I am writing as a Canadian who was involved in northern research as a post-doctoral student in the 1970s and who, since then, has been involved as a researcher and educator in southern university-based northern studies. My goal is to bring together some comments on research databases and the lost generation of northern researchers, .... The North and Northerners have always faced major changes; in the 20th century, these included the air industry, the DEW Line, hydroelectric dams, mines and roads. Now Northerners are facing the greatest acceleration of changes on landscapes and in communities since the 1970s. On landscapes remote from communities is a diamond industry that could supply the world with 15% of its diamonds within three years; several thousand people will be employed. Petroleum exploration (seismic and drilling) is operating today at the highest level since the 1970s. Pipeline construction projects of a size greater than ever seen in North America are being proposed: the "Texas of the North" is the new vision. ... What are the research needs? Researchers are being urged to collect more and better data and to make better predictions. They are urged to adhere to ethics guidelines, to demonstrate the impacts of their research at the proposal stage, and to effectively transmit research results to the community. Those responsible for management policy and implementation in the North are now searching for solutions, and they are finding many gaps in our knowledge. They emphasize that data are obsolete and capacity building is needed. ... Questions are being asked about jobs for university researchers who work on northern topics: are there opportunities for long-term employment, or are these dead-end jobs? How do we maintain long-term northern research programs - at least one generation in length? How can we develop value-added industries with local benefits that are complementary to the programs of multinational giants? ... Who is responsible for research that will lead to understanding, solutions, and management strategies? A few decades ago, the federal government provided research support, management policies, and policing. Now political devolution has resulted in multi-layers of governance in the North. Can we assume that this new governance system will invest in research that leads to new approaches? For example, who will invest in the monitoring of cumulative effects? If the linkage between government regulators and industry is too close, who will provide the long-term perspective so that environmental damage will not accrue to future generations? ... Maybe we should re-think the traditional role of government in light of the new power of industry. Many feel that industry-sponsored university research tarnishes the image of universities as honest brokers. ... Without budgets that reflect the realities of expensive northern research, researchers must stay close to their home institutions - and that is what they did in the 1980s and 1990s. ... I believe we need more northern research endowments in Canada. I believe we need more research and think tank nongovernmental organizations in Canada, and I believe these are increasingly important as the role of government changes from watchdog to stimulator of industry. ... There is also a need to reinterpret the 1970s information and to convert it into more usable forms. Much of this information was collected and stored in libraries and databases as private and public research collections were consolidated in the 1980s and 1990s. ... We must not forget that these resources are now much more accessible than they were in the 1970s. Finally, there is a need to capture the experience of many northern and southern people involved in the petroleum industry and many other activities in the 1970s and 1980s. ...
The political mobilization of indigenous peoples in the North American North has resulted in new guidelines, statements of ethical principles, and consultative processes for the conduct of scientific research. This article explores the history of large-scale physical science in the North, the development of ethical principles for research conduct in Canada and the United States, and the potential difficulties of bridging the gaps between scientists and indigenous communities.
La mobilisation politique des populations autochtones de l'Amérique du Nord septentrionale a débouché sur de nouvelles lignes directrices et déclarations de principes de déontologie ainsi que sur des processus consultatifs novateurs visant la conduite de la recherche scientifique. Cet article examine l'histoire de la science physique menée sur une grande échelle dans le Nord, l'élaboration de principes de déontologie concernant la recherche au Canada et aux États-Unis, ainsi que les difficultés qu'il peut y avoir à rapprocher les scientifiques et les collectivités autochtones.
Search for Barents : Evaluation of possible burial sites on North Novaya Zemlya, Russia
Arctic, v. 55, no. 4, Dec. 2002, p. 329-338, ill., maps
ASTIS record 50670
Three cairns on northernmost Novaya Zemlya identified as possible rock-pile graves by Russian investigators in 1977 and 1988 were located and inspected for human remains. These cairns are in the area visited by Dutch seafarers between 17 and 22 June 1597, after their wintering on Novaya Zemlya, and may contain the body of Willem Barents. Barents and one of his crewmen died on 20 June 1597 while the winterers were on landfast ice close to shore. Previous research on Spitsbergen and contemporary reports on the efforts of 16th and 17th century Dutch seafarers to prepare a Christian grave led us to conclude that the deceased probably were buried on the beach, possibly in a shallow grave or a snowbank. Inspection of the area indicates that this grave probably was destroyed by high (5+ m asl) wave run-up during storms, cryogenic erosion, and animals (polar bear, fox). None of the cairns, or any of several other prominent rock piles in the ~180 km long search area, contained human remains or had lichen growths that would indicate construction ~400 years ago (>2 cm, Rhizocarpon sp.). Cairns were not reported by the Dutch in 1594-98, and most of those encountered on northern Novaya Zemlya probably date from exploration after ca. 1860, when the region north of ~76°N became accessible in a warming, post-Little Ice Age climate.
Trois cairns situés aux confins septentrionaux de la Nouvelle-Zemble et identifiés en 1977 et 1988 par des chercheurs russes comme pouvant signaler des amas de pierres funéraires ont été localisés et ont fait l'objet d'une inspection en vue de déterminer s'ils renfermaient des restes humains. Ces cairns se trouvent dans la région visitée par des navigateurs néerlandais entre le 17 et le 22 juin 1597, après leur hivernage en Nouvelle-Zemble, et ils auraient pu contenir le corps de Willem Barents. Ce dernier et un membre de son équipage périrent le 20 juin 1597, alors que les hivernants se trouvaient sur la glace près du rivage. Des recherches antérieures sur le Spitzberg et des rapports contemporains sur les efforts des marins néerlandais des XVIe et XVIIe siècles en vue de préparer une sépulture chrétienne nous amènent à la conclusion que les défunts ont probablement été enterrés sur la plage, voire dans une tombe peu profonde ou un amoncellement de neige. Un examen du site indique que cette tombe a probablement été détruite par un assaut puissant (+ 5 m ASL) des vagues au cours de tempêtes, par l'érosion cryogénique et par les animaux (ours polaire, renard). Aucun des cairns, et aucun des autres amas de rochers bien visibles situés dans la région de l'étude, qui s'étendait sur une longueur d'environ 180 km, ne renfermait de vestiges humains ou n'affichait une croissance lichénique qui aurait indiqué une construction remontant à près de 400 ans (> 2 cm, Rhizocarpon sp.) Les Néerlandais n'ont pas rapporté la présence de cairns entre 1594 et 1598 et ceux que l'on a retrouvés en Nouvelle-Zemble septentrionale datent probablement des explorations qui eurent lieu après environ 1860, quand la région située en gros au nord du 76° de latit. N. est devenue accessible dans le contexte d'un réchauffement climatique survenu au petit âge glaciaire.
Feeding patterns of barren-ground grizzly bears in the central Canadian Arctic
Arctic, v. 55, no. 4, Dec. 2002, p. 339-344, maps
PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 012-98
ASTIS record 50671
We collected 169 grizzly bear scats between 1994 and 1997 to determine the dietary habits of barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) inhabiting Canada's central Arctic. From personal observations and fecal analysis, we concluded that barren-ground grizzly bears lead a predominantly carnivorous lifestyle and are effective predators of caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Caribou was a predominant diet item during spring, mid-summer, and fall. During early summer, grizzly bears foraged primarily on green vegetation. Berries increased in dietary importance in late summer. Declines in the caribou population of our study area or long-term absences of caribou may threaten the local grizzly bear population.
On a prélevé 169 excréments de grizzli entre 1994 et 1997 afin de déterminer les habitudes alimentaires du grizzli de Richardson (Ursus arctos) qui vit dans le centre de l'Arctique canadien. En s'appuyant sur des observations personnelles et un examen coproscopique, on conclut que le grizzli de Richardson est un animal largement carnassier et qu'il est un prédateur efficace du caribou (Rangifer tarandus). Ce dernier constituait un aliment prédominant au printemps, au milieu de l'été et en automne. Au début de l'été, le grizzli se nourrissait surtout de végétation verte. À la fin de l'été, les baies prenaient plus d'importance dans son alimentation. Le déclin de la population du caribou dans la zone d'étude ou son absence prolongée peut constituer une menace pour la population locale de grizzlis.
Apparently aberrant radiocarbon dates on a Thule culture antler artefact lead to the conclusion that this tool was made of material that was already ancient at the time of manufacture. This finding documents a potential problem in the interpretation of radiocarbon dates on Arctic cultural materials.
Des datations au radiocarbone apparemment aberrantes effectuées sur un objet de la culture Thulé fabriqué en bois d'animal permettent de conclure que cet outil a été fait d'un matériau qui était déjà ancien à l'époque de sa fabrication. Ces résultats documentent un problème potentiel dans l'interprétation de la datation au radiocarbone sur des matériaux culturels de l'Arctique.
Potential for timberline advance in northern Finland, as revealed by monitoring during 1983-99
Arctic, v. 55, no. 4, Dec. 2002, p. 348-361, ill., maps
ASTIS record 50673
Seedling density, tree density and basal area of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) were monitored and compared in the timberline areas of northern Finland during the period 1983-99. Rows of 9-12 circular plots were established at 13 localities in four regions: pine-dominated northern and southern regions and spruce-dominated western and eastern regions. Temporal changes were monitored in three altitudinal zones: in the forest, at the coniferous timberline (where forest canopy closure ceases), and at the tree line (where coniferous trees higher than 2 m cease). Pine seedling densities decreased abruptly in the southern region, especially at the timberline, but increased slightly in the northern region. The zone "region" change interaction was significant. The change in spruce seedling densities was small in the forest and timberline zones, but the densities more than doubled at the tree line. Tree density and basal area increased in all the zones and regions. New regeneration and tree establishment during the study period indicate a potential for the tree line to advance. However, there was great heterogeneity in regeneration and seedling establishment among the localities.
La densité des semis, la densité des arbres et la surface terrière du pin sylvestre (Pinus sylvestris L.) et de l'épinette de Norvège (Picea abies [L.] Karst) ont fait l'objet d'une étude et d'une comparaison dans des zones situées à la limite de la forêt de la Finlande septentrionale durant la période allant de 1983 à 1999. Des rangées de 9 à 12 parcelles circulaires ont été créées à 13 sites répartis dans 4 zones: les régions septentrionale et méridionale où dominait le pin sylvestre, et les régions occidentale et orientale où dominait l'épinette de Norvège. On a mesuré les changements temporels dans 3 zones d'altitude différente: dans la forêt, à la limite de la forêt de conifères (là où cesse la fermeture du couvert forestier), et à la limite des arbres (là où cessent les conifères de plus de 2 m de haut). La densité de semis du pin sylvestre diminuait brusquement dans la région méridionale, en particulier à la limite de la forêt, mais elle augmentait légèrement dans la région septentrionale. L'interaction zone-région-changement était significative. Le changement dans la densité de semis de l'épinette de Norvège était faible dans la forêt elle-même et dans les zones de la limite de la forêt, mais la densité avait plus que doublé à la limite des arbres. La densité des arbres et la surface terrière augmentaient dans toutes les zones et les régions. Une nouvelle régénération et un nouvel établissement d'arbres durant la période d'étude révèlent que la limite des arbres pourrait progresser. Il y avait toutefois une grande hétérogénéité dans la régénération et dans l'établissement des semis parmi les divers sites.
The Polar Bear Management Agreement for the Southern Beaufort Sea : an evaluation of the first ten years of a unique conservation agreement
Arctic, v. 55, no. 4, Dec. 2002, p. 362-372, 2 maps
ASTIS record 50674
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) of the southern Beaufort Sea population, distributed from approximately Icy Cape, west of Point Barrow, Alaska, to Pearce Point, east of Paulatuk in Canada, are harvested by hunters from both countries. In Canada, quotas to control polar bear hunting have been in place, with periodic modifications, since 1968. In Alaska, passage of the United Sates Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) of 1972 banned polar bear hunting unless done by Alaska Natives for subsistence hunt, leaving open the potential for an overharvest with no possible legal management response until the population was declared depleted. Recognizing that as a threat to the conservation of the shared polar bear population, the Inuvialuit Game Council from Canada and the North Slope Borough from Alaska negotiated and signed a user-to-user agreement, the Polar Bear Management Agreement for the Southern Beaufort Sea, in 1988. We reviewed the functioning of the agreement through its first 10 years and concluded that, overall, it has been successful because both the total harvest and the proportion of females in the harvest have been contained within sustainable limits. However, harvest monitoring needs to be improved in Alaska, and awareness of the need to prevent overharvest of females needs to be increased in both countries. This agreement is a useful model for other user-to-user conservation agreements.
Les ours polaires (Ursus maritimus) constituant la population de la mer de Beaufort méridionale sont répartis d'environ Icy Cape, à l'ouest de Point Barrow (Alaska), à Pearce Point, à l'est de Paulatuk (Canada). Ils sont prélevés par des chasseurs des deux pays. Au Canada, les quotas visant le contrôle de la chasse à l'ours polaire sont en vigueur - avec des modifications périodiques - depuis 1968. En Alaska, l'adoption en 1972 de la loi américaine (MMPA) visant la protection des mammifères marins a interdit la chasse à l'ours polaire sauf la chasse de subsistance pratiquée par les Autochtones alaskiens. La MMPA n'a toutefois placé aucune restriction sur le nombre ou la composition de la chasse de subsistance, laissant la porte ouverte à une éventuelle surexploitation sans possibilité d'une réaction de gestion sur le plan légal jusqu'à ce que la population soit déclarée décimée. Reconnaissant en cela une menace à la conservation de la population commune d'ours polaires, le Conseil canadien de gestion du gibier et le North Slope Borough de l'Alaska ont négocié et signé en 1988 une entente entre usagers, le Polar Bear Management Agreement pour la mer de Beaufort méridionale. On a examiné le fonctionnement de l'entente durant sa première décennie pour conclure que, dans l'ensemble, elle a porté fruit car le total des prises et la proportion de femelles prélevées ont été maintenus dans des limites viables. Il faut toutefois améliorer le contrôle du prélèvement en Alaska et accroître dans les deux pays la sensibilisation à la nécessité de prévenir une surexploitation des femelles. Cette entente constitue un modèle pour d'autres accords entre usagers en matière de conservation.
Greely's historic starvation camp of 1883-84 was revisited from April to June 1998. Our study revealed that the "sea fleas" reported to be the salvation of the expedition survivors were lysianassoid crustaceans Onisimus edwardsi. Expedition diaries reveal that the seven survivors of the 25-member expedition accumulated a huge energy deficit from October 1883 to June 1894. We estimate that their food supply (ship's rations, sparse game, and over 500 kg of carrion-feeding crustaceans collected in spring 1884) added up to about 4.8 million kcal. The minimal energy requirement of the group (5725 man/days and 1200 kcal/person/day) was 6.8 million kcal. The additional 2.0 million kcal might have been obtained from the bodies of victims. Without cannibalism, it seems unlikely that anyone, having attained an individual energy deficit of over 86000 kcal before the rescue in June 1894, could have survived.
D'avril à juin 1998, on est retournés sur le site du campement de A. W. Greely qui, en 1883-1884, connut une famine historique. Notre étude révèle que les "puces de mer" auxquelles les survivants de l'expédition auraient dû leur salut étaient en fait des crustacés lysianassoïdes Onisimus edwardsi. Les journaux de l'expédition révèlent que, d'octobre 1883 à juin 1884, les 7 survivants de l'expédition, qui comprenait au départ 25 individus, accumulèrent un énorme déficit énergétique. On estime que leurs vivres (rations de marin, quelque gibier et plus de 500 kg de crustacés nécrophages ramassés au printemps de 1884) représentaient un maximum d'environ 4,8 millions de kcal. Les besoins énergétiques minimaux du groupe (5725 jours-personnes et 1200 kcal/personne/jour) étaient de 6,8 millions de kcal. Les 2,0 millions de kcal manquant auraient pu provenir des corps des victimes. Il semble en effet improbable que quelqu'un souffrant d'un déficit énergétique individuel supérieur à 86 000 kcal avant le sauvetage de juin 1884 ait pu survivre sans pratiquer le cannibalisme.
Submerged aquatic bryophytes in Colour Lake, a naturally acidic polar lake with occasional year-round ice-cover
Arctic, v. 55, no. 4, Dec. 2002, p. 380-388, ill., 2 maps
PCSP/PPCP contribution, no. 043-04
ASTIS record 50676
Colour Lake is a small, naturally acidic (pH 3.7) lake on Axel Heiberg Island (Canadian High Arctic) that experiences occasional year-round ice cover. We investigated the benthic vegetation of this lake, with a specific aim of determining whether the annual growth of benthic bryophytes reflects the state of summer ice cover. We found the bed of the lake to be almost completely covered by mosses or liverworts to a depth of 22 m. The mosses showed annual growth bands 10-30 mm in length, visible as changes in leaf density and size. Four to five bands retained recognizable leaves and measurable amounts of chlorophyll-a (chla), and up to 12 bands were recognizable from leaf scars. We could not find a consistent relationship between band length and persistence of ice cover for a given year. We suggest that this lack is due to the complex effects of ice cover on moss growth conditions, specifically on the water temperature and irradiance at depth. Photosynthetic characteristics of Calliergon over a range of light and temperature conditions, determined using pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry, are presented in support of this argument. We conclude that moss banding patterns are an unreliable method of hindcasting episodic failure of ice to melt in Arctic lakes.
Le lac Colour est un petit lac de l'île Axel Heiberg, située dans l'Extrême-Arctique canadien, dont l'acidité (pH = 3,7) est naturelle et qui reste parfois englacé toute l'année. On a étudié la végétation benthique de ce lac, dans le but précis de déterminer si la croissance annuelle des bryophytes benthiques reflète l'état de la couverture de la glace en été. On a trouvé que le lit du lac est presque entièrement recouvert de mousses ou d'hépatiques jusqu'à une profondeur de 22 m. Les mousses affichaient des bandes de croissance annuelles de 10 à 30 mm de longueur, visibles sous la forme d'un changement dans la densité et la taille de la feuille. De 4 à 5 bandes conservaient des feuilles reconnaissables et des quantités mesurables de chlorophylle-a (chla), et jusqu'à 12 bandes étaient reconnaissables d'après les cicatrices foliaires. On n'a pu trouver de rapport constant entre la longueur de la bande et la persistance du manteau glaciel pour une année donnée. On suggère que ce manque est dû aux effets complexes du manteau glaciel sur les conditions de croissance de la mousse, en particulier sur la température de l'eau et l'irradiance en profondeur. Les attributs photosynthétiques de Calliergon pour une gamme de conditions d'éclairement et de température données, déterminés par fluorimétrie par impulsions à amplitude modulée, sont présentés à l'appui de cette thèse. On conclut que les schémas de rubanement de la mousse constituent une méthode peu fiable de prévision a posteriori des interruptions épisodiques de fonte de la glace dans les lacs arctiques.
We observed a steep gradient of nitrogen concentration in plants growing around carcasses of four adult muskoxen that had been lying for five or more years on the tundra in the Canadian Arctic. The gradient reached an asymptote at 2 m distance from the carcasses. The carbon-to-nitrogen ratio increased significantly from 1 to 3 m and then stabilized. These results suggest that the effects of carcasses last for several years on the tundra and create nitrogen-rich plant growth in their immediate surroundings. The lush growth around the carcasses in otherwise grazed areas indicated a low level of grazing on the fertilized plants.
Nous avons observé un fort gradient de concentration en azote dans les plantes poussant autour de 4 carcasses de bœufs musqués gisant depuis 5 ans ou plus dans la toundra de l'Arctique canadien. Le gradient atteignait une asymptote à 2 m des carcasses. Le rapport carbone/azote augmentait de façon significative de 1 à 3 m, puis se stabilisait. Nos résultats suggèrent que les carcasses créent dans la toundra des micro-communautés de plantes riches en azote dans leur environnement immédiat et que cet effet dure plusieurs années. L'abondance de végétation autour des carcasses, dans des endroits autrement broutés, révélait que les herbivores utilisaient peu les communautés végétales fertilisées.
... As a teenager, Andrew was already living adventures that are the dreams of many teenage boys. From 1949 to 1957, before joining the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), he gained a lifetime of memories and valuable experience as a member of eight scientific expeditions to the Canadian Arctic. He served as a seasonal field assistant to scientists, working on contracts for the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, the Defence Research Board, the Arctic Institute of North America, the Department of Northern Affairs, and the National Museum of Canada. He made most of his early trips to the Arctic in the company of his mentor and lifelong friend Thomas (Tom) Henry Manning, famed Arctic explorer and geographer-biologist. ... His time in the Arctic convinced Andrew that he wanted to be an Arctic wildlife biologist. So, after completing a B.Sc. degree in Zoology (geology and geography) in 1954 at Carleton College, Ottawa, he went on to complete a M.Sc. in Zoology in 1957 at McGill University, Montreal. ... In April 1958, he joined the CWS to work on Arctic wildlife problems. With glowing annual appraisals, he moved up through all the grades of biologist (I-IV) in only six years .... He continued his studies at McGill and in 1967 received a Ph.D. for his seminal study, The Dynamics of Canadian Arctic Fox Populations. ... In August 1967, Andrew left the Canadian Wildlife Service for a temporary position on the staff of the Science Secretariat, Science Council of Canada, as a project officer for studies in Canadian biological science. Once again, he expressed his desire to be a moving force, or at least a significant contributor to meaningful advances. ... In 1970, a promotion to Director, Western & Northern Region, of the Canadian Wildlife Service brought Andrew to Edmonton, Alberta. ...He ... remained regional director of CWS until 1974. When the department reorganized into five regions, Andrew took a significant promotion to Regional Director General, Environment Management Service, Environment Canada, Western & Northern Region, where he remained until 1986. Always looking for new challenges, he took a temporary posting between April and August 1985 as Acting Assistant Deputy Minister, Corporate Planning, Environment Canada, in Hull, Quebec. Finally in 1986, apparently sensing the approaching end to his career as a public servant and ever willing to accept one more formidable task, Andrew became Director General, Northwest Territories Region, Northern Affairs Program, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. At the time, he said that he was still interested in innovative management challenges, implementing change, and redirecting programs into promising new avenues. In his Yellowknife position, he helped prepare for the creation of Nunavut, remaining in that position until his retirement in 1988. Once retired, he devoted himself to geopolitical and environmental causes. Andrew had a particularly strong concern about the growth of human population, its toll on natural habitats, and the ever-spiralling rates of consumption of resources. This concern led him to help found the Sustainable Population Society. ... Andrew's publications deal with a wide range of subjects, from conservation, ecology, population dynamics, wildlife management, taxonomy, zoogeography, social and environmental issues, and Inuktitut names for birds and mammals, to popular hunting and fishing articles. Perhaps his personal favorite was his book, The Canadian Ice Angler's Guide, published in 1985 by Lone Pine Publications. There is no doubt that Andrew Macpherson was by anyone's standards a highly intelligent, successful, personable, humorous, and inquisitive person. ... Andrew appeared to be quite successful at keeping his priorities right! [managing to keep his perspective and order priorities for the greatest enjoyment of life]. ... I would like to think that Andrew Macpherson is perched on a high prominence overlooking a game-choked valley and a fish-laden stream - his eternal "happy hunting ground"! ...
Franz Van de Velde, O.M.I. [Oblates of Mary Immaculate], a Roman Catholic missionary well known in the Kitikmeot and northern Hudson Bay regions, died in Marelbeke, Belgium, on 22 February 2002 at age 92. Member of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate religious order, cultural historian, author, and genealogist, Father Franz (Frans) was born in Belgium on 28 November 1909 to Arthur Van de Velde and Gabriella Lanens de Lier. He graduated from a Jesuit secondary school in 1929, but chose to join the Oblates of Mary Immaculate, a worldwide missionary order founded in France. He took his first vows as an Oblate on 8 September 1930, in Niewenhove, and was ordained a priest by Bishop Rassneur on 8 September 1933 in Velaines, Belgium. Father Van de Velde received his obedience to minister in the Hudson Bay Apostolic Vicariate in March 1937, and on 26 May 1937, with Bishop Arsène Turquetil, he boarded the Normandie in Le Havre en route to New York, Montreal, and Churchill. After overwintering in Repulse Bay, Northwest Territories, he arrived in Pelly Bay (Kugaaruk) on 23 April 1938. Father Pierre Henry, who had established the Pelly Bay mission on Simpson Peninsula in 1935, introduced him to ministry in the Kitikmeot region. Father Franz spent the next 50 years of his life in the Canadian Arctic, mainly in the Pelly Bay and Kitikmeot region until 1965, when he moved to Igloolik. On 12 April 1958, he became a Canadian citizen in a ceremony at Pelly Bay, with Justice Jack Sissons presiding. His last missionary mandate in the Churchill Hudson Bay Diocese (1969-86) was to Sanerajak (Hall Beach), where he established the Coeur Douloureux et Immaculé de Marie parish in 1969. A Canadian Arctic Producers publication, Canadian Inuit Artifacts, described Ataata Vinivi (his Inuktitut name) as a missionary, ethnologist, author, and explorer. An avid chronicler of many things, he contributed some 35 articles to ESKIMO, the Churchill Hudson Bay diocesan magazine, on a wide range of topics, such as Inuit legends, acts ofrevenge and retribution, hunting stories, snow and its uses, and Arctic wildlife encounters. His article on Inuit rules for sharing seal meat after a hunt has been reprinted in several other journals. A project dear to his heart was the transliteration and translation of the autobiography and memoirs of his faithful guide, Bernard Irqugaqtuq. He held Bernard and his wife Agnes Nullut of Kugaaruk in highest esteem. The celebrated Netsilik Eskimo Film Series, shot in Kugaaruk in the early 1960s, and directed by Dr. Asen Balikci, could not have been made without the help of Father Guy Mary-Rousselière and Father Van de Velde. Currently distributed in video format by the National Film Board of Canada, the film series remains a valuable educational asset to this day. In 1984, the Government of Canada officially adopted the Inuktitut names of 313 Arctic geographic features, a decision based on Father Van de Velde's efforts to record some 600 names he had collected from 1938 to 1958 in the Kugaaruk-Taloyoak-Gjoa Haven area. ... His painstakingly recorded genealogical records of the Pelly Bay people back to the time of Roald Amundsen (1903-06) occupy 4250 handwritten and typed pages. Photographs of elders, now kept in the local government offices of Kugaaruk, came from his vast, carefully annotated photograph collection, now located in the Oblate Archives in Ottawa. ... Father Van de Velde was honoured by Belgium as "Knight in the Order of the Crown" ... in Ottawa on 25 February 1986. He received the Order of Canada award ... on 11 April 1984. ... Father Van de Velde retired from northern parish ministry in 1986 and spent the rest of his life in Belgium. ... On learning of Father Van de Velde's death, Sidonie wrote: ... I remember many things, but most of all his words: Help people, and pray for them! ... Indeed, this legendary figure, described by Bishop Reynald Rouleau as "an example of immense determination," has left an indelible mark on the spiritual and cultural land scape of Nunavut.
Imagine the scene, Dave, strong, youthful and sharp-eyed, poised to leap off the bow of a swift-turning zodiac, hurl himself into the frigid Arctic waters, and deftly place a hoop-net over the head of a thrashing beluga whale. Each evening we would sit quietly on the cliffs, sharing the satisfaction of a good day's work .... The spectacle of the hundreds of belugas just below the bluff, rubbing in the shallows of Cunningham Inlet, made this one of Dave's favourite places. He was, after all, the one who had found out why belugas were there. ... Dave was the first to document that a whale could actually moult, in a peculiar kind of mammalian way. Dave started his research career as an assistant at the Arctic Biological Station, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, in Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Québec, .... Dave was clear in his vision and goals. In 1973, he decided on graduate training. Riding a wave of powerful recommendations, he arrived at the University of Guelph .... Dave earned his Master's degree and Ph.D., both with honours. ... From the moment Dave arrived at the university until the day he left 21 years later, ... three of us worked together from the Arctic to the tropics, from Maritime Canada to Florida, from Holman Island to South America to Hawaii- observing, studying, documenting, learning. ... In 1993, Dave went to Mystic Marine Life Aquarium as Director of Research and Veterinary Services. While south of the Canadian border, his interests and involvement in Arctic research grew stronger than ever. ... By today's measure, 50 years is a disappointingly short life, but Dave never wasted a moment and accomplished much. ...
... The primary goal of my research on ground squirrels is to determine why adult males disperse. I use this system to understand the ecology of mating behaviour and the evolutionary implications of different mating strategies. Two hypotheses I am investigating are (1) that adult males disperse to avoid mating with their daughters, who breed very close to where they were born, and (2) that adult males disperse to increase their access to females for mating. I also quantify survival and reproductive costs and benefits associated with dispersal for adult males in order to identify potential explanations for the different mating strategies used by individuals within a population. To address these objectives, I study a population of arctic ground squirrels in the ruby ranges, located along the eastern shore of Kluane Lake, Yukon Territory. ... I live-trap, ear-tag, and radio-collar adult male ground squirrels and follow them throughout the summers to determine dispersal distances and rates and adult male survival. To measure male reproductive success, I monitor the female population for signs of pregnancy and, after locating the pregnant females' natal nests, monitor them for the presence of juveniles. As the juveniles emerge, I trap them to determine litter sizes and take tissue samples. I am now analyzing the DNA of these tissue samples to determine which males sired which litters. ... My data analysis is not yet complete, but preliminary results challenge many of the assumptions previously held about dispersal of adult arctic ground squirrels and male mating strategies in general. ... The high survival rate among dispersers contradicts the common assumption that dispersing animals are at high risk of death. Interesting results are also emerging from the comparison of population dynamics of ground squirrels at the alpine and lower-elevation sites. The majority of mortality in the boreal forest population occurs because of predation during the active season, but overwinter mortality appears to contribute most to yearly death in the alpine population. Contrary to most species that inhabit a range of elevations, arctic ground squirrels at the higher-elevation site have significantly higher birth rates than those at the lower-elevation site. In addition, there is a trend toward larger litters and survival of more young to weaning age at the higher elevation. Usually, we expect high-elevation sites to have extreme conditions with lower food availability, resulting in reduced reproductive performance. Arctic ground squirrels at high elevation may experience reproductive success because they have evolved in open tundra areas and rely on sight for predator detection. Trees at low elevations obscure visibility, and this may be the reason why squirrels in the boreal forest are physiologically stressed. ... These results suggest that many factors predicted by global climate change, such as shifts in tree line and predator distribution, as well as changes in the winter climate that affect overwinter survival, have the potential to interact and affect ground squirrel population size. ...
Combined white-winged and surf scoter populations have experienced apparent long-term declines across the continent, and those populations in the boreal forest of northern Alberta, British Columbia, and the Northwest Territories (NT) may have declined by as much as 75% in the past 50 years .... Reasons for the decline are not well understood because so little previous research has been conducted on scoters, particularly in northern portions of their breeding range, and to my knowledge none has attempted to determine why scoters use specific areas or wetlands, but do not use others. This study addresses this last deficiency by examining how specific wetland characteristics affect the abundance, distribution, and productivity of white-winged and surf scoters in part of their core breeding range near Inuvik, NT. In particular, I designed my research to look for evidence of habitat selection by these species. Do female scoters select wetlands that are more productive and have a greater abundance of key food items, or are better suited to providing physical protection for ducklings? Are these types of preferred wetlands widely distributed and available for use by scoters, or are they not very abundant- perhaps limiting scoter productivity? ... My study area is located about 75 km south of Inuvik, Northwest Territories, and encompasses approximately 6200 km² of the southern Mackenzie Delta (Delta) and surrounding upland area .... Study plots were randomly selected from each region: 16 from the Delta and 15 from the upland habitat in 2001, and 11 Delta and 18 upland plots in 2002. Overall, 13 upland plots had been burned in a 1999 forest fire. ... To assess annual variation in scoter abundance and wetland occupancy, in 2002 I revisited 10 of the 31 plots surveyed in 2001 (five in each region), as well as visiting 29 new plots. ... In both years, wetlands were surveyed for pairs in mid to late June and for broods in late July or early August. Survey data were used to assign each wetland to a "use" category (separately for each species): (1) used by pairs, (2) used by broods, or (3) not used by either species. ... Before I can determine how specific wetland characteristics affect abundance, distribution, and productivity of scoters, I must first attempt to identify patterns in the distribution of scoter pairs and broods. ... My results to date indicate where scoters are found during the breeding and brood-rearing periods of the summer. Further analyses of spatial and habitat data from both years must be conducted to contrast characteristics and occupancy of burned and unburned areas and to evaluate whether or not a habitat selection pattern exists. I hope the analyses will allow me to determine what habitat characteristics scoters require to breed successfully in this part of their range. This information, used in conjunction with that for other species, could be used to help mitigate future impacts of proposed developments. It will also provide a baseline from which causes of future changes in scoter abundance and distribution could be determined more easily.