Hydrocarbon Impacts = Incidences des hydrocarbures

Key Publications

Preliminary summary report for workshop II, Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project, December 1983   /   Beaufort Sea Environmental Assessment Panel
Ottawa : The Panel, 1983.
2, 73, 6, 2 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Indexed a PDF file.
Appendix.
ASTIS record 61086.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/gran/61086.pdf
Libraries: XQGLW ACU

This report briefly summarizes the results of the second workshop in the Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project. As indicated in a previous submission to the BEARP panel during the Inuvik General session, the primary objective of the first workshop held in May, 1983 was to develop a simulation model for the biophysical environment as a tool to focus interdisciplinary communication and information exchange amongst the 50 participants in the project. The underlying objective of the second workshop (November 28 - December 2, 1983) was the establishment of preliminary research and monitoring priorities, through a detailed, interdisciplinary examination of twenty-one hypotheses regarding the potential impacts of hydrocarbon development on the 'Valued Ecosystem Components' of the Beaufort Sea. Documentation of the results of this latter workshop is now being completed and the report is expected to be ready for distribution by 1 March 1984. Consequently, this summary must be regarded as preliminary and subject to revision. The hypotheses, conclusions, and proposed research and monitoring that were discussed in the second workshop are summarized further in Table 1. (Au)

Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project 1983-1984 final report   /   L.G.L. Limited, Environmental Research Associates   ESL Environmental Sciences Limited   Environmental and Social Systems Analysts Ltd.   Arctic Land Use Research Program (Canada) [Sponsor]
Ottawa, Ont. : Northern Environmental Protection Branch, 1984.
xxxvi, 292 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Appendix I: The application of biological "early warning systems" to the detection of environmental change, a brief discussion - Appendix II: Participants in the Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project - Appendix III: Hypotheses and linkages not fully examined during the second workshop.
References.
Cover title: Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project, 1983-1984 report for Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Department of Environment. The cover gives the date of the report as March 1984.
An envelope at the end of the report contains a folded flow chart titled: "Beaufort Sea model: a conceptual diagram of the hypotheses represented in the simulation model".
The text of this report is identical to the 1985 report described by ASTIS record 17790: the title pages, covers, and report series differ.
Cover note: Not published with NOGAP funds; work preceeded NOGAP funding.
ASTIS record 21340.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/misc/21340.pdf
Libraries: ACU

There is considerable concern that hydrocarbon development activities in the Beaufort Sea may result in adverse environmental impacts. Because of these concerns and the recognized uncertainties associated with environmental impact assessment, there is a clear need for an environmental research and monitoring program that is fully integrated with future exploration and development plans. In response to this need, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) and Environment Canada have initiated a program called the Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project (BEMP). The long-term objective of BEMP is to provide INAC and Environment Canada with the technical basis for design, operation and evaluation of a comprehensive and defensible environmental research and monitoring program to accompany phased hydrocarbon development in the Beaufort Sea. This report is the product of a series of steps aimed at meeting the immediate objective of providing INAC and Environment Canada with a research and monitoring plan .... The initiation of new monitoring programs is recommended in relation to four of the 19 hypotheses evaluated during the second workshop. These monitoring programs are directed at hypotheses dealing with the potential impacts of industry facilities and activities on bowhead whales and the white whale harvest, the effects of chronic oil releases on bird populations, and the potential uptake of hydrocarbons and tainting of fish within Tuktoyaktuk harbour. Continuation and revision of existing white whale and polar bear monitoring programs is also encouraged, while other monitoring would be dependent on the results of recommended research programs. ... (Au)

Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project 1983-1984   /   L.G.L. Limited, Environmental Research Associates   ESL Environmental Sciences Limited   Environmental and Social Systems Analysts Ltd.   Arctic Land Use Research Program (Canada) [Sponsor]
Ottawa, Ont. : Northern Environmental Protection Branch, 1985.
xxxvi, 292 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Environmental studies - Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, no. 34)
ISBN 0-662-14242-X
Appendix I: The application of biological "early warning systems" to the detection of environmental change, a brief discussion - Appendix II: Participants in the Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project - Appendix III: Hypotheses and linkages not fully examined during the second workshop.
References.
Cover title: Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project, 1983-1984 final report.
The text of this report is identical to the report described by ASTIS record 21340: the title pages, covers, and report series differ. Unlike 21340, this report does not contain a folded flow chart.
BREA Report Type: Research and Monitoring Program Development.
BREA Baseline Data: No.
BREA Biophysical / Valued Components: Yes, 5 marine mammals, 7 birds, 5 fish, Air Quality.
BREA Development Scenarios / Activities: Yes, offshore exploration and drilling, production islands, drilling and facilities, subsea and onshore gathering systems, tanker transportation.
BREA Impact Hypotheses: Yes, 19 biophysical and harvest impacts evaluated, 3 additional harvest impacts identified but not evaluated.
BREA Environmental Concerns Identified: Yes, described in Linkages and Hypotheses.
BREA Harvest Concerns Identified: Yes.
BREA Social Concerns Identified: No.
BREA Research / Monitoring Recommendations: Yes.
ASTIS record 17790.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/misc/17790.pdf
Libraries: ACU

There is considerable concern that hydrocarbon development activities in the Beaufort Sea may result in adverse environmental impacts. Because of these concerns and the recognized uncertainties associated with environmental impact assessment, there is a clear need for an environmental research and monitoring program that is fully integrated with future exploration and development plans. In response to this need, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) and Environment Canada have initiated a program called the Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project (BEMP). The long-term objective of BEMP is to provide INAC and Environment Canada with the technical basis for design, operation and evaluation of a comprehensive and defensible environmental research and monitoring program to accompany phased hydrocarbon development in the Beaufort Sea. ... During 1983-1984 BEMP proceeded through an initial workshop, a series of technical meetings and a second workshop. ... A summary of the recommended research and monitoring related to the 19 hypotheses that were evaluated in detail during the second BEMP workshop is provided below. ... page xxiv ... The initiation of new monitoring programs is recommended in relation to four of the 19 hypotheses evaluated during the second workshop. These monitoring programs are directed at hypotheses dealing with the potential impacts of industry facilities and activities on bowhead whales and the white whale harvest, the effects of chronic oil releases on bird populations, and the potential uptake of hydrocarbons and tainting of fish within Tuktoyaktuk harbour. Continuation and revision of existing white whale and polar bear monitoring programs is also encouraged, while other monitoring would be dependent on the results of recommended research programs. (Au)

Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project 1984-85 final report   /   ESL Environmental Sciences Limited   L.G.L. Limited, Environmental Research Associates   Environmental and Social Systems Analysts Ltd.   Arctic Laboratories Limited   Arctic Sciences Limited   Canada. Northern Environmental Protection Branch [Sponsor]   Canada. Environment Canada [Sponsor]
Ottawa, Ont. : Northern Environmental Protection Branch, 1985.
xxi, 162 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(NOGAP project no. A.07 : Offshore environmental ecosystems monitoring)
(NOGAP project no. C.21 : Multi-service projects)
Appendix A: 1984-85 project overviews - Appendix B: List of participants, 1985 Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project workshop, Victoria, B.C., February 5-8, 1985 - Appendix C: Reponse to a proposal for a new valued ecosystem component and related impact hypotheses.
References.
Cover title: Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project 1984-1985 report.
The text of this report is identical to the report described by ASTIS record 29186: the title pages, covers, and report series differ.
ASTIS record 18186.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU OORD

The Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project (BEMP) was initiated in 1983 by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada and Environment Canada. The program is to provide the technical basis for the design, operation and evaluation of a comprehensive and defensible environmental research and monitoring program to accompany phased hydrocarbon development in the Beaufort Sea. This document is the report of the activities during the second year of the project and contains recommendations for future environmental studies. The primary activities during 1984-85 were a pre-workshop review of studies initiated since December 1983, preparation of project overviews describing the purpose of these investigations and their relationship to existing BEMP hypotheses, the conduct of a workshop in early February 1985, and the preparation of this report. The workshop itself consisted of a hypothesis-by-hypothesis review of recent and ongoing studies, incorporation of this new information in the existing hypotheses, and preparation of recommendations for further research and monitoring. Due to a change in the development scenario involving the possible use of oil-base drilling fluids, a new hypothesis related to potential impacts of oil-contaminated cuttings discharge on anadromous fish was also formulated and evaluated at the 1985 workshop.The following is a summary of the conclusions and recommendations that emerged from subgroup discussions of each impact hypothesis. The main body of this report contains a review of new information that was found to be relevant to the various linkages that comprise the BEMP impact hypotheses, as well as the rationale for specific research or monitoring recommendations. Brief overviews of recent and ongoing investigations that were considered relevant to the project are provided in an appendix. [The hypotheses relate to the effects of the petroleum industry, including ice-breaker transportation, offshore structures, and oil spills, on the biota of the Beaufort Sea and region, including whales, seals, polar bears, seabirds, and fish.] (Au)

Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project 1984-1985 final report   /   ESL Environmental Sciences Limited   L.G.L. Limited, Environmental Research Associates   Environmental and Social Systems Analysts Ltd.   Arctic Laboratories Limited   Arctic Sciences Limited   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa, Ont. : Northern Environmental Protection Branch, 1985.
xxi, 162 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Environmental studies - Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, no. 39)
(NOGAP project no. A.07 : Offshore environmental ecosystems monitoring)
ISBN 0-662-15156-9
Appendix A: 1984-85 project overviews - Appendix B: List of participants, 1985 Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project workshop, Victoria, B.C., February 5-8, 1985 - Appendix C: Reponse to a proposal for a new valued ecosystem component and related impact hypotheses.
References.
The text of this report is identical to the report described by ASTIS record 18186: the title pages, covers, and report series differ.
ASTIS record 29186.
Languages: English
Libraries: OORD ACU

The Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project (BEMP) was initiated in 1983 by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada and Environment Canada. The program is to provide the technical basis for the design, operation and evaluation of a comprehensive and defensible environmental research and monitoring program to accompany phased hydrocarbon development in the Beaufort Sea. This document is the report of the activities during the second year of the project and contains recommendations for future environmental studies. The primary activities during 1984-85 were a pre-workshop review of studies initiated since December 1983, preparation of project overviews describing the purpose of these investigations and their relationship to existing BEMP hypotheses, the conduct of a workshop in early February 1985, and the preparation of this report. The workshop itself consisted of a hypothesis-by-hypothesis review of recent and ongoing studies, incorporation of this new information in the existing hypotheses, and preparation of recommendations for further research and monitoring. Due to a change in the development scenario involving the possible use of oil-base drilling fluids, a new hypothesis related to potential impacts of oil-contaminated cuttings discharge on anadromous fish was also formulated and evaluated at the 1985 workshop.The following is a summary of the conclusions and recommendations that emerged from subgroup discussions of each impact hypothesis. The main body of this report contains a review of new information that was found to be relevant to the various linkages that comprise the BEMP impact hypotheses, as well as the rationale for specific research or monitoring recommendations. Brief overviews of recent and ongoing investigations that were considered relevant to the project are provided in an appendix. [The hypotheses relate to the effects of the petroleum industry, including ice-breaker transportation, offshore structures, and oil spills, on the biota of the Beaufort Sea and region, including whales, seals, polar bears, seabirds, and fish.] (Au)

Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project 1985-1986 final report   /   L.G.L. Limited, Environmental Research Associates   ESL Environmental Sciences Limited   Environmental and Social Systems Analysts Ltd.   Arctic Sciences Limited   Arctic Laboratories Limited   Canada. Northern Environment Directorate [Sponsor]   Canada. Environment Canada [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1987.
xix, 199 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Environmental studies - Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, no. 40)
(NOGAP project no. A.07 : Offshore environmental ecosystems monitoring)
ISBN 0-662-15188-7
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 29189.
Languages: English
Libraries: OORD ACU

... The Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project (BEMP) was initiated in 1983 by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada and Environment Canada and has continued to the present time. Its purpose is to provide the technical basis for the design, operation and evaluation of a comprehensive and defensible environmental research and monitoring program to accompany phased hydrocarbon development in the Beaufort Sea. This document is the report of the activities during the third year of the project and contains recommendations for future environmental studies in relation to bowhead whales. The primary activities during 1985-86 were (1) a review of relevant studies initiated or completed since December 1984, (2) preparation of project overviews describing the purpose of these investigations and their relationship to existing BEMP hypotheses, (3) the conduct of a workshop on bowhead whales in early February 1986, (4) review of research discussed in two recent conferences on oil-base drilling fluids, (5) revision of Hypothesis 20 dealing with oil-base drilling fluids, and (6) the preparation of this report. The following is a summary of the conclusions and recommendations that have emerged from previous workshops on each BEMP impact hypothesis. During the present program, only the bowhead whale hypothesis (No. 1) and the oil-base drilling fluids hypothesis (No. 20) were reviewed for validity or modified. Therefore, the conclusions and recommendations for the remaining hypotheses remain unchanged from those presented in the 1984-1985 BEMP report. ... (Au)

Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project 1986-1987 final report   /   ESL Environmental Sciences Limited   Seakem Oceanography Ltd.   Northern Affairs Program (Canada) [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1987.
ix, 175 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Environmental studies - Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, no. 52)
(NOGAP project no. A.07 : Offshore environmental ecosystems monitoring)
ISBN 0-662-15978-0
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 29190.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/misc/29190.pdf
Libraries: OORD ACU

Summary: The Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project (BEMP) was initiated in 1983 by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada and Environment Canada. Its purpose is to provide the technical basis for the design, operation and evaluation of a comprehensive and defensible environmental research and monitoring program to accompany phased hydrocarbon development in the Beaufort Sea. This document describes the results of two workshops held during the fourth year of the project and presents a review of recently initiated or completed research programs that are relevant to one or more BEMP impact hypotheses. In 1986-1987, a new impact hypothesis was formulated to address a change in the hydrocarbon development scenario that could involve westward transport of oil out of the Beaufort region during the open-water season. The first of two workshops examined Hypothesis No. 20, which focuses on the effects of discharge of cuttings contaminated with oil-based drilling muds on fish, birds and marine mammals (The discharge of drill cuttings contaminated with oil-based drilling muds during hydrocarbon exploration or production will reduce populations of fish, birds, and mammals or will decrease the harvest of these resources due to hydrocarbon accumulation in tissues). It was concluded that discharge of oil-contaminated cuttings could affect the local abundance of these species in shallow nearshore areas due to loss of benthic habitat, but was not a significant concern in offshore areas because of the scale of possible industrial activities. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of hydrocarbons adhering to the drill cuttings was considered highly unlikely and would not justify testing through a monitoring program. Workshop participants recommended five areas of future research and monitoring related to use of oil-based drilling muds in the Beaufort Sea. These were determination of the fate of discharged oil-contaminated cuttings, establishment of a hydrocarbon baseline data base, identification of critical nearshore habitats for fish, birds and mammals, evaluation of the potential for downhole generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and examination of the oxygen demand of oiled cuttings in this region. The second workshop involved the evaluation of two hypotheses related to the effects of hydrocarbon development on the western Arctic population of bowhead whales. These hypotheses were examined by separate working groups. The first reviewed new information relevant to the original bowhead whale hypothesis (Hypothesis No. 1) and the second examined a new hypothesis related to westward transport of oil from the region. The majority of the workshop participants examining Hypothesis No. 1 (Ship traffic, seismic exploration and active offshore structures will cause a reduction in the western Arctic population of bowhead whales) concluded that either it was possible but too difficult to detect, or it was not testable. Notwithstanding this conclusion, several participants believed that there was a need to continue research on some critical links in the hypothesis. The discussion of research needs focused exclusively on examination of the distribution of adequate bowhead feeding habitats within and outside the industry zone, particularly determination of the rates of use of zooplankton patches inside and outside this zone. The need for pre-established "stopping rules" and benefit-cost analysis prior to initiation of this research were also supported by many of the participants. Another recommendation of the group was refinement of hydroacoustic techniques to allow distinction of physical and biological targets. The second subgroup in the bowhead whale workshop concluded that the new hypothesis (Tanker traffic and minor oil spills associated with the westward transport of Canadian Beaufort oil will cause reductions in the western Arctic population of bowhead whales and the harvest of this population by Alaskan Inupiat) was valid, but most of its linkages were unlikely to occur at the level of shipping activity examined during the meeting (16 round trips between 1 August and 31 October each year). Further testing of the hypothesis was considered unjustified and no field research or monitoring programs were recommended. However, the group did suggest the need for re-analysis of existing data to determine the probability and possible significance of concerns reflected in three hypothesis links, and that efforts be taken to mitigate impacts of tanker traffic on the success of the fall bowhead hunt in Alaska. (Au)

Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project 1987-1988 final report   /   ESL Environmental Sciences Limited   Seakem Oceanography Ltd.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]   Canada. Environment Canada [Sponsor]
Ottawa : Indian Affairs and Northern Development, 1988 [distributed 1989].
vi, 136 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Environmental studies - Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, no. 60)
(NOGAP project no. A.07 : Offshore environmental ecosystems monitoring)
ISBN 0-662-16736-8
Report date: January 1989, but publication information gives 1988 as the date of publication.
Catalogue no. R71-19/60-1989E.
BREA Report Type: Research and Monitoring Program Development.
BREA Baseline Data: No.
BREA Biophysical / Valued Components: Yes.
BREA Development Scenarios / Activities: Yes.
BREA Impact Hypotheses: 21 biophysical and harvest impacts evaluated.
BREA Environmental Concerns Identified: Yes, described in Linkages and Hypotheses.
BREA Harvest Concerns Identified: Yes, described in Linkages and Hypotheses.
BREA Social Concerns Identified: No.
BREA Research / Monitoring Recommendations: Yes.
ASTIS record 35036.
Languages: English
Web: http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/misc/35036.pdf
Libraries: ACU OORD

Introduction: The Beaufort Environmental Monitoring Project (BEMP) was initiated in 1983 by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada and Environment Canada. It is to provide the technical basis for design, operation and evaluation of a comprehensive and defensible environmental research and monitoring program to accompany hydrocarbon development in the Beaufort Sea, relative to the regulatory responsibilities of INAC and Environment Canada. BEMP was considered necessary because of: (1) environmental concerns regarding this development; (2) general uncertainties associated with Environmental Impact Assessment; and (3) the need for a research and monitoring plan that is fully integrated with activities associated with phased development within the region. ... 1987-1988 represents the fifth year of BEMP. The project involved reviewing the results of recent and ongoing studies as they have in past years to maintain continuity, and providing recommendations related to the future direction of the project. Evaluation of impact hypotheses through workshops was not considered essential because of the limited amount of new research relevant to the hypotheses initiated in the last year. The primary activities during 1987-1988 were: (1) a review of relevant studies initiated or completed since the last BEMP workshops in March 1987; (2) preparation of project overviews describing the purpose of these investigations and their relationship to existing BEMP hypotheses; and (3) evaluation of the overall status of knowledge regarding each hypothesis. ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 1: Ship traffic, seismic exploration and active offshore structures will cause a reduction in the Western Arctic population of bowhead whales ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 4 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 2: A - Offshore structures will reduce the white whale harvest; B - Frequent icebreaker traffic in landfast ice will increase the white whale harvest; C - Open water ship traffic in the Mackenzie Estuary will alter white whale distribution and lead to changes in harvest levels ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 19 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 3: Marine vessel traffic, seismic activities, dredging operations, aircraft overflights; and active offshore platforms /islands will reduce the size of populations of ringed and bearded seals in the Beaufort Sea ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 28 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 4: Increased frequency of icebreaker traffic through the landfast ice and through Amundsen Gulf will reduce ringed seal pup production and population levels ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 40 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 5: Icebreaker traffic in the transition (shear) zone will reduce bearded seal pup ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 42 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 6: Icebreaker traffic in Amundsen Gulf will affect the ringed seal and polar bear populations ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 45 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 7: The presence of active facilities will result in increased polar bear mortality ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 50 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 8: Offshore development activities will reduce the harvest of polar bears ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... Participants in the 1984 workshop concluded that this hypothesis was unlikely and, therefore, did not warrant any specific research or monitoring. ... page 57 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 9: Chronic/episodic oil spills resulting from normal petroleum hydrocarbon development activities within and adjacent to the marine environment will result in localized mortality of polar bears ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 59 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 10: Chronic (episodic) oil spills resulting from normal petroleum hydrocarbon development activities within and adjacent to the marine environment will result in local mortality of certain bird species ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... This hypothesis was combined with Hypothesis No. 11 during the 1985 workshop ... discussion at the 1985 workshop focused on the need to monitor and record the incidence of oiled birds (or other wildlife) ... Consensus was not reached on this question largely because there have been no reports of bird mortality to date ... page 62 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 11: Oil slicks in open water areas around offshore structures during normal periods of ice cover will cause increased mortality of eiders and diving ducks ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... combined with Hypothesis No. 10 ... no longer exists in its original form. ... page 63 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 12: Frequent low altitude aircraft flights over staging birds will cause increased overwinter mortality ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... it was concluded that this hypothesis was invalid. ... page 64 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 13: Shorebases and shallow-water production facilities will release hydrocarbons and heavy metals at sufficient levels such that fish harvest will be reduced through tainting and heavy metal accumulations ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 67 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 14: Nearshore structures will disrupt the nearshore band of warm brackish water and reduce the broad whitefish ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 82 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 15: Nearshore structures will disrupt the nearshore band of warmer brackish water and will reduce the Alaskan population of Arctic cisco ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 95 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 16: The construction of shorebases and development of shallow-water production fields will result in a decrease in the populations of Arctic cisco and broad whitefish ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 103 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 17: Water intakes will reduce populations of broad whitefish and Arctic cisco ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... During previous workshops (1984, 1985), this hypothesis was considered extremely unlikely ... page 105 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 18: Air emissions resulting from the operation of aircraft, marine vessels, drill rigs, offshore platforms and shorebases will adversely affect air quality ... it was concluded that Hypothesis No. 18 was unlikely. ... page 106 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 19: Dredging and deposition of spoils will reduce the bearded seal population ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... this hypothesis was considered unlikely and did not justify testing ... It was recommended that heavy metal concentrations in bearded seal livers be measured on an opportunistic basis ... page 109 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 20: The discharge of drill cuttings contaminated with oil-based drilling mud during hydrocarbon exploration or production will reduce populations of fish, birds or mammals or will decrease the harvest of these resources due to hydrocarbon accumulation in tissues ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 112 ... HYPOTHESIS NO. 21: Tanker traffic and minor oil spills associated with the westward transport of Canadian Beaufort oil will cause reductions in the Western Arctic population of bowhead whales and/or the harvest of this population by the Alaskan Inupiat ... STATUS OF KNOWLEDGE ... page 126 ... RESEARCH PROJECTS OF GENERAL INTEREST T0 BEMP ... page 130. (Au)

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