Hydrocarbon Impacts = Incidences des hydrocarbures

Key Publications

Norman Wells database project : interim report   /   University of Saskatchewan   Bone, R.M.   Mahnic, R.J.P.   Murauskas, G.T.   Pomeroy, J.W.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Saskatoon, Sask. : University of Saskatchewan, 1982.
18 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
ASTIS record 31158.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The Norman Wells Database Project began in the spring of 1982. Much of the preliminary work was associated with preparing the submission and discussing the project with departmental officials. In June, meetings were held in Ottawa and Yellowknife. The purpose of these meetings was to make certain that the project would be well received in the North. The contract was issued on July 19th, 1982 and arrived in Saskatoon in July 28th, 1982. The first phases of the database project have been completed. These phases were the testing of the questionnaires in the field and the undertaking of the community surveys. By August 20th, 262 household and 124 business/public service surveys had been completed and arrangements had been made for additional surveys to be completed by local surveyors. By September 20th, an additional 83 had reached Saskatoon. The next phase of the database project, the entering of the data into the computer, is underway. This work is expected to be completed in November and a print-out of the results available in December. The need for supplementing the field data with secondary statistics will be examined at that time. An additional contract is proposed to prepare a design of a monitoring program for the database. This monitoring program will conceptualize the monitoring system and construct a monitoring program. This report, if awarded by November 1st, can be completed by January 15th, 1983. (Au)

Norman Wells database project : database and survey discussions report   /   University of Saskatchewan   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Saskatoon, Sask. : University of Saskatchewan, 1983.
11 leaves ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 2-83)
ASTIS record 31160.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The summer field survey of 1982 revealed the need for further discussions with community leaders and the developers. This need for additional consultations stemmed from: (1) the general concern about the effect of this oil development project upon the residents of the four communities. (2) the lack of information about the purpose of the DINA survey and its potential usefulness to local settlements. (3) the fact that the developers and the Metis Development Corporation were also undertaking surveys at the community level. (4) the need for clearance from the head offices of Interprovincial Pipe Line and Esso Resources in order to obtain the desired information about company operations and employee information. This report provides an account of our efforts to address these concerns and to have the full co-operation of the local councils and the two companies. It should be noted that the depth of the wariness of both the company officials and the local residents to the proposed monitoring program was much greater than assumed at the start of the project. ... once sufficient time was taken to explain the purpose and potential utility of our work to these parties, a general acceptance of this monitoring program was achieved. (Au)

Norman Wells database project : presentations at the Calgary workshop (July 7, 1983)   /   University of Saskatchewan   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Saskatoon, Sask. : University of Saskatchewan, 1983.
25, 25 leaves : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 3-83)
References.
Contents: Monitoring the socio-economic impacts of the Norman Wells project / R.M. Bone and R.J. Mahnic (Paper presented to: Norman Wells Project Co-ordination Office, DIAND, March 29, 1983 and the Workshop on Socio-Economic Monitoring & the Norman Wells Project, Calgary, Alta., July 7, 1983 - The Norman Wells energy project : a problem of monitoring / M.B. Green and R.M. Bone.
ASTIS record 31161.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The objectives of this workshop on the socio-economic monitoring of the Norman Wells Oil Development and Pipeline Project were to review the various monitoring activities of the companies and governments; to discuss the methodologies and data selections by each group responsible for monitoring this mega project; to identify any data gaps and make suggestions on how to correct this situation; and to establish a forum for data sharing/exchange. At this workshop, the research group of the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development presented two papers: (1) Monitoring the Socio-economic Impact of the Norman Wells Project, (2) The Norman Wells Energy Project: A Problem of Monitoring. (Au)

Norman Wells database project : Norman Wells project overview, 1983   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1983.
26 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 4-83)
ASTIS record 52738.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

In the spring of 1983, the research group from the University of Saskatchewan began its second year of monitoring the impact of the Norman Wells Project on the four communities situated along the route of the proposed pipeline. This monitoring program is a key component of the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs' involvement in the Norman Wells Project. The Director of this research program is Professor Robert M. Bone and the Research Associate is Robert J. Mahnic. The 1983 survey of businesses and public services took place in the summer of 1983. Following the preparation of the questionnaires and related material, field parties entered the Northwest Territories in May and they returned to Saskatoon in late June. At that time, the coding of the responses began. This coded information was then entered into the University of Saskatchewan computer system. During the 1983 summer field season, some 50 household surveys took place. This enumeration was necessary because approval to contact Esso employees at Norman Wells was not received until December 1982 and because nearly 30 household questionnaires were only partially completed in 1982 by Fort Norman residents. This '1982' information, collected in 1983, was added to our data files and .the revised (more complete) data files for 1982 were sent to Ottawa in October 1982. These computer printouts of the data files consist of frequency tables for the responses to each question on the two surveys. The purpose of these annual surveys is to generate a set of reliable statistics which will permit the measuring of socio-economic and demographic changes in the communities of Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson. From this analysis of change, development patterns and trends can be established. In this way, the overall impact of the Norman Wells Project can be further analyzed by age, sex, residency by community, marital status and previous employment. From this brief discussion, the reader can see that the purpose of these surveys is (1) to allow the total regional and community impacts to be measured and (2) to permit a series of specific impacts to be measured. The major steps in this monitoring program consist of: (1) the creation of a database, (2) the annual analysis of this database, (3) the assessment of these annual reports, (4) the evaluation of the total impact of the project. The database consists of a series of responses from every head of household and every owner/manager of a business or agency in the four communities. ... (Au)

The DIAND Norman Wells Socio-Economic Monitoring Program   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[Ottawa : DIAND], 1984.
54 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 9-84)
References.
Partial contents: Ch. 5: Major findings to June 1984: population size, population characteristics, northern residency, labour force change, household incomes, local shopping patterns, trapping and consumption of country food, perceptions about development, perceived positive and negative impacts on local communities.
ASTIS record 17358.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This report contains the major findings of the DIAND socio-economic monitoring program of the Norman Wells Oilfield Expansion and Pipeline Construction Project (Norman Wells Project) for the period June 1982 to June 30th, 1984. The four communities of Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson provide the geographic focus of this study. [All are in the construction zone of the project.] The objective of the monitoring program is to measure annual socio-economic changes in each of the four ... over a five-year period (1982 to 1986). The time span represents three stages in development - the pre-construction, the construction and the post-construction stages. ... The core of this field work was two questionnaires - one administered to heads of households, the other to owners/managers of private businesses and public agencies ... designed so that impacts upon native people could be distinguished from those on the general population. .... (Au)

The DIAND socio-economic impact monitoring program : attitudes towards the Norman Wells project   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bates, S.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[Ottawa : DIAND], 1984.
v, 19, [40] p. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 2-84)
Appendices.
References.
ASTIS record 18506.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The purpose of the Project Impact Survey questionnaire is to obtain more detailed information regarding the positive and negative effects of the Norman Wells Project. Although there is a question on both the 1984 household and business surveys asking respondents to identify the impacts of the project, this additional questionnaire allows for more detailed description. ... The multi-dimensional study consisted of: (a) ranking the 18 most frequently mentioned impacts collected during the initial survey, (b) determining the association between each pair of impacts, and (c) identifying the players perceived responsible for each impact. ... (Au)

Analysis of rankings of socio-economic impacts of the Norman Wells Pipeline Project   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Green, M.B.   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[Ottawa : DIAND], 1984.
ix, 45 p. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 3-84)
References.
ASTIS record 18507.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... The Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development is concerned that socio-economic impacts may occur in four communities located near the pipeline route. These four communities are Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson. Accordingly, this federal Department initiated a socio-economic monitoring program for these four communities in June 1982. As part of the monitoring program, a single question survey was conducted in these four communities by members of the Federal Coordinator's Office for the DIAND socio-economic monitoring team in March 1984. The responses of 41 local residents are the subject of this report. These responses consist of the perceived positive and negative impacts of the Norman Wells Project on their community. ... (Au)

The DIAND socio-economic impact monitoring program : changes in the size of the native labour force from 1982 to 1983   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bates, S.C.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[Ottawa : DIAND], 1984.
iv, 44 p. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 4-84)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 18508.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

A number of generalizations may be made on the basis of this analysis of the labour forces in the study communities. (1) the proportion of the native labour force employed in the part-time workforce is higher than the proportion in the permanent workforce, in all communities (2) the percent of natives employed in the wage economy is generally lower than the percent of native population for each community (3) much of the native labour force is involved with the fishing and trapping industry (4) the major increase in native wage workers occurred at Norman Wells. There are, however, a number of exceptions to these generalizations. ... (Au)

The DIAND socio-economic impact monitoring program : establishment of existing socio-economic conditions   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Green, M.B.   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[Ottawa : DIAND], 1984.
49 p. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 5-84)
References.
ASTIS record 18509.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The development of the Norman Wells oil field by Esso Resources Ltd. and the construction of a pipeline by Interprovincial Pipeline (IPL) to Zama, Alberta has led to a concern with the socioeconomic impacts that may occur in communities along the pipeline route. This paper proposes and exemplifies a principal components approach to the creation of socioeconomic indices to help monitor such changes. ... (Au)

An analysis of the economic functions in the four study communities in 1982   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bates, P.T.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[Ottawa : DIAND], 1984.
27 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 7-84)
References.
ASTIS record 18510.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The purpose of this study is to investigate the economic functions of each of the four communities in the central Mackenzie Valley region of the Northwest Territories. The term "economic functions" refers to the goods and services available from local sources in each community. The research centres on a case study of the following communities: Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley, and Fort Simpson and is based primarily on data provided by the Norman Wells socio-economic monitoring project being undertaken by the Northern Program, Department of Geography, University of Saskatchewan. More specifically, the goals of this study are to measure the functional complexity of the communities and to explore the spatial relationships between these centres. ... (Au)

The DIAND socio-economic impact monitoring program : impact of project on economic base of Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bates, P.T.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[Ottawa : DIAND], 1984.
32 p. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 8-84)
References.
ASTIS record 18511.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

This report focuses on the impact of the Norman Wells Pipeline Project on the economic base of each of the four communities located along the pipeline route. The research takes the form of case studies on Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson and is based on information provided by the DIAND Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program undertaken by members of the Geography Department, University of Saskatchewan. Specific information was compiled from the individual responses to the Business and Public Services 1982 and 1983 questionnaires. The monitoring study provides an inventory of all the businesses (public and private) in each of the four study communities. Using this information an index of centrality is calculated for each community for both 1982 and 1983. ... (Au)

The DIAND Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program : assessment of selected statistical data from the Government of the Northwest Territories   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Brown, D.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[Ottawa : DIAND], 1984.
ix, 102 p. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 6-84)
ASTIS record 18748.
Languages: English
Libraries: OORD ACU

The objective of this study is to assess the value of administrative records for research purposes associated with the socio-economic monitoring of the Norman Wells Project. The chief value of administrative records for a monitoring study is its capacity to present a longitudinal view of change over time. As administrative or program statistics were not collected for the purpose of monitoring socio-economic change over time, minor inconsistencies in the collection of data and/or aggregation of data by communities or regions may generate significant variations for use in a research project. While this report focuses on the limitations of administrative data, these administrative records often provide the only information on sensitive community issues. These data can be used with much more assurance at the regional and territorial levels. ... (Au)

The DIAND socio-economic impact monitoring program : its origins, methodology and data verification   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : Norman Wells Project Office, DIAND [distributor], 1984.
ii, 31 p. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 1-84)
References.
ASTIS record 21265.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Following a brief account of the emergence of project assessment and monitoring, two key items of the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program are discussed. They are: field methodology and coding/data verification. They represent important elements in the data gathering aspects of the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program. ... The purpose of the DIAND monitoring effort is to provide meaningful information about the economic and social impact of the project upon the four communities. ... (Au)

Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program : 1985 methodological report   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Stewart, D.A.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1985.
49 p. : ill., 1 map ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 1-85)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 52729.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

In 1982 the University or Saskatchewan was contracted by the Department or Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND) to monitor the socio-economic impacts of the Norman Wells Oilfield Expansion and Pipeline Project upon the four communities of Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson. This monitoring program is under the direction of Dr. Robert M. Bone. To identify the impacts, an annual interview of each business person and a bi-annual interview of each head of household was to take place in each community from 1982 to 1986. These structured interviews consisted of responses to two questionnaires, one designed for businesses and one for households. At the request of the local band councils neither the household nor business interviews were undertaken at Wrigley or Fort Simpson in 1984. Also, DIAND decided that 1985 would be the last year for the monitoring study because of the early completion of the Norman Wells Project. Consequently both interviews were conducted this year. A major change in interview procedure occurred in 1985 when local native development corporations were contracted by DIAND to conduct the survey in each of the communities. This approach differs from the past surveys when research staff from the University of Saskatchewan undertook the interviews with assistance from local people. The purpose of this report is to: 1. Outline changes made to the 1985 questionnaires; 2. Provide a detailed description of how the survey program worked; and 3. Assess the effect of using local surveyors to complete the community-wide business and household questionnaires. ... Conclusion: Overall, the use of the local development corporations to conduct the data gathering surveys for the Norman Wells Socio-economic Monitoring Program in 1985 was very successful. Clearly, the response rate to the household questionnaire was better than in the past and preliminary analysis shows that the quality of the household questionnaires is good. The conducting of the business questionnaires was less successful. ... (Au)

Population impacts of the Norman Wells Project on the four study communities, 1982-1984   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Stewart, D.A.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1985.
37 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 2-85)
References.
ASTIS record 52730.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

In 1982, construction began on the Norman Wells OilField Expansion and Pipeline Project. Prior to the approval of this mega project by the Federal government, the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO) examined the development plans of Esso Resources Ltd. and Interprovincial Pipeline (NW) Ltd. Two major potential population impacts were identified. These were expressed as: 1. "The Panel is concerned about a significant increase in population during and after construction and the resulting effects on community infrastructure and population." (FEARO 1981. p.60) 2. "The effects on the native society of a temporary and long-term increase in the number of white residents." (FEARO 1981. p.59) The objectives of this report are: (1) to identify the population characteristics of the four study communities prior to the Norman Wells Project and (2) to examine the impact of the construction phase on these characteristics. The report has four major sections. The first section is an examination of recent changes in population size in the impact zone (Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson). The second section consists of an analysis of the population composition of each community. Topics include ethnicity, age, sex and education. The third section analyzes northern residency and migration. It also identifies the number and characteristics of "new" residents in each community. The final section of the report discusses the potential labour force. Examination of the activities of those between the ages of 15 and 64 years yields valuable insights into the economic well-being of a community. ... The impacts of the construction of the Norman Wells Project on the populations of Norman Wells and Fort Norman to June 30, 1984 are: 1. There has been accelerated in-migration into Norman Wells with the population rising to 630. The annual growth rate during the construction phase was 16.67% and 85.31% of the population could be called recent migrants as defined in this report. 2. Fort Norman had a population of 296 in 1984. Due to the small increase in population, it is apparent that there is out-migration from this community. Indications are that young native women are leaving these small communities to go to the larger communities. 3. The recent migrants to Norman Wells have often been the families of project employees. 4. The Norman Wells Project has produced little benefit in terms of increased employment in Fort Norman. This is especially true of the youths and natives for whom unemployment worsened between 1982 and 1984. The most successful in capturing the benefits were the residents of Fort Norman in the 40 to 64 age category. 5. It is clear that many women in Fort Norman attempted to enter the active labour force between 1982 and 1984. However, unemployment levels and part-time employment increased substantially for women from 1982 to 1984. (Au)

Changes in country food consumption   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1985.
36 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 3-85)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 52731.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The harvesting of renewable resources is extremely important to native peoples. ... A key indicator of renewable resources harvesting by natives is their heavy consumption of country food. One measure of this consumption is the percentage of country food in the diet of household members. In this report, the evidence from community surveys indicates that native households tend to have a much higher percentage of country food in their diets than do non-native households. At the same time, there is a wide variation in the use of country food in the diet of native households. The 1982 survey results indicate the existence of such a range in the percentage of country food in native diets. This range of use shows that most native households use approximately equal amounts of country and store foods but that there are some families who either use very little country food in their diet or use it almost exclusively. ... There have been some shifts in the pattern of consumption by the seven user groups. Generally, the shift has been for more residents to consume "some" country food rather than very little or a great deal. This movement from the low and high ranges to middle ones was very prevalent in all four communities. Perhaps the residents of these four communities have adopted a new blend of country food and store foods? The use of country food by residents of the four communities showed some variation by community and by native/non-native households. For instance, residents of small communities tended to make greater use of country food than did residents of larger communities. Even so, the strongest and most persistent relationship was between native households and high consumption of country food, indicating that the harvesting of renewable resources continues to form an integral part of the native economy. This finding in itself was not surprising but the continued high level of consumption throughout the construction period is an important one, suggesting that this aspect of native society is sufficiently viable to withstand the pressures of a wage economy generated by Norman Wells type construction projects. Our conclusion should not be interpreted as implying that the spread of Canadian industrial society into the Northwest Territories is not having an affect upon native peoples and their societies. Quite the contrary. Our point is that the construction of the Norman Wells Project impacted the three native communities to a much lesser degree than the hamlet of Norman Wells. Had the situation been reversed, the impact upon country food harvesting and native eating habits may have been quite different. (Au)

Perceptions on joint venture companies   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bone, R.M.   Stewart, D.A.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1985.
32 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 6-85)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 52823.
Languages: English
Libraries: AEU

... In June 1982, the DIAND socio-economic impact monitoring team met with each community council. The main purpose of these meetings was to present our socio-economic impact monitoring progam, to seek their approval of our program and to obtain their reaction to our questionnaire. One result of these consultations was a request by the Norman Wells Hamlet Council for a question on the desirability of joint venture projects between large private companies and native organizations. Their interest in the joint venture issue resulted from the attempts by Esso to establish such a partnership with the native organizations. This question was added to the perception section of the 1982 Household Questionnaire and it has been included in the remaining two household surveys (1984 and 1985) and reads as follows: Do you favour joint development projects between private companies and native organizations? The regional pattern of responses from the respondents living in the four communities underwent little change from 1982 to 1985 .... Conclusions: The responses to the question on joint venture projects clearly indicates that a majority of the respondents favour such enterprises. Equally significant is the finding that support by native respondents dropped while that for non-natives has increased. Other major findings are: 1. community support declined as distance from Norman Wells increased, suggesting that the greater the exposure to Shehtah Drilling operations, the larger the support, 2. as age on the respondents increased, support decreased, and 3. as the length of residency increased support also declined. ... In analyzing responses by communities, particular patterns were identified. These were: 1. Norman Wells: - the only increase in support for joint ventures from 1982 to 1985 in the four communities, 2. Fort Simpson: - the greatest decline in support, 3. Fort Norman: - the most stable support, and 4. Wrigley: - the largest "undecided" responses. The concept of a joint venture between native organizations and large private companies is a new and novel approach to regional development. Its principal objective is to increase the direct participation of native peoples in the development process and to gain "hands-on" experience. There is no doubt that native peoples and their organizations are still somewhat unsure of this approach. On the other hand, the Shehtah Drilling partnership between the developers of the Norman Wells Project and the two native organizations ensured that there was an ownership role for native peoples in one area of this mega project. The real question is whether this joint venture provides a model for future industrial developments in the north and the answer to that question lies in the assessment of native peoples of Shehtah Drilling. (Au)

The Norman Wells project socio-economic impact monitoring program : publications program   /   Meldrum, S.M.
Ottawa : Norman Wells Project, Constitutional Development and Strategic Planning Branch, Northern Affairs Program, DIAND, 1986.
6 leaves in various foliations ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 3-86)
ASTIS record 21271.
Languages: English

... On July 31, 1981, the federal government announced its approval of the Norman Wells Oilfield Expansion and Pipeline Project, subject to a two-year delay in start of construction to allow both government and industry time to adequately prepare for the project itself and for the participation of northern businesses and residents. ... DIAND officials concluded that there was a need to monitor the impacts of the Norman Wells Project on the communities along the pipeline route. The four communities of Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Fort Simpson and Wrigley were regarded as the ones which would be most directly affected by particularly the construction phase of the Norman Wells Project, both in terms of opportunities presented and of harmful impacts. A comprehensive, objective monitoring program, to be carried out by an outside agent, was seen by DIAND as essential in order for it to be able to obtain valid information on the impacts. ... (Au)

Economic development and jobs : changes in perceptions in the study communities   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Stewart, D.A.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1986.
34 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 4-85)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 52732.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

Perceptions of the impacts of the Norman Wells Project on local residents are an extremely important aspect of the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Monitoring Program. The attitudes of the northern people towards jobs and economic development will undoubtedly affect decisions on future industrial projects in northern Canada. ... This report examines the perceptions of the residents of the four study communities towards four topics: (1) the perceived need for more jobs: (2) those in favour of increased economic development; (3) the preferred scale of potential new development; and (4) the favoured types of new development. The format of the report will be to provide overall results and figures in the text of the report while more detailed statistics will be added in an appendix. ... The following summary statements are the major findings of this report: 1. There is an exceptionally high perceived need for more jobs in the three communities of Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson. 2. The perceived need for more jobs rose dramatically in Norman Wells at the end of the construction phase of the Norman Wells Project. 3. Natives perceive a greater need for more jobs than do non-natives in all four study communities. 4. Although the overall support for increased economic development decreased in the four communities from 1982 to 1985, over 50% of the residents in each community were in favour of increased economic development during each survey year. 5. The large drop in those in favour of increased economic development in Fort Norman may be mainly attributed to a drop of 28 percentage points in the support of females for increased economic development. 6. The drop in the support for increased economic development in Fort Simpson is mainly the result of significantly declining support from the natives of Fort Simpson. As well, the older residents of Fort Simpson are much less in support of economic development than the younger residents. 7. The Métis residents support increased economic development of the Mackenzie Valley much more than the Status Indians in the region. 8. Originally small scale development projects were preferred over large scale projects, but by 1985 the residents were much more willing to accept increased development at any scale. 9. The most favoured type of future development activity is road and house construction in the four communities. Further development of fishing/hunting/trapping is supported predominantly in the traditional communities of Fort Norman and Wrigley. 10. Oil and mining is not popular as an activity for further development outside the community of Norman Wells. (Au)

Perceived impacts of the Norman Wells Project on social conditions and native peoples   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Stewart, D.A.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1986.
30 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 5-85)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 52733.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The impact of an industrial project on social conditions in the study communities is a difficult area to assess. When using a questionnaire format, this problem is compounded by (1) the rigid structure of a questionnaire: and (2) the possible insensitivity of such personal questions. For instance, social problems such as alcoholism, crime and family problems cannot be adequately dealt with by a questionnaire format at the household level. For this reason two approaches were utilized by the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program to assess the social impacts of the Norman Wells Project. The First was to review available data from the GNWT in order to evaluate it as a potential secondary source. It was concluded that these data have serious deficiencies but would be suitable in a supportive role to supplement primary data collection (Brown. Report 6-84. 1984). The second approach was the insertion of two questions into the perception section of the household questionnaire. These two questions were designed to (1) assess the perceived social impacts of the Norman Wells Project on each of the study communities; and (2) assess the perceived overall impact, social and economic, on the Native people in the region. The responses to these two questions from the 1985 household questionnaire form the basis of this report. ... The major findings of this report are as follows: 1. The residents of Norman Wells perceived the "net" social impact of the Norman Wells Project to be good for their community. Specifically, they identified improved community facilities or services, more transients and increased alcohol and drug abuse as the strongest areas of impacts. 2. Fort Norman and Wrigley residents felt that overall the project had little "net" impact on the social conditions in their community. The provision of job experience/training and increased alcohol/drug abuse were the two specific areas of impacts which were identified as having some impact. 3. Fort Simpson respondents also perceived the Norman Wells Project to have little "net" impact on the social conditions of their community. Increased alcohol and drug abuse was again identified as the strongest specific area of social impact. 4. Norman Wells residents felt that the Norman Wells Project was good overall, economically and socially, for natives in the region. Fort Norman and Wrigley residents felt there was little "net" effect on native people while the residents of Fort Simpson were split between feeling the project had no effect on natives and perceiving it to be bad for natives in the region. 5. In Norman Wells, Fort Norman and Wrigley the two strongest specific areas of impacts which were identified were the two economic areas relating to jobs and improving the native economy and to job experience and training. 6. The strongest negative impacts upon natives in the region which were identified by the residents in the four communities related to increased alcohol and drug abuse among natives and disruption of the native way of life. (Au)

Changes in consumer spending patterns, 1982-1985   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Stewart, D.A.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1986.
28 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 7-85)
References.
ASTIS record 52734.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... One of the concerns raised in the public review hearings related to the leakage of benefits to the south. This potential flow of benefits to southern Canada could take place in three ways: (1) income generated by project related work being spent in the south; (2) business profits generated by project related activities being reinvested in southern Canada; and (3) sale of the oil in southern Canada. In this report, the first of these three types of leakage is more closely examined. The data for this report was collected by the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Monitoring Program for 1982, 1984 and 1985. Questions from the consumer survey section of the household questionnaire for the communities of Norman Wells. Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson form the basis for the report. At the request of the local band councils the questionnaire did not take place in Wrigley or Fort Simpson in 1984. The first section of this report examines the distribution of consumer spending for each of the study communities and how the spending pattern has changed during the three survey seasons. The next two sections of the report examine two questions related to the general pattern of consumer spending: 1. what specific goods and services are the residents of each study community purchasing in other communities? 2. how much of the economic benefits generated by this construction project are being lost to southern Canada in terms of consumer spending? ... There are several conclusions which may be drawn from the analysis from this report. These conclusions are: l. consumer spending in Norman Wells rose significantly during the construction of the Norman Wells Project. Households in Norman Wells increased spending in their own community from 33% of their total shopping bill in l982 to 5l% in l985; 2. consumer spending in their own community remained consistently high in the communities of Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson throughout the Norman Wells Project; 3. as households in Norman Wells increased their spending in their own community, Edmonton significantly declined in importance as a location for consumer spending; 4. Fort Simpson increased slightly in importance as a location for shopping by residents of Wrigley which is possibly a result of the construction to extend the highway into Wrigley; 5. durable items were the goods least purchased in their own community for the residents of Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson. In Norman Wells, shopping for clothing and groceries were the most significant in terms of spending outside of Norman Wells; and 6. leakage through consumer spending is estimated at $l.04 million for the region for l985. Leakage through consumer spending was approximately $5.2 million during the construction or the Norman Wells Project. (Au)

Changes in the Norman Wells labour force, 1982-1985   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Stewart, D.A.   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1986.
28 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 8-85)
Appendix.
References.
ASTIS record 52735.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... The objectives of this report are to examine the changes in the labour force at Norman Wells from 1982 to 1985 and to discuss the flow of jobs to northerners. The Norman Wells' labour force includes all employees of all firms located at Norman Wells. This would include Esso and IPL employees, their subcontractor's employees and all persons working for retail service and other firms in Norman Wells. Therefore, the Norman Wells labour force includes commuters to Norman Wells as well as permanent residents of Norman Wells. The characteristics of the labour force examined include: 1. the total number of employees; 2. the number of native/non-native employees; 3. the percentage of male/female employees; 4. the length of employment and seasonality of the employees; 5. the occupation of the employees; and 6. the commuters in the labour force. In the case of the rotational workforce or commutes, special attention is paid to their home communities. For the Northwest Territories, the actual "home" community is identified and the spatial pattern examined. ... One of the central issues facing the federal government in 1981 was the flow of benefits from the Norman Wells Project to northern natives. In this report it is clear that northern natives did participate directly in the Norman Wells Project and in secondary employment. The level of their participation was around 22% for the four survey years. In future projects this participation level should increase because of (1) the job experience gained by native northerners on the Norman Wells Project and (2) improvements in education/training levels of young native young people. The use of an air commuting system increased the flow of job benefits to Mackenzie Valley communities and regional centers. While regional centers such as Yellowknife tended to provide most of the workers, Fort Good Hope and Fort Norman also made strong contributions. The experience of the Norman Wells Project reveals that the northern native labour force can play a strong role in large industrial projects. Still, the participation level may seem low to some and certainly it represents a base level to be surpassed in further industrial projects in the Northwest Territories. (Au)

Community profiles of socio-economic change, 1982-1985   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Green, M.B.   Stewart, D.A.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1986.
24 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 9-85)
References.
ASTIS record 52736.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... This report provides profiles of each of the four study communities by presenting a multitude of data on the residents, households, employees and businesses for each community. In this way, this report acts as a reference book for statistics about the communities of Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson. The format of this report is to provide the data on each of the communities in a series of tables and figures and analysis is limited to only the most significant variables. ... Some of the major observations from this analysis are: 1. from the resident profiles, it is clear that there is a major difference in education and employment levels between Norman Wells and the three predominantly native communities; 2. from the household profiles, it can be concluded that household incomes were not significantly different in the region in 1982 and 1985. This applies for the long-term residents of the region and does not imply that incomes did not rise in the construction phase; 3. from the employee profiles, approximately 20% of the labour force at Norman Wells was native in each survey year and only about 40% of Fort Simpson's labour force are native; and 4. from the business profiles, businesses in Norman Wells tend to be larger, have more commuters, and have been in operation for fewer years than the businesses in the three predominantly native communities. The final section of this report examined the differences between native and non-native residents of the region and several interesting observations should be noted: 1. approximately 78% of the non-native residents have obtained a high school diploma while only 21% of the native residents completed high school; 2. over half of the non-native residents in the region have full-time employment compared to less than 20% of the native residents; 3. from 1982 to 1985, the proportion of native housewives and students declined, native unemployment increased, while native employment levels remained constant; 4. the public sector is of much greater importance for employment among native residents, while the majority of non-native residents work in the private sector; 5. over 45% of the non-native households and 22% of the native households felt they gained economically from the Norman Wells Project; 6. three-quarters of the non-native employees work year round while only 40% of the native employees have year round employment. (Au)

Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program summary report   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Stewart, D.A.   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
Ottawa : DIAND, 1986.
28 p. : ill., 1 map ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 1-86)
References.
ASTIS record 52737.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... After approval of the project, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development decided that there was a need to collect statistical data on the impacts of the project on the residents and businesses of the communities along the pipeline route. The data collected from the communities of Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson would need to differentiate between native and non-native residents in order to assess the distribution of costs and benefits from the Norman Wells Project. The monitoring program was designed to identify the impacts of the project in the three main phases - pre-construction, construction and post-construction. In 1982, DIAND contracted the University of Saskatchewan to conduct the socio-economic monitoring program under the direction of Robert M. Bone. The data was collected for the monitoring program through community surveys consisting of two questionnaires; a household questionnaire given to each head of household in 1982, 1984 and 1985, and a business questionnaire given to each owner or manager in 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985. The band councils of Wrigley and Fort Simpson requested that the survey not take place in their communities in 1984 and, as a result, data are not available for these two communities for 1984. This monitoring program, the first of its kind in Canada, is described in much greater detail in Report 2-86 and its methodologies are examined in Report 2-83, Report 1-84 and Report 1-85. Overall, there have been twenty-six reports written by the staff of the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Monitoring Program and this report summarizes many of their major findings. It should be noted that this report is intended as a summary and previous reports in the series should be examined for specific and in depth analysis. To summarize, the benefits to the local residents from the Norman Wells Project were less than they expected, but the social costs were also lower than some predicted. In the future, the impacts and innovations which have resulted from the Norman Wells Project will have to be considered prior to construction of any other mega-project in the north. (Au)

A guide to socio-economic impact monitoring in the Northwest Territories   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bone, R.M.   Stewart, D.A.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[S.l. : DIAND, Northern Affairs Program], 1987.
47 p. : 1 map ; 28 cm.
(Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program report, no. 2-86)
References.
ASTIS record 34445.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

... The purpose of this report is to provide a record of the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program. The specific goals of this report are: (1) to document the essential elements of the Norman Wells monitoring program and (2) to make recommendations for future monitoring efforts in the Northwest Territories. The basic principle underlying this report is that socio-economic monitoring of large-scale industrial projects in Canada is an important function of government and that monitoring, by providing socio-economic impact information to all levels of government, helps to formulate policy aimed at reducing regional economic and social inequalities. In northern Canada, the need for monitoring is especially desirable because of the existence of a dual economy which reveals a large gap in socio-economic conditions between native and non-native residents. While this same gap exists in southern Canada, the magnitude of the problem is much larger in northern Canada where the native population often consists of over half the total population. ... In the case of the Norman Wells Project, one indication of the federal will to ensure that northerners benefited from the construction of this mega-project and, at the same time, were spared any major negative impacts, was the requirement for the companies to address the concerns raised in the report of the Federal Environmental Assessment Review Office (FEARO). ... Other signs of the federal government's commitment to ensure benefits from the Norman Wells Project went to northern peoples were (1) the establishment of the Federal Coordination Office in Yellowknife, (2) the authorization by the federal cabinet to allocate $21.4 million to an impact funding program and (3) the initiation of the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program. (Au)

Monitoring now and in the future : the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program, 1982-1987 : the Second Canada/USSR Seminar on the Contemporary Situation of Northern Peoples within the Context of Social Change, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada, March 20th, 1987   /   University of Saskatchewan. Dept. of Geography   Bone, R.M.   Canada. Dept. of Indian Affairs and Northern Development [Sponsor]
[Ottawa] : DIAND, 1987.
30 leaves : ill., 28 cm.
Cover title: Norman Wells monitoring program.
Photocopy.
Appendices: A. Background information - B. Differences between Native and non-Native residents - C. Tables - D. List of reports: the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program, 1982-1987 - E. Selected graphs illustrating important impacts.
References.
ASTIS record 52715.
Languages: English
Libraries: ACU

The construction of a major industrial project in the Northwest Territories, like the Norman Wells Project, must recognize northern realities. Two such realities are: 1. native claims over the lands and resources of the Northwest Territories, and 2. native peoples form the majority of people living in the Northwest Territories. Because the Northwest Territories is different from provinces, construction of mega projects faces a different set of political circumstances and cultural values than found in southern Canada. In 1981, the federal government approved the application of Esso Resources Canada Ltd. (Esso) and Interprovincial Pipe Lines Ltd. (IPL) to construct the Norman Wells Oilfield Expansion and Pipeline Project (the Norman Wells Project). The federal government was concerned about the impact of this project upon northern peoples. Through its Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND), the federal government initiated a monitoring program, the Norman Wells Socio-Economic Impact Monitoring Program, in the spring of 1982. The aim of this program was to record and analyze the anticipated economic and social effects of this project on some 2000 northern peoples living in four communities along the pipeline route. These communities are Norman Wells, Fort Norman, Wrigley and Fort Simpson. This monitoring program represents the first effort at socio-economic monitoring in Canada. While initiated and sponsored by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND), the actual monitoring work was contracted to the University of Saskatchewan under the direction of Dr. Robert M. Bone. The basic principle underlying this presentation is that socio-economic monitoring of large-scale projects is an important function of government and that monitoring, by providing impact information to all levels of government as well as to the public at large, helps to formulate policy aimed at reducing regional economic and social inequalities. ... (Au)

Return to the Hydrocarbon Impacts (HI) Database