interior of West Antarctica where expected responses are large and D91 predictions differ from CLIMAP-based models by a factor of 2 or more. Observations of the postglacial rebound signal in Antarctica might help constrain Antarctic mass balance and contribution to sea level rise over the past 20,000 years. (Au)

B, F, D, A
Cores; Deglaciation; Geology; Glaciation; Gravity measurement; Ice sheets; Mass balance; Moraines; Sea level

G15
Antarctic regions


ODP drilling leads to a new model of shelf and slope sedimentation along the Antarctic continental margin   /   Januszczak, N.   Eyles, N.
(Geoscience Canada, v. 28, no. 4, Dec. 2001, p. 203-210, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 50492.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Three recent Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) cruises - Leg 178, Antarctic Peninsula; Legs 119 and 188, Prydz Bay - have drilled various parts of the Antarctic continental margin in an effort to constrain the history of the Antarctic ice sheet. Integration of geophysical, biofacies, and sedimentological data from these ODP legs suggests that a very similar style of continental margin growth has occurred along the Antarctic continental margin. Data from the Antarctic continental margin suggest that the shelf aggrades ("upbuilds") during periods of ice front retreat, whereas the slope progrades ("outbuilds") during episodes of ice advance to the shelf break. Because other glaciated continental margins have glacial marine successions similar to that of the Antarctic continental margin, it may be that a common or "unified" model of glaciated margin deposition exists, regardless of latitude and geological age. (Au)

B, F, A, E
Bottom sediments; Cenozoic era; Climate change; Continental shelves; Deglaciation; Drilling; Glacial deposits; Glacial epoch; Glaciation; Ice sheets; Offshore seismic surveys; Sedimentary rocks; Sedimentation; Slopes

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic waters; East Antarctica; Prydz Bay, Antarctic regions


Evolution of the Antarctic glaciated continential margin   /   Januszczak, N.N.   Eyles, N. [Supervisor]
Toronto : University of Toronto, 2000.
ix, 141 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MQ50401)
ISBN 0-612-50401-8
Appendix.
References.
Thesis (M.Sc.) - University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., 2000.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 55042.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape4/PQDD_0025/MQ50401.pdf
Libraries: OONL

This thesis presents a) a critical review of existing glacial marine depositional models for the Antarctic continental margin and b) an analysis of data from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 178 (Feb.-April 1998) which drilled the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin. Present-day 'interglacial' conditions of extensive ice shelves, servere cold, minimal meltwater production and sediment starvation on the margin are unique to Antarctica. Early work suggests such 'polar' conditions are representative of ancient Pleistocene and pre-Pleistocene environments in Antarctica. Litho- and biofacies data from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 178 provides important details regarding depositional processes responsible for glaciated continental shelf topsets and slope foresets in Antarctica. Topset deposits are constructed of deformation till reflecting large-scale subglacial reworking of pre-existing glacial and marine sediment across the shelf during ice sheet expansion and decay. Foreset deposits are composed of shelf deposits reworked downslope as debris flows and turbidity currents. Similar successions have been identified from other Pleistocene and pre-Pleistocene glacially-influenced continental margins. This work indicates that modern 'polar' conditions of Antarctica are not representative of ancient conditions. (Au)

F, B, D, A, J, I, H
Benthos; Bottom sediments; Cenozoic era; Composition; Continental shelves; Cores; Deformation; Diatoms; Drilling; Flow; Foraminifera; Glacial deposits; Glacial erosion; Glacial melt waters; Glaciation; Ice sheets; Ice shelves; Marine ecology; Measurement; Minerals; Mudstone; Palaeoecology; Palaeontology; Petrology; Radiolaria; Sedimentary rocks; Sedimentary structures; Sedimentation; Seismic surveys; Size; Slopes; Sonar; Spatial distribution; Stratigraphy; Tertiary period; Theses; X-rays

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Prydz Bay, Antarctic regions; Ross Sea, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Snow-ice accretion and snow-cover depletion on Antarctic first-year sea-ice floes   /   Jeffries, M.O.   Krouse, H.R.   Hurst-Cushing, B.   Maksym, T.
(Papers from the International Symposium on Sea Ice and its Interactions with the Ocean, Atmosphere and Biosphere, held in Fairbanks, Alaska, U.S.A., 18-23 June 2000 / Edited by M.O. Jeffries and H. Eicken. Annals of glaciology, v. 33, 2001, p. 51-60, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 50424.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756401781818266
Libraries: ACU

Between austral late winter 1993 and austral autumn 1998, during five cruises aboard the research vessel Nathaniel B. Palmer, almost 300 m of core was obtained from first-year ice floes in the Ross, Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. Analysis of the texture, stratigraphy and stable-isotopic composition of the ice was used to assess the magnitude of the role of flooding and snow-ice formation at the base of the snowpack in the thickening of the ice cover and the thinning of the snow cover. Snow ice occurred in all ice-thickness categories and made a significant contribution to the total ice mass (12-36%) in both autumn and winter. Although the amount of snow ice was often exceeded by the amount of frazil ice and congelation ice, the thickness of individual layers of each ice type indicated that snow ice often made a greater contribution to the thermodynamic thickening of the ice cover than the other ice types. The larger quantities of frazil ice and congelation ice were primarily the result of dynamic thickening. Flooding and snow-ice formation reduced the snow cover to 42-70% of the total snow accumulation depending on time and location. On the basis of this information, ship-based snow-depth estimates were adjusted to estimate the total snow accumulation on different ice-thickness categories. (Au)

G, F, D
Cores; Floods; Formation; Frazil ice; Ice cover; Ice floes; Mass balance; Mathematical models; Oxygen-18; Sea ice; Sea water; Snow; Thermodynamics; Thickness

G15
Amundsen Sea, Antarctic regions; Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctic regions; Ross Sea, Antarctic regions


Canadian perspectives on the International Polar Year = Perspectives canadiennes sur l'Année polaire internationale   /   Johnson, P.
In: Polar connections : planning Canadian Antarctic research : report of an international workshop held at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, September 25-27, 2003 = Connexions polaires : planifiction de la recherche antarctique canadienne : compte rendu d'un colloque international tenu à l'Université de l'Alberta, Edmonton 25-27 septembre 2003 / Edited by O.H. Loken, N.J. Couture, and W.H. Pollard. [Edmonton, Alta. : University of Alberta], 2004, p. 32-33
Indexed a PDf file from the Web.
Abstract only.
Text in English and French in parallel columns.
ASTIS record 77217.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Antarctic%20Publications/Polar%20Connections.pdf

The Canadian Polar Commission (CPC) is coordinating many of the activities related to Canadian participation in IPY. To date, it has opened a web discussion site on IPY and published an information pamphlet to stimulate interest and discussion on the possible role of Canada in the IPY. The Commission has also convened three meetings of the Canadian IPY Interest Group which includes members from academia, scientific organizations, the federal and territorial governments, NGO's, and indigenous organizations. The group informs participants of IPY developments, both nationally and internationally, and is seeking funding to support the development and coordination of a Canadian IPY program. The CPC has established a general IPY site and a discussion group site on the Canadian Polar Information Network (CPIN) web site at www.polarcom. gc.ca. Canada also has a representative to the International Council of Science (ICSU) IPY Planning Group. The CPC has asked the members of Assistant Deputy Ministers' Committee on Northern Science and Technology to consider how their respective departments might financially support and participate in the IPY 2007-08 planning process. The commission has lobbied international bodies (ICSU and the International Arctic Science Committee, IASC) to consider having a social science component to IPY activities, and is working at disseminating information about IPY to northern communities in Canada. A number of Canadian organizations are either reviewing possibilities for science contributions or are already planning IPY-related activities. These include the Canadian National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research, Canadian participants in the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project, the Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society, and the Canadian Space Agency. Canada's next steps in developing its IPY program include securing funding for IPY activities, establishing a Canadian IPY Steering Committee and developing the Canadian IPY program to complement the international effort. Nevertheless, a number of questions must be answered in order to move ahead with IPY planning: Where do we want to conduct the research? Should the emphasis be on field programs, remote sensing, or a combination of the two? What science questions do we want to address and what methodologies should be used? What are the logistic requirements in terms of ships or aircraft? Can we extend our resources through international partnerships? Over the coming months, the Canadian Polar Commission, along with input from all groups involved in polar research, will be working to answer these questions. (Au)

L, R, D, G, E
Canadian Polar Commission; Climatology; Communication; International Polar Year 2007-08; Logistics; Meteorology; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Oceanography; Planning; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Research; Research funding; Research organizations; Research personnel; Science; Scientists; Sea ice; Social sciences; World Wide Web

G08, G01
Canada; Polar regions


Polar tourism regulation strategies : controlling visitors through codes of conduct and legislation   /   Johnston, M.E.
(Polar record, v. 33, no.184, Jan. 1997, p. 13-20)
References.
ASTIS record 45654.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247400014121
Libraries: ACU

Controlling visitor impacts in polar regions continues to be important in both the Antarctic and Arctic. Concerns relate to impacts on the physical environment, cultural heritage, and host communities or scientific bases, as well as a recognition that safety and liability are major issues for government, commercial operations, and local populations. Strategies for controlling tourists include visitor and operator codes and formal legislation. This paper summarises several approaches to visitor regulation in polar regions in order to illustrate the ways in which concerns about tourist impacts are being addressed. Similar issues arise throughout the polar regions. Although in some places a particular emphasis might indicate a specific area of concern for a community, region, nation, or segment of the tourism industry. While a comprehensive strategy might be appropriate in many respects in the Arctic, it is also important to acknowledge the significance of more specific concerns. This paper first describes regulation of tourist behaviour and considers general issues of strategy effectiveness. Then it examines the approaches to visitor regulation used in the Antarctic and on Svalbard as examples that may be of use in the future development of strategies in the Arctic. The paper then discusses an evolving strategy for control in the Northwest Territories, Canada. This strategy differs from these other approaches in that it targets a specific segment of the visitor population: those undertaking adventure expeditions. (Au)

R
Environmental impacts; Environmental policy; Expeditions; Government regulations; Human ecology; Management; Psychology; Socio-economic effects; Tourist trade

G01
Antarctic regions; N.W.T.; Polar regions; Svalbard


Evaluating the effectiveness of visitor-regulation strategies for polar tourism   /   Johnston, M.E.
(Polar record, v. 34, no.188, Jan. 1998, p. 25-30, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47613.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247400014947
Libraries: ACU

The regulation of tourism in polar areas is increasingly of concern to scientists, policy makers, tourists, and tourist operators who wish to control negative impacts and promote positive ones. Given the growing emphasis on finding and using appropriate ways to control visitors to the polar regions, it is important to examine issues related to the effectiveness of individual measures of regulation and the broader strategies that are in effect in these places. This paper examines the effectiveness of visitor-regulation strategies by outlining a two-step approach to evaluation. The initial step should involve determining the nature and attributes of the measures that make up the strategy. Commonalities, differences, constraints, and complementarity in these measures must be assessed. Particular attributes outlined in the paper, such as scale of jurisdiction and degree of restrictiveness, can be examined to assess the compatibility and consistency of the measures, which have implications for overall strategy effectiveness. While it may be appropriate to evaluate individual measures further using a goal-achievement approach, the paper recommends evaluating strategies through a conceptual approach based on criteria related to the characteristics of an effective strategy. Four are described in the paper: comprehensiveness, enforceability, outcomes, and appropriateness. (Au)

R, N, S
Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Environmentally significant areas; Government regulations; Natural area preservation; Parks; Psychology; Tourist trade; Wilderness areas

G01, G081, G13
Canadian Arctic; Polar regions; Svalbard


Oceanic CO2 produced by the precipitation of CaCO3 from the brines in sea ice   /   Jones, E.P.   Coote, A.R.
(Journal of geophysical research, v. 86, no. C11, Nov. 20, 1981, p.11,041-11,043)
References.
ASTIS record 9192.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/JC086iC11p11041
Libraries: ACU

Carbon dioxide is produced in brines formed during the growth of sea ice as a result of preferential precipitation of calcium carbonate. This process can explain the observed CO2 supersaturation in some arctic waters and could produce a CO2 flux into the ocean in ice-covered waters of 1.5 mol/m²/y or a total of 60,000,000,000,000 mol/y for both the arctic and antarctic regions. (Au)

G, D
Bottom sediments; Calcium carbonate; Carbon; Chemical properties; Composition; Formation; Sea ice; Water

G01
Polar regions


Structure of sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica   /   Jones, S.J.   Hill, B.T.
(Papers from the International Symposium on Sea Ice and its Interactions with the Ocean, Atmosphere and Biosphere, held in Fairbanks, Alaska, U.S.A., 18-23 June 2000 / Edited by M.O. Jeffries and H. Eicken. Annals of glaciology, v. 33, 2001, p. 5-12, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 50422.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756401781818347
Libraries: ACU

Sea-ice cores from 11 sites in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, were collected in 1982 and their crystallography examined. All but one were first-year sea ice. The cores, approximately 2 m long, consisted typically of a thin layer of granular or snow ice (approximately 0.1 m) followed by columnar-grained ice in the top metre and platelet ice in the bottom metre. Salinity and temperature measurements are reported. The columnar-grained ice usually had a strong preferred c-axis orientation in the horizontal plane and also showed a change in this preferred direction with depth in the ice. The mean c-axis orientation, however, usually aligned well with measured or implied currents in the Sound. The platelets were usually aligned with c axis horizontal or close to horizontal, and did not exhibit as marked a preferred orientation as the columnar-grained ice. (Au)

G, D
Cores; Coring; Crystals; Fracturing; Ocean currents; Salinity; Sea ice; Temperature

G15
McMurdo Sound, Antarctic regions


Tributaries of West Antarctic ice streams revealed by RADARSAT interferometry   /   Joughin, I.   Gray, L.   Bindschadler, R.   Price, S.   Morse, D.   Hulbe, C.   Mattar, K.   Werner, C.
(Science, v.286, no.5438, 8 Oct. 1999, p. 283-286, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47614.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.286.5438.283
Libraries: ACU

Interferometric RADARSAT data are used to map ice motion in the source areas of four West Antarctic ice streams. The data reveal that tributaries, coincident with subglacial valleys, provide a spatially extensive transition between slow inland flow and rapid ice stream flow and that adjacent ice streams draw from shared source regions. Two tributaries flow into the stagnant ice stream C, creating an extensive region that is thickening at an average rate of 0.49 meters per year. This is one of the largest rates of thickening ever reported in Antarctica. (Au)

F, A
Accumulation; Flow; Glacial melt waters; Ice sheets; Radar; Satellite photography; Thickness; Valleys; Velocity

G15
Antarctic regions; Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions


Global distribution of cyanobacterial ecotypes in the cold biosphere   /   Jungblut, A.D.   Lovejoy, C.   Vincent, W.F.
(The ISME journal, v. 4, no. 2, Feb. 2010, p. 191-202, ill.)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 041-09)
References.
Supplementary information (2 figures and 4 tables) accompanies the paper on The ISME Journal website (http://www.nature.com/ismej).
ASTIS record 71780.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/259.pdf
Web: doi:10.1038/ismej.2009.113
Libraries: ACU

Perennially cold habitats are diminishing as a result of climate change; however, little is known of the diversity or biogeography of microbes that thrive in such environments. Here we use targeted 16S rRNA gene surveys to evaluate the global affinities of cold-dwelling cyanobacteria from lake, stream and ice communities living at the northern limit of High Arctic Canada. Pigment signature analysis by HPLC confirmed the dominance of cyanobacteria in the phototrophic communities of these High Arctic microbial mats, with associated populations of chlorophytes and chromophytes. Microscopic analysis of the cyanobacteria revealed a diverse assemblage of morphospecies grouping into orders Oscillatoriales, Nostocales and Chroococcales. The 16S rRNA gene sequences from six clone libraries grouped into a total of 24 ribotypes, with a diversity in each mat ranging from five ribotypes in ice-based communities to 14 in land-based pond communities. However, no significant differences in composition were observed between these two microbial mat systems. Based on clone-library and phylogenetic analysis, several of the High Arctic ribotypes were found to be >99% similar to Antarctic and alpine sequences, including to taxa previously considered endemic to Antarctica. Among the latter, one High Arctic sequence was found 99.8% similar to Leptolyngbya antarctica sequenced from the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. More than 68% of all identified ribotypes at each site matched only cyanobacterial sequences from perennially cold terrestrial ecosystems, and were <97.5% similar to sequences from warmer environments. These results imply the global distribution of low-temperature cyanobacterial ecotypes throughout the cold terrestrial biosphere. (Au)

H, E, J, G, F
Alpine tundra ecology; Biomass; Bottom sediments; Chlorophyll; Chromatography; Classification; Climate change; Cold adaptation; Cyanophyceae; Electrical properties; Fluorometry; Genetics; Ice shelves; Instruments; Lakes; Mass spectrometry; Microbial ecology; Nitrogen; Photosynthesis; Physical properties; Plant distribution; Plant nutrition; Puddles; Rivers; Spectroscopy; Tundra ponds; Ultraviolet radiation; Water pH

G01, G0815, G0813, G15
Bonney, Lake, Antarctic regions; China; Fryxell, Lake, Antarctic regions; Larsemann Hills, Antarctic regions; Markham Fiord, Nunavut; Polar regions; Quttinirpaaq National Park, Nunavut; Ward Hunt Island, Nunavut


Physical properties of the seasonal snow cover in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica   /   Kärkäs, E.   Granberg, H.B.   Kanto, K.   Rasmus, K.   Lavoie, C.   Leppäranta, M.
(Papers from the International Symposium on Remote Sensing in Glaciology, held in Maryland, U.S.A., 4-8 June 2001 / Edited by J.-G. Winter and R. Solberg. Annals of glaciology, v. 34, 2002, p. 89-94, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 51954.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756402781817554
Libraries: ACU

Snow stratigraphy was analyzed in the Maudheimvidda area of western Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, during austral summer 1999/2000 as a part of the Finnish Antarctic Research Programme (FINNARP). Measurements were made in shallow (1-2 m) snow pits along a 350 km transect from the coast to the polar plateau, covering at least one annual cycle and an elevation range from sea level to about 2500 m. The aim of the study is to document spatial and temporal variations in snow-cover properties, with the further aim of relating these variations to environmental factors and to patterns observable by remote sensing. The measurements suggest five principal snow zones: (i) sea ice, (ii) the seaward edge zone of the ice shelf, (iii) the inner parts of the ice shelf, (iv) the snow cover above the grounding line and (v) the local topographic highs. Local topographic highs such as ice domes and ice rises differ from other snow environments: the snow is less densely packed, possibly an indication of locally reduced speed of the katabatic outflow. Fewer and thinner crusts on the topographic highs are consistent with RADARSAT backscatter variations. (Au)

F, A, G
Accumulation; Albedo; Density; Effects of climate on snow; Electrical properties; Electromagnetic radiation; Fast ice; Mass spectrometry; Measurement; Optical properties; Oxygen-18; Physical properties; Remote sensing; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Snow; Snow stratigraphy; Snow surveys; Solar radiation; Spatial distribution; Surface properties; Temporal variations

G15
Queen Maud Land, Antarctic regions


Microoganisms in the accreted ice of Lake Vostok, Antarctica   /   Karl, D.M.   Bird, D.F.   Björkman, K.   Houlihan, T.   Shackelford, R.   Tupas, L.
(Science, v.286, no.5447, 10 Dec. 1999, p.2144-2147, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47622.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.286.5447.2144
Libraries: ACU

Analysis of a portion of Vostok ice core number 5G, which is thought to contain frozen water derived from Lake Vostok, Antarctica (a body of liquid water located beneath about 4 kilometers of glacial ice), revealed between 2 × 10² and 3 × 10² bacterial cells per milliliter and low concentrations of potential growth nutrients. Lipopolysaccharide (a Gram-negative bacterial cell biomarker) was also detected at concentrations consistent with the cell enumeration data, which suggests a predominance of Gram-negative bacteria. At least a portion of the microbial assemblage was viable, as determined by the respiration of carbon-14-labeled acetate and glucose substrates during incubations at 3°C and 1 atmosphere. These accreted ice data suggest that Lake Vostok may contain viable microorganisms. (Au)

H, G, J
Bacteria; Cores; Fresh-water ecology; Glacial melt waters; Glacier lakes; Ice sheets

G15
Vostok, Lake, Antarctic regions


Superimposed-ice formation in summer on Ross Sea pack-ice floes   /   Kawamura, T.   Jeffries, M.O.   Tison, J.-L.   Krouse, H.R.
(Papers from the Seventh International Symposium on Antarctic Glaciology held in Milan, Italy, 25-29 August 2003 / Edited by Jo Jacka. Annals of glaciology, v. 39, no. 1, June 2004, p. 563-568, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 58818.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756404781814168
Libraries: ACU

Austral summer sea-ice processes were investigated in January 1999 during a cruise of the R.V. Nathaniel B. Palmer in the central and eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica. The crystal texture, 18O/16O ratios, density and salinity of ice cores and of ice blocks 'perched' on slush at the ice surface were studied. The perched ice blocks had a distinctive polygonal granular (PG) crystal texture and very negative isotope signature that were also characteristic of layers at the top of first-year floes and of layers 'buried' below the surface in multi-year floes. The PG ice is superimposed ice that results from melting in the snow cover and refreezing at the slush surface and directly on top of ice floes. If PG ice is buried after the ice surface floods and the resultant slush freezes, then snow ice forms above the PG ice. The contribution of superimposed ice to floe surface mass balance and some implications with respect to weather and climate are discussed. (Au)

G, E, F
Crystals; Density; Formation; Ice; Ice floes; Isotopes; Mass balance; Melting; Oxygen-18; Pack ice; Physical properties; Salinity; Seasonal variations; Snow; Snow cover; Thermal properties

G15
Ross Sea, Antarctic regions


International fisheries management : a comparative analysis of legal approaches to management in the context of polar fisheries regimes   /   Kaye, S.B.   Vanderzwaag, D. [Supervisor]
Halifax, N.S. : Dalhousie University, 1999.
xvii, 608 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. NQ49269)
ISBN 0-612-49269-9
Thesis (J.S.D.) - Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S., 1999.
Appendix.
References.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 53942.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONL

This thesis examines the management of marine living resources in international law. The thesis considers the development of the two principal approaches to fisheries management. The first approach is based upon maximising the yield of particular stocks, and is reflected in the content of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It has evolved out of fisheries management theory developed since the 1950s, and focuses upon extracting the maximum harvest of a particular stock while still permitting that stock's biological regeneration. The second approach uses the precautionary principle, and may include management directed at the entire ecosystem. This approach has derived from international environmental law over the last twenty years, and based upon risk assessment, where if an action is proposed, the onus is placed on the proponent to demonstrate that the risk of damage falls within established parameters. The thesis explores the juridical bases of these approaches and charts their development. It then seeks to compare the approaches on a number of criteria through the media of two international conventions, operating in analogous polar environments. The first of these arrangements is the Bering Sea "Doughnut Hole" Convention, designed to preserve the pollock stock in the central area of the Bering Sea, and the second is the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), designed to manage all the elements of the marine ecosystem of the Southern Ocean. The thesis concludes by rationalising the comparative analysis, and noting the difficulties common to both approaches in the area of compliance. It then proposes a number of mechanisms by which the management of stocks could be improved. (Au)

N, I, R, T
Aboriginal rights; Animal migration; Antarctic treaties; Co-management; Fish management; Fisheries law; International law; James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, 1975; Marine mammals; Native peoples; Quotas; Risk assessment; Sustainable economic development; Theses; Treaties; Walleye pollock; Wildlife management

G15, G04, G08
Antarctic waters; Bering Sea; Canadian waters


Viruses in Antarctic lakes   /   Kepner, R.L.   Wharton, R.A.   Suttle, C.A.
(Limnology and oceanography, v. 43, no. 7, Nov. 1998, p.1754-1759, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47586.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.4319/lo.1998.43.7.1754
Libraries: ACU

Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacterial secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics. (Au)

H, F, J
Bacteria; Biochemistry; Fresh-water ecology; Lakes; Microbial ecology; Plant diseases; Primary production (Biology); Viruses

G15
Taylor Valley, Antarctic regions


Haul-out behaviour of ringed and bearded seals in relation to defence against surface predators   /   Kingsley, M.C.S.   Stirling, I.
(Canadian journal of zoology, v. 69, no. 7, July 1991, p.1857-1861, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 60251.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1139/z91-257
Libraries: ACU

The ringed seal, Phoca hispida, hauls out at the edge of self-maintained breathing holes or narrow cracks, either in fast ice or in the centre of large floes in pack ice, apparently because this reduces its vulnerability to capture by polar bears, Ursus maritimus. Antipredator behaviour of ringed seals at haul-out sites also includes lying facing both their breathing hole and downwind, and vigilance. The much larger bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus, hauls out on the edges of wide leads or large holes in the ice, or on the points of small ice floes, and also faces both the water and downwind. Ice-associated seals which are not threatened by surface predators do not show these behaviour patterns. (Au)

I, G, E, J
Aerial surveys; Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal food; Animal mortality; Fracturing; Ice floes; Ice leads; Measurement; Pack ice; Polar bears; Predation; Puddles; Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Seals (Animals); Spatial distribution; Wildlife habitat; Winds

G0815, G15, G07, G09
Amundsen Gulf, N.W.T.; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Labrador waters; McMurdo Sound, Antarctic regions; Prince Albert Sound, N.W.T.


Ice-core evidence for widespread Arctic glacier retreat in the last interglacial and the Early Holocene   /   Koerner, R.M.   Fisher, D.A.
(Papers from the International Symposium on Ice Cores and Climate, held in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, 19-23 August 2001 / Edited by E.W. Wolf et al.. Annals of glaciology, v. 35, 2002, p. 19-24, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 54879.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756402781817338
Libraries: ACU

An early study of the various components of the Greenland, Antarctic and Canadian Arctic ice-cap cores (Koerner, 1989) suggested that during the last interglacial period, the Greenland ice sheet suffered massive retreat and Canadian ice caps melted completely. Since then, modeling has helped support this interpretation (Cuffey and Marshall, 2000). Ice-core records of stable isotopes, melt layering and chemistry from the same Canadian ice cores, and others from the Russian Arctic islands, Svalbard and Greenland are presented as evidence for a more modest, but still substantial, retreat in the early Holocene. The sections representing the first half of the Holocene in many cores have less negative delta 18O values (delta values) and a higher percentage of melt layers than recently deposited ice, suggesting that temperatures were 1.3-3.5°C warmer than today. Given that glacier balances are slightly negative today, they must have been substantially more negative during the early-Holocene thermal maximum, leading to retreat of the circumpolar ice caps. Evidence is presented to suggest that, with the exception of Academii Nauk ice cap, the ice in the Russian Arctic islands and Svalbard must have almost disappeared. In the Canadian Arctic, the larger Canadian ice caps retreated but survived. The cooling trend that followed this thermal maximum promoted re-expansion and new growth of most of the ice caps in the Russian Arctic islands and Svalbard. (Au)

F, B, E, H
Atmospheric temperature; Chemical properties; Climate change; Cores; Deglaciation; Gases in ice; Glacial stratigraphy; Glaciation; Glacier variations; Glaciology; Ice caps; Ice sheets; Isotopes; Mass balance; Mathematical models; Melting; Oxygen-18; Palaeoclimatology; Palynology; Recent epoch; Surface properties

G0813, G10, G14, G15, G13
Agassiz Ice Cap, Nunavut; Antarctic regions; Barnes Ice Cap, Nunavut; Canadian Arctic; Greenland; Russian Arctic; Svalbard


Wearing down the spine : modern ice fluxes and sediment delivery from the outlet glaciers of the western Antarctic Peninsula   /   Koppes, M.   Kimball, B.   Hallet, B.   Nittrouer, C.   Anderson, J.   Wellner, J.S.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. LM12.2-5.6, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71617.
Languages: English

One significant change in the evolution of Antarctic climate and cryosphere is the pronounced late Cenozoic glacial erosion that led to the landward sloping profile of the continental shelf, affecting both ice sheet dynamics and the processes that drive ocean circulation around the continent. The fjords of the Antarctic Peninsula contain a rich history of climate change recorded both in proxy climate data and in sediment accumulation rates that reflect changes in glacial erosion and sediment transfer. Prior studies suggest large variations in the rate of sediment accumulation across the Peninsula, which has been attributed to climate-driven differences in glacier dynamics. Little is known, however, about the individual dynamics of the glaciers that feed these fjords, and any variability in their contribution to both freshwater production and sediment delivery, particularly as many of them have accelerated and retreated in recent decades. To better understand what controls rates of glacial erosion across climatic regimes, the flux of ice and sediment to the terminus of 16 tidewater glaciers in the northwestern Antarctic Peninsula were measured as part of an IPY cruise aboard the R/VIB N.B. Palmer. The study area spans 4° latitude and 8° of mean annual temperature, encompassing both sub-polar and polar regimes. Ice fluxes were derived using ice-penetrating radar, velocity stakes, multi-beam swath bathymetry, estimates of ice cliff heights, and surface velocities derived from SAR interferometry. Sediment fluxes were derived from 210Pb analysis of cores collected in the adjacent fjords. 210Pb chronologies indicate sediment accumulated steadily at rates ranging from 1 to 16 mm/y over the past century, independent of distance from the calving front, with a general trend of decreasing sedimentation from north to south and west to east. While several cores show evidence of variable sedimentation, the consistency of many of the 210Pb profiles implies that the glaciomarine processes that supply sediment to the fjords have not varied markedly over the past century, even while the ice dynamics have changed as the region experienced significant warming. This contrasts with glaciomarine systems in temperate regions such as Alaska, where changes in ice dynamics can cause significant temporal variability in sedimentation. Keywords: Antarctic Peninsula, ice flux, fjord accumulation. (Au)

F, B, E, J, A, D
Bathymetry; Bottom sediments; Cenozoic era; Climate change; Continental shelves; Cores; Effects of climate on ice; Fjords; Flow; Glacial erosion; Glacial melt waters; Glacier variations; Ice sheets; Measurement; Ocean currents; Palaeoclimatology; Radar; SAR; Sediment transport; Sedimentation; Slopes

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic waters


Observations of 50- and 12-MHz auroral coherent echoes at the Antarctic Syowa station   /   Koustov, A.V.   Igarashi, K.   André, D.   Ohtaka, K.   Sato, N.   Yamigishi, H.   Yukimatu, A.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.106, no. A 7, July 1, 2001, p.12,875-12,887, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 50652.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/2000JA000165
Libraries: ACU

Data on 50- and 12-MHz E region coherent echoes from approximately the same directions and in a broad range of azimuths are available for 1995-1997 radar observations at the Antarctic Syowa station. One event of such observations is considered to compare power and Doppler velocity of echoes at these significantly different frequencies. For the considered event, Doppler velocities of more than 600 m/s (as recorded at both radar frequencies) were observed. We show that even though the 50-MHz echoes exhibit strong flow angle variation of the power, the 12-MHz echoes do not. Apparent aspect angle power attenuation is found to be 10 and 2.5 dB/° at 50 and 12 MHz, respectively. Measured Doppler velocities along specific radar directions are found to be comparable in spite of the significant difference in radar frequencies, with the velocity ratio V50MHz/V12MHz being in between 1.6 and 0.9 for high velocities of more than 400 m/s. The velocity ratio varies with slant range and azimuth of observations. Ionospheric propagation effects for radio waves and plasma physical effects for irregularities are considered in an attempt to explain several observed features, for example, the echo power and velocity ratio variations with slant range. (Au)

E, B, L
Auroras; Electrical properties; Ionosphere; Magnetic properties; Mathematical models; Measurement; Radar; Radio waves; Satellite communications; SuperDARN; Velocity

G15
Antarctic regions


Seasonal variation of HF radar F region echo occurrence in the midnight sector   /   Koustov, A.V.   Sofko, G.J.   André, D.   Danskin, D.W.   Benkevitch, L.V.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.109, no. 6, A06305, June 2004, 10 p., ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 57392.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/2003JA010337
Libraries: ACU

Long-term data (1996-2001) for a number of Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radars in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are used to study the midnight F region echo occurrence. We confirm the previously reported increase of echo occurrence toward the solar cycle maximum for all radars considered and a clear winter maximum for some of them. The echo occurrence rate experiences clear equinoctial maxima for many radar locations, especially at higher latitudes and in Antarctica. We attribute the solar cycle echo increase in the midnight sector to the more frequent occurrence of enhanced electric fields and strong plasma density gradients. The equinoctial maxima are believed to be controlled entirely by the electric field increase due both to the Russell-McPherron effect and to differences in conjugate ionospheric conductances controlled by the tilt of the Earth's axis. For the low geographic latitude portion of the Saskatoon radar observations, the echo statistics differ from the other radars; there is a clear summer maximum in echo occurrence and no definite signature of equinoctial maxima. A summer maximum in low-latitude echo occurrence also is observed by the Hankasalmi radar during the solar cycle minima. The effect is attributed to improved propagation conditions for HF radio waves during summer periods for the latitudes where, for other seasons, there is a deficiency in the electron density. (Au)

E, B, L, A
Auroras; Density; Electrical properties; Flow; Geomagnetism; Instruments; Ionosphere; Magnetic properties; Magnetosphere; Mapping; Measurement; Radar; Satellites; Seasonal variations; Solar radiation; Solar wind; Spatial distribution; Temporal variations; Velocity

G01, G06, G0823, G13, G15
Halley, Antarctic regions; Hankasalmi, Finland; Kodiak, Alaska; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Syowa, Antarctic regions


Understanding Earth's polar challenges : International Polar Year 2007-2008   /   Krupnik, I. [Editor]   Allison, I. [Editor]   Bell, R. [Editor]   Cutler, P. [Editor]   Hik, D. [Editor]   López-Martinez, J. [Editor]   Rachold, V. [Editor]   Sarukhanian, E. [Editor]   Summerhayes, C. [Editor]
Rovaniemi, Finland : University of the Arctic ; Edmonton, Alta. : CCI Press : ICSU/WWO Joint Committee for International Polar Year 2007-2008, 2011.
xxiv, 695 p. : ill., maps ; 29 cm.
(Occasional publication series - Canadian Circumpolar Institute, no. 69)
(Publication series - University of the Arctic, no. 1)
ISBN 978-1-896445-55-7
Available in paper and as a PDF file from the Web.
References.
Appendices.
ASTIS record 74408.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arcticportal.org/pdftoflash/ipy_jcs2011/#/1/
Libraries: ACU

The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 co-sponsored by ICSU and WMO became the largest coordinated research program in the Earth's polar regions, following in the footsteps of its predecessor, the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958. An estimated 50,000 researchers, local observers, educators, students, and support personnel from more than 60 nations were involved in the 228 international IPY projects (170 in science, 1 in data management, and 57 in education and outreach) and related national efforts. IPY generated intensive research and observations in the Arctic and Antarctica over a two-year period, 1 March 2007-1 March 2009, with many activities continuing beyond that date. IPY 2007-2008 involved a large range of disciplines, from geophysics to ecology, human health, social sciences, and the humanities. All IPY projects included partners from several nations and/or from indigenous communities and polar residents' organizations. IPY 2007-2008 included education, outreach, and communication of science results to the public, and training the next generation of polar researchers among its primary missions. It broadened the ranks of its participants and the diversity of their products and activities to an extent never realized or even envisioned in the earlier IPYs. It reached out to many new constituencies, including polar residents, Arctic indigenous nations, and millions of people on the planet with no direct connection to the high latitudes. IPY 2007-2008 generated a much anticipated 'pulse' (momentum) in the form of substantial new funding for polar research and monitoring programs, new observational and analysis technologies, integrated system-level approaches, and a broadened circle of stakeholders. It introduced new research and organizational paradigms that will have a lasting legacy of their own. It showed the power of integrative vision, and consolidated a new transdisciplinary approach that now includes biology, human health, social sciences, and the humanities, in addition to meteorology, glaciology, oceanography, geophysics, geology, and other traditional polar research fields. It sent a powerful message about the societal value of advanced research into rapid environmental change across the polar regions. The IPY 2007-2008 science program was developed via four-year bottom-up planning (2003-2006) as an inter-disciplinary framework driven by six overarching themes: Status, Change, Global Linkages, New Frontiers, Vantage Points and Human Dimension. The ICSU-WMO Joint Committee for IPY produced this preliminary summary of the IPY activities in which the Committee, its direct predecessors, the IPY International Programme Office, and associated teams were directly involved. The volume of 38 chapters in five parts (Planning, Research, Observations, Outreach, and Legacies), covers the development of IPY 2007-2008 for almost a decade, from 2001 till summer 2010. It has engaged almost 300 contributing authors and reviewers from more than 30 nations. This broad overview of IPY 2007-2008 demonstrates the extensive and essential contribution made by participating nations and organizations, and provides a prospective blueprint for the next IPY. IPY 2007-2008 contributed to the theoretical and organizational strengthening of polar research, and advanced our understanding of polar processes and of their global linkages. Large-scale baseline data sets were established in many fields, against which future change can be assessed. Novel and enhanced observing systems were launched that will eventually produce long-term benefits to many stakeholders. Last but not least, IPY 2007-2008 trained a new generation of scientists who are determined to carry its legacy into the future. (Au)

X, C, D, A, B, F, G, H, I, J, K, T, R, L, V
Archives; Atmospheric chemistry; Climate change; Communication; Databases; Earth sciences; Ecology; Education; Effects monitoring; Effects of climate on ice; Environmental impacts; Glaciology; Health; History; Hydrology; Ice sheets; Icebreakers; International Polar Year 2007-08; Meteorology; Native peoples; Occupational training; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Oceanography; Permafrost; Planning; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Remote sensing; Research; Research personnel; Safety; Science; Sea ice; Social sciences; Socio-economic effects; Traditional knowledge; World Wide Web

G01
Polar regions


The air-sea equilibrium and time trend of hexachlorocyclohexanes in the Atlantic Ocean between the Arctic and Antarctica   /   Lakaschus, S.   Weber, K.   Wania, F.   Bruhn, R.   Schrems, O.
(Environmental science & technology, v. 36, no. 2, Jan 15, 2002, p. 138-145, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 50772.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1021/es010211j
Libraries: ACU

Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined simultaneously in air and seawater during two cruises across the Atlantic Ocean between the Arctic Ocean (Ny-Ålesund/ Svalbard, 79° N; 12° E) and the Antarctic Continent (Neumayer Station/ Ekstroem Ice Shelf, 70° S; 8.2° W) in 1999/2000. The concentrations of alpha-HCH and gamma-HCH in air and surface waters of the Arctic exceeded those in Antarctica by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The gaseous concentrations of gamma-HCH were highest above the North Sea and between 20° N and 30° S. Fugacity fractions were used to estimate the direction of the air-sea gas exchange. These showed for alpha-HCH that the measured concentrations in both phases were close to equilibrium in the North Atlantic (78° N - 40° N), slightly undersaturated between 30° N and 10° S and again close to equilibrium between 20° S and 50° S. Gamma-HCH has reached phase equilibrium in the North Atlantic as alpha-HCH, but the surface waters of the tropical and southern Atlantic were strongly undersaturated with gamma-HCH, especially between 30° N and 20° S. These findings are significantly different from two earlier estimates around 1990 as a result of global emission changes within the past decade. Therefore, we investigated the time trend of the HCHs in the surface waters of the Atlantic between 50° N and 60° S on the basis of archived samples taken in 1987-1997 and those from 1999. A decrease of alpha-HCH by a factor of approximately 4 is observed at all sampling locations. No decrease of gamma-HCH occurred between 30° N and 30° S, but there was a decrease in the North Atlantic, North Sea, and in the South Atlantic south of 40° S. The constant level of gamma-HCH in the tropical Atlantic confirms the conclusion that the tropical Atlantic acts as a sink for gamma-HCH at present time. The measured alpha-HCH seawater concentrations were compared with results from a global multimedia fate and transport model. Whereas the time trend over 13 years and the latitudinal gradient were well reproduced by the model, the absolute levels were too high by a factor of 4.5. This may be explained by the zonal averaging employed in the model as well as uncertain emissions and degradation rates. (Au)

J, D, E
Air pollution; Atmospheric chemistry; Chemical oceanography; Chromatography; HCH; Marine pollution; Mass spectrometry; Mathematical models; Ocean currents; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Sea water; Thermodynamics

G11, G01
North Atlantic Ocean; Polar regions; South Atlantic Ocean


Publishing and archiving IPY   /   Lane, H. [Lead Author]   Goodwin, R. [Lead Author]   Dheerendra, P.T. [Contributing Author]   Duerr, R. [Contributing Author]   Krupnik, I. [Contributing Author]   Tahirkheli, S. [Contributing Author]   Wallace, A. [Contributing Author]   Sarukhanian, E. [Reviewer]   Summerhayes, C. [Reviewer]
(Understanding earth's polar challenges : International Polar Year 2007-2008 / Edited by I. Krupnik, I. Allison, R. Bell, P. Cutler, D. Hik, J. López-Martinez, V. Rachold, E. Sarukhanian, and C. Summerhayes. Occasional publication series - Canadian Circumpolar Institute, no. 69, 2011, ch. 4.2, p. 497-510, ill.)
(Understanding earth's polar challenges : International Polar Year 2007-2008 / Edited by I. Krupnik, I. Allison, R. Bell, P. Cutler, D. Hik, J. López-Martinez, V. Rachold, E. Sarukhanian, and C. Summerhayes. Publication series - University of the Arctic, no. 1, 2011, ch. 4.2, p. 497-510, ill.)
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
References.
ASTIS record 73393.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.arcticportal.org/pdftoflash/ipy_jcs2011/#/522/
Libraries: ACU

... Building the IPY Publications Database - In December 2004 the Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS) at the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary, submitted an Expression of Intent (no. 462) to the IPY Joint Committee for a Canadian IPY Publications Database. Upon learning that the Joint Committee would endorse only multi-country projects, ASTIS began looking for partners for an international IPY publications database. By spring 2005, four organizations had agreed to work together to create a combined IPY Publications Database (IPYPD). Such a combined database would attempt to identify and describe all publications resulting from, or about, IPY 2007-2008 and the three previous IPY/IGYs. The Cold Regions Bibliography Project (CRBP) at the American Geological Institute in Alexandria, VA (U.S.A.) maintains the Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology and the Antarctic Bibliography. The Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) Library at the University of Cambridge in U.K. produces the SPRILIB databases and assists the CRBP with the Antarctic Bibliography. The Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS) at the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary, produces Canada's national northern database and other specialized databases. National Information Services Corporation (NISC) in Andhra Pradesh, India was, at that time, combining these databases and others to produce the Arctic and Antarctic Regions (AAR) database describing more than one million publications related to polar regions. These four organizations established an informal consortium and prepared a joint proposal to create the IPYPD as part of the IPY Data and Information Service (IPYDIS), which was led by the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at the University of Colorado. The IPY Joint Committee endorsed the proposal (IPY no. 51) in August 2005. During 2006 the members of the consortium began creating new records for IPY publications, as well as identifying existing IPY/IGY publication records in their databases. Beginning in September 2006, programmers at NISC's related company, NISC Export Services Pvt. Ltd. (NES), used ideas and feedback from the other members of the consortium to create the IPYPD database and website. In early 2007 the Discovery and Access of Historic Literature of the IPYs (DAHLI) project at the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center jointed the IPYPD consortium to provide coverage of publications it collected from the first three IPY/IGYs (IPY 1882-18883, IPY 1932-1933 and IGY 1957-1958). The IPYPD was made available online at www.nisc.com/ipy on 1 March 2007, the first day of IPY 2007-2008. NISC has since been purchased by EBSCO Publishing, which began producing AAR in-house in summer 2009. Because EBSCO does not have the ability to accept records from the many polar libraries and databases that were contributing records to AAR, no records from those sources, or from the IPYPD, have been added to AAR since that time. NES was not purchased by EBSCO, and continues to make the IPYPD available. ... [The remainder of this chapter discusses: aspects of the database design, current database contents, IPY bibliographic activities by individual IPYPD participants, archiving and access and electronic records and metadata.] (Au)

Y, L
Archives; ASTIS; Bibliographic databases; Cold Regions Bibliography Project; Communication; International Polar Year 2007-08; Numeric databases; Research; Research personnel; Scott Polar Research Institute; Specifications; World Wide Web

G01
Polar regions


Future directions in polar limnology   /   Laybourn-Parry, J.   Vincent, W.F.
In: Polar lakes and rivers : limnology of Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems / Edited by W.F. Vincent and J. Laybourn-Parry. - Oxford, U.K. : Oxford University Press, 2008, ch. 17, p. 307-320, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 66533.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Polar limnology is in a phase of rapid knowledge acquisition, and in this concluding chapter we identify some of the emerging concepts and technologies that will drive future advances. These include the increased awareness of climate and related impacts in the polar regions, and the importance of high-latitude lakes and rivers as sentinels of global change; the increased availability of wireless network technology to obtain data-sets of high temporal resolution from these remote sites; the emergence of new sensor technologies and underwater platforms, including robotic systems that may be used in the future to explore subglacial lakes and other polar waters; and the development of surface imagery approaches ranging from local-scale observations by unmanned aerial vehicles to circumpolar-scale measurements by satellite, for example by synthetic aperture radar. We briefly summarize some of the new opportunities provided by environmental genomics, including application towards bioprospecting for novel extremophiles and biomolecules of pharmaceutical and industrial interest. Finally, we address the value of Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems as sites for developing models of broad application. (Au)

F, E, J, I, H, K, A, L
Aerial photography; Climate change; Cold adaptation; Databases; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Enzymes; Equipment and supplies; Fresh-water ecology; Genetics; Infrared remote sensing; Instruments; Lake ice; Lakes; Mathematical models; Medicines; Microorganisms; Proteins; Remote sensing; River ice; Rivers; SAR; Satellite communications; Satellite photography; Satellites; Temporal variations; Weather stations

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Toward a Canadian Antarctic research program   /   Loken, O.H.   Canadian Polar Commission [Sponsor]
Ottawa : Canadian Polar Commission, 1996.
28 p. : maps ; 28 cm.
Annex.
ASTIS record 66424.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

In November 1995, the Canadian Polar Commission (CPC) arranged a small meeting to discuss steps to develop a Canadian Antarctic Research Program (CARP). An earlier version of this report, under the title, Draft Business Plan for the Canadian Antarctic Research Program Committee, was prepared as a background document for those discussions. This revised version incorporates the results of those discussions and acknowledges the contributions of the participants (Annex 1). The impetus for the meeting and the preparation of the report stems from the mandate of the CPC which, according to the Canadian Polar Commission Act, is "... to promote the development and dissemination of knowledge of the polar regions...", including the Antarctic. The report seeks to link this legislative mandate to specific objectives, and to a set of tasks aimed at fulfilling that mandate with respect to Antarctica. The report also discusses the allocation of resources, organization, and accountability. It builds on past accomplishments, but the focus is on planning for the future. Is it possible to establish a new research program in a period of severe financial constraint? The answer is Yes, as such periods also afford an opportunity for reflection and consideration of new approaches. Canada's science effort in Antarctica ought to be reassessed in view of the requirements of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty which Canada has signed. The current science effort is likely to be found wanting. Additional funding will be required to change this, and new and innovative ways of finding resources will be required. However, compared with the federal S&T expenditures of some $ 6 billion per year, the amounts involved are not large. The required change in attitude - the way we look at Canada's role in the Antarctic - may pose a greater challenge. (Au)

R, J
Antarctic treaties; Canadian Polar Commission; Environmental protection; Government; Research; Research funding; Research stations

G15, G08
Antarctic regions; Canada


Antarctic and bipolar science : report of a workshop held at the Arctic Institute of North America, Calgary, Alberta, October 16, 1999   /   Loken, O.H. [Editor]   Hall, K. [Editor]   Canadian Committee for Antarctic Research [Sponsor]
Ottawa : Canadian Polar Commssion, 1999.
45 p. ; 28 cm.
Cover title.
Appendices.
References.
Also available in French under title: La science antarctique et bipolaire : Compte rendu d'un atelier tenu à l'Institute arctique de l'Amérique du Nord, Calgary, Alberta, le 16 octobre 1999.
ASTIS record 47080.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

In July 1998, Canada became a full member of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), with the Canadian Polar Commission (CPC) as the adhering body. At the same time, the Canadian Committee for Antarctic Research (CCAR) was established as Canada's National Antarctic Committee for SCAR, and began developing a strategic plan for Canada's participation in antarctic and bipolar science. A discussion paper, Antarctic and Bipolar Science: A Strategic Plan for Canada, was distributed in the late summer of 1999 as a means of stimulating discussion and obtaining input from a wide group of stakeholders; much valuable feedback was received. For more detailed discussions, CCAR arranged a workshop at the Arctic Institute of North America, University of Calgary, in October 1999. A number of Canadians with firsthand experience in antarctic and arctic science were invited. Roughly half the 19 participants were from the academic sector, representing eight Canadian universities. Other participants were scientists from four federal government departments and agencies, and representatives of two Canadian tour companies operating in Antarctica. [The report provides an account of the workshop]. ... (Au)

X, R, N, J, B
Biology; Ecology; Expeditions; Funding for education; Geology; Government relations; Logistics; Natural resources; Research; Tourist trade; Ultraviolet radiation; Universities

G01, G15
Antarctic regions; Polar regions


History of McMurdo Dry Valley lakes, Antarctica, from stable chlorine isotope data   /   Lyons, W.B.   Frape, S.K.   Welch, K.A.
(Geology, v. 27, no. 6, June 1999, p. 527-530, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47496.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0527:HOMDVL>2.3.CO;2
Libraries: ACU

We have analyzed a series of water samples from the perennially ice-covered lakes of the Taylor Valley, Antarctica (lat ~78°S) for their stable chlorine isotopes (delta 37Cl). The three lakes in the valley yielded very different delta 37Cl profiles that, when combined with their -Cl variations, can be utilized to ascertain both the source of -Cl to the lakes and their chemical evolutionary histories. The evolution of each lake is closely tied to climatic perturbations within the watersheds that affect the lake's hydrologic balance. Our data indicate that -Cl has been derived from a local marine source (i.e., seawater), marine aerosols, and a longer-traveled HCl source. Lake Bonney may be a remnant of a much older lake system that has undergone filling and drawdown many times, whereas Lake Hoare is probably a relatively new feature (only 1 k.y. old) on the landscape. (Au)

F, G, E, B, I
Bottom sediments; Climate change; Fresh-water biology; Geochemistry; Glaciation; Glacier variations; Lake ice; Lakes; Physical properties; Salinity; Water

G15
Bonney, Lake, Antarctic regions; Canada Glacier, Antarctic regions; Fryxell, Lake, Antarctic regions; Hoare, Lake, Antarctic regions


The international bathymetric charts of the Arctic and southern oceans : setting the physiographic context for marine research during IPY   /   Macnab, R.   Jakobsson, M.   Schenke, H.W.
(2004 AGU Fall Meeting, 13-17 December 2004, San Francisco. Eos (Washington, D.C.), v. 85, no. 47, suppl., 2004, abstract C21A-0974)
Abstract of a poster presentation (C21A-0974).
Abstracts can be found online through the AGU Meeting Abstract Database: www.agu.org/meetings/abstract_db.shtml.
ASTIS record 77216.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

As international bodies whose functions include the overview and coordination of polar research, IASC and SCAR are actively promoting, planning, and in some cases sponsoring cooperative scientific activities within the IPY context. Among these activities is the development of accurate bathymetric data bases and maps that describe the depth and morphology of the polar seabeds. Constructed from all the available sounding information that can be assembled and rationalized, these maps not only respond explicitly to the needs expressed in IPY Theme 1 (to determine the present environmental status of the polar regions by quantifying their spatial and temporal variability), but they provide essential background information for multiple investigations that are central to the attainment of objectives in IPY Themes 2, 3, and 4. For instance, detailed physiographic descriptions of the seafloor can provide contemporary and historical indicators of sea level change, of constraints to ocean circulation, and of processes associated with glaciation, sedimentation, and tectonic activity. In recent years, an international team has operated under the auspices of IASC, IOC, and IHO, to develop the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). The First Edition of IBCAO is now available in printed and digital form, with future improvements planned as new sounding information becomes available. Similarly, a new team sponsored by SCAR, IOC, and IHO has just launched an Antarctic analog to IBCAO: the International Bathymetric Chart of the Southern Ocean (IBCSO). The initial objective of IBCSO is to develop a preliminary description of the seabed adjacent to Antarctica prior to the launch of the IPY, for use in planning scientific field work and for guidance in collecting depth observations in areas where soundings are scarce. A longer-term objective is to promote the systematic mapping of the Southern Ocean in order to complement existing data holdings, and to supplant existing seabed portrayals that have been derived from observations of satellite altimetry, but which are limited in accuracy and resolution. Similarly, it is hoped that IPY undertakings in the Arctic region will stimulate the collection of new depth observations that can be used to enhance IBCAO. This presentation will highlight selected features of IBCAO and IBCSO, suggesting how their contents can assist IPY investigators and indicating where improvements can be expected as a result of IPY activities. (Au)

D, B, A
Bathymetry; Bottom sediments; Databases; Glaciation; International Arctic Science Committee; Maps; Marine geology; Ocean currents; Ocean floors; Plate tectonics; Research organizations; Satellite altimetry; Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research; Sea level; Sedimentation; Sonar; Submarine topography; Temporal variations

G03, G15
Antarctic waters; Arctic Ocean


The Law of the Sea and marine scientific research in the Arctic Ocean = Le droit de la mer et la recherche scientifique marine dans l'océan Arctique   /   Macnab, R.   Loken, O.   Anand, A.
(Meridian = Méridien, Fall/Winter 2007, p. 1-6, ill., maps)
Text in English and French on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English or French PDF files.
ASTIS record 66346.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/MeridianFall2007.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/Meridien_Automne_2007.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Contemporary events and circumstances, such as melting ice, the International Polar Year, and the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea are providing an unprecedented boost to Marine Scientific Research in the central Arctic Ocean. This felicitous situation could be short-lived, however, as Arctic coastal states apply the provisions of the Law of the Sea to extend their sovereign rights beyond 200 nautical miles, enhancing their entitlement to regulate a range of scientific activities. This is in marked contrast to the Antarctic regime, where freedom of research is protected under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty. The principles enunciated by this Treaty are worth considering, as they could inspire a less restrictive approach towards scientific investigation in the central Arctic Ocean. (Au)

R, D, G, L
Antarctic treaties; Continental shelves; Geopolitics; Mapping; Marine transportation; Maritime law; Melting; Ocean floors; Oceanography; Research; Sea ice; Sovereignty; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G03, G08, G13, G14, G06, G15
Alaska; Antarctic regions; Arctic Ocean; Canada; Denmark; Norway; Russian Federation; United States


The International Polar Year : opportunities for ocean mapping at the ends of the Earth   /   Macnab, R.   Jakobsson, M.   Ott, N.   Schenke, H.W.   Travin, D.
(Hydro international, v. 11, no. 4, Apr. 2007, p. 1-3, maps)
Reference.
Parts of this article were presented March 1 in Tokyo, 2007 during the International Symposium on Asian Collaboration in IPY 2007-2008.
ASTIS record 71127.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.hydro-international.com/issues/articles/id770-The_International_Polar_Year.html

Bathymetric mapping remains incomplete in the Arctic and Southern Oceans. Some proposed IPY activities could help improve the situation by collecting new soundings during vessel transits to and from their operating areas, and by making their observations available for inclusion in existing international databases. (Au)

D, A
Bathymetry; Databases; Mapping; Ocean floors; Satellite altimetry; Sonar; Specifications; Submarine topography

G03, G15
Antarctic waters; Arctic Ocean


Polar tourism : human, environmental and governance dimensions   /   Maher, P.T. [Editor]   Stewart, E.J. [Editor]   Lück, M. [Editor]
Putnam Valley, N.Y. : Cognizant Communication, 2011.
xi, 306 p. : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
ISBN 978-1-882345-55-7
References.
ASTIS record 76193.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The academic study of tourism has become well established over the last few decades, leading to important developments in theory, policy, and practice in many disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. Yet in an otherwise growing literature, authored monographs and edited volumes on tourism and the activities of tourists and tourism operators in the polar regions have, until recently, remained few and far between relative to the extensive work carried out in other regions of the globe. The gaps are gradually being filled in, however, and more scholars are turning their attention to tourism in the Arctic and Antarctic as both phenomenon and process. This cohesive and solid book, ably edited by Patrick Maher, Emma Stewart, and Michael Luck, makes a distinctive contribution to this emerging body of work by focusing on human, environmental, and governance issues, and by bringing together a group of scholars noted for the original empirical work they do on some of the most pressing issues surrounding tourism and its social, political, economic, and environmental dimensions. Tourism in the polar regions has undergone dramatic growth over the last decade or so, with both the Arctic and Antarctic becoming increasingly popular destinations. Areas that saw relatively few tourists 20 years ago are now experiencing a rapid rise in the seasonal appearance of sojourners, who mainly arrive during the summer months. Tourism is increasingly seen by regional and national authorities as an important aspect of economic development and is being readily encouraged. Greenland's government, for instance, made tourism one of three focus areas for its development strategy in 1991, and tourist numbers have risen 10-fold since then. The polar regions represent, in the public imagination at least, some of the last wilderness places left on earth. Marketed as remote, cold, pristine, and untouched, the Arctic and Antarctic promise to offer something different to the tourist in terms of experiencing extraordinary environments and, in the Far North, unique indigenous cultures. ... Global climate change ... adds a sense of urgency for those with dreams of traveling to the Arctic or Antarctic, and tour operators play on this by marketing their tours as something that people may not be able to experience once the snow vanishes, the ice shelves break up, and the ice sheets melt. This notion of “last chance tourism” is only beginning to be studied by the academic community (see Lemelin, Dawson, Stewart, Maher, & Luck, in press). There is growing global interest in the polar regions, and both the Arctic and Antarctic have moved to the center of debate about global environmental change, global warming, sovereignty, resource development, and the sustainability of indigenous and local livelihoods. How will tourism develop in these parts of the world in the future? The chapters in this volume contribute to debates in basic and applied approaches to the study of tourism, but they speak specifically to the importance of research into the possible environmental, economic, and cultural impacts of tourism and appropriate management structures and policies that need to be adopted if tourism in the polar regions is to develop into something that can occur in the best interests of communities, wildlife, and the environment. (Au)

R, J, T, E
Climate change; Economic development; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Ethics; Human ecology; Native peoples; Socio-economic effects; Sovereignty; Tourist trade

G01
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Polar regions


Iron uptake and physiological response of phytoplankton during a mesoscale Southern Ocean iron enrichment   /   Maldonado, M.T.   Boyd, P.W.   LaRoche, J.   Strzepek, R.   Waite, A.   Bowie, A.R.   Croot, P.L.   Frew, R.D.   Price, N.M.
(Limnology and oceanography, v. 46, no. 7, Nov. 2001, p.1802-1808, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 55796.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.4319/lo.2001.46.7.1802
Libraries: ACU

Iron supply is thought to regulate primary production in high nitrate, low chlorophyll (HNLC) regions of the sea in both the past and the present. A critical aspect of this relationship is acquisition of iron (Fe) by phytoplankton, which occurs through a complex series of extracellular reactions that are influenced by Fe chemistry and speciation. During the first in situ mesoscale Fe-enrichment experiment in the Southern Ocean (Southern Ocean iron release experiment (SOIREE)), we monitored the uptake of Fe by three size classes of plankton and their ensuing physiological response to the Fe enrichment. Rates of Fe uptake from both inorganic Fe (Fe') and organic Fe complexes (FeL) were initially fast, indicative of Fe-limitation. After Fe enrichment phytoplankton down-regulated Fe uptake and optimized physiological performance, but by day 12 they had greatly increased their capacity to acquire Fe from FeL. The increase in Fe uptake from FeL coincided with a sixfold decrease in Fe' that followed the production of Fe-binding organic ligands. Phytoplankton were able to use organically bound Fe at rates sufficient to maintain net growth for more than 42 d. Adaptation to such shifts in Fe chemistry may contribute to bloom longevity in these polar HNLC waters. (Au)

H, D, N
Algae; Biomass; Chemistry; Chlorophyll; Diatoms; Fertilizers; Iron; Logistics; Measurement; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Plant distribution; Plant growth; Plant nutrition; Plant physiology; Primary production (Biology); Sea water; Size

G15
Antarctic waters


Coordinated observations of Pc3 pulsations near cusp latitudes   /   Matsuoka, H.   Yukimatu, A.S.   Yamagishi, H.   Sato, N.   Sofko, G.J.   Fraser, B.J.   Ponomarenko, P.   Liu, R.   Goka, T.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.107, no. A11, 1400, Nov. 2002, p.SMP 33-1 - 33-10, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 52071.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/2001JA000065
Libraries: ACU

In spite of accumulated observations of ULF pulsations, there are no satisfactory explanations for the generation and transmission mechanisms of Pc3 pulsations at very high latitudes. We studied the characteristics of the high-latitude Pc3 pulsations by using data acquired on the ground by magnetometer arrays, in the ionosphere by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) of HF radars, and in space by the Geotail satellite. The observations revealed that narrowband Pc3 pulsations are occasionally observed simultaneously in magnetic field data on the ground and in Doppler velocity data acquired by the HF radars in the intervals of small interplanetary magnetic field (IMP) cone angles. We find that there is a clear peak of the Pc3 power near the cusp latitudes and that the power of pulsations decreases very steeply with latitude. At times, there are periods of high coherence between the pulsations in the dawn magnetosheath and on the ground, although the spectra of the magnetosheath magnetic field variations exhibit broadband signatures. The Poynting flux in the Pc3 band increases in the magnetosheath when narrowband Pc3 pulsations are observed in the cusp region. The results suggest that the driving source is located in the magnetosheath and that part of the MHD energy in the magnetosheath propagates to the ionospheric cusp. We suggest that the transmission of Pc3 pulsations in the cusp region requires not only a non-MHD mechanism as suggested (e.g., modulated precipitation of trapped electrons) but also an MHD wave incident into the ionosphere. (Au)

E, B
Boundary layers; Geomagnetism; Ionosphere; Magnetosphere; Radar; Satellites; Solar wind; SuperDARN

G0813, G01, G10, G0823, G0824
Eskimo Point, Nunavut; Gillam, Manitoba; Polar regions; Rankin Inlet (Hamlet), Nunavut; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Taloyoak, Nunavut; Vestgrønland


Spectrofluorometric characterization of dissolved organic matter for indication of precursor organic material and aromaticity   /   McKnight, D.M.   Boyer, E.W.   Westerhoff, P.K.   Doran, P.T.   Kulbe, T.   Andersen, D.T.
(Limnology and oceanography, v. 46, no. 1, Jan. 2001, p. 38-48, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 55795.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.4319/lo.2001.46.1.0038
Libraries: ACU

We studied the fluorescence properties of fulvic acids isolated from streams and rivers receiving predominantly terrestrial sources of organic material and from lakes with microbial sources of organic material. Microbially derived fulvic acids have fluorophores with a more sharply defined emission peak occurring at lower wavelengths than fluorophores in terrestrially derived fulvic acids. We show that the ratio of the emission intensity at a wavelength of 450 nm to that at 500 nm, obtained with an excitation of 370 nm, can serve as a simple index to distinguish sources of isolated aquatic fulvic acids. In our study, this index has a value of ~1.9 for microbially derived fulvic acids and a value of ~1.4 for terrestrially derived fulvic acids. Fulvic acids isolated from four large rivers in the United States have fluorescence index values of 1.4-1.5, consistent with predominantly terrestrial sources. For fulvic acid samples isolated from a river, lakes, and groundwaters in a forested watershed, the fluorescence index varied in a manner suggesting different sources for the seepage and streamfed lakes. Furthermore, we identified these distinctive fluorophores in filtered whole water samples from lakes in a desert oasis in Antarctica and in filtered whole water samples collected during snowmelt from a Rocky Mountain stream. The fluorescence index measurement in filtered whole water samples in field studies may augment the interpretation of dissolved organic carbon sources for understanding carbon cycling in aquatic ecosystems. (Au)

F, H, C, I
Algae; Bacteria; Carbon; Carbon cycling; Chemical properties; Chromatography; Dissolved organic carbon; Fluorometry; Groundwater; Identification; Lakes; Light; Logistics; Measurement; Microorganisms; Optical properties; Plants (Biology); Rivers; Snowmelt; Soils; Spectroscopy; Testing; Water pH

G15
Bunger Hills, Antarctic regions; Colorado; Fryxell, Lake, Antarctic regions; Georgia; Hoare, Lake, Antarctic regions; Iowa; Minnesota; Ohio; Pony Lake, Antarctic regions; Washington (State)


High-latitude rivers and streams   /   McKnight, D.M.   Gooseff, M.N.   Vincent, W.F.   Peterson, B.J.
In: Polar lakes and rivers : limnology of Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems / Edited by W.F. Vincent and J. Laybourn-Parry. - Oxford, U.K. : Oxford University Press, 2008, ch. 5, p. 83-102, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 66530.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Flowing-water ecosystems occur in the desert oases around the margins of Antarctica, and are common throughout the Arctic. In this review of high-latitude rivers and streams, we first describe the limnological properties of Antarctic streams by way of examples from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, including observations and experiments in the Taylor Valley Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. These studies have drawn attention to the importance of microbial mats and the hyporheic zone in controling stream biogeochemistry, which in turn strongly influences the lake ecosystems that receive these inflows. We introduce the limnological characteristics of Arctic rivers and streams, and their dramatic response to nutrient enrichment as observed in a long-term experiment on the Kuparuk River, in the Toolik Lake, Alaska LTER site. Large rivers are an important feature of the Arctic, and discharge globally significant of fresh water, dissolved organic carbon, and other materials into the Arctic Ocean. We review the rapidly increasing knowledge base on the limnology of these waters, and their associated lakes. The latter include the abundant lakes and ponds over their delta flood-plains, and the large stamukhi lakes that form behind thick sea ice near the river mouth. Both of these lake types experience extreme seasonal variations in all of their limnological properties, including water storage, and both influence the biogeochemical characteristics of the river water that is ultimately discharged to the sea. We conclude the review with a comparison of Arctic and Antarctic flowing waters and their associated flood-plains. (Au)

F, A, J, H, I, G, C, E
Active layer; Algae; Bacteria; Benthos; Biomass; Carbon; Carbon dioxide; Chlorophyll; Climate change; Cyanophyceae; Diatoms; Dissolved organic carbon; Environmental impacts; Fertilizers; Fishes; Floods; Fresh-water ecology; Geomorphology; Glacial melt waters; Hydrography; Insects; Lakes; Methane; Microbial ecology; Mosses; Nitrogen; Peat; Permafrost; Phosphorus; Photosynthesis; Plant growth; Plant nutrition; Primary production (Biology); River deltas; River discharges; River ice; Rivers; Seasonal variations; Sediment transport; Snowmelt; Springs (Hydrology); Stream erosion; Stream flow; Suspended solids; Temperature; Thawing; Tundra ponds; Water pH; Wildlife habitat

G02, G15, G06
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Kuparuk River, Alaska; McMurdo Sound region, Antarctic regions; Taylor Valley, Antarctic regions


Bipolar distribution of the cyst-forming dinoflagellate, Polarella glacialis   /   Montresor, M.   Lovejoy, C.   Orsini, L.   Procaccini, G.   Roy, S.
(Polar biology, v. 26, no. 3, Mar. 2003, p. 186-194, ill.)
References.
Sampling was in conjunction with the International North Water Polynya project.
ASTIS record 54588.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s00300-002-0473-9
Libraries: ACU

Morphological investigations of motile cells and cysts of a small dinoflagellate (strain CCMP 2088) isolated from Canadian Arctic waters were carried out under both light and scanning electron microscopy. This species strongly resembled Polarella glacialis (strain CCMP 1383), which up to now was known only from Antarctic sea ice. The photosynthetic pigment composition of strain CCMP 2088 is typical of dinoflagellates, with peridinin as a major accessory pigment. Phylogenetic relationships between the two strains and other dinoflagellate species were inferred from SSU nrDNA using Neighbour Joining and weighted parsimony analyses. Our results showed that strain CCMP 2088 and P. glacialis (strain CCMP 1383) grouped in the same clade (Suessiales clade), showing high similarity values (0.99%). Morphological and molecular data support the assignment of the Arctic strain to P. glacialis. The free-living Gymnodinium simplex and the two P. glacialis strains have a basal position in the Suessiales clade, as compared to Symbiodinium spp. (Au)

H, I, G, J
Animal anatomy; Animal distribution; Animal taxonomy; Biomass; Chlorophyll; Diatoms; Dinoflagellata; Evolution (Biology); Foraminifera; Genetics; Microscopes; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Plankton; Polynyas; Primary production (Biology); Sea ice ecology

G09, G01
North Water Polynya, Baffin Bay; Polar regions


Functional and structural characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus of the Antarctic green alga, Chlamydomonas subcaudata   /   Morgan-Kiss, R.M.   Huner, N.P.A. [Supervisor]
London, Ont. : University of Western Ontario, 2000.
xxii, 266 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. NQ58154)
ISBN 0-612-58154-3
References.
Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Western Ontario, London, Ont., 2000.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 55164.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/obj/s4/f2/dsk1/tape2/PQDD_0019/NQ58154.pdf
Libraries: OONL

The green alga, Chlamydomonas subcaudata, was isolated from the perennially ice-covered Lake Bonney located in the dry valleys of Antarctica. The natural environment of this photosynthetic organism was characterized as an unusually stable aquatic habitat of low temperatures, low light of distinct spectral distribution (blue-green light), and hyper-saline conditions. In this study it was determined that C. subcaudata is obligated to grow under temperatures lower than 18°C, indicating it is a psychrophillic alga. However cultures were not obligated to grow under low light levels, and could in fact increase their growth rates as a function of increasing growth irradiance. In contrast with the well characterized green alga C. reinhardtii, C. subcaudata lacks the ability to undergo state transitions, and appears to be "locked" in State I. Similarly, C. subcaudata also exhibited the inability to adjust Photosystem I photochemistry in response to elevated temperatures. It was hypothesized that the absence of these two short-term acclimatory mechanisms in C. subcaudata is a consequence of adaptation to a stable low light regime and a year-round low temperature regime. Surprisingly, cultures of C. subcaudata grown at 16°C exhibited the ability to photoacclimate in response to either changes in the growth irradiance or light quality via stoichiometric adjustments in the PSII/PSI ratio. The psychrophillic alga exhibited a low threshold temperature for the thermal stability of the photosynthetic membranes in comparison with C. reinhardtii, estimated by the critical temperature for maximum yields in room temperature Fo fluorescence. It was suggested that this was a consequence of an increase in membrane fluidity due to an increase in unsaturated fatty acids and/or differences in fatty acyl species associated with specific lipid species in C. subcaudata versus C. reinhardtii. C. subcaudata also exhibited relatively high rates of PSI-mediated cyclic electron transport and a relatively low contribution of linear electron transport in comparison with C. reinhardtii. This may be due to either an imbalance in energy distribution between the photosystems as a consequence of either a relatively high PSII/PSI ratio in C. subcaudata versus C. reinhardtii or may reflect a requirement for higher ATP/NADPH ratios in the Antarctic alga. (Au)

H, E, G, F, D, J
Adaptation (Biology); Chlamydomonas; Cold adaptation; Effects of temperature on plants; Fatty acids; Ice cover; Lakes; Light; Melting; Ocean temperature; Pack ice; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Plant growth; Plant physiology; Salinity; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Temporal variations; Theses; Trophic levels

G15, G02
Antarctic waters; Arctic waters; Bonney, Lake, Antarctic regions


A bipolar comparison of glacial cryoconite ecosystems   /   Mueller, D.R.   Pollard, W.H. [Supervisor]
Montreal, Quebec : McGill University, 2001.
vi, 115 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MQ75331)
ISBN 0-612-75331-X
Appendices.
References.
Thesis (M.Sc.) - McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, 2001.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 55266.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONL

This thesis compares the habitat and community ecology of cylindrical meltholes from the surface of two polar glaciers. These holes (termed cryoconite holes) are formed when wind-blown dust gathers in small depressions in the ice causing vertical melting by absorption of more radiation than the surrounding ice. The communities are complex microbial consortia of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae, and protists. Samples were taken from cryoconite holes on Canada Glacier, Taylor Valley, Antarctica (77°37'S, 162°55'E) and on White Glacier, Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut Territory, Canada (79°27'N, 90°40'W). Water from Canada Glacier cryoconite holes contained significantly higher concentrations of nutrients and had higher pH values and conductivities, relative to the White Glacier meltwater. Cryoconite communities on the Canada Glacier were dominated by cyanobacteria, either coccoid or filamentous, while the White Glacier cryoconite holes showed an abundance of either saccoderm desmids or filamentous cyanobacteria. Canada Glacier communities were found to be associated with environmental gradients whereas White Glacier cryoconite ecosystems were not. (Au)

F, E, H, I, G, J
Ablation; Algae; Atmospheric temperature; Chemical properties; Cryoconite; Cyanophyceae; Fresh-water ecology; Glacial melt waters; Glaciers; Heterotrophic bacteria; Ice cover; Meteorology; Microorganisms; Physical properties; Plants (Biology); Seasonal variations; Theses; Velocity; Wind erosion; Winds

G0813, G15
Canada Glacier, Antarctic regions; Colour Lake, Nunavut; Taylor Valley, Antarctic regions; White Glacier, Nunavut


Gradient analysis of cryoconite ecosystems from two polar glaciers   /   Mueller, D.R.   Pollard, W.H.
(Polar biology, v. 27, no. 2, Jan. 2004, p. 66-74, ill., maps)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 021-03)
References.
ASTIS record 46247.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s00300-003-0580-2
Libraries: ACU

The cylindrical meltholes present in the ablation zones of many glaciers (termed cryoconite holes) contain complex microbial communities. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of community structure and environmental gradients for cryoconite holes on two glaciers was undertaken. The Canada Glacier (77°37'S, 162°55'E) is located in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The White Glacier (79°27'N, 90°40'W) is located on Axel Heiberg Island, Nunavut Territory, Canada. These glaciers are at similar, yet antipodal latitudes, are roughly the same size and endure approximately the same mean annual temperature. The Canada Glacier cryoconite communities were found to be significantly (P=0.001) associated with six environmental variables, which together explained 55% of the biological variation. The White Glacier cryoconite communities were not significantly associated with environmental variables. The differences in CCA results were attributed to the relative amount of disturbance and isolation between each glaciers cryoconite holes. Canada Glacier cryoconite holes were mostly ice-covered and undisturbed by meltwater flow, whereas high meltwater production and open cryoconite holes on the White Glacier may continually reset the community structure and habitat variability due to inter-hole mixing. (Au)

J, F, H
Ablation; Algae; Aspect; Bacteria; Biological sampling; Biomass; Cryoconite; Cyanophyceae; Electrical properties; Glacial melt waters; Glaciers; Growing season; Melting; Microbial ecology; Plant distribution; Plant nutrition; Plant taxonomy; Seasonal variations; Slopes; Solar radiation

G0813, G15
Canada Glacier, Antarctic regions; White Glacier, Nunavut


Censuses of penguin, Blue-eyed Shag, and southern Giant Petrel populations in the Antarctic Peninsula region, 1994-2000   /   Naveen, R.   Forrest, S.C.   Dagit, R.G.   Blight, L.K.   Trivelpiece, W.Z.   Trivelpiece, S.G.
(Polar record, v. 36, no.199, Oct. 2000, p. 323-334, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 48693.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247400016818
Libraries: ACU

This paper presents new census data and population estimates for penguins, blue-eyed shags, and southern giant petrels from 26 sites in the Antarctic Peninsula, collected by the Antarctic Site Inventory from 1994 to 2000. For nine sites, population data or estimates are published for the first time. The newly discovered gentoo penguin population of 215 nests at Heroína Island (63 24 S, 54 36 W) represents the easternmost location where this species has been found breeding in the Peninsula. All three pygoscelid penguins - gentoo, Adélee, and chinstrap - were found breeding at Gourdin Island (63 12 S, 57 18 W), the fourth known site where these species nest contiguously in the Peninsula. During the period, significant declines in nesting populations of blue-eyed shag were documented at three northwestern Peninsula locations. (Au)

I
Animal distribution; Animal population; Penguins; Petrels

G15
Antarctic Peninsula


Zodiac landings by tourist ships in the Antarctic Peninsula region, 1989-99   /   Naveen, R.   Forrest, S.C.   Dagit, R.G.   Blight, L.K.   Trivelpiece, W.Z.   Trivelpiece, S.G.
(Polar record, v. 37, no.201, Apr. 2001, p. 121-132, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 50373.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247400026942
Libraries: ACU

This paper examines the location, intensity, and frequency of zodiac landings by passengers on tourist ships in the Antarctic Peninsula region during 10 seasons, 1989/90 through 1998/99. In this period, the number of passengers increased 307%, from 2460 to 10,013. Zodiac landings have occurred at 165 Peninsula region sites, concentrating in the South Shetland Islands and the northwestern part of the Peninsula. From 1989/90 to 1998/99, the number of zodiac landings in the Peninsula region increased 423%, from 164 to 858. The most visited sites are identified, as are sites experiencing increases in the second half of this 10-year period. The 10 and 20 sites experiencing the most zodiac landings each season consistently account for approximately 55% and 75% of that season's landings, respectively. Based on 1998/99 data, sites with high or medium species diversity or with high or moderate sensitivity to potential environmental disturbance account for a significant percentage of landings. Recommendations are presented for improving the assessment of potential environmental impacts at zodiac landing sites, and for improved methods of reporting site visits by the tour operators involved. (Au)

R, L, J
Boats; Environmental impacts; Ships; Tourist trade

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; South Shetland Islands, Antarctic regions


Inhibition of marine photosynthesis by ultraviolet radiation : variable sensitivity of phytoplankton in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence during the austral spring   /   Neale, P.J.   Cullen, J.J.   Davis, R.F.
(Limnology and oceanography, v. 43, no. 3, May 1998, p. 433-448, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 47583.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.4319/lo.1998.43.3.0433
Libraries: ACU

To assess the potential impacts of ozone depletion on photosynthesis in the Southern Ocean, we need to know more about effects of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on phytoplankton in Antarctic waters, where, in addition to variable stratospheric ozone, temporal and regional differences in vertical mixing might influence photosynthesis and photoacclimation of phytoplankton assemblages. Toward this end, we quantified the responses to UV of Antarctic phytoplankton in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence during the austral spring of 1993. Experimental results on spectral sensitivity of photosynthesis were fit statistically to a model that incorporated uninhibited photosynthesis as a function of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), wavelength-dependence of inhibition, and the kinetics of photosynthesis during exposure to UV. In contrast to previous results on UV-induced photoinhibition in a diatom culture at 20°C, natural phytoplankton from open waters of the Antarctic showed no ability to counter UV-induced inhibition of photosynthesis during exposures of 0.5-4 h: the rate of photosynthesis declined exponentially as a function of cumulative exposure, and inhibition was not reversed during incubations for up to 3.5 h under benign conditions. The results suggest that nonlinear exposure-response relationships are necessary for modeling UV-dependent photosynthesis in the surface mixed layer of the springtime Weddell-Scotia Confluence. Consequently, we modified our laboratory-based model of photosynthesis and photoinhibition to describe photoinhibition as a nonlinear function of biologically weighted cumulative exposure to damaging irradiance. The model described ~90% of the spectrally dependent experimental variation in photosynthetic rate, and yielded six biological weighting functions (BWFs) for phytoplankton in the Weddell-Scotia Confluence. Assemblages from different stations showed substantial variability in sensitivity to UV. Tolerance of UV was generally highest in assemblages from shallower mixed layers, which presumably had experienced higher irradiance, including LTV, prior to sampling. The BWFs of assemblages that seemed acclimated to low irradiance showed the highest sensitivity to UV yet seen for Southern Ocean phytoplankton. The pattern of UV sensitivity was consistent with acclimation, but also with selection against less tolerant species. (Au)

H, D, J
Acclimatization; Environmental impacts; Ocean temperature; Ozone; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Salinity; Ultraviolet radiation

G15
Scotia Sea, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Interactive effects of ozone depletion and vertical mixing on photosynthesis of Antarctic phytoplankton   /   Neale, P.J.   Davis, R.F.   Cullen, J.J.
(Nature, v.392, no.6676, 9 Apr. 1998, p. 585-589, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47590.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1038/33374
Libraries: ACU

Photosynthesis of Antarctic phytoplankton is inhibited by ambient ultraviolet (UV) radiation during incubations, and the inhibition is worse in regions beneath the Antarctic ozone 'hole'. But to evaluate such effects, experimental results on, and existing models of, photosynthesis cannot be extrapolated directly to the conditions of the open waters of the Antarctic because vertical mixing of phytoplankton alters UV exposure and has significant effects on the integrated inhibition through the water column. Here we present a model of UV-influenced photosynthesis in the presence of vertical mixing, which we constrain with comprehensive measurements from the Weddell-Scotia Confluence during the austral spring of 1993. Our calculations of photosynthesis integrated through the water column (denoted PT) show that photosynthesis is strongly inhibited by near-surface UV radiation. This inhibition can be either enhanced or decreased by vertical mixing, depending on the depth of the mixed layer. Predicted inhibition is most severe when mixing is rapid, extending to the lower part of the photic zone. Our analysis reveals that an abrupt 50% reduction in stratospheric ozone could, in the worst case, lower PT by as much as 8.5%. However, stronger influences on inhibition can come from realistic changes in vertical mixing (maximum effect on PT of about ±37%), measured differences in the sensitivity of phytoplankton to UV radiation (±46%) and cloudiness (±15%). (Au)

H, J, E
Air pollution; Clouds; Environmental impacts; Mathematical models; Ozone; Ozone depleting compounds; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Primary production (Biology); Ultraviolet radiation

G15
Antarctic regions


Antarctica experience offers unique classroom   /   Nichol, L.
(Natural elements = Éléments naturels, no. 35, Apr. 2009, [1] p., ill.)
"Natural Elements" is only available in electronic format and can be accessed through the webpages of Natural Resources Canada.
Indexed an HTML file from the Web.
ASTIS record 66694 describes the French version of this article.
ASTIS record 66693.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/com/elements/issues/35/antarct-eng.php

... Studying the effects of climate change in the polar regions is especially important. These areas are the quickest to respond to climate change since they consist largely of ice, making them key indicators of changes in global climate. To observe this phenomenon first-hand, students were taken to the Ukrainian research station Vernadsky. There, they examined the temperature records for the past 40 years, which illustrate a clear 2.5°C warming over this period - the fastest temperature increase in the world during this time. The impacts of temperature increases in the Arctic regions are many. "A very sensitive component of the polar region is the Arctic sea ice, because it is so thin," says David Burgess, a member of the Education Team for the Students on Ice expedition and an NRCan physical scientist who monitors four ice caps in the Canadian Arctic. West of the Antarctic Peninsula, some areas no longer develop sea ice during the winter as a result of climatic warming. "In the area we were in, there is a dramatic reduction of sea ice compared to previous years," says David. Glaciers are also impacted by climate change. "Recent studies have shown that it doesn't take much warming - just a little bit longer of a summer period - to cause significant thinning of the glacier's borders," says David. The reduction of sea ice also causes the ocean water to absorb more radiation from the sun, which warms the water and accelerates melting from the bottom of glaciers. As a result, net thinning has caused destabilization and acceleration of many tidewater glaciers in the region. The Students on Ice participants ventured further afield to several unique landscapes, including Deception Island, an active volcano. They conducted measurements on a small ice cap to better understand what glaciologists do in the field and to collect baseline data for establishing the site as a long-term monitoring base. One exercise was to extract a short ice core from the summit of a small ice cap, which revealed clues about the recent climate history of the area. A section of the ice core was also melted to measure the conductivity of the water, which provided some indication of the level of natural and atmospheric contaminants that have been deposited in this region. These data provide valuable baseline information to compare future changes with. Possible future projects include extracting a surface-to-bedrock core from the ice cap to reconstruct the climate history of the area, potentially over the past several thousand years. As well as learning first-hand about field research, the students developed a better understanding of environmental issues in the polar regions. Given the integral role of the poles in the world's global ecosystem, these young scientists will be well equipped to contribute to future research in this field. To learn more about the Students on Ice 2009 expedition to Antarctica, visit the program's Web site . Explore the Earth Sciences Sector site for more information on NRCan's activities in the polar regions. (Au)

E, F, R, G, D
Air pollution; Climate change; Cores; Curricula; Effects monitoring; Effects of climate on ice; Glaciers; Melting; Ocean temperature; Research; Sea ice; Students on Ice; Temporal variations; Universities

G15, G01
Antarctic regions; Polar regions


A study of the dusk convection cell's response to an IMF southward turning   /   Nishitani, N.   Ogawa, T.   Sato, N.   Yamagishi, H.   Pinnock, M.   Villain, J.-P.   Sofko, G.   Troshichev, O.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.107, no. A 3, 1036, Mar. 2002, p.SMP 3-1 - 3-15, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 52013.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/2001JA900095
Libraries: ACU

One example of the response of ionospheric convection and the polar cap boundary to a sudden change in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation has been studied by using ground magnetometers, the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN), and Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) particle detectors when the IMF suddenly changed from northward (+6 nT) to strongly southward (-19 nT) at 1716 UT on 5 September 1995. The Bz component was fairly constant for ~2 hours before and 25 min after the sudden IMF change. The convection flow changed almost simultaneously over a global extent. This initial change of the convection pattern can be characterized by a sudden formation of a large flow vortex in the afternoon sector. This agrees with the earlier findings by Ruohoniemi and Greenwald [1998] and Ridley et al. [1998]. On the other hand, the response of the polar cap boundary (or its proxy) is more complicated. The Saskatoon radar, located in the late morning sector, observed an equatorward shift of the cusp scatter region simultaneously with the initial response of the convection flows. The DMSP particle data also showed a simultaneous equatorward expansion of the auroral oval in the 2100 magnetic local time (MLT) sector. The radar and particle data indicate the immediate equatorward expansion of the precipitation regions in the noon and premidnight sectors. About 10-20 min after the initial change, there were changes observed in the dusk region, namely, an equatorward expansion of the current reversal boundary observed by the Greenland magnetometer chain in the dusk sector between 1740 and 1750 UT and an equatorward expansion of the convection reversal boundary detected by the Stokkseyri, Halley, and Syowa radars. The delayed responses were observed 18-8 min before a substorm onset was recorded at midlatitude stations at 1756 UT. These observations indicate that there were two kinds of ionospheric responses to the southward turning of the IMF; the first response is the formation of the convection vortex and the equatorward shift of the polar cap boundary at noon and at ~2100 MLT, and the second response is the equatorward expansion of the convection reversal boundary in the dusk sector. We make the case that the first response is associated with the propagation of magnetosonic waves and that the second response is consistent with the Cowley and Lockwood [1992] picture of the redistribution of the newly created open flux in the polar cap region. (Au)

E, B
Auroras; Boundaries; Electrical properties; Flow; Geomagnetism; IMF; Ionosphere; Magnetic properties; Magnetosphere; Measurement; Radar; Satellites; Solar wind; Spatial distribution; SuperDARN; Temporal variations; Velocity

G01
Polar regions


Environmental controls on microbial colonization of High Arctic cryptoendolithic habitats   /   Omelon, C.R.   Pollard, W.H.   Ferris, F.G.
(Polar biology, v. 30, no. 1, Jan. 2007, p. 19-29, ill., maps)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 012-06)
References.
Supplementary material for this article is available online.
ASTIS record 74183.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s00300-006-0155-0
Libraries: ACU

Sandstone outcrops around Eureka, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut (80°N) in the Canadian high Arctic are host to abundant cryptoendolithic microbial communities. Continuous measurements over 2 years (2002-2004) of climate and environmental parameters showed that cryptoendolithic habitats experience warmer temperatures and wetter conditions than the exposed rock surface. Subsurface temperature fluctuations were moderated by the thermal capacity of the rock substrate and varied as a function of depth, aspect, and albedo. Rain, snow or snowmelt substantially increased subsurface moisture levels, which persist for significant time periods after initial precipitation events. These conditions produced a habitat amenable to colonization by cyanobacteria, fungi and algae. The dominance of one microbial community over another varied between sites, however these differences existed in habitats with similar temperature conditions. Greater diversity of microorganisms at this Arctic location compared to similar habitats in the Antarctic Dry Valleys is explained by warmer temperatures during summer months that lead to longer periods for both active (~3,700 h/year) and ideal (~2,500 h/year) calculated metabolic activities as well as abundant moisture in the form of liquid water. (Au)

H, B, E, J
Albedo; Aspect; Cyanophyceae; Fungi; Instruments; Interstitial water; Meteorology; Microbial ecology; Microorganisms; Moisture transfer; Precipitation (Meteorology); Sandstone; Seasonal variations; Solar radiation; Surface properties; Surface temperature; Thermal regimes

G0813, G15
Eureka region, Nunavut; McMurdo Sound region, Antarctic regions


The basis of wind chill   /   Osczevski, R.J.
(Arctic, v. 48, no. 4, Dec. 1995, p. 372-382, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 36818.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic48-4-372.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic1262
Libraries: ACU

The practical success of the wind chill index has often been vaguely attributed to the effect of wind on heat transfer from bare skin, usually the face. To test this theory, facial heat loss and the wind chill index were compared. The effects of wind speed on heat transfer from a thermal model of a head was investigated in a wind tunnel. When the thermal model was facing the wind, wind speed affected the heat transfer from its face in much the same manner as it would affect the heat transfer from a small cylinder, such as that used in the original wind chill experiments carried out in Antarctica fifty years ago. A mathematical model of heat transfer from the face was developed and compared to other models of wind chill. Skin temperatures calculated from the model were consistent with observations of frostbite and discomfort at a range of wind speeds and temperatures. The wind chill index was shown to be several times larger than the calculated heat transfer, but roughly proportional to it. Wind chill equivalent temperatures were recalculated on the basis of facial cooling. An equivalent temperature increment was derived to account for the effect of bright sunshine. (Au)

K, E
Atmospheric temperature; Cold physiology; Frostbite; Heat transmission; Human bioclimatology; Mathematical models; Models; Survival; Wind chill; Wind tunnels; Winds

G16


Design, construction and initial performance of wind turbine foundations in Antarctica   /   Oswell, J.M.
In: GEO2010 : 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference & 6th Canadian Permafrost Conference = 63e conférence géotechnique canadienne et 6e conférence canadienne sur le pergélisol, [Sept. 12-16, 2010]. - [Richmond, B.C.] : Canadian Geotechnical Society, 2010, p. 997-1003, ill., map
References.
Proceedings distributed on a USB flash drive entitled: GEO2010 in the New West, Calgary, Alberta.
ASTIS record 73035.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/cpc/CPC6-997.pdf
Libraries: OONL

Three wind turbines for electrical generation were constructed to lessen the need for imported hydrocarbons at two Antarctic research stations. The subsurface soils consisted of weathered volcanic rock with small to large interbedded ice bodies. The design of the foundations required a strict tolerance on differential settlement, namely 3 mm/m across the foundation element. This paper describes the foundation design and primary design issues. The most important aspect of the foundation design was the estimation of creep settlement over the life of the project. The service loads on the foundation were grouped by load duration, and the corresponding creep settlement estimated. The foundation performance over the initial year after installation is described. (Au)

M, C
Active layer; Bearing capacity; Creep; Design and construction; Effects monitoring; Foundations; Ground ice; Permafrost; Research stations; Soil mechanics; Soil temperature; Thaw settlement; Wind power

G15, G06
Alaska; McMurdo Station, Antarctic regions; Scott Base, Antarctic regions


The physics of glaciers   /   Paterson, W.S.B.
2d ed.
Oxford : Pergamon Press, [1981].
vii, 380p. : ill., figures, tables ; 23cm.
ISBN 0-08-024004-6
References.
ASTIS record 7011.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Explains the physical principles underlying the behaviour of glaciers and ice sheets, as far as these are understood at present. Major advances in most aspects of the subject have been made in the past 30 years and the book concentrates on these being an updated and expanded version of the first edition. Half the book deals with work done in the last 10 years, ie. since publication of the earlier edition. It is in SI units. ... (Au)

G
Glaciers; Ice sheets; Ice shelves

G16


Origin and geomorphology of lakes in the polar regions   /   Pienitz, R.   Doran, P.T.   Lamoureux, S.F.
In: Polar lakes and rivers : limnology of Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems / Edited by W.F. Vincent and J. Laybourn-Parry. - Oxford, U.K. : Oxford University Press, 2008, ch. 2, p. 25-41, ill., maps
References.
ASTIS record 66527.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

A characteristic and often dominant feature of many polar landscapes is the great diversity and abundance of their standing surface waters. The focus of this chapter is on lakes and ponds. Antarctica has little surface water by comparison with the Arctic, but many saline lakes exist in the ice-free oasis areas, and freshwater ponds and lakes are abundant in the maritime and peripheral Antarctic regions. The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief introduction to the different origins, distinguishing features, and landscape controls that result in the extraordinary diversity of lakes and ponds that exist in both polar regions. The main emphasis is on the description of the geological and geomorphological processes involved in the formation and modification (natural change) of these high-latitude lake ecosystems. Throughout this review, we have drawn on examples from both the Arctic and Antarctic to emphasize the differences and similarities that exist between north and south polar lake ecosystems. (Au)

F, A, C, B, E, J
Active layer; Climate change; Drainage; Environmental impacts; Formation ; Geology; Geomorphology; Glacial erosion; Glacial landforms; Glacial melt waters; Glacier lakes; Glaciers; Groundwater; Ice shelves; Lakes; Meteorites; Permafrost; Rain; Runoff; Salinity; Snowmelt; Soil moisture; Spatial distribution; Thawing; Thermokarst; Thickness; Topography; Tundra ponds; Volcanism; Water level; Wetlands

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Identification of a psychrophilic green alga from Lake Bonney, Antarctica : Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl. (UWO 241) chlorophyceae   /   Pocock, T.   Lachance, M.-A.   Pröschold, T.   Priscu, J.C.   Kim, S.S.   Huner, N.P.A.
(Journal of phycology, v. 40, no. 6, Dec. 2004, p.1138-1148, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 57304.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.04060.x
Libraries: ACU

An unusual psychrophilic green alga was isolated from the deepest portion of the photic zone (<0.1% of incident PAR) at a depth of 17 m in the permanently ice-covered lake, Lake Bonney, Antarctica. Here we identify and report the first detailed morphological and molecular examination of this Antarctic green alga, which we refer to as strain UWO 241. To determine the taxonomic identity, UWO 241 was examined using LM and TEM and partial sequences of the small subunit (SSU), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS2 regions (including the 5.8S) of the ribosomal operon. These data were compared with those of previously described taxa. We identified UWO 241 as a strain of Chlamydomonas raudensis Ettl (SAG 49.72). Chlamydomonas raudensisis closely related to C. noctigama Korshikov (UTEX 2289) as well as foraminifer symbionts such as C. hedleyi Lee, Crockett, Hagen et Stone (ATCC 50216). In addition, its morphology, pigment complement, and phototactic response to temperature are reported. Chlamydomonas raudensis (UWO 241) contains relatively high levels of lutein and low chl a/b ratios (1.6 ±0.15), and the phototactic response was temperature dependent. The Antarctic isolate (UWO 241) included the typical photosynthetic pigments found in all chl a/b containing green algae. It possesses a small eyespot and, interestingly, was positively phototactic only at higher nonpermissive growth temperatures. Comparison of SSU and ITS rDNA sequences confirms the identification of the strain UWO 241 as C. raudensis Ettl and contradicts the previous designation as C. subcaudata Wille. (Au)

H, F
Carotenoids; Chlamydomonas; Chlorophyll; Classification; Cold adaptation; Fresh-water flora; Genetics; Identification; Lake ice; Lakes; Light; Logistics; Measurement; Microscopes; Movement; Photosynthesis; Plant anatomy; Plant growth; Plant physiology; Plant taxonomy; Temperature

G15
Bonney, Lake, Antarctic regions


Contaminants in the Arctic and the Antarctic : a comparison of sources, impacts, and remediation options   /   Poland, J.S.   Riddle, M.J.   Zeeb, B.A.
(Polar record, v. 39, no. 4, Oct. 2003, p. 369-383)
References.
ASTIS record 54708.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247403002985
Libraries: ACU

Contaminants, in freezing ground or elsewhere in the world, are of concern not simply because of their presence but because of their potential for detrimental effects on human health, the biota, or other valued aspects of the environment. Understanding these effects is central to any attempt to manage or remediate contaminated land. The polar regions are different from other parts of the world, and it would be naïve to assume that the mass of information developed in temperate regions can be applied without modification to the polar regions. Despite their obvious environmental similarities, there are important differences between the Arctic and Antarctic. The landmass of the Arctic is much warmer than that of the Antarctic and as a result has a much greater diversity and abundance of flora. Because of its proximity to industrial areas in the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic also experiences a higher input of contaminants via long-range aerial transport. In addition, the Arctic, with its indigenous population and generally undisputed territorial claims, has long been the subject of resource utilisation, including harvesting of living resources, mineral extraction, and the construction of military infrastructure. The history of human activity in Antarctica is relatively brief, but in this time there has been a series of quite distinct phases, culminating in the Antarctic now holding a unique position in the world. Activities in the Antarctic are governed by the Antarctic Treaty, which contains provisions dealing with environmental matters. The differences between the polar regions and the rest of the world, and between the Arctic and the Antarctic, significantly affect scientific and engineering approaches to the remediation of contamination in polar regions. This paper compares and contrasts the Arctic and Antarctic with respect to geography, configuration, habitation, logistics, environmental guidelines, regulations, and remediation protocols. Chemical contamination is also discussed in terms of its origin and major concerns and interests, particularly with reference to current remediation activities and site-restoration methodology. (Au)

J, R, P, Q, M, L, K, S, I, H, C
Air pollution; Animals; Antarctic treaties; Biological sampling; Biomagnification; Community development; Copper; DDT; Detection; DEW Line; Environmental impacts; Environmental law; Environmental policy; Environmental protection; Expeditions; Fires in buildings; Food chain; Fuels; Geopolitics; Government regulations; Hazardous waste; Health; Heavy metals; Heritage sites; History; Hydrocarbons; Incinerators; Industrial waste disposal; Landfills; Lead; Logistics; Marine mammals; Marine oil spills; Military operations; Mining; Oil spills on land; Oil well drilling; PAHs; PCBs; Plants (Biology); Polar bears; Pollution; Pollution control; POPs; Population; Radionuclides; Reclamation; Research; Research stations; Safety; Sewage disposal; Soils; Storage tanks; Testing; Tourist trade; Toxicity; Waste management; Zinc

G02, G15, G081, G06, G10, G14
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; North American Arctic; Russian Arctic


SPARC-IPY update   /   Polavarapu, S.   Pendlebury, D.   McFarlane, N.
(SPARC newsletter, no. 29, July 2007, p. 26)
"Stratospheric Processes And their Role in Climate" (SPARC) is one of four core projects of the World Climate Research Programme.
ASTIS record 62764.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.atmosp.physics.utoronto.ca/SPARC/Newsletter29/newsletter29.pdf

The goal of the SPARC IPY Activity entitled "The Structure and Evolution of the Polar Stratosphere and Mesosphere and Links to the Troposphere during IPY", (IPY Activity No. 217) is to document the dynamics, chemistry and microphysical processes within the polar vortices during IPY, with a focus on stratosphere-troposphere and stratosphere-mesosphere coupling. One of the key outcomes will be a collection of analysis products from several operational centres and several research centres, which will be archived at the SPARC Data Center. The analysis products will cover the period of IPY (March 2007 to March 2009) and will represent the best available self-consistent approximations to the state of the atmosphere during this period. Some satellite products will also be available for comparison with the analyses, and we are working on activating links with other IPY activities such as POLARCAT (IPY Activity No. 32), PANSY (IPY Activity No. 9), and ORACLE-O3 (IPY Activity No. 99), and other related activities such as ACCENT. The specialized observations and field campaigns associated with these other activities will complement the data assimilation products and provide validation opportunities. Ensuring that the links with these other activities are established, maintained, and utilized will be the responsibility of Dr. Elham Farahani who has recently been hired as the SPARC-IPY coordination scientist. The analysis data will be available through the SPARC Data Center. Registration on the web site is required. Data will be available in GRIB and netCDF formats depending on the centre providing the data, and Climate Data Operators (cdo) will be available for quick access of the data, and for conversion to other data formats. The web site is undergoing testing and will be available in the near future. The contributing centres and current status of the data acquisition process are summarized in the table. ... (Au)

E, J, A, R
Atmosphere; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric humidity; Atmospheric pressure; Atmospheric temperature; Carbon monoxide; Clouds; Databases; Management; Measurement; Mesosphere; Methane; Nitrogen oxides; Ozone; Planning; Research; Research personnel; Solar radiation; Stratosphere; Testing; Upper atmosphere; Water vapour; World Wide Web

G01
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Bipolar science : a Canadian contribution to Earth system science = La science bipolaire : une contribution canadienne à la science du système terrestre   /   Pollard, W.
(Meridian = Méridien, Spring/Summer 2002, p. 2-5, 1 ill.)
Text in English and French on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English or French PDF files.
ASTIS record 60464.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/meri_02_spring_en.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/02%20Meridien%20printemps.pdf
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

... In the foreseeable future Canadian science interest in both the Antarctic and the Arctic will be driven by the following key requirements: -to provide the basic scientific knowledge of the cryosphere that underpins the understanding of the global environment and all activities carried out in Polar regions; -to utilise the opportunities provided by Polar regions as a unique laboratory to address questions of global importance and relevance; -to respond to the needs of industry, government and other users, and in particular to provide the Canadian Government with a high profile presence in the Arctic and Antarctic through quality science, supported by a modern infrastructure and logistic capability. Science underpins all polar activities ranging from the identification, exploitation, transportation, conservation and management of economic resources to environmental management, and land claims and settlement. It is central to assessing and mitigating impacts on the vulnerable polar environment. Furthermore, high-level and relevant scientific activity supports the political and diplomatic requirements of the Canadian government in respect of its international obligations and legal requirements, among them the Antarctic Treaty, the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, and the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. (Au)

R, E, J, N
Climate change; Energy conservation; Environmental impacts; Environmental policy; Environmental protection; Government; International law; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Pollution control; Research; Research funding; Science; Treaties

G01, G08
Canada; Canadian Arctic; Polar regions


Late Ordovician glaciation : modelling experiments of a paradox   /   Poussart, P.F.   Weaver, A.J. [Supervisor]
Victoria, B.C. : University of Victoria, 1998.
x, 133 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(ProQuest Dissertations & Theses publication, no. MQ37415)
ISBN 0-612-37415-7
Thesis (M.Sc.) - University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C., 1998.
Appendix.
Glossary.
References.
Indexed from a PDF file acquired from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses.
ASTIS record 53981.
Languages: English
Libraries: OONL

The analysis of the geological, chemical and paleontological records of the Ordovician System has unearthed an apparent paradox, which consists of the occurrence of the Late Ordovician glaciation centred on the South Pole, simultaneous with high atmospheric CO2 concentrations (10 to 18x pil). The purpose of this thesis is to investigate this paradox through a series of modelling sensitivity experiments and to combine results with analytical data provided by the geological record. Results from the modelling experiments show that it is possible to maintain a significant permanent snow cover in the southern high latitudes of Gondwana (14.5 x 10**6/km²) given 10x CO2 concentrations, WFCS forcing, -4.5% solar luminosity, a length of day of 21.5 hours and an albedo jump of 0.3. In addition, the CSO experiment with 10x CO2, a decreased solar luminosity and shortened length of day and an albedo jump of 0.1 also sustained a permanent snow cover (0.54 x 10**6/km²), although less extensive than for the WFCS experiment with the higher albedo. Summer temperatures may be a more critical parameter for glacial inception than the supply of moisture. Model results showed that whereas high latitude winter temperatures were always cold enough to ensure snow, summer temperatures were in some instances, such as for the HSO, warm enough so as to prevent the development of a permanent snow cover. Results from all sensitivity experiments consistently reveal the presence of a permanent sea ice cover extending from the North Pole to 60°-70°N. The presence of this extensive sea ice cover appears to have played a critical role in the dramatic cooling of the globally averaged ocean temperature (~2.4°C). The global-mean SAT increased by ~2.74°C and ocean temperature by ~0.35°C between the 10x and 18x experiments. The coupled model reveals a strong sensitivity to changes in the albedo jump. The global-mean SAT and ocean temperature cooled by ~5.9°C and ~0.8°C, respectively between the aj01 and aj03 experiments. Concurrent to a weakening of the thermohaline circulation is a decrease in the Southern Hemisphere heat transport with an increase in the albedo jump. A marked increase in the intensity of the seasonal cycle is apparent in the HSO experiment relative to the CSO experiment, as one would expect from the influence of a higher obliquity. The annual average precipitation rates produced in the present study show a small increase at polar latitudes for the HSO relative to the CSO configuration. However, during the winter months where precipitation mostly falls as snow, high latitude precipitation is largest in the CSO scenario. The geographic configuration of the Late Ordovician resulted in a ~42% increase in the global ocean poleward heat transport in the Southern Hemisphere relative to present-day modelling experiments, a latitudinal redistribution of the ocean heat transport and a significant asymmetry relative to the equator. These findings outline the need to include ocean heat transport values derived from OGCM experiments in future modelling studies, which rely on prescribed heat transports. The coupled model was able to produce a permanent snow cover on Gondwana, which included 60% of all the glacial deposits found on the supercontinent. Hence, within the context of the coupled model, no paradox exists. (Au)

B, A, E, G, F, D, I
Albedo; Atmospheric temperature; Carbon dioxide; Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Glacial deposits; Glaciation; Heat transmission; Ice cover; Mathematical models; Ocean temperature; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Ordovician period; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeogeography; Palaeontology; Precipitation (Meteorology); Sea ice; Sea level; Seasonal variations; Snow cover; Theses

G15
South Pole, Antarctic regions


Polar research, education, outreach and communication during the fourth IPY   /   Provencher, J.   Baeseman, J.   Carlson, D.   Badhe, R.   Bellman, J.   Hik, D.   Huffman, L.   Legg, J.   Pauls, M.   Pit, M.   Shan, S.   Timm, K.   Ulstein, K.   Zicus, S.
Paris : International Council for Science, 2011.
48 p. : ill., map ; 28 cm.
Indexed a PDF file from the Web.
Cover title.
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 76650.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.iasc.info/files/Education%20&%20Outreach/ICSU_Report_Digital.pdf

Executive Summary: One hundred and twenty-five years after the first International Polar Year (IPY), the fourth IPY (2007-2008) represented the most ambitious polar research programme in history, and included for the first time a full range of physical, biological and social science projects. IPY 2007-2008 set out to engage members of the general public in active polar science endeavours on a global scale. Overall, the education, outreach and communication (EOC) efforts carried out during the latest IPY were successful. With tens of thousands of scientists, and more than 14 million people in 70 countries touched by outreach events, the fourth IPY was the largest and most comprehensive international science programme. Several factors contributed to the overall success of IPY EOC: 1. EOC was integrated into the larger science IPY programme from the beginning. 2. The EOC efforts engaged and involved experts in both science and communication. 3. A central office encouraged and coordinated EOC efforts throughout the IPY. 4. The EOC programme was branded and inclusive. 5. Advocacy maintained EOC momentum throughout the IPY period. 6. Polar issues were timely and topical. Based on their collaborative and successful experiences of EOC during IPY, both the research and outreach communities have developed new expectations for future science programmes. Namely, both research and EOC are integral to science programmes, should be given equal importance, and EOC must be built in from the initial project planning stages. In general the public wants to be involved in the process of science, and scientists need recognition for their EOC efforts. In order to move science EOC beyond simply being produced and delivered to audiences without assessment, formative evaluation needs to become integrated into science outreach programmes. By doing so, ongoing assessment, reflection and adjustment can ensure outreach programmes are effective. Since this approach is different from most current practices, it will require a major reorientation with a number of necessary steps, including the following: Acceptance within the scientific community and from the funding agencies that EOC is an essential component of research projects, and that all people involved (scientists, educators, communicators, public and media) can and should learn from each other. Specific budget items and dedicated trained EOC staff are needed for EOC to be effective. Communication training with educators/communicators needs to be part of the professional development of all scientists. Professional recognition, publication and career advancement opportunities for people doing EOC activities need to become part of the scientific community's expectations. Continued integration of EOC at science conferences, meetings and workshops is needed. Support for EOC networks is needed to ensure continued communication between scientists and outreach projects and partners. Like many science initiatives, IPY relied on the efforts and energy of early career researchers (ECRs) in both research and outreach programmes. Developed in concert with the IPY, the Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) enhanced the roles early career professionals play in international research and provided opportunities to gain the additional skills needed for successful careers. APECS has been recognized by the IPY sponsors, the International Council of Science (ICSU) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), as the organization that, together with other partners (e.g., IASC and SCAR), will carry forward the momentum of polar research, education and outreach in the years to come (ICSU & WMO 2010). The lessons learned from creating APECS can now serve as a model for how other initiatives can include and recruit ECRs in a meaningful and lasting way. A number of factors were imperative to the success of APECS during and beyond IPY: 1. The energy, momentum and desire required for early career programmes to be successful must come from the ECRs themselves. 2. True support from organizations and partners that are willing to engage young researchers is integral to having meaningful involvement for ECRs. 3. Direct involvement of established scientists alongside ECRs is needed to bridge knowledge gaps and develop mentorship programmes. 4. The governance and management of the ECR associations and projects need to be driven by ECRs; they also need to be designed for a quick turnover rate in order to maintain momentum and energy in the face of changing personnel and to assure that ECRs have time to concentrate on their research while being active in leadership roles. 5. Dedicated coordination staff and funding can create a lot of synergies and activities, and are critical for building and maintaining institutional memory. 6. ECR programmes need to offer services and activities that go beyond home institutions and national boundaries to ensure interdisciplinary and international collaborations. Post-IPY APECS continues to grow and expand, and is now an integral and necessary player in shaping both the present and future of polar research. Over the next decade the polar regions will undergo many changes, and polar researchers will be continually challenged as these changes impact the people, infrastructure and ecosystems. It is imperative that ECRs trained during the IPY stay connected to and engaged in polar topics. Continuing to support APECS and providing the infrastructure to retain the skills, knowledge and capacity built during IPY is critical. Without this support, much of the energy and enthusiasm created during the IPY will dissipate and be lost by the polar community and to science and society as a whole. Through the strong EOC component and ECR involvement several practical lessons can be drawn from the experiences of IPY outreach efforts. These lessons are important to consider when designing other science outreach and communication progra mmes: The public, students, teachers, media, artists and musicians want to be actively engaged in science. Professionals in science and communication, at junior and senior levels, expressed frustration at the limited professional recognition for outreach activities. Small-scale outreach projects benefit greatly by being linked to larger outreach initiatives. Formal outreach assessment is still lacking in most programmes and needs to be prioritized in order to gauge the effectiveness of such programmes and to adapt accordingly. In many cases, science EOC has moved beyond the traditional poster or pamphlet, but more needs to be done to ensure that outreach efforts are reaching target audiences. Institutions and organizations with long-term programmes should house and maintain networks that link scientists and communicators, creating legacies and sustaining outreach efforts past short-lived projects. Science outreach efforts should involve partners such as teachers, media and science centers that already have EOC capacity and an audience. Archival capacity for outreach programmes needs to be planned from the beginning to ensure that resources created, such as videos and curricula, are available beyond the projects' lifespan. Multi-year science events are more likely to attract partners for outreach efforts as funding cycles and institutional programming agendas often do not naturally coincide with science planning. With the many challenges facing society today, public outreach and communication can no longer afford to be a low priority within the scientific community. Science outreach efforts must be given an equal standing to research and an important role within scientific programmes to ensure that key audiences such as teachers and professional communicators have the resources and networks to access relevant and current science information. The many lessons learned from the IPY EOC efforts can help inspire science outreach efforts to improve planning, enhance self-evaluation and expand on the current elevated interest in public outreach programmes. (Au)

R, L
Archives; Artists; Capacity building; Career aspirations; Communication; Curricula; Education; Expeditions; Higher education; International Polar Year 2007-08; Musicians; Native peoples; Occupational training; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Research; Research organizations; Research personnel; Science; Scientists; Social sciences; Social surveys; Teachers; World Wide Web; Youth

G01
Polar regions


Sulfur isotopic measurements from a West Antarctic ice core : implications for sulfate source and transport   /   Pruett, L.E.   Kreutz, K.J.   Wadleigh, M.   Mayewski, P.A.   Kurbatov, A.
(Papers from the Seventh International Symposium on Antarctic Glaciology held in Milan, Italy, 25-29 August 2003 / Edited by Jo Jacka. Annals of glaciology, v. 39, no. 1, June 2004, p. 161-168, ill., 1 map)
References.
ASTIS record 58817.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756404781814339
Libraries: ACU

Measurements of delta 34S covering the years 1935-76 and including the 1963 Agung (Indonesia) eruption were made on a West Antarctic firn core, RIDSA (78.73° S, 116.33° W; 1740 m a.s.l.), and results are used to unravel potential source functions in the sulfur cycle over West Antarctica. The delta 34S values of (SO4)2- range from 3.1‰ to 9.9‰. These values are lower than those reported for central Antarctica, from near South Pole station, of 9.3-18.1‰ (Patris and others, 2000). While the Agung period is isotopically distinct at South Pole, it is not in the RIDSA dataset, suggesting differences in the source associations for the sulfur cycle between these two regions. Given the relatively large input of marine aerosols at RIDSA (determined from Na+ data and the seasonal (SO4)2- cycle), there is likely a large marine biogenic (SO4)2- influence. The delta 34S values indicate, however, that this marine biogenic (SO4)2-, with a well-established delta 34S of 18‰, is mixing with (SO4)2- that has extremely negative delta 34S values to produce the measured isotope values in the RIDSA core. We suggest that the transport and deposition of stratospheric (SO4)2- in West Antarctica, combined with local volcanic input, accounts for the observed variance in delta 34S values. (Au)

F, G, E, J
Aerosols; Albedo; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric circulation; Biological productivity; Chromatography; Climate change; Effects of volcanic eruptions on climate; Environmental impacts; Firn; Glaciers; Impurities; Isotopes; Numeric databases; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Stratosphere; Sulphur; Volcanism

G15
Marie Byrd Land, Antarctic regions


Towards the integration of operational sea ice information : the IPY Ice Logistics portal   /   Puestow, T.M.   Holfort, J.   Fleming, A.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. EA9.5-5.1, [1] p.
Abstract of an oral presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71582.
Languages: English

The IPY Ice Logistics portal (www.ipy-ice-portal.org) is a joint initiative of Polar View, the International Ice Charting Working Group (IICWG) and the JCOMM Expert Team on Sea Ice (ETSI). It was developed as a convenient, single (although not the only) point of access for operational sea ice information to support logistics (e.g. sea ice distribution information for shipping) and science (e.g. development and detailed spatio-temporal distribution of ice leads). The primary information on the portal comprises operational ice information routinely generated by the contributing national ice services and Polar View, whereby the majority of products are derived from earth observation data. The ice information on the portal is integrated by geographic coverage to facilitate user access to products generated for the same area by different ice centers. To this end, 30 regions were defined across the Arctic and Antarctic. Since its inception in 2007, users have downloaded more than 100,000 products from the portal. The IPY Ice Logistics Portal does not replace any existing venues for the dissemination of operational sea ice products, but simply serves as an additional window of access to products generated for a given geographic area. The portal will continue to function after the end of IPY, and it is anticipated that it will become the basis for further integration of operational sea ice products generated by national ice services worldwide. The operation and maintenance of the portal is currently being transferred to the German Ice Service, and it is envisioned that the portal will be integrated into the WMO information infrastructure in the long term. Keywords: sea ice, operations, earth observation. (Au)

G
Databases; Ice leads; Information services; Logistics; Sea ice; Spatial distribution; Temporal variations

G01
Polar regions


An education and outreach atlas based on geospatial infrastructures : lessons learned from the development of an on-line polar atlas   /   Pulsifer, P.L.   Hayes, A.   Fiset, J.P.   Taylor, D.R.F.
In: Conference proceedings : First International Circumpolar Conference on Geospatial Sciences and Applications, IPY GeoNorth 2007 = Actes de la conférence : première conférence circumpolaire internationale sur les sciences géospatiales et leurs applications, API GéoNord 2007. - [Ottawa] : Natural Resources Canada, 2007, [10] p., ill., maps
References.
ASTIS record 63479.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Since 2002, the authors have been contributing to the establishment of a community-driven geospatial infrastructure for the South polar region. This geospatial infrastructure has been used to support the development of a prototype on-line atlas of Antarctica. This prototype will contribute to the establishment of an on-line polar atlas planned for release during the International Polar Year. Methods used to develop the geospatial infrastructure underlying the atlas included community review and adoption of OGC and ISO specifications and standards. Standards and standards-based technologies were then used to develop a series standard semantics and geospatial web services. Interoperable semantics and services are being used to expose the framework and domain specific datasets serving The Atlas. Efforts to establish a geospatial infrastructure for the Antarctic region have resulted in a series of baseline standards and services for delivering framework datasets. In addition, community semantics in the form of an ISO compliant feature catalogue and related geo-ontology now exist. Research related to developing The Atlas has resulted in a widely available open source atlas development framework. The discussion includes lessons learned in relation to the establishment of a community of practice, adoption of standards and development process. The paper concludes with a review of current and future research and development activities in the context of developing a geospatial infrastructure for the Canadian North. Included are discussion highlights existing applications related to community development, resource monitoring, environmental management and supporting sovereignty claims in the Canadian North. (Au)

A, Y, R
Community development; Databases; Education; Electronic data processing; Management; Maps; Planning; Quality assurance; Sovereignty; Spatial distribution; Specifications; World Wide Web

G15, G081, G0813
Antarctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Nunavut


An education and outreach atlas based on geospatial infrastructure : lessons learned from the development of an on-line polar atlas = Atlas pédagogique destiné au grand public fondé sur une infrastructure géographique : leçons tirées de la conception d'un atlas polaire en ligne   /   Pulsifer, P.L.   Hayes, A.   Fiset, J.P.   Taylor, D.R.F.
(IPY GeoNorth 2007 : First International Circumpolar Conference on Geospatial Sciences and Applications, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, August 20 to 24, 2007 = API GeoNord 2007 : Première conférence circumpolaire internationale sur les sciences géospatiales et leurs applications, Yellowknife, Territoires du Nord-Ouest, Canada, du 20 au 24 août 2007. Geomatica (Ottawa), v. 62, no. 2, 2008, p. 169-187, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 65341.
Languages: English and French
Libraries: ACU

Since 2002, the authors have been contributing to the establishment of a community-driven geospatial infrastructure for the South polar region. This geospatial infrastructure has been used to support the development of a prototype on-line atlas of Antarctica. This prototype will contribute to the establishment of an on-line polar atlas planned for release during the International Polar Year. Methods used to develop the geospatial infrastructure underlying the atlas included community review and adoption of OGC and ISO specifications and standards. Standards and standards-based technologies were then used to develop a series standard semantics and geospatial web services. Interoperable semantics and services are being used to expose the framework and domain specific datasets serving The Atlas. Efforts to establish a geospatial infrastructure for the Antarctic region have resulted in a series of baseline standards and services for delivering framework datasets. In addition, community semantics in the form of an ISO compliant feature catalogue and related geo-ontology now exist. Research related to developing The Atlas has resulted in a widely available open source atlas development framework. The discussion includes lessons learned in relation to the establishment of a community of practice, adoption of standards and development process. The paper concludes with a review of current and future research and development activities in the context of developing a geospatial infrastructure for the Canadian North. Included are discussion highlights existing applications related to community development, resource monitoring, environmental management and supporting sovereignty claims in the Canadian North. (Au)

A, Y, R
Community development; Databases; Education; Electronic data processing; Management; Maps; Planning; Quality assurance; Sovereignty; Spatial distribution; Specifications; World Wide Web

G15, G081, G0813
Antarctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Nunavut


Extreme responses to climate change in Antarctic lakes   /   Quayle, W.C.   Peck, L.S.   Peat, H.   Ellis-Evans, J.C.   Harrigan, P.R.
(Science, v.295, no.5555, 25 Jan. 2002, p. 645, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 52002.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.1064074
Libraries: ACU

We report data for maritime Antarctic lakes showing extremely fast physical ecosystem change, combined with the ecological responses to that change. Nutrient levels at some sites exhibit order of magnitude increases per decade. Polar lakes are early detectors of environmental change because snow and ice cover variation markedly affect all ecological variables. ... Signy Island (60°43'S, 45°38'W) lies at the confluence of the ice-bound Weddell Sea and warmer Scotia Sea. Its climate is governed by the interaction of cold and warm air masses from the two areas. ... Its 17 lakes represent all maritime Antarctic lacustrine environments. ... Declining permanent ice cover, coinciding with an almost 1 °C rise in summer air temperatures ... has radically affected Signy Island since the 1950s .... Mean winter temperatures for nine Signy Island lakes increased by 0.9 °C between 1980 and 1995 .... whereas local sea temperatures were unchanged. The mean increase is three to four times global mean temperature increases ... and two to three times local summer air temperature increases. Reduced lake snow and ice cover are caused by reductions in both permanent terrestrial ice cover and albedo, which facilitate catchment warming. ... Photographic estimates suggest that Signy's permanent ice cover has receded by ~45% since 1951. ... Antarctic lake phytoplankton respond extremely sensitively to light .... Chlorophyll a concentrations significantly increased in seven of the nine oligotrophic lakes .... Trends in Signy Island lakes from 1980 to 1995 indicate that local climate change has been translated into extreme ecological change. Marked responses by lake biota and increased nutrient levels appear linked to deglaciation and reductions in lake snow and ice cover. (Au)

F, E, H, G, B
Albedo; Atmospheric temperature; Bottom sediments; Carbon; Chlorophyll; Climate change; Deglaciation; Effects of climate on ice; Effects of climate on snow; Glacial melt waters; Heat budgets; Heat transmission; Ice cover; Light; Melting; Nitrogen; Oligotrophic lakes; Phosphorus; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Plant nutrition; Seasonal variations; Snow; Snow cover; Snowmelt; Solar radiation; Thickness; Water pH

G15
Signy Island, Antarctic regions


Landscape control of high latitude lakes in a changing climate   /   Quesada, A.   Vincent, W.F.   Kaup, E.   Hobbie, J.E.   Laurion, I.   Pienitz, R.   López-Martínez, J.   Durán, J.-J.
In: Trends in Antarctic terrestrial and limnetic ecosystems : Antarctica as a global indicator / Edited by D.M. Bergstrom, P. Convey, and A.H.L. Huiskes. - Dordrecht, Netherlands : Springer, 2006, ch. 11, p. 221-252, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 74135.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... In this review, we take a two-step approach towards examining climate-landscape-lake interactions in high latitude environments. First, we examine the general effects of landscapes on lake ecosystems through factors such as geomorphology, solute transport, vegetation and hydrology. We then examine how these properties are linked to climate, resulting in a set of mechanisms whereby climate change can have pronounced impacts on lakes. Throughout this review, we have drawn on examples from both polar regions. Lake ecosystems are an important part of the Arctic landscape and there are limnological similarities to Antarctica. In both regions permanently frozen soils exert a strong influence on catchment properties such as hydrological processes and geochemical interactions. Similarly in both regions, snow and ice cover are major controls on the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. There is a long history of limnological research in high northern latitudes and much of this information is directly relevant to Antarctica. ... Much of the Subarctic and Arctic became ice-free in the early Holocene and the limnology and paleolimnology of northern lakes therefore provide a window into the potential future states of Antarctic lakes undergoing climate change. ... CONCLUSIONS. Landscape exerts a broad range of controls on the properties and dynamics of lakes in both polar regions. The primary effect over long time scales is on basin and catchment geomorphology, hydrological flow patterns and connections with the sea. Over shorter timescales, climate can have a strong effect on permafrost degradation, rock weathering, soil formation, erosion and vegetation development. Each of these processes in turn affects the chemical, physical and biological properties of downstream receiving waters. Most of the variations that have been observed over the last few decades are the result of slow or continuous change in climatic conditions. In the future, however, more rapid andpronounced alterations are likely. In high latitude landscapes where permafrost, glaciers, snowpack and other cryosperic features are so dependent upon persistent cold, small temperature changes are likely to have abrupt, threshold-dependent effects that in turn impact strongly on lakes. (Au)

F, A, J, E, D, H, I
Active layer; Albedo; Atmospheric temperature; Benthos; Biomass; Carbon; Carbon dioxide; Climate change; Electrical properties; Environmental impacts; Erosion; Evaporation; Flow; Fresh-water ecology; Frost action; Geology; Geomorphology; Glacial deposits; Glacier lakes; Glaciers; Groundwater; Hydrology; Lake stratification; Lakes; Nitrogen cycling; Permafrost; Plant nutrition; Plants (Biology); Precipitation (Meteorology); Primary production (Biology); Quaternary period; Rivers; Roots; Runoff; Salinity; Sea level; Sea water; Sediment transport; Size; Slopes; Snow; Snowmelt; Soil moisture; Soils; Spatial distribution; Suspended solids; Temperature; Temporal variations; Water pH; Watersheds; Weathering; Wetlands

G15, G02
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Students On Ice - advancing polar education = Students On Ice - promotion des études en science polaire   /   Ralph, C.
(Newsletter for the Canadian Antarctic Research Network = Bulletin pour le Réseau de recherches antarctiques du Canada, v. 22, Nov. 2006, p. 11-13, ill.)
English and French text on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English and French PDF files.
ASTIS record 65127.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/%28CARN%29/carn_vol22_eng.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/carn_vol22_fre[1].pdf
Libraries: ACU

In June 2006, Canada submitted an Information Paper to the XXIX Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) on the successful Students on Ice expeditions (SOI). This award winning educational organization, based in Chelsea, Quebec, has undertaken six expeditions to the Antarctic Peninsula area, and five expeditions to the Arctic regions in successive summer seasons, with approximately 150 students each year since its inception seven years ago. The philosophy behind the program is to inspire and educate high-school and university students who will soon embark on their adult careers. These future decision-makers are those who will be directly affected by climate change, the consequences of management of natural resources and international politics, and are in a unique and favourable position to benefit from the experiences and perspectives that Antarctica and the polar regions can offer. The upcoming SOI expeditions to the Antarctic and the Arctic, in 2007-09, have been endorsed by the International Council of Science/World Meteorological Organization (WMO) International Polar Year( IPY) Joint Committee as a prominent and valuable part of the IPY programme. SOI is striving to have youth from around the world, including all Antarctic Treaty nations, participate in these educational expeditions, to raise internationally awareness about IPY, and inspire a next generation of polar researchers and decision-makers: part of a lasting legacy from the IPY. With the IPY fast approaching, and the world focused on the many extraordinary changes happening in the polar regions, SOI has several IPY youth-related activities planned. The SOI-IPY expeditions will launch in August 2007 to the Arctic and in December 2007 to the Antarctic. These Arctic and Antarctic expeditions will be the largest initiative of their kind in the world taking youth to both the Poles during the IPY years. The educational expeditions are intended to provide exciting and life-changing experiences to over 500 international youth as they explore the polar regions. Highschool and university students will journey together with teams of international scientists, polar and environmental experts, educators and journalists on ice-strengthened vessels with about 100 participants per expedition. ... (Au)

R, T, L, V, J, I, E
Biology; Career aspirations; Climate change; Communication; Curricula; Ecology; Education; Environmental impacts; Expeditions; Government; History; Icebreakers; International Polar Year 2007-08; Internet; Inuit; Natural resource management; Public education campaigns; Public participation; Research; Research organizations; Research personnel; Science; Scientists; Social interaction; Students on Ice; Students on Ice; Sustainable economic development; Teachers; Telecommunication; Youth

G01
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic waters; Arctic regions; Arctic waters


Nutrients, algal biomass and communities in land-fast ice and seawater off Adélie Land (Antarctica)   /   Riaux-Gobin, C.   Tréguer, P.   Poulin, M.   Vétion, G.
(Antarctic science, v. 12, no. 2, June 2000, p. 160-171, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 48581.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0954102000000213
Libraries: ACU

Land-fast ice in the vicinity of Adélie Land was sampled during spring 1995. The ice was annual, thin, with no consistent snow cover, and exposed to oceanic conditions. Temporal and spatial variations of the vertical pigment distribution were studied in relation to environmental factors, during the break-up of the ice. Different levels were sampled in the congelation ice and the platelet ice-like layer (PLI). Under-ice water and open water masses were also sampled. The algal biomass was greater in the PLI (24 ± 14 µg chl alpha / l offshore and up to 9 mg chl alpha / l near-shore), than in the under-ice water, and fell to 0.9 ± 0.64 µg chl alpha / l in open water masses. Homogenous low pigment concentrations were detected in the upper levels of congelation ice. A gradient was identified along a 7 km seaward transect, sampled in November, with the lowest biomass offshore. The integrated pigment concentrations in fast ice reached very high levels (>500 mg chl alpha / m² near the coast and 0.8 mg/m² offshore), with apparently no relationship with either the ice thickness or snow cover. In the congelation ice nutrient concentrations were low and their distribution homogenous, whereas in the PLI high concentrations of nitrate (up to 100-300 µM NO3-) and silicic acid [30-100 µM Si(OH)4] were detected, often related to high pigment concentrations and proximity to islands. The sea ice algae communities were diverse, but mostly composed of chain-forming and tube-dwelling pennate diatoms (Amphiprora, Berkeleya, Nitzschia and Navicula). Cell densities in PLI reached up to 10**10 cells/l. At very low biomass and cell densities (20,000 cells/l) the phytoplankton also had a low diversity: some species were similar to those of the PLI, such as Navicula glaciei, but others were typically planktonic (Chaetoceros). At sea ice break-up it is estimated that a significant proportion of particulate matter (up to 0.5 chl alpha / m² near-shore) was transferred to the underlying water masses (on an average 15 t POC/km shoreline). (Au)

G, F, D, H, J
Algae; Biomass; Breakup; Diatoms; Fast ice; Marine ecology; Melting; Microorganisms; Oceanography; Phytoplankton; Plant nutrition; Polynyas; Sea water; Snow cover

G15
Adélie Coast, Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters; Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctic regions; McMurdo Sound, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Land-fast ice microalgal and phytoplanktonic communities (Adélie Land, Antarctica) in relation to environmental factors during ice break-up   /   Riaux-Gobin, C.   Poulin, M.   Prodon, R.   Treguer, P.
(Antarctic science, v. 15, no. 3, Sept. 2003, p. 353-364, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 54646.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0954102003001378
Libraries: ACU

Annual land-fast ice, particularly an unconsolidated layer or “platelet ice-like” layer (PLI), was sampled in spring 1995 to study the spatial and short-term variations of ice-associated diatoms. Under-ice water, a lead and small polynyas were also sampled. Along a 7 km seaward transect a geographical gradient was evident, with some rare diatom species present only in the offshore PLI, whereas others (mainly pennate diatoms) were ubiquitous. The dense microphytic PLI community as well as the phytoplankton was diatom-dominated, but, within these two communities, marked differences appeared. First, the sea-ice communities (PLI and solid bottom ice) were moderately diverse (36 species), mostly composed of pennate diatoms, of which many were chain forming or tube-dwelling. Dominant taxa were Navicula glaciei, Berkeleya adeliensis, Nitzschia stellata, Amphiprora kufferathii and Nitzschia lecointei. Some differences in the distribution of the most dominant species appeared within the bottom ice and the PLI, attesting to differences in the origin or/and growing capability of these diatoms in these two ice compartments. Under-ice water species composition was mixed with sea-ice communities only on the most coastal sites and during ice melt. Maximum cell numbers were mostly noticed in the PLI, reaching up to 10**10 cells/l and very high Chl a concentrations (exceptionally up to 9.8 mg Chl a/l or 1.9 g Chl a/m², from a 10 to 20 cm thick PLI layer, close to the continent). Secondly, the phytoplankton in the lead and small polynyas had a low diversity, very low standing stocks (on an average 0.69 µg Chl a/l) and cell densities (2 × 10**4 cells/l). Some species from the polynyas were similar to those of the PLI, such as Navicula glaciei, but others were typically planktonic, such as Chaetoceros cf. neglectus. The presence of encysted cells (Chaetoceros and Chrysophytes) was also noticeable in the polynya water. In early spring no seeding process was obvious from the PLI to polynya water. A comparison with similar fast-ice diatom communities in other parts of coastal Antarctica, is presented. (Au)

G, H, D, J, F
Algae; Breakup; Carbon cycling; Diatoms; Fast ice; Food chain; Pack ice; Phytoplankton; Plant distribution; Plant ecology; Plant nutrition; Polynyas; Sea ice ecology; Snow cover; Temporal variations

G15
Adélie Coast, Antarctic regions


Direct human impacts on high-latitude lakes and rivers   /   Riddle, M.J.   Muir, D.C.G.
In: Polar lakes and rivers : limnology of Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems / Edited by W.F. Vincent and J. Laybourn-Parry. - Oxford, U.K. : Oxford University Press, 2008, ch. 16, p. 291-306
References.
ASTIS record 66532.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

In this chapter we review and compare possible causes of environmental impacts to lake and river systems in the Arctic and Antarctica, with emphasis on the direct effects of local human activities. Potential impacts fall into three broad categories: physical processes; chemical contamination; and the introduction of exotic species, including microbial contaminants, and in this chapter we focus on physical and chemical impacts. By way of examples, we illustrate similarities and differences between the Arctic and Antarctic and identify characteristics of high-latitude lake and river systems that may influence their susceptibility to anthropogenic disturbance, including potential cumulative or synergistic effects of local disturbance during a time of rapid global change. (Au)

J, F, E, L, P, Q
Acid rain; Air pollution; Atmospheric circulation; Environmental impacts; Erosion; Eutrophic lakes; Gasoline spills; Heavy metals; Hydrocarbons; Lake stratification; Lakes; Light; Mercury; Metals; Mining; Nitrogen oxides; Oil spills; PAHs; Petroleum industry; Phosphorus; Pollution; POPs; Radionuclides; Rivers; Roads; Sedimentation ; Sulphur dioxide; Suspended solids; Temperature

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Photophysiological evidence of nutrient limitation of platelet ice algae in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica   /   Robinson, D.H.   Arrigo, K.R.   Kolber, Z.   Gosselin, M.   Sullivan, C.W.
(Journal of phycology, v. 34, no. 5, Oct. 1998, p. 788-797, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47577.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.1998.340788.x
Libraries: ACU

Seasonally changing photophysiological and biochemical characteristics of sea ice microalgae are interpreted with respect to light availability and measurements of nutrient concentration made at high vertical resolution (12.5 cm) during a dense bloom in the platelet ice layer of McMurdo Sound during a 6-week study in austral spring of 1989. Platelet ice algae remained highly shade adapted throughout the spring as shown by their low photoadaptive index (Ek, 3.7-8.4 µ mol photons/m²/s), low mean specific absorption coefficient (<0.009 m²/mg Chl a), high optical cross-sectional area of photosystem II (sigma PSH, 3.0-8.2), and high molar ratio of fucoxanthin:chlorophyll a (mean = 1.62 ±0.15 SD). Between 24 October and 8 November, the algae exhibited a photoacclimative response that was marked by a 30% decrease in photosynthetic efficiency (alpha B), a 75% decrease in maximum photosynthetic rate (PBm), and a 60% increase in sigma PSH. The photochemical conversion efficiency at photosystem II (Fv/Fm = ca. 0.5) and the quantum yield of photosynthesis (phi C = 0.062-0.078 mol C/mol photons) were ca. 80% of their maximal values. After 8 November, changes in algal photophysiology and biochemistry, which were inconsistent with a photoacclimation response, suggest that the platelet ice algae near the platelet/congelation ice interface became increasingly nutrient limited. The number of pennate diatoms increased threefold to 150 × 10**9 cells/m³ between 8 and 14 November, then remained unchanged throughout the remainder of the field season. Following the increase in cell number, Fv/Fm, phi C, and C:Chl a decreased by >40%, sigma PSH increased by 70%; and the biochemical ratios C:N and C:Si increased 25%-30%. Nutrient depletion was apparent from the high-resolution vertical profiles, but nutrient concentrations limiting algal growth were not observed. However, nutrient concentrations at the likely site of nutrient limitation near the platelet/congelation ice interface were not measured, indicating that higher resolution sampling is necessary to fully characterize this highly variable habitat. (Au)

H, G, J
Adaptation (Biology); Algae; Biochemistry; Effects of temperature on plants; Photosynthesis; Plant growth; Plant nutrition; Plant physiology; Sea ice ecology

G15
McMurdo Sound, Antarctic regions


Temperature dependence of UV radiation effects on Antarctic cyanobacteria   /   Roos, J.C.   Vincent, W.F.
(Journal of phycology, v. 34, no. 1, Feb. 1998, p. 118-125, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47576.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/119.pdf
Web: doi:10.1046/j.1529-8817.1998.340118.x
Libraries: ACU

The mat-forming cyanobacterium, Phormidium murrayi West and West isolated from a meltwater pond on the McMurdo Ice Shelf was grown in unialgal batch cultures to evaluate the temperature dependence of ultraviolet radiation (VVR) effects on pigment composition, growth rate, and photosynthetic characteristics. Chlorophyll a concentrations per unit biomass were generally reduced in cells grown under UVR (low UV-A plus UV-B). In vivo absorbance spectra showed that the carotenoid/chlorophyll a ratio increased as a function of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) and UVR exposure and varied inversely with temperature. Ultraviolet inhibition of growth (Percentage reduction of µ max at each temperature) increased linearly with decreasing temperature, consistent with the hypothesis that net inhibition represents the balance between temperature-independent photochemical damage and temperature-dependent biosynthetic repair. There was no significant effect of UVR on photosynthesis over the first hour of exposure, but significant UV inhibition was observed after 5 days. Unlike growth, however, there was no apparent effect of temperature on the magnitude of UV inhibition of photosynthesis. These results imply that assays of UVR effects on photosynthesis are not an accurate guide to growth responses and that low ambient temperatures can have a major influence on the UV sensitivity of polar organisms. In a set of assays at 20 °C (preacclimation under 300 µ mol photons/m²/s and 20 °C), growth was strongly depressed by UVR over the first day of exposure but then gradually increased over the subsequent 4 days, approaching the growth rates in the minus UVR control. This evidence of acquired tolerance indicates that the damaging effects of UVR will be most severe in environments where there is a mismatch between the timescale of change in exposure and the timescale of UV acclimation. (Au)

H, E
Biomass; Carotenoids; Chlorophyll; Cyanophyceae; Effects of temperature on plants; Photosynthesis; Plant growth; Puddles; Ultraviolet radiation

G15
McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions


Polar wilderness : what does it contribute and to whom?   /   Roots, F.
In: Arctic wilderness : the 5th World Wilderness Congress / Edited by V.G. Martin and N. Tyler. - Golden, Colo. : North American Press, 1995, p. 118-127
ASTIS record 44154.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... The polar wilderness has evoked a strong spiritual and psychological response in humans. One powerful aspect is the stimulation of communication with and appreciation for elemental natural beauty and perspective, solitude and space, the "power of the elements," and the relationship between humans and their surroundings that has an uplifting and stabilizing effect on individuals and communities. This salutary influence of wilderness, often particularly strong in the polar regions, is increasingly valuable in the industrialized, hurried, and crowded world of today. ... But there are other dimensions to the psychological effects of polar wildernesses. Among many individuals and societies that put high value on competition and conquest, the elemental wildness and severity of polar environments have often aroused personal and political challenge, served as a focus for the entrepreneurial energy, or stimulated an impulse to battle an uncompromising adversary. ... In strong contrast to either of these quite different responses, among societies that have lived for generations within the severe arctic environment, the same wildness of polar regions has led to an ethos of belonging to nature, and immersion within it of long mental perspective, behavioral and cultural accommodation to natural change, and careful observation whetted by severe natural conditions, resulting in an integration of physical, artistic, and spiritual attributes with dimensions quite different from those of societies living in environmentally more benign areas. This, too, is a societal response to polar wilderness. These distinct responses to the polar wilderness have emphasized and to a degree shaped the differences between those societies dedicated to the dominance of nature and those societies whose success depends upon harmony with nature. They have influenced the course of empires, investments, literature and art, and government policies over the centuries. For better or for worse, all three responses are strongly with us today. ... What do polar wildernesses contribute? They have provided essential elements of history, culture, knowledge, psyche, and spirit, for better or for worse, for at least the past 2,300 years. Today, particularly, they are important to our self-awareness, our environment, and to what actions we can take towards a sustainable future. To whom do they contribute? To each of us, no matter where we live. (Au)

J, S, V, T
Co-management; Environmental protection; Expeditions; Exploration; Government; History; Management; Native peoples; Natural area preservation; Pollution; Research; Science; Self-determination; Tourist trade; Traditional knowledge; Treaties; Wilderness areas; Wildlife management

G01
Polar regions


Latitude effect of the cosmic ray nucleon and meson components at sea level from the Arctic to the Antarctic   /   Rose, D.C.   Fenton, K.B.   Katzman, J.   Simpson, J.A.
(Canadian journal of physics, v. 34, no. 9, Sept. 1956, p. 968-984, ill., map)
(NRCC - National Research Council of Canada, no. 4044)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 64578.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1139/p56-107
Libraries: ACU

Results are presented of cosmic ray measurements taken at sea level during 1954-55 from the Arctic to the Antarctic. The equipment consisted of a neutron monitor and a meson telescope. Latitude effects of 1.77 for the nucleonic component and 1.15 for the meson component were measured. The longitude effect at the equator was much less than expected on the basis of the geomagnetic eccentric dipole and the longitude effect at intermediate northern latitudes shows that the longitude of the effective eccentric dipole is considerably west of that of the geomagnetic eccentric dipole. In a previous paper by the same authors, the positions of the equatorial minima were combined with other published cosmic ray measurements to calculate a new cosmic ray geomagnetic equator. In this paper new coordinates are derived on the assumption that these equatorial coordinates apply to a new eccentric dipole, and, therefore, that the equatorial coordinates may be extended to high latitudes. When the complete results are plotted on these coordinates, it is found that an eccentric dipole representation of the earth's magnetic field is inconsistent with the combined observations at all latitudes. (Au)

Y, B, E
Atmospheric pressure; Cosmic rays; Equipment and supplies; Geomagnetism; Instruments; Solar radiation; Spatial distribution

G0815, G07, G04, G05, G11, G15, G0825
Antarctic waters; Beaufort Sea; Bering Sea; Canadian Arctic waters; Chicago, Illinois; Chukchi Sea; Colorado; North Atlantic Ocean; North Pacific Ocean; Ottawa, Ontario; South Atlantic Ocean; South Pacific Ocean


Australian and Canadian initiatives in polar marine environmental protection : a comparative review   /   Rothwell, D.R.
(Polar record, v. 34, no.191, Oct. 1998, p. 305-316)
References.
ASTIS record 45672.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247400026012
Libraries: ACU

Increasing attention has been given to the protection of the polar marine environment throughout the 1990s. In the case of the Antarctic Treaty System, in addition to a number of recommendations and measures adopted at Antarctic Treaty Meetings, the 1991 Madrid Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty contains a number of measures that will enhance marine environmental protection in the Southern Ocean. In the case of the Arctic, the 1991 Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy identified marine pollution as being one of the major environmental issues in the Arctic, and a number of initiatives have since been developed to encourage the Arctic states to deal with the problem collectively and individually. However, while the collective responses of the polar states have been helpful in giving prominence to the importance of marine environmental protection in polar waters, it is the coastal states of the polar regions that need to take responsibility to give effect to these initiatives. Australia and Canada are two of the most prominent polar states in Antarctica and the Arctic, respectively. Both have large maritime claims and have also developed a range of domestic legal and policy responses to enhance marine environmental protection in the polar regions. A review is undertaken of the respective global and regional marine environmental protection regimes that apply in the polar regions, followed by a comparative analysis of the Australian and Canadian initiatives. (Au)

J, R
Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy; Environmental policy; Environmental protection; Government regulations; International law; Marine pollution; Maritime law; United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

G081, G01
Antarctic waters; Australia; Canadian Arctic waters; Polar regions


Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO2 exchange in the Arctic and southern oceans   /   Rysgaard, S.   Bendtsen, J.   Delille, B.   Dieckmann, G.S.   Glud, R.N.   Kennedy, H.   Mortensen, J.   Papadimitriou, S.   Thomas, D.N.   Tison, J.-L.
(Tellus, v.63B, no. 5, Nov. 2011, p. 823-830, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 76646.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2011.00571.x
Libraries: ACU

Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO2 and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO2 exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air-sea CO2 exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO2 uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO2 uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea-ice driven CO2 uptake has not been considered so far in estimates of global oceanic CO2 uptake. Net CO2 uptake in sea-ice-covered oceans can be driven by: (1) rejection during sea-ice formation and sinking of CO2-rich brine into intermediate and abyssal oceanic water masses, (2) blocking of air-sea CO2 exchange during winter, and (3) release of CO2-depleted melt water with excess total alkalinity during sea-ice decay and (4) biological CO2 drawdown during primary production in sea ice and surface oceanic waters. (Au)

G, E, J, D
Atmospheric chemistry; Carbon cycling; Carbon dioxide; Chemical oceanography; Formation; Ice cover; Mathematical models; Melting; Ocean currents; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Polynyas; Primary production (Biology); Salinity; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Water masses

G03, G15
Antarctic waters; Arctic Ocean


Improved representation of sea-ice processes in climate models   /   Saenko, O.A.   Flato, G.M.   Weaver, A.J.
(Atmosphere-ocean, v. 40, no. 1, Mar. 2002, p. 21-43, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 51882.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3137/ao.400102
Libraries: ACU

The apparent sensitivity of high latitudes to climate perturbations has spurred the development of global climate model components with improved parametrizations of sea-ice related processes. We focus on two of these. The first involves the ocean component in which we generalize a recently developed parametrization of brine rejection during sea-ice formation for use in a multi-category sea-ice model (i.e., one that resolves the thickness distribution function). The parametrization employs initial subsurface mixing of brine-enriched surface waters resulting from sea-ice growth. It is implemented in the University of Victoria coupled model, and numerical experiments are performed to highlight the physical processes and feedbacks involved. It is shown that a better representation of brine rejection improves the simulation of intermediate and deep ocean waters. Over the Arctic Ocean it also improves the simulation of the warm Atlantic Layer and sharpens the halocline. The second part of this paper focuses on the sea-ice component. We perform a series of stand-alone sea-ice model experiments comparing a recently developed multi-layer energy-conserving thermodynamic scheme with the simplified scheme used in many existing climate models. Experiments are done with and without the inclusion of dynamic processes (ice motion and deformation). Of particular interest is the impact of changes in the representation of dynamic and thermodynamic processes on the response of sea ice to climate perturbations. This is accomplished by comparing results obtained with present-day and future climate forcing, the latter obtained from the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled climate model. We find that the more sophisticated thermodynamic scheme increases the sensitivity of ice volume, but decreases the sensitivity of ice area. As in previous studies, the introduction of ice dynamics tends to reduce sensitivity relative to a thermodynamic-only model. (Au)

E, G, D
Climate change; Effects of climate on ice; Formation; Heat transmission; Hydrography; Mathematical models; Ocean temperature; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Salinity; Sea ice; Thermodynamics; Thickness

G01
Polar regions


Sander Geophysics explores the Antarctic = Sander Geophysics explore l'Antarctique
(Newsletter for the Canadian Antarctic Research Network = Bulletin pour le Réseau canadien de recherches antarctiques, v. 26, Nov. 2008, p. 17-19, ill., map)
References.
English and French text on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English and French PDF files.
ASTIS record 69152.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/CARN26.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/(CARN)/RCRA26.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Sander Geophysics Limited (SGL) [Ottawa] has earned the privilege of participating in the Antarctica's Gamburtsev Province Project (AGAP). This is a project funded by the US National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs for International Polar Year (IPY). In May and June of 2007, teams from SGL and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University installed SGL's Airborne Inertially Referenced Gravimeter (AIRGrav) in a Kenn Borek DCH-6 Twin Otter aircraft in Calgary. Once installed, the aircraft performed test flights over the Rocky Mountains and was then flown to Ellesmere Island in Nunavut to test the system at high latitudes over the North Pole. The tests proved very successful in terms of AIRGrav data quality, noise levels, and GPS control. This success led the AGAP team to select AIRGrav over other gravimeters for the demanding Antarctic survey. The Rockies tests have been described by Studinger and others (2008). In May and June 2008, teams from SGL and AGAP returned to Calgary where they installed the AIRGrav system along with the full suite of AGAP geophysical equipment in the Twin Otter. The aircraft flew a set of successful test flights over the Greenland ice sheet as a final verification of the survey platform before heading south to Antarctica. The AGAP's central focus is to gather information to accurately characterize the tectonic origin of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, approximately 3 km below the million-year-old ice sheet in the deep interior of East Antarctica .... In addition, the project will study the relationship between these mountains and the overlying ice sheet and subglacial lakes, and identify the location of the oldest ice to enable the recovery of the oldest climate record. The survey will take place from December 2008 to January 2009. The team from SGL, that will join the AGAP team in Antarctica, consists of SGL Data Processing Manager Dr Martin Bates, Senior Geophysicist Stefan Elieff and Technician Daniel Geue. SGL's AIRGrav system will collect information about the buried mountains' structure during the combined airborne gravity and magnetic survey. The Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University will operate a laser altimeter that will simultaneously scan the surface of the ice during flights to provide information on surface elevation, a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that will measure ice thickness and layering in order to map the shape of the buried bedrock, and magnetometers to map the magnetic fields of the bedrock. ... (Au)

B, F, A
Aerial surveys; Airplanes; Geographical positioning systems; Geology; Geophysical exploration; Gravity measurement; Ice sheets; Instruments; Laser profilometry; Magnetic surveys; Plate tectonics; Quality assurance; Research personnel; SAR; Testing; Thickness; Topography

G15
East Anatarctic Ice Sheet, Antarctic regions; Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, Antarctic regions


Comparative diving patterns of pinnipeds and seabirds   /   Schreer, J.F.   Kovacs, K.M.   O'Hara Hines, R.J.
(Ecological monographs, v. 71, no. 1, Feb. 2001, p. 137-162, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 50472.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.2307/3100048
Libraries: ACU

General ecological information resulting from modern dive studies has been limited because analyses and conclusions are study- and species-specific. In this work, a series of unrelated divers was studied and compared using the same analytical procedures. More than 230 000 dives from 12 species were analyzed, and ~140 000 of these dives were classified according to dive shape. The species included one cormorant, three penguins, two eared seals, five true seals, and a walrus. Dive profiles could generally be characterized as one of four shapes: square, V, skewed right, or skewed left. In light of this, a universal shape classification protocol was developed that also offers potential solutions for “on board” memory limitations and transmission constraints for archival time-depth recorders and satellite-linked time-depth recorders. Comparisons of dive data recorded with different sample intervals indicated the need for a standardization relative to mean dive duration (i.e., an equal number of data points per dive). Comparative analyses across these dive types and the different species revealed that square dives were always, and by far, the most abundant dive type, usually followed by V dives, and then the skewed dives. The percentage of time that the animals spent at the bottom of square dives (~50%), as well as the variation in depth during this bottom time (~15%) were also quite uniform across species, indicating that similar foraging patterns were being used, at least relative to the shape of dives. Observed differences across species revealed that larger divers generally dived deeper and longer than did smaller ones, although fur seals and walrus were exceptions, with more limited diving performance than expected based on body size. Also, smaller divers had a tighter coupling between dive depth and duration than did larger ones, indicating that they may be more duration limited. Few other dive variables (e.g., the rate at which dive duration increases with depth, the percentage of dives within each dive type, the percentage of bottom time, the coefficient of variation of depth during bottom time, and the mean wiggle distance per depth during square dives) were affected by body size, but instead physical (water depth) and ecological (type of prey) constraints appeared to play major roles. Analyses using calculated aerobic dive limit (cADL) indicated that generic calculations are problematic and that estimates of diving metabolic rate can drastically influence cADL and resultant findings. However, even using crude estimators, comparisons of cADL across dive types indicated that square dives and V dives most often exceeded the cADL for large and small divers, respectively. This indicates that square dives and V dives may be the predominant foraging dive types for larger and smaller divers, respectively, as animals would be expected to push their limits most during this activity. However, the abundance of square dives within the small divers (>60%) indicates that these dives may have a foraging role as well. Functional analyses of the determined dive types were in general agreement with those from previous work indicating that the various dive types have foraging (benthic and pelagic), traveling, exploring, resting, and processing functions. However, for most species, except Weddell seal and southern elephant seal (rare but likely important), skewed dives were rare and are likely to be of little importance to these animals' diving regimes. Overall similarities in the dive patterns of the various species suggest that these animals exploit the aquatic environment in a similar way. (Au)

I
Animal behaviour; Animal food; Diving (Animals); Metabolism; Penguins; Sea birds; Seals (Animals); Walruses

G15
Antarctic waters


Foraminifera and associated organisms on the present Mckenzie [sic] shelf/Amundsen basin, Canadian Arctic and comparison to the Antarctic faunas   /   Scott, D.B.   Schell, T.   Rochon, A.
In: Montréal 2006 résumés : Congrès annuel de l'AGC/AMC : Planète terre à Montréal = Montréal 2006 abstracts : GAC-MAC Annual Meeting : planet Earth in Montreal. - [Canada] : Geological Association of Canada, 2006, v. 31, p. 137
Abstract only.
Indexed a PDF file available online.
ASTIS record 75617.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.gac.ca/activities/abstracts/ABSTRACT_VOLUME31.pdf
Libraries: ACU

As part of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES) over 50 surface locations were sampled for foraminifera for the first time in 40 years. These samples were collected in water depths ranging from 50 to 1100 m. The ultimate purpose of the surface samples is to calibrate the faunas to determine paleo-ice cover. Unlike previous studies smaller size fractions (>45>63 ?m [sic]; and above) instead of the usual 63 or 150 ?m [sic]; above fractions were examined. Some species not previously observed here were recorded such as Elphidiella hannai, a species commonly found along the British Columbia coast and a series of large agglutinated forms including two Komokiacea species, a group not recorded before anywhere in the Arctic Ocean. One species, Ammotium cassis, only occurred near methane seeps (a mud volcano and pingo-like features) suggesting that this species might be more tolerant to methane and provide a good proxy for past methane emissions when observed down core. In the smaller size fraction (45-63 ?m [sic]) there were a set of species in some places (the Amundsen Gulf) that provided evidence of deep Arctic water penetrating to depths as shallow as 150 m. The smaller size fraction often had more specimens per 10 cc than the 63 ?m [sic] and above fraction but less diversity. There was a fairly even division between the calcareous and agglutinated species which is the fundamental difference between the Arctic and Antarctic where the former has mostly agglutinated forms. Also because the Mckenzie Shelf has a large surface freshwater component the sedimentation rates are much higher here than the Antarctic which will provide us with higher time resolution records of the Holocene. Our main purpose was to be able to reconstruct the history of sea ice cover in Holocene. The key to this was obtaining cores and samples where there were sufficient planktonic foraminifera which are sensitive to ice cover changes. In samples deeper than 500 m there was a significant percentage of planktonics and where there was large freshwater input, there were tintinnids so that we now have two proxies for ice cover and freshwater (if there is a lot of freshwater, there isn't much ice cover). Hence we will be able to achieve our main goal of reconstructing Holocene ice cover history. (Au)

B, D, G, I, J, F
Animal distribution; Bottom sediments; Ciliata; Cores; Foraminifera; Ice cover; Palaeohydrology; Palaeontology; Recent epoch; River discharges; Sea ice; Sediment transport; Sedimentation; Size; Water masses; Wildlife habitat; Zooplankton

G07, G0815, G15
Amundsen Gulf, N.W.T.; Antarctic regions; Canadian Beaufort Sea


A study of valley-side slope asymmetry based on the application of GIS analysis : Alexander Island, Antarctica   /   Siegmund, M.   Hall, K.
(Antarctic science, v. 12, no. 4, Dec. 2000, p. 471-476, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 48583.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0954102000000559
Libraries: ACU

Geographic Information System (GIS) data from southern Alexander Island were used to evaluate valley asymmetry from an area where ground observations had suggested that south facing slopes were steeper than north facing. Using digital elevation modelling (DEM), data were collected from 2° and 10° arcs centred on the four cardinal directions in order to determine average slope angles for a whole nunatak area (Mars Oasis). It was found that south facing slopes were significantly steeper (34°) than the north facing (28°); east and west facing slopes were each 31°. Bedrock in this area is (approximately) horizontally bedded and so valley asymmetry is considered to be due to aspect-influenced periglacial weathering processes. (Au)

A, C, E, C, J
Aspect; Frost action; Geographic information systems; Mass wasting; Microclimatology; Periglacial landforms; Permafrost; Slopes; Valleys; Weathering

G15
Alexander Island, Antarctic regions


Ocean loading effects on the prediction of Antarctic glacial isostatic uplift and gravity rates   /   Simon, K.M.   James, T.S.   Ivins, E.R.
(Journal of geodesy, v. 84, no. 5, May 2010, p. 305-317, ill., maps)
Appendix.
References.
Ths is Geological Survey of Canada contribution, no. 20090174.
ASTIS record 74763.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s00190-010-0368-4
Libraries: ACU

The effect of regional ocean loading on predicted rates of crustal uplift and gravitational change due to glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is determined for Antarctica. The effect is found to be significant for the ICE-3G and ICE-5G loading histories (up to -8 mm/year and -3 mm/year change in uplift rate and -3 cm/year and -1 cm/year equivalent water height change (EWHC) of surface mass, respectively). The effect is smaller (+1 mm/year; +0.25 cm/year) for the IJ05 loading history. The impact of ocean loading on the rate of change of the long-wavelength zonal harmonics of the Earth’s gravitational field is also significantly smaller for IJ05 than ICE-3G. A simple analytical formula is derived that is accurate to about 3% in a root-mean-square sense that relates predicted or observed gravitational change at the surface of the Earth (r = a) to the EWHC. A fundamental difference in the definition of the load histories accounts for the differing sensitivities to ocean loading. IJ05 defines its surface load history relative to the present-day surface load, rather than specifying an absolute loading history, and thus implicitly approximates the temporal and spatial mass exchange between grounded ice and open ocean. In contrast, ICE-3G and ICE-5G specify an absolute load history and explicit regional ocean loading substantially perturbs predicted GIA rates. Conclusions of previous studies that used IJ05 predictions without ocean loading are relatively robust. (Au)

B, F, D, A, E
Climate change; Deglaciation; Elasticity; Forecasting; Geographical positioning systems; Geophysics; Glacial geology; Glaciation; Glaciology; Gravity measurement; Ice scouring; Ice sheets; Mass balance; Mathematical models; Ocean waves; Recent epoch; Satellites; Sea level; Temporal variations; Thickness

G15
Antarctic regions; Ross Sea, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Preliminary firn-densification model with 38-site dataset   /   Spencer, M.K.   Alley, R.B.   Creyts, T.T.
(Journal of glaciology, v. 47, no.159, Dec. 2001, p. 671-676, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 55794.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.3189/172756501781831765
Libraries: ACU

Firn-densification modeling based on hot isostatic pressing with power-law creep is investigated using depth-density data from 38 sites that collectively have mean annual temperatures ranging from 216 to 256 K and accumulation rates ranging from 0.022 to 1.2 m w.e./a. We use an inverse technique to obtain free parameters in a simple physical model for different stages of time-dependent firn densification. Our model works as well as or slightly better than previous models interpolating within the data range, but extrapolating would require additional physics. (Au)

F, E
Accumulation; Cores; Creep; Density; Firn; Gases in ice; Ice pressure; Mathematical models; Size; Snow; Strain; Stress; Temperature

G10, G15
Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctic regions; Antarctic regions; Byrd Station, Antarctic regions; Dome C, Antarctic regions; Greenland; Law Dome, Antarctic regions; Queen Maud Land, Antarctic regions; Vostok Station, Antarctic regions


Bacterial and archaeal diversity in permafrost   /   Steven, B.   Niederberger, T.D.   Whyte, L.G.
(Permafrost soils / Edited by R. Margesin. Soil biology, v. 16, 2009, p. 59-73)
References.
ASTIS record 70389.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/978-3-540-69371-0_5
Libraries: ACU

... Substantial numbers (up to 10**9 cells/g) of microbial cells are detected in permafrost but vary over a large range among different permafrost environments .... The ability to recover viable cells from permafrost seems to be independent of permafrost temperature or depth, but depends on the age of the permafrost. With increasing age, both the number and diversity of bacterial isolates decrease .... The amount of ice in permafrost also has a large effect on cell recovery, as increasing ice content often greatly reduces viable cell counts. ... The catalog of viable Bacteria recovered from permafrost and associated environments, currently includes at least 70 genera .... Cryopegs are lenses of supercooled, saline liquid water within the permafrost ... that can harbor substantial numbers of viable microbial cells ..... The description of viable Archaea in permafrost remains limited. ... Methods to increase the representation of cultured microbial isolates from permafrost have recently been applied. ... The recovery of viable cells from Arctic and Antarctic permafrost samples is generally facilitated by using nutrient-poor media ... suggesting that permafrost communities are primarily oligotrophic; although organic carbon is more abundant in Arctic permafrost .... Permafrost microorganisms also tend to be more halotolerant than organisms from the overlying active layer soil .... Permafrost microorganisms are primarily cold-adapted, with very few mesophilic or thermophilic isolates identified .... Culture-independent methodologies have recently been applied to the study of microbial diversity in permafrost. These studies, which use molecular-based tools to analyze DNA extracted directly from permafrost ... bypass the need for culturing and have increased the number of phylogenetic groups of Bacteria and Archaea associated with permafrost .... It should be noted that the detection of a DNA sequence is not conclusive evidence that the phylogenetically related organismis active or even viable in permafrost, as the constant subzero temperatures are ideal for DNA preservation .... Comprehensive descriptions of permafrost environments encompassing both molecular and culture-based approaches are only starting to emerge in the literature ...; therefore, it may be premature to put these into a biogeography context. Nevertheless, trends are beginning to appear including the dominance of high G + C Gram-positive organisms within permafrost as revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods .... The high similarity between 16S rRNA gene sequences and isolates recovered from permafrost samples ... and those from other similar cryoenvironments (e.g., glacial ice, sea ice, and Lake Vostok accretion ice) also suggests that cosmopolitan groups of microorganisms adapted to life at subzero temperatures exist. Conversely, several Bacteria genera detected in each of the above mentioned studies also seem to be unique to the specific location under investigation .... Taken together, these results indicate both cosmopolitan and endemic populations of microbes residing in geographically separated permafrost. ... we have little knowledge concerning the timeline or age of microbial species, or how to calibrate their evolutionary divergence .... Therefore, the age of supposed ancient organisms, including permafrost isolates ... is assumed from the age of their surrounding environment .... Both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods have revealed that permafrost harbors diverse and novel microbial communities. The future challenge for the study of permafrost microbiology is to begin to address the ecology of these unique microbial ecosystems. The knowledge gained from culture-independent surveys of microbial diversity can be used to design targeted culturing strategies in order to determine if phylogenetic groups detected by molecular strategies are part of the viable microbial community. Moreover, the characterization of the microbial component of permafrost will provide important insights into how these environments will respond to climate change in regard to the increased metabolic rates associated with higher temperatures and nutrient availability due to the melting of permafrost. The application of technologies such as stable isotope probing ... and FISH-microautoradiography ... could identify active microorganisms, and better define the functioning and maintenance of permafrost microbial ecosystems at ambient subzero temperatures. As microbial activities in situ are expected to be extremely slow and minute, new methods and technologies specific to the permafrost environment will be required. ... Developing methods to detect and characterize the active Bacteria and Archaea in permafrost will allow for the differentiation of the active microbial populations presumed to exist in permafrost from cryopreserved microbial fossils that may have remained frozen for geological time scales. (Au)

H, I, J, C
Age; Anaerobic bacteria; Animal distribution; Animal growth; Animal physiology; Animal population; Archaea; Bacteria; Carbon; Cold adaptation; Genetics; Ground ice; Interstitial water; Metabolism; Methane; Microbial ecology; Permafrost; Plant distribution; Plant growth; Plant growth; Plant nutrition; Plant physiology; Psychrotrophic bacteria; Salinity; Size; Soil microorganisms; Spores; Temperature; Unfrozen water content of permafrost

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


A review of tourism research in the polar regions   /   Stewart, E.J.   Draper, D.   Johnston, M.E.
(Arctic, v. 58, no. 4, Dec. 2005, p. 383-394, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 58153.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic58-4-383.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic452
Libraries: ACU XQKNRC

Polar travel has grown dramatically in the last two decades and in recent years has become the focus of academic inquiry. Using a model initially developed for understanding the nature of culture, action, and knowledge in the development of human geography, we explore the nature, scale, and scope of research related to tourism in the Arctic and the Antarctic. We take a comparative approach to highlight the tourism issues that are largely similar in the two polar regions. Polar tourism research appears to cluster around four main areas: tourism patterns, tourism impacts, tourism policy and management, and tourism development. By assessing these emerging research clusters, we identify research gaps and potentially fruitful lines of inquiry. (Au)

R, J, T, I
Animal diseases; Education; Environmental impacts; Expeditions; Government regulations; Human ecology; Management; Native peoples; Planning; Psychology; Research; Research funding; Research personnel; Scientists; Social interaction; Socio-economic effects; Sustainable economic development; Tourist trade

G01, G0824, G13
Antarctic regions; Churchill, Manitoba; Norway; Polar regions; Svalbard


The sinking of the MS Explorer : implications for cruise tourism in Arctic Canada   /   Stewart, E.J.   Draper, D.
(Arctic, v. 61, no. 2, June 2008, p. 224-228, ill., map)
References.
ASTIS record 64339.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic61-2-224.pdf
Web: doi:10.14430/arctic68
Libraries: ACU

Built in 1969, and affectionately known as "the little red ship," the MS Explorer was the first vessel specifically designed for transport of passengers in the polar regions .... Under the name Lindblad Explorer, she took passengers to Antarctica in the 1969-70 austral summer (Splettstoesser, 2000), and in 1984 she was the first ship to take visitors through the Northwest Passage in the Canadian Arctic. These achievements earned the Explorer an esteemed reputation in the niche polar travel sector. Ironically, however, the Explorer was also the first cruise ship to sink in polar waters, off the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, in November 2007 .... This incident is a sad tribute to the veteran polar cruise ship and a concern for all who support responsible tourism in Antarctica and who care about the conservation of the Antarctic environment. A major incident involving a cruise vessel, such as this, came as little surprise; it was an accident some observers had predicted was waiting to happen (Stewart and Draper, 2006). This prediction was premised on the facts that the number of cruise vessels operating in both the Arctic and Antarctic had been increasing and that, since 2000, large cruise liners that were not ice-strengthened had entered the Antarctic cruise market. What came as a surprise was that the first sinking was of a veteran ice-strengthened vessel designed and purposely outfitted for polar travel. Even more surprising was that, at the time of the incident, the cruise ship was operating in seemingly benign ice and calm weather conditions. This essay provides an overview of polar cruise tourism trends, highlighting the important role played by the ill-fated Explorer and describing briefly what happened to her in Antarctica, and comments on the implications of the incident for cruise tourism in light of climate warming in the Arctic. ... (Au)

L, R, W, V, J
Calving (Ice); Climate change; Emergency planning; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Expeditions; Government regulations; History; Ice navigation; Ice shelves; Icebergs; Icebreakers; Maintenance; Marine pollution; Oil spills; Planning; Safety; Sea ice; Search and rescue; Ships; Shipwrecks; Socio-economic effects; Specifications; Testing; Tourist trade; Travels

G15, G0815, G0813
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters; Arctic waters; Canadian Arctic; Canadian Arctic waters; Northwest Passage


Forty years of polar research = Quarante années de recherches polaires   /   Stirling, I.
(Meridian = Méridien, Spring/Summer 2004, p. 11-14, ill.)
References.
Text in English and French on inverted pages.
Available online as separate English or French PDF files.
ASTIS record 60531.
Languages: English and French
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/meri_04_spring_en.pdf
Web: http://www.polarcom.gc.ca/uploads/Publications/Meridian%20Newsletter/Meridien_2004_Printemps.pdf
Libraries: ACU

This [article] ... excerpt [is] from comments made by Ian Stirling on being presented with the 2003 Northern Science Award in Edmonton on October 25, 2003. (Au)

I, G, J, R, T, N
Canadian Wildlife Service; Co-management; Higher education; International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears; Marine ecology; Native peoples; Northwest Territories Wildlife Research Permits; Nunavut Wildlife Research Permits; Polar bears; Research; Research funding; Scientists; Sea ice; Seals (Animals); Wildlife management

G081, G15
Antarctic regions; Canadian Arctic


IPY Youth Expeditions to the Arctic & Antarctica (IPY Project 343)   /   Straka, T.   Trudeau, N.
In: International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, 2010, 8-12 June. - [Oslo : Research Council of Norway, 2010], presentation no. PS3-C.61, [1] p.
Abstract of a poster presentation, taken from the USB flash drive distributed at the conference.
ASTIS record 71659.
Languages: English

The six SOI-IPY Youth Expeditions (2007-2010; IPY Project 343) were noteworthy educational expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctica for secondary school and university youth from around the world. Participating youth travelled with mentor teams of leading polar scientists, experts and educators. These ice-strengthened ship-based expeditions were outstanding platforms for polar education, outreach and research. Now in its 10th year, SOI has taken over 1,500 students, educators and scientists from more than 40 countries on educational expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctica. IPY Project 343 built on SOI's experience and successes, integrating international partners and related IPY initiatives. The expeditions provided inspiring, life-changing experiences to youth; inspired the next generation of polar scientists and researchers; raised awareness internationally about IPY and polar issues; supported the development of polar curriculum and resources; created media attention and supported the creation of an IPY documentary film; and served as a tremendous IPY legacy project. This IPY project's 650+ participants developed a greater understanding and respect for the polar regions and the planet. Each expedition included approximately 75 participating youth, and teams of 35 scientists, historians, artists, explorers, authors, educators, leaders, innovators and polar experts. Participating youth were between 12-25 years. Students were selected through an application process managed by SOI and implemented in collaboration with IPY partnerships around the world. Aboriginal youth participated in each polar expedition. Participating students engaged in world-class, multi-disciplinary education program during each expedition. Expedition education programs wove together elements of experiential, expeditionary, and problem-based learning. Through participatory presentations, lectures, workshops, field excursions and hands-on activities students learned about Polar Fundamentals (a variety of polar sciences and other disciplines) and Environmental Issues & Solutions. SOI's pedagogical approach enabled students to develop their interest in polar science, their agency and become empowered to work for a sustainable future. Keywords: education, youth, science, polar. (Au)

R, L
Curricula; Expeditions; Higher education; Research; Science; Scientists; Secondary education; Students on Ice; Teachers; Youth

G01
Polar regions


Fossil rotifers and the early colonization of an Antarctic lake   /   Swadling, K.M.   Dartnell, H.J.G.   Gibson, J.A.E.   Saulnier-Talbot, É.   Vincent, W.F.
(Quaternary research, v. 55, no. 3, May 2001, p. 380-384, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 50388.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1006/qres.2001.2222
Libraries: ACU

Early Holocene sediments from a continental Antarctic lake (Ace Lake, Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica) contained abundant fossil rotifers of the genus Notholca. The fossil is similar to specimens of Notholca sp. present in modern-day Ace Lake and other fresh and brackish lakes of the Vestfold Hills. Cyanobacteria and protists (chrysophyte cysts, dinoflagellate cysts, and rhizopod tests) were also recovered from the core samples. These sediments were deposited early in the freshwater phase of Ace Lake, soon after deglaciation of the area. The occurrence of this trophically diverse assemblage of organisms at an early stage in the evolution of the lake suggests either that they were part of an endemic Antarctic flora and fauna which pre-dated the last glacial maximum and survived in glacial refugia or that efficient intercontinental dispersal had occurred. (Au)

I, H, F, B, J, A
Algae; Animal distribution; Cores; Cyanophyceae; Deglaciation; Dinoflagellata; Fresh-water biology; Lakes; Palaeoecology; Palaeontology; Phytoplankton; Plant distribution; Recent epoch; Refugia; Sediments (Geology); Zooplankton

G15
Ace Lake, Antarctic regions; East Antarctica; Vestfold Hills, Antarctic regions


Tracking the publications of the International Polar Year   /   Tahirkheli, S.N.   Goodwin, R.   Lane, H.
(2006 AGU Fall Meeting, 11-15 December 2006, San Francisco. Eos (Washington, D.C.), v. 87, no. 52, suppl., 2006, abstract ED13B-06)
Abstract of a poster presentation (ED13B-06).
Abstracts can be found online through the AGU Meeting Abstract Database: www.agu.org/meetings/abstract_db.shtml.
ASTIS record 77214.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Publications that result from the International Polar 2007-2008 (IPY) will be identified and indexed in the International Polar Year Publications Database (IPYPD). A network of four organizations will collaborate to attempt to compile and provide access to all IPY-related publications through a single database. This network includes the Arctic Science and Technology Information System (ASTIS), the Cold Regions Bibliography Project (CRBP), the Scott Polar Research Institute (SPRI) Library and National Information Services Corporation (NISC). Publications that result from research as well as publications that relate to outreach and education will be covered. The IPYPD, as part of the IPY Data and Information Service (IPYDIS) will use the IPY Data Policy to require that researchers report their publications to either ASTIS, CRBP or the SPRI library. Each of these organizations will include records for IPY publications in their existing databases which are part of the Arctic & Antarctic Regions database distributed by NISC. NISC will copy the IPY records into the separate IPY Publications Database. The comprehensiveness and size of the final database will depend on the success of fundraising, on the total number of publications that result from the IPY and on the cooperation of researchers in reporting their publications. (Au)

Y
ASTIS; Bibliographic databases; Cold Regions Bibliography Project; Information services; International Polar Year 2007-08; National Information Services Corporation; Scott Polar Research Institute

G01
Polar regions


Cyanobacterial dominance of polar freshwater ecosystems : are high-latitude mat-formers adapted to low temperature?   /   Tang, E.P.Y.   Tremblay, R.   Vincent, W.F.
(Journal of phycology, v. 33, no. 2, Apr. 1997, p. 171-181, ill.)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 033-96)
References.
ASTIS record 52432.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1111/j.0022-3646.1997.00171.x
Libraries: ACU

Although it is generally believed that cyanobacteria have high temperature optima for growth (> 20° C), mat-forming cyanobacteria are dominant in many types of lakes, streams, and ponds in the Arctic and Antarctic. We studied the effect of temperature on growth (µ) and relative pigment composition of 27 isolates of cyanobacteria (mat-forming Oscillatoriaceae) from the Arctic, subarctic, and Antarctic to investigate whether they are a) adapted to the low temperature (ie, psychrophilic) or b) tolerant of the low temperature of the polar regions (ie, psychrotrophic). We also derived a parabolic function that describes both the rise and the decline of cyanobacterial growth rates with increasing temperature. The cyanobacteria were cultured at seven different temperatures (5°-35° C at 5° C intervals), with continuous illumination of 225 µmol photons/m²/s. The parabolic function fits the µ-temperature data with 90% confidence for 75% of the isolates. Among the 27 isolates of cyanobacteria studied, the temperature optima (Topt) for growth ranged from 15° to 35° C, with an average of 19.9° C. These results imply that most polar cyanobacteria are psychrotrophs, not psychrophiles. The cyanobacteria grew over a wide temperature range (typically 20° C) but growth rates were low even at Topt (average µ max of 0.23 ±0.069/d). Extremely slow growth rates at low temperature and the high temperature for optimal growth imply that the cyanobacteria are not adapted genetically to cold temperatures, which characterize their ambient environment. Other competitive advantages such as tolerance to desiccation, freeze-thaw cycles, and bright, continuous solar radiation may contribute to their dominance in polar aquatic ecosystems. (Au)

H, E, F, J
Adaptation (Biology); Algae; Atmospheric temperature; Cyanophyceae; Effects of temperature on plants; Fresh-water ecology; Ice shelves; Lakes; Mathematical models; Photosynthesis; Plant distribution; Plant growth; Rivers; Tundra ponds

G0813, G01, G06, G0826
Alaska, Northern; Bylot Island, Nunavut; Devon Island, Nunavut; Eau Claire, Lac à l', region, Québec; Kuujjuarapik, Québec; Meretta Lake, Nunavut; Polar regions; Resolute region, Nunavut; Toolik Lake region, Alaska


Underwater calling rates of harp and Weddell seals as a function of hydrophone location   /   Terhune, J.M.   Addy, T.C.   Jones, T.A.M.   Burton, H.R.
(Polar biology, v. 24, no. 2, Jan. 2001, p. 144-146)
References.
ASTIS record 50270.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s003000000194
Libraries: ACU

Stereo recordings of harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) underwater vocalizations were made near breeding groups using separations between two hydrophones of 159-339 m. Within a large herd, harp seal call numbers varied slightly between channels. Counts of Weddell seal calls were higher near a small herd on the ice than 159-180 m away. Repeat counts of harp seal calls by a single observer differed significantly. Source levels of Weddell seal calls varied and higher amplitude calls would be detected up to 2 orders of magnitude farther away than quieter calls. Hydrophone location (especially near small groups), observer variability and call source level differences will bias the use of monitoring underwater seal vocalizations to index locations, population size or underwater behaviours. Using hydrophone arrays and multiple observers may mitigate these problems. (Au)

I
Animal behaviour; Animal distribution; Animal population; Animal vocalizations; Seals (Animals); Sound recordings; Underwater acoustics

G15, G11
St. Lawrence, Gulf of, Canada; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Through-ice communication by Weddell seals may not be practicable   /   Terhune, J.M.
(Polar biology, v. 27, no. 12, Nov. 2004, p. 810-812, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 57361.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1007/s00300-004-0659-4
Libraries: ACU

Possible communication between territorial male Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) under the ice with females on the ice was investigated. In-air and underwater recordings of underwater calls were made at three locations near Davis, Antarctica. Most underwater calls were not detectable in air, often because of wind noise. In-air call amplitudes of detectable calls ranged from 32-74 dB re. 20 µPa at 86 Hz down to 4-38 dB re. 20 µPa at 3.6 kHz. Most of these would be audible to humans. Only 26 of 582 amplitude measurements (from 230 calls) ranged from 5 dB to a maximum of 15 dB above the minimum harbour-seal (Phoca vitulina) in-air detection threshold. Seals on the ice could likely hear a few very loud underwater calls but only if the caller was nearby and there were no wind noises. The low detectability of underwater calls in air likely precludes effective communication between underwater seals and those on the ice. (Au)

I, G
Animal behaviour; Animal nervous systems; Animal vocalizations; Communication; Detection; Fast ice; Measurement; Noise; Sea ice; Seals (Animals); Sound recordings; Underwater acoustics; Winds

G15
Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters


Primary production and nutrient dynamics in polynyas   /   Tremblay, J.-E.   Smith, W.O.
(Polynyas : windows to the world / Edited by W.O. Smith and D.G. Barber. Elsevier oceanography series, v. 74, 2007, ch. 8, p. 239-269, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 63897.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/S0422-9894(06)74008-9
Libraries: ACU

Phytoplankton assemblages in polynyas are strongly impacted by the unique environment of those systems, and their growth and accumulation is always greater within a polynya than under heavy ice. The extent of this enhancement is dependent on the physical conditions of the polynya - the duration of the polynya's existence, the distribution of ice and snow, and the physical circulation within it. We review the polynyas in both Arctic and Antarctic waters that have been intensively studied and compare them with respect to biomass, daily productivity, chemical and physical constraints, annual productivity, export, and effects on food webs and the local biogeochemical cycles. We conclude that the most productive polynyas (the North Water polynya and the Ross Sea polynya) have remarkably similar short-term productivity, and the annual productivity and seasonal timing of both are also similar. However, the two have strong dissimilarities in modes of control and export. The ecological consequences of enhanced production within a polynya are also investigated, and appear to vary among polynyas. We suggest that the differences among polynyas within polar systems reflect the differences in large-scale physical forcing that exist across the Arctic and Antarctic, and that generalizations among polynyas need to encompass this variability. (Au)

J, H, I, G, D
Animal food; Benthos; Biomass; Birds; Carbon; Chlorophyll; Diatoms; Food chain; Growing season; Iron; Marine mammals; Melting; Nitrogen oxides; Phytoplankton; Plant growth; Plant nutrition; Polynyas; Primary production (Biology); Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Sedimentation; Silica; Solar radiation; Trophic levels; Water masses; Zooplankton

G09, G07, G12, G141, G04, G15
Antarctic waters; Canadian Beaufort Sea; Chukchi Sea; Greenland Sea; Laptevykh More; North Water Polynya, Baffin Bay; Ross Sea, Antarctic regions; St. Lawrence Island waters, Alaska; Svalbard waters; Vostochno-Sibirskoye More


Modeling brine and nutrient dynamics in Antarctic sea ice : the case of dissolved silica   /   Vancoppenolle, M.   Goosse, H.   de Montety, A.   Fichefet, T.   Tremblay, B.   Tison, J.-L.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.115, C02005, 2010, 18 p. ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 74765.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/2009JC005369
Libraries: ACU

Sea ice ecosystems are characterized by microalgae living in brine inclusions. The growth rate of ice algae depends on light and nutrient supply. Here, the interactions between nutrients and brine dynamics under the influence of algae are investigated using a one-dimensional model. The model includes snow and ice thermodynamics with brine physics and an idealized sea ice biological component, characterized by one nutrient, namely, dissolved silica (DSi). In the model, DSi follows brine motion and is consumed by ice algae. Depending on physical ice characteristics, the brine flow is either advective, diffusive, or turbulent. The vertical profiles of ice salinity and DSi concentration are solutions of advection-diffusion equations. The model is configured to simulate the typical thermodynamic regimes of first-year Antarctic pack ice. The simulated vertical profiles of salinity and DSi qualitatively reproduce observations. Analysis of results highlights the role of convection in the lowermost 5-10 cm of ice. Convection mixes saline, nutrient-poor brine with comparatively fresh, nutrient-rich seawater. This implies a rejection of salt to the ocean and a flux of DSi to the ice. In the presence of growing algae, the simulated ocean-to-ice DSi flux increases by 0-115% compared to an abiotic situation. In turn, primary production and brine convection act in synergy to form a nutrient pump. The other important processes are the flooding of the surface by seawater and the percolation of meltwater. The former refills nutrients near the ice surface in spring. The latter, if present, tends to expell nutrients from the ice in summer. (Au)

H, G, F, E, J, D
Algae; Atmospheric temperature; Carbon; Density; Diatoms; Drainage; Floods; Flow; Growth; Heat transmission; Light; Mass balance; Mathematical models; Melting; Pack ice; Plant growth; Plant nutrition; Primary production (Biology); Salinity; Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Sea water; Seasonal variations; Silica; Snow; Snowmelt; Spatial distribution; Temperature; Thermal properties; Thermal regimes; Thermodynamics; Thickness; Viscosity

G15
Antarctic waters; Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Quantifying habitat-specific diatom production : a critical assessment using morphological and biogeochemical markers in Antarctic marine and lake sediments   /   Verleyen, E.   Hodgson, D.A.   Leavitt, P.R.   Sabbe, K.   Vyerman, W.
(Limnology and oceanography, v. 49, no. 5, Sept. 2004, p.1528-1539, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 57303.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.4319/lo.2004.49.5.1528
Libraries: ACU

Reconstructions of historical primary production, and of the algal groups and habitats that contribute to it, are fundamental in studies of climate and environmental change in both marine and freshwater environments. The aims of this study were to critically evaluate morphological and biogeochemical markers of diatom production by direct comparison of diatom marker pigments with absolute diatom biovolume and to partition diatom production between the main habitats (plankton, sea ice, and benthos). Sediments in two cores from the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica, spanning the last 10,000 yr, were analyzed for siliceous microfossils by microscopy and for fossil pigments by high-performance liquid chromatography. Diatom pigments (diadinoxanthin, diatoxanthin, fucoxanthin) were highly correlated (r² = 0.557 and 0.358, p < 0.0001) with diatom biovolume in the marine intervals of both cores, but only weakly correlated in the lacustrine sections (r² = 0.102, p = 0.111; r² = 0.223, p = 0.001, after correction for temporal autocorrelation), possibly because of frustule dissolution and selective degradation of diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin. In contrast, fucoxanthin was better preserved. By combining both microfossil and pigment proxies, we obtained a first estimate of diatom production in specific habitats (benthic and planktonic). Benthic diatom production was greatest in the lacustrine core sections, when benthic microbial mats dominated the flora, whereas diatoms were associated mainly with the water column and sea ice during the marine intervals. The combination of both proxies in marine and freshwater environments permits more accurate interpretation of pigment and diatom data in paleo- and neoecological research and the partitioning of diatom production between habitats. (Au)

H, J, B, F, D, C, G
Algae; Benthos; Biological productivity; Biomass; Bottom sediments; Carotenoids; Chlorophyll; Chromatography; Cores; Cyanophyceae; Diatoms; Fresh-water ecology; Fresh-water flora; Lakes; Logistics; Marine ecology; Marine flora; Mass spectrometry; Measurement; Palaeobotany; Palaeoecology; Plankton; Plant distribution; Plant ecology; Primary production (Biology); Radiocarbon dating; Recent epoch; Sea ice ecology; Size; Soil profiles

G15
Larsemann Hills, Antarctic regions


Arctic and Antarctic lakes as optical indicators of global change   /   Vincent, W.F.   Laurion, I.   Pienitz, R.
(Papers from the International Symposium on Antarctica and Global Change : Interactions and Impacts, held at Hobart, Australia, 13-18 July 1997 / Edited by W.F. Budd. Annals of glaciology, v. 27, 1998, p. 691-696, ill.)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 018-97)
References.
ASTIS record 47193.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Lakes are a major feature of Arctic and Antarctic landscapes and are likely to be sensitive indicators of climate change. New bio-optical technologies for in situ measurements (e.g. UV-profiling) and remote sensing (e.g. light detection and ranging) now offer a suite of options for long-term monitoring at these sites. Certain properties of high-latitude lakes are highly responsive to changes in climate forcing and could be targeted within a monitoring strategy based on optical properties; these include lake levels, lake-ice dynamics, phytoplankton biomass and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). High-latitude lakes are optically sensitive to changes in CDOM export from their surrounding catchments that could result from climate effects on hydrology and vegetation. Using a new model based on biologically weighted transparency, we show that a 20% change in CDOM concentration (as measured by dissolved organic carbon) can have a much greater effect on UV inhibition of phytoplankton than a similar percentage change in stratopheric ozone. Much of this effect is due to UV-A, because the reduced photodamaging effect per unit energy (i.e. low biological weighting) in this waveband is offset by its higher incident flux at the lake surface relative to UV-B and its deeper penetration into the water column. These transparency calculations also show that small changes in CDOM in polar lakes will have a large effect on underwater light availability for photosynthesis. The spectral absorption and fluorescence properties of DCOM lend themselves to a variety of optical monitoring approaches. Future research on the paleo-optics of DCOM will allow the interpretation of current optical trends in high-latitude lakes relative to the scales of natural variability in the past. (Au)

E, F, H
Biomass; Climate change; Colored dissolved organic matter; Dissolved organic carbon; Effects monitoring; Hydrology; Lake ice; Lakes; Optical properties; Ozone; Phytoplankton; Remote sensing; Runoff; Solar radiation

G15, G081, G0826
Antarctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Eau Claire, Lac à l', region, Québec


Transparency of Antarctic ice-covered lakes to solar UV radiation   /   Vincent, W.F.   Rae, R.   Laurion, I.   Howard-Williams, C.   Priscu, J.C.
(Limnology and oceanography, v. 43, no. 4, June 1998, p. 618-624, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 47584.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/117.pdf
Web: doi:10.4319/lo.1998.43.4.0618
Libraries: ACU

Depth profiles of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), and related variables were measured beneath the thick, permanent ice cover of four lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (77°S, 162°E). These lakes span a range of phytoplankton concentrations (0.1-10 µg Chl a/liter) but receive little input of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from their barren, polar desert catchments. The diffuse attenuation coefficients for downwelling radiation (Kd) in the upper water column of the lakes were at or below those for clear natural waters elsewhere, with minimum values in Lake Vanda of 0.080 (305 nm), 0.055 (320 nm), 0.036 (340 nm), 0.023 (380 nm) and 0.034 (PAR)/m. The attenuation lengths (l/Kd) for these lakes and for a set of high latitude lakes in the northern hemisphere (tundra and boreal forest catchments) showed a close log-log relationship with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (r² >=0.90: n = 20); dry valley lakes were at the high transparency end of this polar-subpolar continuum. Phytoplankton exposure to UVR relative to PAR is known to rise steeply with decreasing DOC in the concentration range 2-4 g/m³; the addition of the dry valley lakes data shows the continuation of this upward, markedly nonlinear trend at lower DOC concentrations. Calculation of the biologically effective UVR dosage rate for the upper phytoplankton community of Lake Vanda indicated that sufficient UVR penetrates through the 3.5-m-thick lake ice to cause inhibition of algal growth. These results show that polar desert lakes are optical extremes in terms of their water-column transparency to UVR, and that their dilute, mostly autochthonous CDOM offers little protection against the ultraviolet-B radiation flux that is continuing to increase over the polar regions. (Au)

H, G
Algae; Colored dissolved organic matter; Dissolved organic carbon; Lake ice; Lakes; Optical properties; Ozone; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Plant growth; Polar deserts; Thermal properties; Ultraviolet radiation

G15
Victoria Land, Antarctic regions


Antarctic biogeochemistry : icy life on a hidden lake   /   Vincent, W.F.
(Science, v.286, no.5447, 10 Dec. 1999, p.2094-2096, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 57771.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.286.5447.2094
Libraries: ACU

The discovery of life in a deep rift-valley lake sounds like news from an earlier century, but not if the lake in question happens to be in one of Earth's least accessible places and represents a testing ground for exploration elsewhere in the solar system. Three reports in this issue provide new insights into the origins and biology of the deep ice overlying Lake Vostok and give an intriguing set of first indications of a microbial ecosystem in the waters beneath. ... On page 2138, Jouzel et al. present isotopic and other evidence that the lower part of the Vostok ice core is derived from underlying lake water. ... The data suggest that Lake Vostok was formed under a climate warmer than the past 420,000 years and that its water has a mean age of 1 million years or older. Priscu et al. show on page 2141 that samples of Lake Vostok ice contain bacteria in relatively high concentrations, many of them associated with particles. ... By comparing their data with fractionation studies of liquid and frozen portions of lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica, the authors were able to extrapolate from the Vostok ice to the underlying lake water. Their calculations indicate that Lake Vostok contains inorganic nutrients dissolved organic carbon, and bacteria: all the ingredients for an active microbial ecology. Karl et al. provide important complementary information on the microbiology of the Lake Vostok ice on page 2144. ... The results show that the melted core samples contain viable, actively respiring cells. ... (Au)

J, H, I, G, F, B, E
Age; Animal distribution; Animal respiration; Bacteria; Bioassays; Carbon; Cores; Deuterium; Dissolved organic carbon; Drilling; Evolution (Biology); Fresh-water biology; Genetics; Geochemistry; Ice sheets; Isotopes; Lake ice; Lakes; Microbial ecology; Microorganisms; Palaeoclimatology; Plant distribution; Plant respiration; Protozoa; Thickness; Wildlife habitat

G15
Antarctic regions; McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions; Vostok, Lake, Antarctic regions


Evolutionary origins of Antarctic microbiota : invasion, selection and endemism   /   Vincent, W.F.
(Antarctic science, v. 12, no. 3, Sept. 2000, p. 374-385, ill.)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 014-00)
References.
ASTIS record 48582.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/142.pdf
Web: doi:10.1017/S0954102000000420
Libraries: ACU

Increasing interest in the ecological roles, conservation and biotechnological potential of Antarctic microbiota has focused attention on their biodiversity and evolutionary origins. Antarctic microbial ecosystems provide useful models for general questions in evolutionary ecology given the relative isolation of the South Polar Region, the severe biological constraints imposed by the polar environment, and the absence of higher plants and animals in some Antarctic habitats. Sealed environments such as Lake Vostok and the overlying East Antarctic ice sheet provide unique, natural culture collections for studying microorganisms that have been isolated from the global gene pool over timescales of evolutionary significance. Most Antarctic environments, however, continue to receive microbial propagules from outside the region, as indicated by spore trap data, the microflora found in Antarctic snow and ice, the colonising taxa at geothermal sites, and the high frequency of apparently cosmopolitan species in most habitats. Differences in environmental stability and selection pressure among environments are likely to influence the degree of adaptive radiation and microbial endemism. The latter seems greater in the Southern Ocean by comparison with non-marine ecosystems of Antarctica, although there is some evidence of endemic species in highly specialised niches on the continent such as in the endolithic habitat beginning to provide new insights into the genetic affinities and biodiversity of Antarctic microbiota, and are leading to a more rigorous evaluation of microbial endemism. (Au)

H, G, J, I, D, E
Adaptation (Biology); Algae; Animal diseases; Animal distribution; Atmospheric circulation; Bacteria; Biology; Birds; Climate change; Cores; Evolution (Biology); Fishes; Fungi; Genetics; Marine mammals; Microorganisms; Ocean currents; Plant distribution; Protozoa; Refugia; Sea ice; Wildlife habitat; Winds

G15
Antarctic regions; Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctic regions; Ross Sea, Antarctic regions; Vestfold Hills, Antarctic regions; Vostok, Lake, Antarctic regions; Weddell Sea, Antarctic regions


Life on snowball Earth   /   Vincent, W.F.   Howard-Williams, C.
(Science, v.287, no.5462, 31 Mar. 2000, p.2421, 1 ill.)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 015-00)
References.
ASTIS record 57772.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.287.5462.2421b
Libraries: ACU

In his News Focus article "An appealing snowball Earth that's still hard to swallow" (10 Mar., p. 1734), Richard A. Kerr provides an update on the "snowball Earth" hypothesis, which proposes that around 600 and 2400 million years ago in the Proterozoic era there were several global ice ages interspersed with periods of global warming. One of the primary criticisms of the snowball Earth hypothesis is that thick sea ice over the entire world ocean would cut off the supply of sunlight to organisms in the seawater below and thereby eliminate photosynthesis. Others have similarly concluded that global-scale freezing would extinguish all surface life. Yet vast, biologically diverse cryo-ecosystems occur today throughout the Arctic and Antarctica. The closest analog to Proterozoic snowball Earth may be the thick (20 to 100 meters) landfast sea ice in the modern-day polar regions. On the McMurdo Ice Shelf in Antarctica and on the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf in the Canadian High Arctic, large areas (100 to 1000 square kilometers) of thick sea ice contain surface communities of highly pigmented microbial mats. These perennial mats are frozen into the ice and are inactive through most of the year. They thaw out for a brief (days to weeks) period of photosynthetic activity in late summer when meltwaters form on or in the ice despite air temperatures that are below 0°C. The modern-day ice shelf communities in both polar regions are dominated by oscillatorian cyanobacteria, a group that is widely distributed in the Proterozoic fossil record. These mat-forming organisms produce microhabitats for other biota, including viruses, bacteria, protists, and metazoa. The ice-mat environment offers protection against the effects of ultraviolet radiation and freeze-up and could have similarly provided refuge for the survival, growth, and evolution of less tolerant biota during the proposed Proterozoic glaciations. The alternation of global freeze-up and hothouse conditions during the Proterozoic might also help to explain the eurythermal characteristics of cyanobacteria that dominate in today's polar regions. The extreme cold tolerance of these organisms combined with their high-temperature optima for growth would seem to be an ideal strategy for surviving the "freeze-fry" travails of ancient Earth. (Au)

J, H, G, B, A
Bacteria; Cold adaptation; Cyanophyceae; Evolution (Biology); Glacial epoch; Ice shelves; Marine ecology; Microbial ecology; Microorganisms; Palaeobotany; Palaeoclimatology; Photosynthesis; Plant distribution; Plant growth; Proterozoic era; Protozoa; Puddles; Sea ice; Sea ice ecology; Thickness

G15, G0813
Antarctic regions; McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctic regions; Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, Nunavut


Ice-shelf collapse, climate change, and habitat loss in the Canadian High Arctic   /   Vincent, W.F.   Gibson, J.A.E.   Jeffries, M.O.
(Polar record, v. 37, no.201, Apr. 2001, p. 133-142, ill., map)
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 024-00)
References.
ASTIS record 50372.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/149.pdf
Web: doi:10.1017/S0032247400026954
Libraries: ACU

Early explorers in the Canadian High Arctic described a fringe of thick, landfast ice along the 500-km northern coast of Ellesmere Island. This article shows from analyses of historical records, aerial photographs, and satellite imagery (ERS-l, SPOT, RADARSAT -1) that this ancient ice feature ('Ellesmere Ice Shelf) underwent a 90% reduction in area during the course of the twentieth century. In addition, hydrographic profiles in Disraeli Fiord (83°N, 74°W) suggest that the ice-shelf remnant that presently dams the fiord (Ward Hunt Ice Shelf) decreased in thickness by 13 m (27%) from 1967 to 1999. Mean annual air temperatures at nearby Alert station showed a significant warming trend during the last two decades of this period, and a significant decline in the number of freezing degree days per annum. The ice-dammed fiord provides a stratified physical and biological environment (epishelf lake) of a type that is otherwise restricted to Antarctica. Extensive meltwater lakes occur on the surface of the ice shelf and support a unique microbial food web. The major contraction of these ice-water habitats foreshadows a much broader loss of marine cryo-ecosystems that will accompany future warming in the High Arctic. (Au)

F, A, D, J, E, V
Calving (Ice); Climate change; Coasts; Expeditions; Explorers; Fjords; Food chain; Fresh-water ecology; Glacial melt waters; Glacier lakes; History; Ice cover; Ice shelves; Marine ecology; Melting; Meteorology; Ocean temperature; Radar; Salinity; Scientists; Thickness; Travels; Water masses

G0813, G03
Alert, Nunavut; Arctic Ocean; Disraeli Fiord, Nunavut; Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, Nunavut


Climate control of biological UV exposure in polar and alpine aquatic ecosystems   /   Vincent, W.F.   Rautio, M.   Pienitz, R.
In: Arctic alpine ecosystems and people in a changing environment / Edited by J.B. Ørbæk, R. Kallenborn, I. Tombre, E. Hegseth, S. Falk-Petersen, and A.H. Hoel. - Berlin : Springer, 2007, ch. 14, p. 227-249, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 65012.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/211.pdf
Web: doi:10.1007/978-3-540-48514-8_14

The severe depletion of stratospheric ozone in Antarctica over the last two decades has generated much concern about the effects of rising UV-B radiation on marine and freshwater ecosystems (de Mora et al. 2000; Cockell and Blaustein 2001; Sommaruga 2001; Hessen 2002; Perin and Lean 2004) and has led to a broad range of research on UV optics, photobiology and photochemistry in the aquatic environment. The studies to date imply that certain ecosystem types may be especially prone to major changes in their spectral UV regime: clear lakes and oceans in the polar regions where ozone depletion is occurring and where UV wavelengths penetrate deeply into the water column (Vincent and Belzile 2003), and oligotrophic alpine waters which have little UV-screening protection because of their low concentrations of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM; Morris et al 1995; Williamson et al. 1996; Laurion et al. 2000; Markager and Vincent 2000). The biological communities in these ecosystems may also be more vulnerable to UV toxicity because of the inhibiting effects of cold temperatures on cellular repair of UV damage (Rae et al. 2000; Hoffman et al. 2003; MacFadyen et al. 2004). The UV waveband is a highly reactive component of all environments exposed to the sun, and is subject to large fluctuations at multiple timescales. It is increasingly apparent that climate may exert a strong control on these fluctuations, and that the amplitude of such effects can be much greater than those caused by moderate stratospheric ozone depletion. Major shifts in underwater UV are likely to accompany future climate change, with implications for many important photobiological and photochemical processes in the aquatic environment. The aim of this chapter is to review the mechanisms, models and observations that link underwater UV exposure and climate change. We first describe a general model that has been applied with success and variously modified to address questions about how changes in the environment translate into UV exposure and responses. We then examine each of the terms in this model and their sensitivity to climate, and how they combine to result in climate control of biological UV exposure in the underwater environment. Finally, we illustrate by way of several case studies how paleoecological analysis can provide a valuable approach towards assessing the long-term role of climate in controlling biological UV exposure in alpine and polar aquatic ecosystems. (Au)

D, E, G, J, H, F, A, B
Albedo; Algae; Alpine tundra ecology; Atmosphere; Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric temperature; Bacteria; Bathymetry; Benthos; Biomass; Bottom sediments; Carbon; Carbon cycling; Chemical oceanography; Climate change; Clouds; Colored dissolved organic matter; Cyanophyceae; Deglaciation; Diatoms; Environmental impacts; Evaporation; Fresh-water ecology; Geochemistry; Glacier lakes; Heat budgets; Hydrology; Ice cover; Lake stratification; Lakes; Marine ecology; Mathematical models; Measurement; Melting; Oligotrophic lakes; Optical properties; Ozone; Palaeoecology; Palaeontology; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Primary production (Biology); Recent epoch; Sea ice; Seasonal variations; Snow cover; Snowmelt; Stratosphere; Temporal variations; Thermal regimes; Treeline; Ultraviolet radiation; Water masses

G01, G0812, G0826, G06, G0822
Antarctic waters; Arctic Ocean; Arctic waters; Glacier Bay region, Alaska; Hoare, Lake, Antarctic regions; Hudson Bay region; Kachishayoot, Lac, Québec; Polar regions; Queen's Lake, N.W.T.; Rocky Mountains, Alberta


Cold tolerance in cyanobacteria and life in the cryosphere   /   Vincent, W.F.
(Algae and cyanobacteria in extreme environments / Edited by J. Seckbach. Cellular origin, life in extreme habitats and astrobiology, v. 11, 2007, p. 287-301)
References.
ASTIS record 70393.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/216.pdf
Web: doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-6112-7_15
Libraries: ACU

... This chapter considers the range of conditions that cyanobacteria may have had to contend with in the cryosphere during glacial periods on Precambrian Earth, and the range of ecophysiological strategies that modern-day cyanobacteria in culture or in polar and alpine regions employ to deal with such conditions. There are two distinct sets of stresses imposed by a glacial environment: (i) the freeze-up process and resultant ice regime and (ii) the persistence of cold temperatures for metabolism, growth and survival in aqueous habitats. These two sets of environmental conditions are treated separately below. ... Cyanobacteria do not seem to be specifically adapted to low temperatures in that they are unable to maintain fast growth rates in the cold. On the other hand, studies in the modern-day cryosphere show that they have a wide range of adaptive mechanisms that allow them to survive freeze-up, growth under low irradiances such as that produced by ice cover, and periodic exposure to UV radiation and bright PAR. These mechanisms include light-harvesting pigments, lightscreening pigments, ROS-quenching compounds such as carotenoids, membrane fluidity at low temperatures and cold-stable proteins. Despite the cold, polar and alpine cyanobacteria can maintain slow but steady growth. This strategy of cold tolerance has been highly successful in some habitats such as in the benthos where communities can gradually accumulate over many seasons of growth to attain prolific biomass stocks. However, psychrotolerance and slow growth in the cold is not successful in ephemeral environments such as melting snowbanks, or in ecosystems where losses are substantial, for example as a result of strong grazing pressure or removal by advection. (Au)

H, J, G, B, F, A
Albedo; Amino acids; Benthos; Cold adaptation; Cyanophyceae; Enzymes; Fatty acids; Formation; Genetics; Geological time; Glacial epoch; Glaciation; Lake ice; Light; Lipids; Metabolism; Microbial ecology; Photosynthesis; Plant distribution; Plant growth; Plant physiology; Precambrian eon; Proteins; Psychrotrophic bacteria; River ice; Salinity; Temperature; Ultraviolet radiation

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Polar lakes and rivers : limnology of Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems   /   Vincent, W.F. [Editor]   Laybourn-Parry, J. [Editor]
Oxford, U.K. : Oxford University Press, 2008.
xviii, 327 p., [16] p. of plates : ill., maps ; 26 cm.
(PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 043-09)
ISBN 978-0-19-921388-7
Appendix.
References.
This book is endorsed by the International Polar Year 2007-2008.
Sixteen pages of colour plates are between p. 158 and 159.
ASTIS record 66525.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This is the first book to describe the ecology of high latitude lakes, rivers, and glacial environments in both the North and South polar regions. From the lake-rich floodplains of the Arctic to the deep, enigmatic waters of Lake Vostok, Antarctica, these regions contain some of the most extraordinary aquatic ecosystems on Earth. They provide a fascinating diversity of habitats for plant, animal and microbial communities, and are proving to be valuable model systems for exploring many ecological themes including landscape-lake interactions, adaptation of life to environmental extremes, and controls on the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Some of these waters also have direct global implications, including permafrost thaw lakes as sources of greenhouse gases, subglacial aquatic environments as a storehouse of ancient microbes, and Arctic rivers as major inputs of freshwater and organic carbon to the World Ocean. Given that many polar areas are experiencing greater climate warming than at lower latitudes, these ecosystems can also be viewed as sentinels of global change. This timely volume brings together many of the world's leading researchers in polar limnology to describe these diverse aquatic environments and their ecology. It introduces each major ecosystem type, examines the similarities and differences between Arctic and Antarctic systems as well as their responses to environmental change, and describes new frontiers for future research. A glossary of terms is provided for non-specialists, and a set of colour plates introduces the ecosystems and their biota. "Polar Lakes and Rivers" will be of value to students and specialist researchers alike, as well as to those with a more general interest in aquatic ecology, polar environments or global change who require an authoritative overview of this fast emerging topic. (Au)

F, J, I, H, A, G, E, D
Animal population; Benthos; Biological productivity; Biomass; Carbon; Carbon cycling; Climate change; Cold adaptation; Cryoconite; Environmental impacts; Fishes; Food chain; Formation; Fresh-water ecology; Geomorphology; Glacier lakes; Glaciers; Heavy metals; Ice shelves; Lake ice; Lake stratification; Lake-atmosphere interaction; Lakes; Light; Microbial ecology; Plankton; Plant nutrition; Plants (Biology); Pollution; POPs; Primary production (Biology); Puddles; Radionuclides; Rivers; Sea level; Snow; Temperature; Temporal variations; Tundra ponds; Ultraviolet radiation; Wildlife habitat

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Introduction to the limnology of high-latitude lake and river ecosystems   /   Vincent, W.F.   Hobbie, J.E.   Laybourn-Parry, J.
In: Polar lakes and rivers : limnology of Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems / Edited by W.F. Vincent and J. Laybourn-Parry. - Oxford, U.K. : Oxford University Press, 2008, ch. 1, p. 1-23, ill., maps
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 66526.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.unep.org/Publications/polarbooks/_res/site/file/Polar_Lakes/Introduction.pdf
Libraries: ACU

Polar lakes and rivers encompass a diverse range of aquatic habitats, and many of these environments have broad global significance. In this introduction to polar aquatic ecosystems, we first present a brief summary of the history of lake research in the Arctic and Antarctica. We provide an overview of the limnological diversity within the polar regions, and descriptions of high-latitude rivers, lakes, and lake districts where there have been ecological studies. The comparative limnology of such regions, as well as detailed long-term investigations on one or more lakes or rivers within them, have yielded new perspectives on the structure, functioning, and environmental responses of aquatic ecosystems at polar latitudes and elsewhere. We then examine the controls on biological production in high-latitude waters, the structure and organization of their food webs including microbial components, and their responses to global climate change, with emphasis on threshold effects. (Au)

F, J, I, H, E, G
Algae; Bacteria; Benthos; Biological productivity; Biomass; Climate change; Cyanophyceae; Density; Environmental impacts; Fishes; Food chain; Fresh-water ecology; Invertebrates; Lake ice; Lake stratification; Lakes; Light; Microorganisms; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Plant growth; Plant nutrition; Predation; Rivers; Seasonal variations; Sedimentation; Solar radiation; Temperature; Trophic levels

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


The physical limnology of high-latitude lakes   /   Vincent, W.F.   MacIntyre, S.   Spigel, R.H.   Laurion, I.
In: Polar lakes and rivers : limnology of Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems / Edited by W.F. Vincent and J. Laybourn-Parry. - Oxford, U.K. : Oxford University Press, 2008, ch. 4, p. 65-81, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 66529.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The physical environment of high-latitude lakes exerts a wide-ranging influence on their aquatic ecology. Certain features of Arctic and Antarctic lakes, such as prolonged ice cover and stratification, persistent low temperatures, and low concentrations of light-absorbing materials, make them highly sensitive to climate change and to other environmental perturbations. These features also make such lakes attractive sites for limnological research and for developing models of broader application. In this review, we first describe the snow and ice dynamics of high-latitude lakes, and the factors that control their dates of freeze-up and break-up. We then examine the effects of ice cover and optical variables on the penetration of solar radiation that in turn influences heating and stratification, convective mixing, photochemical reactions, and photobiological processes including primary production. This is followed by a description of stratification and mixing regimes including meromixis in stratified saline lakes, and a summary of water budgets, currents, flux pathways and mixing processes that operate in ice-covered waters. We illustrate some of these physical limnological features of high-latitude lakes by detailed studies from two long-term ecological research sites, the Toolik Lake site in Arctic Alaska, and the McMurdo Dry Valleys site in the Ross Sea sector of Antarctica. (Au)

F, G, E, J, H
Breakup; Carbon; Chlorophyll; Climate change; Density; Environmental impacts; Evaporation; Flow; Formation; Lake ice; Lake stratification; Lakes; Light; Mathematical models; Optical properties; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Precipitation (Meteorology); Primary production (Biology); River discharges; Salinity; Seasonal variations; Snow; Snowmelt; Solar radiation; Suspended solids; Temperature; Thermal regimes; Thickness; Ultraviolet radiation; Velocity; Winds

G02, G15, G06
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; McMurdo Sound region, Antarctic regions; Toolik Lake, Alaska


Cyanobacteria   /   Vincent, W.F.
In: Encyclopedia of inland waters / Edited by G.E. Likens. - Amsterdam ; Boston, Mass. : Elsevier/Academic Press, 2009, v. 3, p. 226-232, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 69294.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/228.pdf
Web: doi:10.1016/B978-012370626-3.00127-7

Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) are an ancient group of photosynthetic microbes that occur in most inland waters and that can have major effects on the water quality and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. They include about 2000 species in 150 genera, with a wide range of shapes and sizes. Cyanobacteria have a variety of cell types, cellular structures, and physiological strategies that contribute to their ecological success in the plankton, metaphyton, or periphyton. They are of special interest to water quality managers because many produce taste and odor compounds, several types of toxins, and noxious blooms. Ecologically, the three most important groups of cyanobacteria found in inland waters are mat-formers, which form polysaccharide-rich crusts, films, and thicker layers over rocks, sediments, and plants; bloom-formers, which occur in eutrophic lakes and cause food web disruption as well as produce toxins and surface scums; and picocyanobacteria, minute species that are often the main photosynthetic cell type in oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) lakes and their microbial food webs. Additional ecological groups include the metaphyton that is loosely associated with emergent macrophytes; colonial aggregates of cyanobacteria that are common in mesotrophic waters; and various symbiotic associations. Several inland water species of cyanobacteria are harvested or cultivated as food sources, animal feeds, fertilizers, and health products. (Au)

H, F, J
Algae; Chlorophyll; Cyanophyceae; Enzymes; Eutrophic lakes; Fresh-water ecology; Genetics; Lakes; Microbial ecology; Nitrogen cycling; Oxygen; Photosynthesis; Phytoplankton; Plant anatomy; Plant growth; Plant nutrition; Plant physiology; Plant taxonomy; Rivers; Salinity; Solar radiation; Springs (Hydrology); Stromatolites; Toxicity; Tundra ponds; Ultraviolet radiation; Water pH; Water quality; Wetlands

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Effects of climate change on lakes   /   Vincent, W.F.
In: Encyclopedia of inland waters / Edited by G.E. Likens. - Amsterdam ; Boston, Mass. : Elsevier/Academic Press, 2009, v. 3, p. 55-60, ill.
References.
ASTIS record 69296.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/229.pdf
Web: doi:10.1016/B978-012370626-3.00233-7

The effect of ongoing climate change on lakes and reservoirs is one of the most serious issues facing human society. The projected changes in regional water balance will alter the capacity of lakes to provide ecosystem goods and services, such as inland fisheries and adequate supplies of safe drinking water. The ongoing warming trend will affect the physical, chemical, and biological properties of lake ecosystems, with implications for water quality (e.g., through the likely increased abundance of noxious cyanobacteria) and for wildlife habitats (e.g., through changes in littoral wetlands, stratification regimes, and primary production). At the most fundamental cellular and physiological level, changes in water temperature will affect the metabolic rates of aquatic organisms, and for some species there may be shifts beyond their critical threshold for survival. On the other hand, warmer temperatures will allow some newly invading species to survive and complete their life cycles, although this may come at the expense of any original species that are driven to extinction through predation or competition. At the broader ecosystem level, climate change will have pervasive effects on the physical structure and connectivity of lake ecosystems, their food webs and biodiversity, their biogeochemical characteristics, and their overall metabolic properties, including greenhouse gas production. (Au)

F, G, E, J, H, I
Animal distribution; Animal migration; Atmospheric temperature; Biological productivity; Birds; Breakup; Carbon; Climate change; Cyanophyceae; Environmental impacts; Evaporation; Fishes; Food chain; Fresh-water ecology; Glaciers; Heat transmission; Hydrology; Lake ice; Lake stratification; Lakes; Light; Melting; Microbial ecology; Phytoplankton; Plant nutrition; Precipitation (Meteorology); River ice; Runoff; Size; Solar radiation; Temperature; Temporal variations; Trophic levels; Water level; Water pH; Water quality; Watersheds; Wildlife habitat

G02, G15
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Long-term ecosystem networks to record change : an international imperative [guest editorial]   /   Wall, D.H.   Lyons, W.B.   Chown, S.L.   Convey, P.   Howard-Williams, C.   Quesada, A.   Vincent, W.F.
(Antarctic science, v. 23, no. 3, 18 May 2011, p. 209)
References.
ASTIS record 75521.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1017/S0954102011000319
Libraries: ACU

To understand Antarctic ecosystems and their resilience during rapid environmental change, a new research approach is required - one that is coordinated, interdisciplinary, long term and international. Climate changes in Antarctica are rapidly altering marine and terrestrial ecosystems in many ways - changing temperature, UVB, ocean acidification, invasive species and direct impacts from scientific research and tourism. The long-term (decadal and longer) effects of these changes have implications and feedbacks beyond the Antarctic and even the Southern Hemisphere. These feedbacks are not limited to natural systems, but also impinge directly on human activities, with significant economic consequences. Understanding these collective interactive factors can best be achieved through team research using multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary integration of biological, physical and chemical processes across multiple spatial and temporal scales. The long-term research required is not achievable by any one nation, and requires a continental scale approach. As a basis for this vision, pan-Antarctic experimental and monitoring networks, established through national programmes but coordinated through international efforts, will be essential to a) provide comparable data for a synthetic framework, and b) for models that will predict the responses of the connected Antarctic ecosystems to changing climates. Unlike other ecosystems Antarctica has few examples of long-term research addressing the complexity of ecosystem responses to either natural variability or rapid changes in climate. But we do have some experience to build on. The US Palmer marine Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) revealed that a southern shift in ice-dependent Adélie penguins was due to reductions in sea ice duration affecting the marine food web for birds and other apex predators. The McMurdo Dry Valley terrestrial LTER programme recorded a series of ecosystem responses to cooling that directly affected lake levels, melt streams, ice thickness, soil moisture and indirectly affected the composition of the soil invertebrate communities, and limnetic primary production. The results (www.lternet.edu) came from multidisciplinary teams using a long-term systems level approach. The importance of ice driven dynamics on ecosystem change was documented by the Latitudinal Gradient Project, (www.lgp.aq), but this work also indicated that some impacts of climate change on ecosystems are less predictable and highly scale dependent. There are other examples from Signy Island linking lake ice cover and increased summer primary production, and long-term data on changing distributions of plants on sub-Antarctic Marion Island showing rapid community reorganization, rather than simple changes in altitudinal ranges. An internationally coordinated, cross-continent but multi-scale experiment that could test whether these indirect responses to climate changes are generalizable at larger scales across Antarctica should be the next step in addressing how rapid climate change is modifying Antarctic ecosystems. The scientific community needs to move quickly to structure continental-scale, long-term Antarctic observational networks and experiments that address how Antarctic ecosystems are responding to a changing environment. An international committee could initially plan to investigate variation at small and larger spatial scales for: a) the extent of geophysical change, b) ecosystem response and resilience to geophysical changes such as regional climate change and ocean acidification, c) biodiversity change (e.g. invasive species, species composition, biogeographical ranges), d) ecosystem services, and e) environmental governance and its effects. These goals are based on the need for an ecosystems level, integrated and comprehensive, long-term, internationally coordinated research plan that is geographically representative. The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) should certainly play a role in this, but rapid and innovative action is needed using interdisciplinary funding schemes (such as those of the European Union Framework Programmes and private foundations) to supplement the national support for this urgent research need. (Au)

J, I, H, E, D, G, F, C
Animal distribution; Antarctic treaties; Birds; Climate change; Databases; Ecology; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Environmental protection; Food chain; Glacial melt waters; Ice cover; Invertebrates; Lake ice; Lakes; Marine ecology; Mathematical models; Melting; Oceanography; Penguins; Plant distribution; Primary production (Biology); Research; Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research; Sea ice; Soil moisture; Spatial distribution; Thickness; Water level; Water pH

G15
Antarctic regions


The ionospheric response to interplanetary magnetic field variations : evidence for rapid global change and the role of preconditioning in the magnetosphere   /   Watanabe, M.   Sato, N.   Greenwald, R.A.   Pinnock, M.   Hairston, M.R.   Rairden, R.L.   McEwen, D.J.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.105, no. A10, Oct. 1, 2000, p.22,955-22,977, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 48844.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/1999JA000433
Libraries: ACU

We have found observational evidence for a rapid communication of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) changes to the global ionosphere and evidence for the state of the magnetosphere in the previous hour conditioning this response. These conclusions are drawn from a case study of sunward flow bursts on the nightside polar cap boundary observed by geomagnetically conjugate HF radars. The flow burst excitation consists of two factors: (1) At the time of the flow burst, the magnetosphere still held a memory of the stable and northward IMF period that had persisted up until 1 hour before the flow burst (internal condition). During the northward IMF period a theta aurora associated with a sunward flow channel was formed in the polar cap. After that the IMF turned southward, and the transpolar arc decayed antisunward. However, by the time of the flow burst (i.e., 1 hour after the IMF southward turning), the Sun-aligned arc had not yet completely vanished, and in the poleward expanded portion of the northern plasma sheet, there was still a remnant of the sunward flow channel susceptive to an external forcing. (2) One hour after the southward turning of the IMF a sharp IMF transition from southward to northward Bz impinged on the dayside magnetopause (external condition). On arriving at the dayside cusp ionosphere the Bz transition signal pervaded the entire polar cap ionosphere instantaneously (<1 min) and reached the nightside plasma sheet. There, the remnant of the sunward flow channel was reactivated by the Bz transition, and a sunward flow burst was observed first in the northern ionosphere and then in the southern ionosphere with a 7-min time delay. Thus the sunward flow burst represents a rapid global response of the ionosphere starting 2-3 min after the IMF change at the subsolar magnetopause. (Au)

E, B
Auroras; Flow; Geomagnetism; IMF; Ionosphere; Magnetosphere; Radar

G10, G0827
Eureka, Nunavut; Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Labrador; Igloolik, Nunavut; Kangerlussuaq Fjord (66 30 N, 52 07 W) region, Greenland; Pangnirtung, Nunavut


Meltwater pulse 1A from Antarctica as a trigger of the Bølling-Allerød warm interval   /   Weaver, A.J.   Saenko, O.A.   Clark, P.U.   Mitrovica, J.X.
(Science, v.299, no.5613, 14 Mar. 2003, p.1709-1713, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 53649.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1126/science.1081002
Libraries: ACU

Meltwater pulse 1A (mwp-1A) was a prominent feature of the last deglaciation, which led to a sea-level rise of ~20 meters in less than 500 years. Concurrent with mwp-1A was the onset of the Bølling-Allerød interstadial event (14,600 years before the present), which marked the termination of the last glacial period. Previous studies have been unable to reconcile a warm Northern Hemisphere with mwp-1A originating from the Laurentide or Fennoscandian ice sheets. With the use of a climate model of intermediate complexity, we demonstrate that with mwp-1A originating from the Antarctic Ice Sheet, consistent with recent sea-level fingerprinting inferences, the strength of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation increases, thereby warming the North Atlantic region and providing an explanation for the onset of the Bølling-Allerød warm interval. The established mode of active NADW formation is then able to respond to subsequent freshwater forcing from the Laurentide and Fennoscandian ice sheets, setting the stage for the Younger Dryas cold period. (Au)

B, E, F, C, D, I
Climate change; Climatology; Corals; Deglaciation; Ice sheets; Laurentide Ice Sheet; Mathematical models; Melting; Ocean currents; Ocean temperature; Ocean-atmosphere interaction; Palaeoclimatology; Palaeontology; Radiocarbon dating; Runoff; Sea ice; Sea level

G15, G11, G08
Antarctic regions; Antarctic waters; North Atlantic Ocean; St. Lawrence River, Canada/United States


Prevalence of alkane monooxygenase genes in Arctic and Antarctic hydrocarbon-contaminated and pristine soils   /   Whyte, L.G.   Schultz, A.   van Beilen, J.B.   Luz, A.P.   Pellizari, V.   Labbé, D.   Greer, C.W.
(FEMS microbiology, ecology, v. 41, no. 2, Aug. 2002, p. 141-150, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 76883.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2002.tb00975.x
Libraries: ACU

The prevalence of four alkane monooxygenase genotypes (Pseudomonas putida GPo1, Pp alkB; Rhodococcus sp. strain Q15, Rh alkB1 and Rh alkB2; and Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP-1, Ac alkM) in hydrocarbon-contaminated and pristine soils from the Arctic and Antarctica were determined by both culture-independent (PCR hybridization analyses) and culture-dependent (colony hybridization analyses) molecular methods, using oligonucleotide primers and DNA probes specific for each of the alk genotypes. PCR hybridization of total soil community DNA detected the rhodococcal alkB genotypes in most of the contaminated (Rh alkB1, 18/20 soils; Rh alkB2, 13/20) and many pristine soils (Rh alkB1, 9/10 soils; Rh alkB2, 7/10), while Pp alkB was generally detected in the contaminated soils (15/20) but less often in pristine soils (5/10). Ac alkM was rarely detected in the soils (1/30). The colony hybridization technique was used to determine the prevalence of each of the alk genes and determine their relative abundance in culturable cold-adapted (5°C) and mesophilic populations (37°C) from eight of the polar soils. The cold-adapted populations, in general, possessed relatively higher percentages of the Rh alkB genotypes (Rh alkB1, 1.9% (0.55); Rh alkB2, 2.47% (0.89)), followed by the Pp alkB (1.13% (0.50)), and then the Ac alkM (0.53% (0.36)). The Rh alkB1 genotype was clearly more prevalent in culturable cold-adapted bacteria (1.9% (0.55)) than in culturable mesophiles (0.41 (0.55)), suggesting that cold-adapted bacteria are the predominant organisms possessing this genotype. Overall, these results indicated that (i) Acinetobacter spp. are not predominant members of polar alkane degradative microbial communities, (ii) Pseudomonas spp. may become enriched in polar soils following contamination events, and (iii) Rhodococcus spp. may be the predominant alkane-degradative bacteria in both pristine and contaminated polar soils. (Au)

Q, J, H, C
Biodegradation; Biomass; Cold adaptation; Detection; Diesel fuels; Effects monitoring; Environmental impacts; Fuels; Genetics; Hydrocarbons; Measurement; Microbial ecology; Military operations; Oil spill cleanup; Oil spills on land; Pollution; Psychrophilic bacteria; Psychrotrophic bacteria; Reclamation; Soil chemistry; Soil microorganisms; Soils; Temperature; Testing

G02, G15, G081, G0826, G0813
Alert, Nunavut; Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Cape Hope Islands, Nunavut; Eureka, Nunavut; Kuujjuaq, Québec


Physical oceanography of polynyas   /   Williams, W.J.   Carmack, E.C.   Ingram, R.G.
(Polynyas : windows to the world / Edited by W.O. Smith and D.G. Barber. Elsevier oceanography series, v. 74, 2007, ch. 2, p. 55-85, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 63895.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/S0422-9894(06)74002-8
Libraries: ACU

Physical processes related to polynya formation are reviewed and selected examples from both the Arctic and the Antarctic seas are given. Polynyas are categorized by dividing them into mechanically and convectively forced systems, recognizing that most polynyas are formed by a confluence of two or more physical factors, and that positive feedback processes also impact formation. Polynyas strongly impact the regional oceanography. Those that are initiated by mechanical forcing from the wind, for example, may produce large quantities of ice and brine. Dense water formed in this manner can then migrate via Ekman layers, gravity currents, and eddying motions across the shelf, and drain into the deep ocean. Under scenarios of global warming, a climatologically retreating ice edge will alter the size and distribution of polynyas. In the Arctic and on the Antarctic Peninsula, the general pattern of polynyas relative to the ice edge is likely to be similar. (Au)

G, D, E, F, A, J
Albedo; Bathymetry; Biological productivity; Classification; Climate change; Continental shelves; Density; Environmental impacts; Fast ice; Flow; Formation ; Frazil ice; Glaciers; Growth; Heat budgets; Heat transmission; Ice leads; Ice shelves; Icebergs; Ocean currents; Ocean temperature; Oceanography; Polynyas; Salinity; Sea ice; Size; Solar radiation; Spatial distribution; Stamukhi; Strength; Submarine topography; Thickness; Tides; Velocity; Water masses; Winds

G02, G15
Antarctic waters; Arctic waters


IGY : the year of the new moons   /   Wilson, J.T.
Toronto : Longmans, Green and Co., 1961.
352 p., [32] p. of plates : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
References.
Plates inserted between pages 160 and 161.
ASTIS record 63604.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... In "IGY: The Year of the New Moons", Professor J. Tuzo Wilson describes the characteristics of the earth that were observed during the IGY - the elements of our surroundings that give us our ever-changing environment. But more than that, he tells at first hand of the people in distant and varied lands who worked together to make the IGY the great scientific success that it was. Sitting together with me nearly two years ago on an antarctic plane jammed with men and gear, Professor Wilson outlined his plans to fuse the scientific and the human aspects of the IGY in the present volume. Professor Wilson was president of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) during the IGY. This important union of scientists carried a major responsibility for the adequate functioning of the complex system of observations of the "year." The IUGG had joined with l'Union Radio Scientifique Internationale (URSI), the International Astronomical Union (IAU), and the International Geographical Union (IGU) to organize the IGY through the Comité Spécial de l'Année Géophysique Internationale (CSAGI) under the parent body of all international unions, the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). Acting outside the usual political and diplomatic framework of nations, the IGY was planned and executed by scientists working in close collaboration, with immense assistance from their countries. The job took eight years to accomplish, and our comprehension of our environment is still undergoing major changes as a consequence. During the planning and execution of the IGY, Jock Wilson travelled to every corner of the earth. With great wisdom, the Government of Canada and the University of Toronto provided the time and support that enabled him to oversee the IGY on behalf of the IUCC. As a leading world scientist, Jock Wilson brings the perspective of the impartial, keen observer of events around him, acting without reference to his personal comfort or safety when there is ajob to be done or a significant observation to be made. As a Canadian, he is naturally an authority on the polar regions. And as a geophysicist, he counts the whole world as his realm. ... In this book Professor Wilson has captured the sense of desire of all peoples, within the universal scientific culture, to labor for the benefit of all. [From the Foreword by Lloyd V. Berkner.] (Au)

B, E, F, A, L, Y, D, J
Auroras; Balloons; Biographies; Cosmic rays; Earthquakes; Electromagnetic radiation; Geomagnetism; Geophysics; Glaciers; Gravity measurement; Ice sheets; International Geophysical Year 1957-58; Meteorology; Oceanography; Pollution; Radionuclides; Rocket observations; Satellites; Seismology; Solar radiation; Upper atmosphere; Wilson, John Tuzo, 1908-1993

G02, G15, G03, G10
Antarctic regions; Arctic Ocean; Arctic regions; Greenland


Observation of the mesospheric and lower thermospheric 10-hour wave in the northern polar region   /   Wu, Q.   Killeen, T.L.   McEwen, D.   Solomon, S.C.   Guo, W.   Sivjee, G.G.   Reeves, J.M.
(Journal of geophysical research, v.107, no. A 6, 1082, June 2002, p.SIA 4-1 - 4-8, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 52014.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1029/2001JA000192
Libraries: ACU

A 10-hour wave in the mesospheric and lower thermospheric neutral winds and temperature was observed at northern high-latitude stations Resolute (74.9°N) and Eureka (80.1°N) by two Fabry-Perot interferometers, a Michelson interferometer, and a CCD spectrograph. The vertical wavelength of the wave was estimated to be ~53 km. An interstation wave phase comparison yielded a zonal wave number close to five. The neutral wind wave amplitude increased with altitude up to 97 km and varied little with latitude. Our observations suggest that the 10-hour wave is likely to be a result of the semidiurnal tide and the quasi-2-day wave nonlinear interaction and unlikely to be a Lamb wave. The OH emission and temperature observations are also consistent with this interpretation. (Au)

E, D
Atmospheric temperature; Auroras; Diurnal variations; Infrared radiation; Light; Measurement; Mesosphere; Optical properties; Oxygen; Physics; Size; Spatial distribution; Spectroscopy; Temporal variations; Tides; Winds

G01, G0813
Eureka, Nunavut; Polar regions; Resolute, Nunavut


Vertical and interhemispheric links in the stratosphere-mesosphere as revealed by the day-to-day variability of Aura-MLS temperature data   /   Xu, X.   Manson, A.H.   Meek, C.E.   Chshyolkova, T.   Drummond, J.R.   Hall, C.M.   Riggin, D.M.   Hibbins, R.E.
(Annales geophysicae (1988), v. 27, no. 9, Sept. 2009, p.3387-3409, ill., maps)
References.
ASTIS record 68768.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.ann-geophys.net/27/3387/2009/angeo-27-3387-2009.pdf
Web: doi:10.5194/angeo-27-3387-2009
Libraries: ACU

The coupling processes in the middle atmosphere have been a subject of intense research activity because of their effects on atmospheric circulation, structure, variability, and the distribution of chemical constituents. In this study, the day-to-day variability of Aura-MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) temperature data are used to reveal the vertical and interhemispheric coupling processes in the stratosphere-mesosphere during four Northern Hemisphere winters (2004/2005-2007/2008). The UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office) assimilated data and mesospheric winds from MF (medium frequency) radars are also applied to help highlight the coupling processes. In this study, a clear vertical link can be seen between the stratosphere and mesosphere during winter months. The coolings and reversals of northward meridional winds in the polar winter mesosphere are often observed in relation to warming events (Sudden Stratospheric Warming, SSW for short) and the associated changes in zonal winds in the polar winter stratosphere. An upper-mesospheric cooling usually precedes the beginning of the warming in the stratosphere by 1-2 days. Inter-hemispheric coupling has been identified initially by a correlation analysis using the year-to-year monthly zonal mean temperature. Then the correlation analyses are performed based upon the daily zonal mean temperature. From the original time sequences, significant positive (negative) correlations are generally found between zonal mean temperatures at the Antarctic summer mesopause and in the Arctic winter stratosphere (mesosphere) during northern midwinters, although these correlations are dominated by the low frequency variability (i.e. the seasonal trend). Using the short-term oscillations (less than 15 days), the statistical result, by looking for the largest magnitude of correlation within a range of time-lags (0 to 10 days; positive lags mean that the Antarctic summer mesopause is lagging), indicates that the temporal variability of zonal mean temperature at the Antarctic summer mesopause is also positively (negatively) correlated with the polar winter stratosphere (mesosphere) during three (2004/2005, 2005/2006, and 2007/2008) out of the four winters. The highest value of the correlation coefficient is over 0.7 in the winter-stratosphere for the three winters. The remaining winter (2006/2007) has more complex correlations structures; correspondingly the polar vortex was distinguished this winter. The time-lags obtained for 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 are distinct from 2005/2006 and 2007/2008 where a 6-day lag dominates for the coupling between the winter stratosphere and the summer mesopause. The correlations are also provided using temperatures in northern longitudinal sectors in a comparison with the Antarctic-mesopause zonal mean temperature. For northern mid-high latitudes (~50-70° N), temperatures in Scandinavia-Eastern Europe and in the Pacific-Western Canada longitudinal sectors often have opposite signs of correlations with zonal mean temperatures near the Antarctic summer mesopause during northern mid-winters. The statistical results are shown to be associated with the Northern Hemisphere's polar vortex characteristics. (Au)

E
Atmospheric chemistry; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric pressure; Atmospheric temperature; Balloons; Diurnal variations; Measurement; Mesosphere; Radar; Remote sensing; Satellites; Seasonal variations; Stratosphere; Temporal variations; Thermal regimes; Velocity; Winds

G01
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions


Asymmetry in the interhemispheric planetary wave-tide link between the two hemispheres   /   Xu, X.   Manson, A.H.   Meek, C.E.   Chshyolkova, T.   Drummond, J.R.   Riggin, D.M.   Hall, C.M.   Hibbins, R.E.   Tsutsumi, M.
(Journal of atmospheric and solar-terrestrial physics, v. 71, no. 17-18, Dec. 2009, p.1899-1903, ill.)
References.
ASTIS record 73120.
Languages: English
Web: doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2009.07.011
Libraries: ACU

This study assesses the relation between the year-to-year variability of the semidiurnal tides (SDT) observed at high latitudes of both hemispheres and the global stratospheric stationary planetary wave (SPW) with zonal wavenumber S=1 (SPW1) derived from the UKMO temperature data. No significant positive correlation can be identified between the interannual variability of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) SDT and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) SPW1 for austral late-winter months. In contrast, a good consistency is evident for the interannual variations between the SDT observed at Rothera (68°S, 68°W) and the Arctic SPW1 for NH mid-winter months. Since it has been observed that during austral summer the non-migrating SDT often plays a significant role at the latitude of Rothera, a physical link between the SH SDT and the NH SPW is suggested. This asymmetry in the interhemispheric link is also noted in a recent study. (Au)

E
Atmosphere; Atmospheric temperature; Diurnal variations; Mesosphere; Radar; Satellites; Seasonal variations; Spatial distribution; Stratosphere; Temporal variations; Winds

G02, G15, G13, G0823
Antarctic regions; Arctic regions; Rothera region, Antarctic regions; Saskatoon, Saskatchewan; Svalbard; Tromsø, Norway


Cyanobacteria in cold ecosystems   /   Zakhia, F.   Jungblut, A.-D.   Taton, A.   Vincent, W.F.   Wilmotte, A.
In: Psychrophiles : from biodiversity to biotechnology / Edited by R. Margesin, F. Schinner, J.-C. Marx, and C. Gerday. - Heidelberg, Germany : Springer-Verlag Berlin, 2008, ch. 8, p. 121-135
References.
ASTIS record 66030.
Languages: English
Web: http://www.cen.ulaval.ca/warwickvincent/PDFfiles/223.pdf
Libraries: ACU

... In this chapter, we first introduce the taxonomical status and the general characteristics of cyanobacteria. We then examine cyanobacterial diversity in Antarctic, Arctic and alpine habitats, focusing on the molecular approaches. The ecophysiological traits of cyanobacteria that allow them to survive and often thrive in such cold environments are also presented. We conclude this review by consideration of the biogeographical distribution of polar cyanobacteria, an active topic of current research. ... (Au)

H, B, G, F, E, C, J
Adaptation (Biology); Alpine tundra ecology; Benthos; Climate change; Cold adaptation; Cyanophyceae; Environmental impacts; Fresh-water ecology; Glaciers; Ice shelves; Lakes; Microbial ecology; Palaeobotany; Permafrost; Plankton; Plant anatomy; Plant distribution; Plant taxonomy; Precambrian eon; Psychrophilic bacteria; Puddles; Rivers; Rocks; Salinity; Sea ice ecology; Soil microorganisms; Ultraviolet radiation

G15, G0813
Antarctic regions; Canadian Arctic; Eureka, Nunavut; Fryxell, Lake, Antarctic regions; King George Island, Antarctic regions; McMurdo Sound region, Antarctic regions; Ward Hunt Ice Shelf, Nunavut


Areal distribution of the oxygen-isotope ratio in Antarctica : comparison of results based on field and remotely sensed data   /   Zwally, H.J.   Giovinetto, M.   Craven, M.   Morgan, V.   Goodwin, I.
(Papers from the International Symposium on Antarctica and Global Change : Interactions and Impacts, held at Hobart, Australia, 13-18 July 1997 / Edited by W.F. Budd. Annals of glaciology, v. 27, 1998, p. 583-590, maps)
References.
ASTIS record 47191.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

An updated compilation of oxygen-isotope ratio data for 562 sites in Antarctica shows a significant increase in the number of sites and an improvement in the representation of the coastal zone over previous versions. The data base consists of ratio values (delta 18O; multi-year mean 18O/16O relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water, in‰) compiled as the dependent variable, together with data for the so-called independent variables: latitude, surface elevation, mean annual surface temperature and mean annual shortest distance to open ocean denoted by the 20% sea-ice concentration boundary. The problem of covariation between so-called independent variables is minimized using step-wise regression analyses. A general model is described using all the field data, and the regional variation at drainage-system scale is assessed by contrasting models for two physiographically distinct regions. In addition, entity-specific models are determined using data subsets for the conterminous grounded-ice and ice-shelf areas. Inversions of the specific models are applied to a 100 km grid data base to produce two contoured distributions of the ratio, one based on field data, and the other on remotely sensed data. The difference between these produces residuals that, relative to the summation of standard errors of the models, are small in most of the interior area of the ice sheet, and large in several areas of mountain and coastal regions, where interpolation and extrapolation of field data are particularly unreliable. Remotely sensed data generally produce ratio values which are isotopically cooler. (Au)

E, G, F
Atmospheric temperature; Climate change; Cores; Firn; Ice; Ice sheets; Ice shelves; Isotopes; Mathematical models; Numeric databases; Oxygen-18; Remote sensing; Spatial distribution

G15
Antarctic Peninsula; Antarctic regions


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