Northern Granular Resources

Key Publications


The western Beaufort (Yukon) continental shelf (NOGAP Project A4-05)   /   Lewis, J.F.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 1-20, ill., maps
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
ASTIS record 33378.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33378.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

During 1986, an interpretation and integration of the previously collected bathymetric, geophysical and geological data from the western Beaufort Shelf was undertaken by Earth & Ocean Research Ltd. for the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs (INAC). The investigation was to provide an overview of the granular resource base of this area to assist in planning of future exploration studies to delineate granular materials for use in the on-shore or off-shore construction by industry or government. ... A significant increase in the data base occurred in 1984 when a combined hydrographic and geophysical survey was conducted from the M.V. Banksland by the CHS and the GSC. This survey yielded 14,055 km of heave compensated echo sound data .... (Au)


Herschel Island study (NOGAP Project A4-01)   /   Quinn, R.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 21-29, ill., maps
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
ASTIS record 33379.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33379.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

In 1984 and 1985, a series of studies were undertaken to locate and delineate potential areas for the future development of off-shore granular resources near Herschel Island, Yukon Territory. The work, carried out by M.J. O'Connor and Associates and EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., was authorized by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs and the studies were carried out in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Canada. [The geological setting of the area is examined.] (Au)


Granular resources of the Issigak deposit (NOGAP Project A4-06)   /   MacLeod, N.R.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 30-50, ill., maps
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
References.
ASTIS record 33380.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33380.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

The Issigak site is unique in many ways. It is one of the few deposits with any significant portion of gravel in the Beaufort-Mackenzie region and is the only source of granular materials located between Herschel Island and the Akpak Plateau. ... In late 1986 through March 1987, EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd. compiled and interpreted available data for the Issigak deposit (EBA, 1987). ... The primary purposes of the study were to interpret the geology of the deposit, and to quantify the remaining reserves. Those tasks were relatively easy. The hard work was in finding the data, much of which was missing, and resolving inconsistencies between overlapping data sets. ... The first site work on shallow sediments in this area was done in late winter 1974. ... Between 1974 and summer 1986, there were 26 various programs or operations at Issigak. ... Prior to 1986, almost 3.5 million cu.m. of granular material were reported to have been removed from Issigak during four of the dredging operations. In addition, there were four other dredging programs for which the quantity of material removed could not be determined. ... At Issigak, there were 199 boreholes, several bathymetric surveys and bathymetric data collected during seismic programs. The correlation between various data sets was found to be very poor. ... The deposit is almost almost 11 km long and up to 1500 m wide. In section, the deposit is a thin veneer which averages less than 1.5 m thick. Issigak appears as a low ridge or series of small knobs on most bathymetric maps because of the overall flatness of the coastal sediments. ... It is not possible to determine the quantity of granular material that was originally in the Issigak deposit. ... Bathymetric data collected for Esso in 1984 and 176 boreholes obtained for Esso in 1983 (EBA, 1983) provide the basis for understanding the quantity of granular material on site, although 1.5 million m of granular resources were removed between those two times. It was concluded that at the end of 1986, reserves of granular material on site were as follows: Proven Reserves 3.3 million cubic metres, Probable Reserves 5.1 million cubic metres, Prospective Reserves 5.8 million cubic metres. ... The Issigak deposit was interpreted in this NOGAP study to be of early Holocene age. That means the deposits are non-glacial and likely non-marine. ... (Au)


The Isserk borrow block (NOGAP Project A4-20)   /   Lewis, J.F.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 51-75, ill., maps
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
ASTIS record 33381.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33381.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

... The Isserk Borrow Site study program was one component of a set of concurrent studies that were initially conducted by Earth & Ocean Research Ltd. through 1987/1988. ... This paper is specifically in reference to the western Isserk study region ... which is a 20 km x 20 km area of 400 km lying approximately 9 km north of Pullen Island. The study region defined as to be within the following boundaries: Northwest: Zone 8; 520,000E; 7,770,000N (7002'16"N; 13428'30"W); Northeast: Zone 8; 535,000E; 7,770,000N (7002'10"N; 13404'53"W); Southwest: Zone 8; 520,000E; 7,750,000N (6951'31"N; 13428'47"W); Southeast: Zone 8; 535,000E; 7,750,000N (6951'25"N; 13405'22"W). The specific purpose of this study has been to evaluate all (or as much as possible) of the geophysical and geotechnical data available within these regions with the primary mandate of attempting to quantize the locations and volumes of proven, probable and prospective granular resources that are present. ... The mandate of these studies was to evaluate all high resolution geophysical and geotechnical data that had been collected in this study area. This consisted of a massive amount of data, though not all of this data could be found and accessed within a reasonable search effort for this study and a resulting more limited, though still significant, data set was actually used. ... The track navigation and geophysical data compilations included the entire area of the south central Beaufort Sea geological study area. ... The geotechnical data bases were compiled and inserted into ESEBase record form by EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd. for the entire south central Beaufort area. ... The Isserk Borrow Block of the south central Beaufort Sea covers an area of 400 km and contains significant amounts of proven, probable and prospective granular resource materials. Through the integration of geophysical, geotechnical and geological data collected over the past 15 years from both industry and government operators, two main deposits were identified. These deposits occuars fine to medium grained sand bodies that lie within a complex sequence of glacio-fluvial, fluvial and transgressive marine type sediments that form a northwest-southeast trending ridge across the Akpak Plateau. The first deposit (Upper Sand Unit) is a localized shallow sand body which lies in the central portion of the Isserk Borrow Block. Its triangular shape covers an area of approximately 53 million square metres. Borehole and seismic data indicate an estimated 19 million cubic metres of proven, 63 million cubic metres of probable and up to 80 million cubic metres of prospective granular resource materials. ... The second deposit (Lower Sand Unit) is a near surface exposure of Unit C which lies in the southeast quadrant of the study area. It is estimated 800 million cubic metres of prospective granular resources is based on limited seismic information only and requires considerable future ground truthing. Of this 800 million, it is likely that only 100 to 300 million might actually be recoverable when permafrost bonding and resource quality are fully considered and delineated. ... (Au)


The Erksak borrow block (NOGAP Project A4-21)   /   Lewis, J.F.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 76-103, ill., maps
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
ASTIS record 33382.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33382.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

... The Erksak Borrow Site study program was one component of a set of three concurrent studies that were initially conducted by Earth & Ocean Research Ltd. through 1987/1988. ... This paper is specifically in reference to the eastern Erksak study region which is defined by: Northwest: Zone 8; 550,000; 7,800,000 - (7018'10"N 13340'15"W); Northeast: Zone 8; 609,000; 7,800,000 - (7017'04"N 13206'15"W); Southeast: Zone 8; 609,000; 7,750,000 - (6950'12"N 13209'57"W); Southwest: Zone 8; 565,000; 7,750,000 - (6951'04"N 13318'33"W). These co-ordinates describe a quadrilateral that widens to the north. At its closest approach to land, the southern edge of the block lies approximately 9 km to the north of the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula. The defined area encompasses approximately 2,574 km of the Beaufort Shelf. The specific purpose of this study has been to evaluate all (or as much as possible) of the geophysical and geotechnical data available within these regions with the primary mandate of attempting to quantize the locations and volumes of proven, probable and prospective granular resources that are present. ... The track navigation and geophysical data compilations included the entire area of the south central Beaufort Sea geological study area. ... The geotechnical data bases were compiled and inserted into ESEBase record form by EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd. for the entire south central Beaufort area. ... The 2,574 km area of the Erksak Borrow Block located in the south central Beaufort Sea continental shelf contains significant quantities of proven, prospective and probable fine to medium grained sandy granular resource materials. The analysis of this region did not indicate any significant concentrations of coarser grained sand or gravel materials, though numerous trace indications were noted from the borehole records. ... Analysis of the geophysical and geotechnical data base has shown that almost 720 million cubic metres of relatively fine grained granular resource have been proven. Within the entire Borrow Block, the geophysical data have outlined a maximum potential of some 19 billion cubic metres of prospective borrow material of which about 950 million cubic meters could potentially be recoverable by Hopper Tailer dredge (5%). ... (Au)


Granular resources off the southwest coast of Banks Island (NOGAP Project A4-16)   /   Fortin, G.R.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 104-112, ill., maps
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
References.
ASTIS record 33383.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33383.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

Despite long sailing distances from present hydrocarbon exploration sites in the central Beaufort Sea, the narrow shelf bordering the southwestern coast of Banks Island has been identified by the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) as a prospective area for gravel deposits. Although O'Connor (1983) indicated that more than 50,000,000 m of gravel may exist at suitable depth for dredging between Cape Lambton and Sachs Harbour ..., the granular resources in this area remain largely unexplored. Between 1981 and 1983, three separate geophysical programs have been carried out by the industry to investigate the surficial geology for gravel deposits off the island coast. The results of two site specific surveys conducted in 1981 and 1982 at the mouth of the Masik and Rufus rivers have been reported to Dome Petroleum by Fortin .... A detailed evaluation of the regional survey completed in 1983 was prepared by Fortin (1987) on behalf of INAC .... The regional survey includes six lines totaling 130 km of seismic data (echo sounder, side scan sonar, sub-bottom profiler, boomer and air gun systems) recorded in water depths oscillating between 10 and 25 m. The present paper summarizes the findings of the 1983 regional survey. This information was presented with more details in Fortin (1987) who constructed three synoptic plates showing both on-shore and off-shore geology .... (Au)


Northern granular resource mapping information system   /   Peters, J.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 113-124, ill., maps
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
ASTIS record 33384.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33384.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) has, over the past four years, compiled an extensive inventory of information pertaining to granular resources in the Arctic. Funded under the NOGAP program, the project has evolved from a digital inventory of high resolution marine seismic track line data, to digital renditions of interpreted geological maps, borehole locations, borrow sites and the encapsulation of all of this data into a user-friendly data management and desktop mapping system called "inFOcus". This paper describes the development of the inventory, its contents and the way that the data can be used to assess and plan activities through the simple and powerful interface provided by the inFOcus software. (Au)


Geotechnical and geophysical data bases   /   Olthof, R.I.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 125-134
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
ASTIS record 33385.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33385.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

The primary objective of the work has been to compile, in a standardized (ESEBase) format, a data base of surficial sediment core and deep borehole data from the Canadian Beaufort Sea. The data base is intended for use in the evaluation of granular resources for construction materials. The data base logs are intended to be accurate, stratigraphic and textural interpretations of the originals; however, some detailed engineering (for example, strength, consolidation, etc.) data has been omitted. A second significant part of EBA's work has been to compile a bibliography or report catalogue of the various operator and consultant reports containing sub-surface geotechnical information. In 1991, existing geotechnical and geophysical report catalogues (compiled in 1988 by EBA and McElhanney, respectively) were updated to reflect additions made to the data in 1989 and 1991. (Au)


Real-time interpretation of marine resistivity   /   Scott, W.J.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 135-153, ill., maps
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
References.
ASTIS record 33386.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33386.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

This paper describes the development of a real-time capability for the MICRO-WIP marine resistivity system. The program was carried out in 1987 by Hardy BBT Ltd. for Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). ... the detection of sub-bottom permafrost and granular deposits is very important for the design and construction of off-shore facilities in the Beaufort Sea. Granular deposits will supply valuable borrow material for construction of islands while the presence of permafrost will influence the choice of routes and construction of pipelines. (Au)


Canadian Hydrographic Service Beaufort Sea activities   /   Eaton, G.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 153-159
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
ASTIS record 33387.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33387.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

This paper describes the endeavours of the Canadian Hydrographic Service to survey and map the Beaufort Sea region. Positioning systems, including Decca, Minifix, Argo and Syledis were employed before satellite positioning became the preferred mode. Accurate tidal data throughout the Beaufort is difficult to come by, and not until the installation of a permanent gauge in Tuk Harbour were tides extrapolated into the survey area. Coastline data on most charts throughout the Beaufort Sea comes from the NTS series of maps, most of which were compiled from the 1950s using aerial photography. More up-to-date information is currently being sought. New methods and technology are being explored to reduce cost and increase efficiency of acquiring soundings. Some of these methods are Larsen, TIBS, Dolphin, Global positioning system, and Swath sounders. (ASTIS)


Geological constraints to off-shore resource assessment in the Canadian Beaufort Sea   /   Blasco, S.M.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 160-175, ill., map
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
References.
ASTIS record 33388.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33388.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

Knowledge of the Late Quaternary geological history and depositional environments of unconsolidated sediments composing the Beaufort continental shelf provides the technical basis for guiding the search for granular resources, determining the origin of deposits and constraining inventory assessments. ... Granular resource exploration and development has been focused on the high potential areas of the central shelf north of Richards Island and the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula (Akpak Plateau and Tingmiark Plain). To the west, the Herschel sill and western Yukon shelf (Natsek Plain) represent potential sand and gravel source areas. The balance of the Beaufort shelf is dominated by extensive areas of exposed fine grained sediments on and underlying the sea floor. ... Lack of success in locating gravel deposits during early exploration phases on the shelf lead to the expansion of the search to the coast line of southwestern Banks Island. The recent history of the shallow sediments of the Beaufort and Banks continental shelves is dominated by the effects of the last sea level rise, an event which has continued over the last 10,000 years .... This transgression has resulted in the erosion, reworking, concentration and deposition of most of the sand and gravel bodies developed to date. However, the depositional setting varies among borrow sites. Geological models accounting for the origin of these deposits have evolved and changed over the last decade. Seven models have been used to constrain exploration and inventory evaluations of granular prospects. Each of these models is discussed below with appropriate examples. (Au)


Arctic off-shore exploration structures : a geotechnical perspective   /   Hewitt, K.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 176-192, ill., 1 map
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
References.
ASTIS record 33389.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33389.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

Since 1969, 142 exploratory wells have been successfully drilled in the Beaufort Sea (Masterson, et al; 1991). Of this total, approximately 100 wells have been drilled from a variety of islands and bottom-founded structures in water depths up to 32 m .... The remaining wells have been advanced from floating structures in water depths up to 67 m. The marine environment in the Arctic is characterized by sea ice cover for approximately 9 months of the year. The design of bottom-founded structures, from which drilling is performed during the winter months, is dominated by the requirements to resist forces imposed by this ice. This requirement becomes more critical in the "shear" zone, which is the transition zone between the land fast ice zone and the polar ice pack (i.e., beyond approximately 20 m water depth). The variety of bottom-founded structures utilized has ranged from sandbag retained islands through to fully mobile bottom-founded structures. The diversity includes sacrificial beach islands, ice islands, caisson-retained islands and caisson/berm structures. The design and operation of these structures has been largely governed by geotechnical considerations. This paper concludes with an overview of past and present concepts for production structures. (Au)


Round-table session   /   MacLeod, N.R.
In: Proceedings of the Beaufort Sea Granular Resources Workshop, February 13 and 14, 1992 / Edited by Neil R. MacLeod. - Calgary, Alta. : EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., 1993, p. 193-258
(NOGAP project no. A.04 : Granular resources inventory and management program)
ASTIS record 33390.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/33390.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD XQGLW

Round-table sessions focused on the following themes: to review the NOGAP granular resource projects and consider where they fit with the geological models presented by Steve Blasco, and identify any changes that should be made to the interpretation of those areas from a geological or inventory perspective; to focus on ways for developing and applying new technology in the exploration or assessment of granular prospects in the Beaufort by first looking at seismic techniques; to look at targets and defining specific goals for future work. (ASTIS)

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